Valerie J. Young
Full Text Available Background This study merges two theoretical paradigms: self-determination theory and interdependence theory. The primary objective was to examine whether people in relationships are motivated to enact healthy or unhealthy behaviors based on personal (i.e., autonomous or interpersonal (controlled motives. Participants and procedure We tested the sources of healthy and unhealthy motivation in a cross-sectional, dyadic survey, collecting data from 243 couples in romantic relationships. Survey items assessed sources of healthy and unhealthy motivational influence, including the self, partner, and relationship, in conjunction with relationship satisfaction and well-being. Data were analyzed according to the Actor Partner Interdependence Model to examine intrapersonal and interpersonal associations between variables. Results Healthy and unhealthy behavior motivation appears to be a relational, rather than individual construct. Partner healthy motivation was positively associated with individuals’ relationship satisfaction. For individuals who reported more unhealthy relationship motivations, relationship satisfaction and well-being were lower. There were no significant associations for self motivations. Conclusions The findings suggest that relational partners and the romantic relationship itself are important in understanding the dimensions of health motivation for people in relationships. We conclude that the romantic relationship context impacts health maintenance, supporting the merging of personal and interpersonal motivations for health behaviors.
Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj
Each day millions of computer users experience pains due to unhealthy computer habits. Research in this field mainly focuses on encouraging users to take breaks and correct their posture. This paper shows that unhealthy computer habits calls for new sensing solutions. Based on a design process...... in existing products enables medical researchers to gain new insights on unhealthy habits. The Habit-Aware Mouse is a diagnostic sensing tool to get detailed knowledge about the user's unhealthy computer habits. Sensing is the first step to enable feedback, preventing injuries from finger hovering....... including experts in the field of computer-related injuries, The Habit-Aware Mouse prototype was developed. It provides high-accuracy sensing of whether a user's fingers are hovering above the mouse. This kind of hovering is known to cause pains in the forearm. The integration of trans-parent sensing...
Simone, Melissa; Long, Emily; Lockhart, Ginger
Although adolescence marks a vulnerable stage for peer influence on health behavior, little is known about the longitudinal and dynamic relationship between adolescent friendship and weight control. The current study aims to explain these dynamic processes among a sample of 1156 American adolescents in grades 9-11 (48.6% girls, 23.4% European American, 25.2% African American) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Stochastic actor-oriented models were fit to examine changes in friendship networks and unhealthy weight control across two waves. The findings support a bidirectional relationship where weight control predicts future friendship seeking and friendship seeking predicts future weight control. The findings also indicate that adolescents prefer friends with similar weight control patterns. Taken together, the results of the current study indicate that adolescent friendships play an integral role in the development of unhealthy weight control and thus can be used to identify adolescents at risk and serve as targets within preventive interventions.
Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Esteban-Hernández, Jesus; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; López-de-Andrés, Ana; Carrasco Garrido, Pilar
Analyze clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behavior and its relationship with nonadherence to clinical preventive care services among Spanish diabetic adults. Cross-sectional study including 2156 diabetic adults from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Subjects were asked about their uptake of BP measurement, lipid profile, influenza vaccination, and dental examination. Lifestyle behaviors included smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and dieting. Binary logistic regression models were built to assess the association between clustering of unhealthy lifestyle and the uptake of each preventive activity. Almost 16% and 36% of the subjects had not undergone blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids measurements, respectively. Forty percent had not been vaccinated and 72% had not received dental examination. Fourteen percent of the subjects had three to four unhealthy behaviors and this increased the probability of not having BP check-up (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.38-3.91), blood lipids testing (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.33), and not being vaccinated (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.37-2.89). Number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors is linearly associated with number of preventive measures unfulfilled. Adherence to recommended clinical preventive services is under desirable levels among Spanish diabetes sufferers. These preventive services are provided neither equitably nor efficiently, since subjects with unhealthier lifestyles are less likely to receive them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palmedo, P Christopher; Dorfman, Lori; Garza, Sarah; Murphy, Eleni; Freudenberg, Nicholas
Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Countermarketing blends consumer protection, media advocacy, and health education with the demand for corporate accountability. Countermarketing campaigns have been demonstrated to be an effective component of comprehensive tobacco control. This review describes common elements of tobacco countermarketing such as describing adverse health consequences, appealing to negative emotions, highlighting industry manipulation of consumers, and engaging users in the design or implementation of campaigns. It then assesses the potential for using these elements to reduce consumption of alcohol and unhealthy foods.
Davila, E P; Kolodziejczyk, J K; Norman, G J; Calfas, K; Huang, J S; Rock, C L; Griswold, W; Fowler, J H; Marshall, S J; Gupta, A; Patrick, K
Unhealthy weight loss practices are common among female college students. It is unknown if these practices are also most common among women in the subset of overweight or obese college students or if these practices are related to depression. We examined the relationship between gender, depression, and unhealthy weight loss practices among overweight or obese college students. Students (body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m(2)) from three Southern California universities (M(age) = 22 years, SD = 4; 70% women) were recruited from May 2011 to May 2012 for participation in a weight loss clinical trial (N = 404). Logistic regressions were performed with baseline data to assess the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported unhealthy weight loss practices and gender and depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression short form. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported engaging in at least one unhealthy weight loss behavior (e.g., fasting, purging) over the last 30 days, with no differences by gender. Self-report of at least one unhealthy weight loss behavior was associated with report of symptoms of depression (e(B) = 1.14 [confidence interval, CI: 1.08-1.20]), adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions between gender and depression were not significant (e(B) = 1.04 [CI: 0.93-1.16]). Among an overweight or obese sample of college students, unhealthy weight loss practices were equally common in both genders, and students with depressive symptomatology were at greatest risk. Obesity interventions targeting overweight or obese college students should educate both men and women about the dangers of unhealthy weight loss practices. In addition, screening for depression can help identify students who would benefit from additional supportive and coping strategies and resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bollyky, Thomas J; Templin, Tara; Andridge, Caroline; Dieleman, Joseph L
The amount of international aid given to address noncommunicable diseases is minimal. Most of it is directed to wealthier countries and focuses on the prevention of unhealthy lifestyles. Explanations for the current direction of noncommunicable disease aid include that these are diseases of affluence that benefit from substantial research and development into their treatment in high-income countries and are better addressed through domestic tax and policy measures to reduce risk-factor prevalence than through aid programs. This study assessed these justifications. First, we examined the relationships among premature adult mortality, defined as the probability that a person who has lived to the age of fifteen will die before the age of sixty from noncommunicable diseases; the major risk factors for these diseases; and country wealth. Second, we compared noncommunicable and communicable diseases prevalent in poor and wealthy countries alike, and their respective links to economic development. Last, we examined the respective roles that wealth and risk prevention have played in countries that achieved substantial reductions in premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases. Our results support greater investment in cost-effective noncommunicable disease preventive care and treatment in poorer countries and a higher priority for reducing key risk factors, particularly tobacco use. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.
Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.
The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues have led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of two potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including nutrition education, parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence, and reduced exposure to unhealthy messages. PMID:20183373
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Orellana, Yasna; Ivanovic, Daniza
We examined the association between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes in students from the Santiago Metropolitan Region (Chile). Cross-sectional population-based study. We measured the nutritional quality of snacks at school using an FFQ, and accounting for the amounts of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, and academic outcomes using national standardized test scores in Language and Mathematics. Multivariate regression analyses modelled the relationship between unhealthy snacking at school (exposure), potential confounders and performance in Mathematics and Language (outcomes). Random sample of 1073 students (13.1 (SD 2.3) years old) attending public, partially subsidized and private schools. Fifty-six per cent of students ate items at snack time that were high in fat, sugar, salt and energy, and thus were considered to have unhealthy snaking. Thirty-six per cent and 8% were considered to have poor-to-fair and healthy snacking, respectively. Unhealthy snacking significantly lowered the odds of good academic performance in both domains. Students having unhealthy snacks were 56% less likely to pass in Language (fully adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.23, 0.85) and 66% less likely to pass in Mathematics (fully adjusted OR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.19, 0.64) compared with students having healthy snack items. Schoolchildren eating unhealthy foods at snack time had worse academic performance in Language and Mathematics, as measured by a standardized test. Although association does not imply causation, these findings support the notion that academic and health-related behaviours are linked. More research is needed on the effect of school health programmes on educational outcomes.
Melbye, Elisabeth L; Hansen, Håvard
There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.
Elisabeth L. Melbye
Full Text Available There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (unhealthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1 child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2 child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents’ major driving forces behind reducing children’s consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents’ provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…
Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.
Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…
Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher
Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard
This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…
Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn; Mohr, Philip
A more negative implicit evaluation of unhealthy food stimuli and a more positive implicit evaluation of a weight-management goal have been shown to predict lower consumption of unhealthy food. However, the associations between these evaluations, temptation to indulge and consumption of unhealthy food remain unclear. The current study investigated whether temptation would mediate the relationship between implicit food and goal evaluations and consumption (resembling an antecedent-focused route to self-control of eating), or whether those evaluations would moderate the relationship between temptation and consumption (resembling a response-focused route). A sample of 156 women (17-25 years), who tried to manage their weight through healthy eating, completed two implicit association tasks assessing implicit food and goal evaluations, respectively. Intake of four energy-dense snack foods was measured in a task disguised as a taste test, and participants reported the strength of experienced temptation to indulge in the snacks offered. Negative implicit food evaluation was associated with lower snack intake, and temptation mediated this relationship. Implicit goal evaluation was unrelated to both temptation strength and snack consumption. The findings contribute to an understanding of how negative implicit unhealthy food evaluation relates to lower consumption, namely through the mediation of temptation to indulge in those foods.
Vidot, Denise C; Messiah, Sarah E; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M
To determine the relationship between current substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices (UWLP) among 12-to-18 year olds. Participants were 12-to-18 year olds who completed the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Florida (N = 5620). Current alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use was self-reported based on last 30-day use. UWLP was defined based on self-report of at least one of three methods to lose weight in last 30-days: (1) ≥24 h of fasting, (2) diet pill use, and (3) laxative use/purging. The reference group included those with no reported UWLP. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, academic performance, age-sex-specific body mass index percentiles, and perceived weight status were fitted to assess relationships between UWLP and current substance use. About 15 and 41 % of adolescents reported ≥1 UWLP and use of ≥1 substance in the last 30-days, respectively. Over half (60.1 %) of adolescents who reported substance use engaged in UWLP (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of current alcohol use (50.6 %) was the highest among those who reported UWLP, followed by marijuana (31.9 %), tobacco (19.7 %), and cocaine (10.5 %) use. Adolescents who reported current tobacco [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.1-3.6], alcohol (AOR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.9-2.6), or marijuana (AOR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.7-2.5) use had significantly higher odds of UWLP compared to their non-user counterparts. This cross-sectional study shows that substance use and UWLP behaviors are likely to co-exist in adolescents. Further studies are necessary to determine the temporal relationship between substance use and UWLP. It is recommended that intervention programs for youth consider targeting these multiple health risk behaviors.
Emami, Ashley S; Woodcock, Anna; Swanson, Heidi E; Kapphahn, Teresa; Pulvers, Kim
Low distress tolerance, an important component of emotion regulation, is a risk factor for unhealthy eating. Identifying factors which explain the link between distress tolerance and unhealthy eating can advance the understanding of problematic eating and inform prevention and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. The present study examines pain catastrophizing as a mediator between distress tolerance and unhealthy eating in a nonclinical population, which has received little attention despite being a risk factor for unhealthy eating behaviors. The Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), were administered to 171 college students (62.6% female, 38.6% White, 28.1% Hispanic). There was no evidence of a significant direct effect of distress tolerance on unhealthy eating. However, as hypothesized, there was a significant indirect or mediated effect of pain catastrophizing on the relationship between distress tolerance and unhealthy eating. Individuals low in distress tolerance reported higher pain catastrophizing, and a result, these individuals also reported higher levels of unhealthy eating. These findings introduce pain catastrophizing as an influential variable in the link between distress tolerance and unhealthy eating. Findings suggest that reducing catastrophic thinking about pain may be a worthy target of intervention in reducing unhealthy eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Leah M Frerichs
Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally
Busse, P.; Piotrowski, J.T.
Studies have shown that heavy television exposure is a risk factor for childhood overweight and obesity. This relationship is most typically attributed to the influence of food advertising. Despite this growing array of studies, one limitation is that these studies have focused almost exclusively on
Kim, Ha-Na; Song, Sang-Wook
We conducted this cross-sectional study to examine the relationships between problematic alcohol drinking, unhealthy habits and socio-demographic factors based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). We analyzed a total of 13,488 participants based on the data collected from the KNHANES IV performed between 2007 and 2009. The frequency of binge and heavy drinking was significantly higher in men and the married participants with intermediate income. The frequency of binge drinking was higher in younger adults and individuals with at least high school graduates. After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds of current smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.35-5.03), abdominal obesity (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48), stress (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.261.68), and depressed mood (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) were greater in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The odds of current smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 4.95, 95% CI 4.25-5.77 for frequent binge drinking), obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.85 for frequent binge drinking), and abdominal obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.36-1.77 for frequent binge drinking) were increased with the increased frequency of the binge drinking. Our results would be of help for screening a specific subgroup of individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol drinking by establishing effective population-based strategies to reduce the problematic drinking.
Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun
Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed.
Howard Wilsher, Stephanie; Harrison, Flo; Yamoah, Fred; Fearne, Andrew; Jones, Andy
Recent increases in obesity prevalence have led to research into the neighbourhood food environment. Research suggests that proximity and density of food outlets around the home is associated with childhood obesity prevalence, however, the evidence is inconclusive, and associations between food outlet locations and diet are less clear. The purpose of this study is to assess area level associations between sales of unhealthy foods in supermarkets and weight status of children. This study examined the association between weight status in children (4-5 year olds and 10-11 year olds) measured in the National Child Measurement Programme over three time points (2008/9, 2009/10, 2010/11) and annual sales of unhealthy foods (2012/3), as identified from a large supermarket chain. Geographical analysis was conducted to link store-based food sales for 537 stores with 6517 UK Census Areas. Unadjusted associations were examined with error-bar plots and linear regression was used to examine the relationship between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and sales of unhealthy food, while controlling for covariates known to predict weight status in children. A statistically significant relationship was identified between the sales of unhealthy foods and the prevalence of overweight and obese children in both age groups (p < 0.01). Of the covariates, area deprivation was positively associated with weight status (p < 0.001). Non-white population (%) was negatively associated (p < 0.001) with overweight and obesity among Reception children, but positively associated with the other weight statuses (p < 0.001). A higher proportion of children in the same age group were associated with statistically significantly lower overweight and obesity prevalence in Reception (p <0.01) but not Year 6 children. The study provides novel findings linking supermarket food sales with the weight status of children. Food sales in geographically referenced supermarkets are a valuable source of
Full Text Available In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI, which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6 until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3 in very high income countries.
In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population’s exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012–14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries’ level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717
In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries.
Full Text Available Alcohol use is one of the leading modifiable morbidity and mortality risk factors among young adults.2 parallel-group randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1 and 6 months.Internet based study in a general population sample of young men with low-risk drinking, recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Intervention: Internet-based brief alcohol primary prevention intervention (IBI. The IBI aims at preventing an increase in alcohol use: it consists of normative feedback, feedback on consequences, calorific value alcohol, computed blood alcohol concentration, indication that the reported alcohol use is associated with no or limited risks for health. Intervention group participants received the IBI. Control group (CG participants completed only an assessment.Alcohol use (number of drinks per week, binge drinking prevalence. Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015.Of 4365 men invited to participate, 1633 did so; 896 reported low-risk drinking and were randomized (IBI: n = 451; CG: n = 445. At baseline, 1 and 6 months, the mean (SD number of drinks/week was 2.4(2.2, 2.3(2.6, 2.5(3.0 for IBI, and 2.4(2.3, 2.8(3.7, 2.7(3.9 for CG. Binge drinking, absent at baseline, was reported by 14.4% (IBI and 19.0% (CG at 1 month and by 13.3% (IBI and 13.0% (CG at 6 months. At 1 month, beneficial intervention effects were observed on the number of drinks/week (p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed at 6 months.We found protective short term effects of a primary prevention IBI.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55991918.
Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M
The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed.
Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G
Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.
Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Kelly, Colette; Nixon, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark
Adolescence, with its change in dietary habits, is likely to be a vulnerable period in the onset of obesity. It is considered that peers have an important role to play on adolescents' diet, however, limited research has examined the role of peers in this context. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy for healthy eating, parent and peer support for healthy and unhealthy eating and food intake patterns. Participants were 264 boys and 219 girls (N=483), aged 13-18years, recruited from post-primary schools in Ireland. Self-report measures assessed self-efficacy, parent and peer support for healthy eating, and for unhealthy eating. Dietary pattern analysis, a popular alternative to traditional methods used in nutritional research, was conducted on a FFQ to derive food intake patterns. Two patterns were identified labelled 'healthy food intake' and 'unhealthy food intake'. Multi-group modelling was used to evaluate whether the hypothesized model of factors related to dietary patterns differed by gender. The multi-group model fit the data well, with only one path shown to differ by gender. Lower self-efficacy for healthy eating and higher peer support for unhealthy eating were associated with 'unhealthy food intake'. Higher self-efficacy was associated with 'healthy food intake'. Prevention programs that target self-efficacy for eating and peer support for unhealthy eating may be beneficial in improving dietary choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M
Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.
Country-specific research on these relationships in low- and ... policy discussion about the relationship between TV expo- ... marketing activity;. • examine the strength of the association between TV expo- sure and unhealthy eating among Peruvian children, and the emotional response in these children about the food.
Yamada, Yukari; Vass, Mikkel; Hvas, Lotte
To describe what characterizes preventive home visits with collaborative relationships among non-disabled home-dwelling older people in Japan. Background. Preventive home visits have the potential to result in improved health outcomes among older people. Collaboration, mutual understanding...... communication skills and professionalism, and practical actions after the visits characterized cases, where favourable changes in behaviour were obtained in non-disabled home-dwelling older people in Japan. Relevance to clinical practice. Education should be emphasized, because preventive home visitor...
Yamada, Yukari; Vass, Mikkel; Hvas, Lotte
To describe what characterizes preventive home visits with collaborative relationships among non-disabled home-dwelling older people in Japan. Background. Preventive home visits have the potential to result in improved health outcomes among older people. Collaboration, mutual understanding...... and trust between visitor and the visited person seem to work as a vehicle, but little is known about which part of the encounters contributes to a collaborative relationship. Methods. We performed a retrospective qualitative analysis of visiting records written by preventive home visitors immediately after...... the visits were made. A collaborative relationship was predefined as a favourable change in behaviour seen in the visited person during the study period. Visitor characteristics were analysed from 248 records where 37 cases of collaborative relationships were documented. Results. The three most important...
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Sponsorship is recognised as a significant marketing tool and restricting unhealthy food sponsorship of children's sport has been recommended by leading health agencies as a contribution towards preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the junior sporting community's support for policy interventions to restrict unhealthy food sponsorship. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with parents (n=200) and officials (n=20), and with governing sporting associations (n=20). Questionnaires measured respondents' attitudes towards sponsorship and support for sponsorship regulations. Many officials and parents perceived children to be 'very' influenced by elite sport sponsorship (65% of association officials, 53% of parents and 45% of club officials). Children were thought to be less influenced by sponsorship of their own sporting clubs (10%, 11% and 10%, respectively). However, 50% of officials and 70% of parents supported restrictions to children's sport sponsorship. Respondents were most supportive of restricting the use of unhealthy food logos on children's uniforms. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship is supported by the sporting community and policy change is needed to reduce the perceived impact of this marketing. Alternative funding mechanisms have the potential to maintain sport funding whilst reducing promotional opportunities for unhealthy food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas
The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ravensbergen, Eva A H; Waterlander, Wilma E; Kroeze, Willemieke; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M
It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the proportions of healthy and unhealthy foods on promotion in Dutch supermarket flyers. Supermarket food promotions were assessed using the weekly promotional flyers of four major Dutch supermarkets over a period of eight weeks. All promotions were evaluated for healthiness, price discount, minimum purchase amount, product category and promotion type. The level of healthiness consists of a 'healthy' group; products which have a positive effect on preventing chronic diseases and can be eaten every day. The 'unhealthy' group contain products which have adverse effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. Data were analysed using ANOVA, independent t-tests and chi-square tests. A total of 1,495 promotions were included in this study. There were more promotions in the unhealthy category; 70% of promotions were categorised as unhealthy. The price discount was greater for the healthy promotions (mean 29.5%, SD 12.1) than for the two categories of unhealthy promotions (23.7%, SD 10.8; 25.4%, SD 10.5, respectively), a tendency which was mainly due to discounts in the fruit and vegetables category. To obtain the advertised discount, a significantly higher number of products had to be purchased in the unhealthy category than in the healthier categories. Promotions in the category meat, poultry and fish category occurred frequently. Compared to traditional supermarkets, discounter supermarkets had higher percentages of unhealthy food discounts, lower discount levels and lower minimum purchase amounts. This research confirmed that unhealthy foods are more frequently advertised than healthier foods in Dutch supermarket flyers. Moreover, consumers had to buy more products to
Castro, Arachu; Singer, Merrill
... of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Infonnation Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Unhealthy health policy: a critical anthropological examinati...
Hiles, S.A.; Baker, A.L.; de Malmanche, T.; McEvoy, M.; Boyle, M.; Attia, J.
Depression and inflammatory markers have a reliable cross-sectional association although less is known about the prospective relationship. The current study investigated whether pro-inflammatory markers are prospectively associated with depression, and whether indicators of unhealthy lifestyle,
Grigg, M; Bowman, J; Redman, S
Dissatisfaction with body weight and the use of unhealthy weight reduction practices have been reported among adolescent females. There is a need for methodologically rigorous studies using large representative samples of adolescent females to accurately assess the prevalence of these behaviors and attitudes. Eight hundred sixty-nine Australian school girls ages 14-16 years were administered a self-report questionnaire to determine the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors, unhealthy dieting practices, and distorted body image. Anthropometric (height and weight) data were collected on each of these adolescent females. The prevalences of disordered eating, unhealthy dieting, and distorted body image were 33, 57, and 12%, respectively. Over one-third (36%) of the total sample had used at least one "extreme" dieting method in the past month, i.e., "crash" dieting, fasting, slimming tablets, diuretics, laxatives, and/or cigarettes to lose weight. Of the total sample, 77% wanted to lose weight and 51% had tried to lose weight in the past month. Motivating factors for disordered eating and unhealthy dieting behaviors were peer pressure, media pressure, and the perception that extreme dieting strategies were harmless. The prevalence of disordered eating and dieting behaviors among adolescent females shown by this study suggests the need for preventive programs encouraging appropriate eating and dieting behaviors.
Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Limin Buchanan; Bridget Kelly; Heather Yeatman; Kishan Kariippanon
The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers’ product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people’s attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electro...
de Koning, Johan S.; Klazinga, Niek; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Prins, A. D.; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.
Objective. To investigate the relationship between elements of practice organization related to stroke prevention in general practice, and suboptimal preventive care preceding the occurrence of stroke. Design. This study was conducted among 69 Dutch general practitioners in the Rotterdam region.
J.S. de Koning (Johan); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Prins (Ad); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between elements of practice organization related to stroke prevention in general practice, and suboptimal preventive care preceding the occurrence of stroke. DESIGN: This study was conducted among 69 Dutch general practitioners in the
Wilkinson, Richard G
... of the corrosive effects of inequality. The public arena becomes a source of supportive social networks rather than of stress and potential conflict. As well as weakening the social fabric and damaging health, inequality increases crime rates and violence. Unhealthy Societies shows that social cohesion is crucial to the quality of life. Increase...
Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Abstract Background Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with ea...
Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E
Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all
Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A
Background In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. Results The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (p<0.01). Among male clients, 47.0% reported unhealthy alcohol consumption and 42.0% had a PEth positive. However, only 57.1% of male clients with PEth positive reported unhealthy alcohol use. Conclusions Unhealthy alcohol consumption is prevalent in Cambodian sex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. PMID:27251102
Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; de Santana, Andréia Cardoso; da Silva Castro, Ana Lucia; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo
To evaluate the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods in children under one year and the education level of the mothers, data obtained from participants of the II Survey on the prevalence of breastfeeding in the Brazilian capitals and the Federal District in 2008 was analyzed. During the second stage of the campaign for multi-vaccination, a questionnaire on food consumption in the last 24 hours was given to mothers or guardians of children under one year old. We analyzed the consumption of unhealthy foods according to age group, maternal education, region of residence and breastfeeding status. The state capitals and the Federal District were grouped according to the five macro-regions of the country (North, Northeast, Southeast, South and West). Processed juice, soda, coffee, cookies/salted snacks and sugar and/or honey were defined as unhealthy foods. Prevalence ratios (RP) for the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods and maternal education were estimated using Poisson regression models. The study included 34,366 children. The consumption of sweet foods started early and was predominant until the age of six months; after this age, the consumption of biscuits and/or snacks became more prevalent. The consumption of these foods also differs in relation to the macro-region of residence. Consumption of unhealthy foods was higher among mothers with lower education levels. The consumption of unhealthy foods by Brazilian children under one year old was high, indicating a need for developing effective strategies to combat the consumption of unhealthy foods in Brazilian children as a way of preventing obesity and other future disorders.
Gonçalves, Helen; González, David A; Araújo, Cora P; Muniz, Ludmila; Tavares, Patrícia; Assunção, Maria C; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C
To evaluate adolescents' perception of the causes of obesity, with emphasis on differences according to nutritional status and socioeconomic position. We conducted qualitative research including 80 adolescents belonging to the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, and their mothers. We classified adolescent boys and girls into four groups (girls-obese, girls-eutrophic, boys-obese, and boys-eutrophic) according to body mass index for age and sex, and systematically selected them according to family income at age 15 years. Research techniques included semistructured interviews and history of life. Topics covered in the interviews included early experiences with weight management, effect of weight on social relationships, family history, eating habits, and values. Low-income obese adolescents and their mothers perceive obesity as a heritage, caused by family genes, side effects of medication use, and stressful life events. However, low-income eutrophic adolescents emphasize the role of unhealthy diets on obesity development. Among the high-income adolescents, those who are obese attribute it to genetic factors and emotional problems, whereas those who are eutrophic mention unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity as the main causes of obesity. Perceptions of the causes of obesity in adolescents from a middle-income setting vary by gender, socioeconomic position, and nutritional status. Whereas some blame genetics as responsible for obesity development, others blame unhealthy diets and lifestyles, and others acknowledge the roles of early life experiences and family traditions in the process of obesity development. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.
Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate
Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D
The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bertholet, Nicolas; Walther, Myriam Rège; Burnand, Bernard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard
Many individuals with unhealthy alcohol use have few or no contact with the health care system and are therefore unlikely to receive information or a brief intervention from a health care professional. Consequently, many Internet-based interventions have been developed. These interventions can reach a large population. We present in this report www.alcooquizz.ch, a website providing tailored feedback and information on alcohol use and its consequences. In six months and a half, more than 15000 individuals visited the website. It appropriately targets individuals with unhealthy alcohol use and users' satisfaction was high. Internet is a valuable option to provide health related information and secondary prevention interventions for unhealthy alcohol use.
Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a
Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather; Kariippanon, Kishan
The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers' product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people's attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electronic databases. Primary studies (both qualitative and quantitative) that examined the effect of digital marketing of unhealthy food or beverages, alcohol and tobacco products on young people's (12 to 30 years) attitudes, intended and actual consumption were reviewed. 28 relevant studies were identified. Significant detrimental effects of digital marketing on the intended use and actual consumption of unhealthy commodities were revealed in the majority of the included studies. Findings from the qualitative studies were summarized and these findings provided insights on how digital marketing exerts effects on young people. One of the key findings was that marketers used peer-to-peer transmission of messages on social networking sites (e.g., friends' likes and comments on Facebook) to blur the boundary between marketing contents and online peer activities. Digital marketing of unhealthy commodities is associated with young people's use and beliefs of these products. The effects of digital marketing varied between product types and peer endorsed marketing (earned media) may exert greater negative impacts than owned or paid media marketing.
Full Text Available The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers’ product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities, especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people’s attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electronic databases. Primary studies (both qualitative and quantitative that examined the effect of digital marketing of unhealthy food or beverages, alcohol and tobacco products on young people’s (12 to 30 years attitudes, intended and actual consumption were reviewed. 28 relevant studies were identified. Significant detrimental effects of digital marketing on the intended use and actual consumption of unhealthy commodities were revealed in the majority of the included studies. Findings from the qualitative studies were summarized and these findings provided insights on how digital marketing exerts effects on young people. One of the key findings was that marketers used peer-to-peer transmission of messages on social networking sites (e.g., friends’ likes and comments on Facebook to blur the boundary between marketing contents and online peer activities. Digital marketing of unhealthy commodities is associated with young people’s use and beliefs of these products. The effects of digital marketing varied between product types and peer endorsed marketing (earned media may exert greater negative impacts than owned or paid media marketing.
Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A
The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues has led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of 2 potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including a) nutrition education; b) parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence; and c) reduced exposure to unhealthy messages.
Sánchez-Zamorano, Luisa María; Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Flores-Sánchez, Guillermo; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C; Diaz-Benitez, Cinthya E
This article aims to evaluate the association between unhealthy behavior pattern and prevalence and incidence of high blood pressure in adolescents. Based on data from a cohort study with a baseline population of 2,813 adolescents enrolled in a public school system, the study measured the baseline prevalence and incidence of high blood pressure as a function of smoking, alcohol and illegal drug use, and physical activity. These variables were used to build a model called "unhealthy behavior pattern", and its relationship was evaluated in relation to high blood pressure in adolescents, using multiple logistic regression models. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 8.67%. Accumulated incidence of high blood pressure was 7.58%. In the multivariate analysis of high blood pressure adjusted by degree of adiposity, there was an association with the unhealthy behavior pattern in males (OR = 3.13; 95%CI: 1.67-5.84). The association between incidence of high blood pressure and unhealthy behavior pattern was observed in females (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.11-4.95). In conclusion, high blood pressure is present in the adolescent population, associated with unhealthy behaviors like smoking, alcohol and illegal drug use, and physical inactivity, independently of the degree of adiposity.
Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Kariippanon, Kishan
The marketing of unhealthy commodities through traditional media is known to impact consumers’ product attitudes and behaviors. Less is known about the impacts of digital marketing (online promotional activities), especially among young people who have a strong online presence. This review systematically assesses the relationship between digital marketing and young people’s attitudes and behaviors towards unhealthy commodities. Literature was identified in June 2017 by searches in six electronic databases. Primary studies (both qualitative and quantitative) that examined the effect of digital marketing of unhealthy food or beverages, alcohol and tobacco products on young people’s (12 to 30 years) attitudes, intended and actual consumption were reviewed. 28 relevant studies were identified. Significant detrimental effects of digital marketing on the intended use and actual consumption of unhealthy commodities were revealed in the majority of the included studies. Findings from the qualitative studies were summarized and these findings provided insights on how digital marketing exerts effects on young people. One of the key findings was that marketers used peer-to-peer transmission of messages on social networking sites (e.g., friends’ likes and comments on Facebook) to blur the boundary between marketing contents and online peer activities. Digital marketing of unhealthy commodities is associated with young people’s use and beliefs of these products. The effects of digital marketing varied between product types and peer endorsed marketing (earned media) may exert greater negative impacts than owned or paid media marketing. PMID:29382140
Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia
Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…
Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Kelly, Bridget; Pettigrew, Simone
To explore children's responses to sponsorship of community junior sport by unhealthy food brands and investigate the utility of alternative, pro-health sponsorship options. Between-subjects experiment, with four sponsorship conditions: A, non-food branding (control); B, unhealthy food branding; C, healthier food branding; D, obesity prevention campaign branding. Online experiment conducted in schools. Participants were shown a junior sports pack for their favourite sport that contained merchandise with branding representing their assigned sponsorship condition. Participants viewed and rated the sports pack, completed a distractor task, then completed questions assessing brand awareness, brand attitudes and preference for food sponsors' products. Students in grades 1 to 3 (aged 5-10 years; n 1124) from schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Compared with the control condition, there were no significant effects of unhealthy food branding on awareness of, attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to healthier food branding prompted a significant increase in the proportion of children aware of these brands, but did not impact attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to either healthier food branding or obesity prevention campaign branding prompted a significant reduction in the proportion of children showing a preference for unhealthy food sponsor products. The sponsorship of children's sport by healthier food brands may promote awareness of these brands and healthier sponsorship branding may reduce preferences for some unhealthy food products. Establishing and implementing healthy sponsor criteria in sports clubs could forge healthier sponsorship arrangements and help phase out unhealthy food and beverage sponsors.
Grunseit, Anne C; MacNiven, Rona; Orr, Rhonda; Grassmayr, Matt; Kelly, Bridget; Davies, Daniel; Colagiuri, Stephen; Bauman, Adrian E
This study examined Australian athletes' support for athletes' role in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, the acceptability of unhealthy products promotion in sport, and their own health behaviours. Surveys were conducted with (n = 1990) elite and sub-elite athletes recruited from 22 sports across Australia. Athletes' perceptions and behaviours were analysed across demographic and sport-related factors (e.g. individual vs team sport) and correlations calculated between perceptions and health behaviours. Most respondents supported a role for athletes in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, and disagreed that athletes should promote unhealthy foods and alcohol (73.9%). Athletes reported low smoking rates, but high rates of binge drinking. Female, younger, individual and amateur athletes had more health-positive perceptions and healthier behaviours than older, male, team and professional athletes. More sympathy towards junk food and alcohol advertising in sport and less support for athletes as role models were associated with more unhealthy behaviours. Elite athletes are receptive to supporting health promotion through sport and many are not in agreement with the promotion of unhealthy products in sport or by sports people. Improving elite athletes' health behaviours would benefit not only the individual but also health promotion within elite sport.
Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David
There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross-sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary-based measurements. Network co-citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO).
Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Bayne, Hannah B.; Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Smith Myers, Jayne
Relationship violence is a salient concern on college campuses today, and psychoeducational groups may be an appropriate prevention format. This article describes a study measuring the impact of college student participation in the HEART (Help End Abusive Relationships Today) program, a series of group sessions designed to increase knowledge and…
Giuntella, Osea; Stella, Luca
It is well known that immigrants tend to be healthier than US natives and that this advantage erodes with time spent in the USA. However, we know less about the heterogeneity of these trajectories among arrival cohorts. Recent studies have shown that later arrival cohorts of immigrants have lower entry wages and experience less economic assimilation. In this paper, we investigate whether similar cohort effects can be observed in the weight assimilation of immigrants in the USA. Focusing on obesity, we show that more recent immigrant cohorts arrive with higher obesity rates and experience a faster 'unhealthy assimilation' in terms of weight gain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P
We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Saul, Janet; Moore, Janet; Murphy, Sheila T; Miller, Lynn C
This study examined the association of relationship violence and preference for three HIV prevention methods among 104 African American and Hispanic women who were at some risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women completed a brief questionnaire on sexual behaviors and history of relationship violence. All women then watched a video describing three HIV/STD prevention methods (male condoms, female condoms, and vaginal spermicide) that included a discussion of method effectiveness, how to use each method, and their benefits and limitations. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their reactions to each of the three HIV prevention methods discussed in the video. Women in violent relationships indicated less likelihood of using male condoms and greater likelihood of using female-controlled methods, particularly vaginal spermicide, than women in nonviolent relationships. In addition, a higher percentage of women in violent compared to nonviolent relationships expected their partners to prefer the vaginal spermicide and a lower percentage expected partners to prefer male condoms. These data suggest that the current focus on finding alternative HIV prevention methods for women in violent relationships is warranted and that a vaginal microbicidal product may be the preferred alternative for this group of women and their male partners.
Full Text Available Introduction. Unhealthy behaviors displayed by doctors impact negatively on the attitude of patients towards illness prevention and treatment. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors of unhealthy behaviors among physicians. Material and methods. 523 active medical doctors were examined. The mean age was 49.16±13.56 yrs., average professional experience was 23.68±13.77 yrs. We used the method of diagnostic survey and following research tools: Health Behavior Inventory (IZZ, List of Health Criteria (LKZ, Coping with Stress questionnaire (Mini-COPE, Sense of Coherence questionnaire (SOC-29. Results. The dominance of unhealthy behaviors was observed in 27.34% of the studied group. On the basis of logistic regression analysis it was revealed that the risk of unhealthy behaviors in a group of doctors is increasing: about 3.2% of any prior year after the completion of specialization (p<0.01, by 2.6% with lowering by every point of a general result in the sense of coherence scale SOC-29 (p<0.001, 14.4% with lowering by each point of the result in the scale of active coping Mini-COPE (p<0.01. Conclusions. 1. The risk of unhealthy behaviors among physicians is increased by the following factors: reduced ability to cope actively with stress, shorter time after obtaining the specialization, lower sense of coherence. 2. During medical studies it is necessary to create the conditions conducive to a sense of coherence of students as well as enhance their activity and health perception in terms of the process.
Bayram, Metin; Ünğan, Mustafa C; Ardıç, Kadir
Little is known about the costs of safety. A literature review conducted for this study indicates there is a lack of survey-based research dealing with the effects of occupational health and safety (OHS) prevention costs. To close this gap in the literature, this study investigates the interwoven relationships between OHS prevention costs, employee satisfaction, OHS performance and accident costs. Data were collected from 159 OHS management system 18001-certified firms operating in Turkey and analyzed through structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that OHS prevention costs have a significant positive effect on safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs savings; employee satisfaction has a significant positive effect on accident costs savings; and occupational safety performance has a significant positive effect on employee satisfaction and accident costs savings. Also, the results indicate that safety performance and employee satisfaction leverage the relationship between prevention costs and accident costs.
Macniven, Rona; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley
Marketing of products harmful to the health of children has been found to be prolific, and occurs across multiple media platforms and in several settings, including organised sport, thus potentially undermining the health benefits inherent in sports participation. Through website audits, this study investigated the nature and extent of unhealthy food, beverage, alcohol and gambling sponsorship across peak Australian sporting organisations. A structured survey tool identified and assessed sponsoring companies and products displayed on the websites of the 53 national and state/territory sport governing bodies in Australia receiving government funding. Identified products were categorised as healthy or unhealthy, based on criteria developed by health experts. There was a total of 413 websites operated by the 53 sports, with 1975 company or product sponsors identified. Overall, 39 sports had at least one unhealthy sponsor, and 10% of all sponsors were rated as unhealthy. Cricket had the highest percent of unhealthy sponsors (27%) and the highest number of unhealthy food and beverage sponsors (n=19). Rugby Union (n=16) and Australian Football (n=4) had the highest numbers of alcohol and gambling sponsors respectively. Sponsorship of Australian sport governing bodies by companies promoting unhealthy food and beverage, alcohol and gambling products is prevalent at the state/territory and national level. SO WHAT?: Regulatory guidelines should be established to limit such sponsorship and ensure that it is not translated into promotions that may reach and influence children.
Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G
Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.
Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K
The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. 110 undergraduate participants (MAge=20.9±2.3; MBMI=22.3±2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body scan). Current level of hunger was assessed unobtrusively on a visual analog scale before the eating situation. Calorie intake from chocolate chip cookies. When presented with a large compared to a small portion, participants consumed more cookies (+83kcal). This was not affected by the mindfulness intervention or by hunger. However, while control participants ate more unhealthy food when hungry than when not hungry (+67kcal), participants in the mindfulness condition did not (+1kcal). Findings confirm the prevalence and robustness of the portion size effect and suggest that it may be independent from awareness of internal cues. Prevention strategies may benefit more from targeting awareness of the external environment. However, mindfulness-based interventions may be effective to reduce effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fellmeth, Gracia; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh
Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and other databases for randomized, cluster-randomized, and quasi-randomized…
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Nowadays, due to changes in eating patterns, the worthless junk foods are replaced useful food among children. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of unhealthy junk food consumption based on health belief model in elementary school girls Methods: Cross-sectional study Descriptive-analytic type of multi-stage sampling (208 samples was carried out in 2016. The survey instrument was a questionnaire valid and reliable based on the Health Belief Model (70 items. Data was analyzed by SPSS software according to statistical tests of significance level of 0.05. Results: Results showed that students of sensitivity (49% and relatively high efficacy (53/8%, perceived benefits (73/1% and better social protection (68/3% had. The results showed that among all the health belief model structures with yield (junk food intake significantly correlated. Also significant differences in parental education and sensitivity, perceived severity, self-efficacy, social support and yield (p<0/05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that students from relatively favorable sensitivity and self-efficacy, perceived benefits and social protection in the field of unhealthy snacks were good. Also a significant relationship between structural and non-use study results showed unhealthy snacks but because of the importance of unhealthy snacks and unhealthy snack consumption among school children and the complications of the health belief model in predicting nutritional behaviors suggest that this model used as a framework for school feeding programs. Paper Type: Research Article.
Cheval, Boris; Audrin, Catherine; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc
Hunger indirectly triggers unhealthy high-calorie food consumption through its positive effect on the incentive value (or "wanting") for food. Yet, not everyone consumes unhealthy food in excess, suggesting that some individuals react differently when they are exposed to unhealthy high-calorie food, even when they are hungry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in impulsive approach tendencies toward food may explain how, and for whom, hunger will influence unhealthy food consumption through its effect on food wanting. A complementary goal was to explore whether these individual differences also influence healthy food consumption. Students (N = 70) completed a questionnaire measuring their hunger and food wanting. Then, they performed a manikin task designed to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward unhealthy food (IAUF) and healthy food (IAHF). The main outcomes variables were the amount of sweets (i.e., unhealthy food) and raisins (i.e., healthy food) consumed during a product-testing task. A moderated mediation analysis revealed that the indirect effect of hunger on unhealthy consumption through food wanting was moderated by IAHF. Specifically, hunger positively predicted sweets consumption through wanting for food among individuals with a low or moderate, but not high IAHF. The moderated mediation pattern was, however, not confirmed for IAUF. Finally, results revealed a direct and positive effect of IAHF on raisins consumption. These findings showed that IAHF play a protective role by preventing hunger to indirectly increase unhealthy food consumption through wanting for food. It confirms the importance of considering how individuals may differ in their impulsive approach tendencies toward food to better understand why some individuals will increase their unhealthy food intake when they are hungry, whereas other will not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bradbury, Thomas N; Lavner, Justin A
Improving intimate relationships with preventive and educational interventions has proven to be more difficult than originally conceived, and earlier models and approaches may be reaching their limits. Basic concerns remain about the long-term effectiveness of these interventions, whether they are reaching and benefiting couples most likely to need them, and how they might be exerting their effects. We identify six problems that we believe are hindering progress in the field, and for each we outline research findings that point to new ways forward. These problems include (a) the incomplete understanding of couple communication and unwarranted translation of communication findings into interventions; (b) the surprising stability of relationship satisfaction; (c) the powerful roles that personal histories, personalities, and stress play in determining relationship outcomes; (d) the difficulties involved in recruiting and retaining high-risk couples in intervention programs; (e) the lack of attention given to specific stages of relationship development in interventions; and (f) the tendency to deliver preventive and educational interventions in the same format as therapies for distressed couples. We conclude by noting that a large body of basic research about intimate relationships, and large-scale outcome research with diverse populations, hold great promise for advancing the field. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ataollahi, Maryam; Sedighi, Sedigheh; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Global statistics indicate increasing rates of this cancer. Nutrition, diet, and healthy behaviors are among influential factors in prevalence of breast cancer, and possibly affect its incidence through inflammatory and immune system responses. This study was designed to compare nutritional and unhealthy behaviors in women with and without breast cancer referred to Mahdieh Imaging Center in Hamadan in 2013. This cross-sectional study is conducted on 232 women with r and without breast cancer referred to Mahdieh Imaging Center of Hamadan, Iran) in 2013 using random sampling method. Data were collected using nutritional and unhealthy behaviors questionnaires, and analyzed with SPSS-17 software using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney, independent t, and chi-square tests. The mean scores of feeding type in the patients with and without breast cancer was 56.14 and 66.25, respectively. Results obtained from data analysis showed that there was statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of nutrition (P breast cancer and unhealthy behaviors. Given the results, improving skills, training and awareness is necessary for women and emphasis on modified diet is recommended as a non-medical option for prevention of breast cancer.
Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B
The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Seelig, Amber D; Rivera, Anna C; Powell, Teresa M; Williams, Emily C; Peterson, Arthur V; Littman, Alyson J; Maynard, Charles; Street, Amy E; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J
In the first known longitudinal study of the topic, we examined whether experiencing sexual assault or sexual harassment while in the military was associated with increased risk for subsequent unhealthy alcohol use and smoking among U.S. service members in the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2012). Adjusted complementary log-log models were fit to estimate the relative risk of (a) smoking relapse among former smokers (men: n = 4,610; women: n = 1,453); (b) initiation of unhealthy alcohol use (problem drinking and/or drinking over recommended limits) among those with no known history of unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 8,459; women: n = 4,816); and (c) relapse among those previously reporting unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 3,487; women: n = 1,318). Men who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had sixfold higher risk for smoking relapse: relative risk (RR) = 6.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.34, 18.73], than men who did not. Women who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had almost twice the risk for alcohol relapse: RR = 1.73; 95% CI [1.06, 2.83]. There were no other significant associations. These findings suggest that men and women may respond differently following sexual trauma, and support future concerted policy efforts by military leadership to prevent, detect, and intervene on sexual assault. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Haario, Peppi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea
It has been suggested that there are associations among insomnia symptoms and unhealthy behaviours. However, previous studies are sparse and mainly cross-sectional, and have not been focused on several key unhealthy behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine whether the associations are bidirectional, i.e. whether insomnia symptoms are associated with subsequent unhealthy behaviours, and whether unhealthy behaviours are associated with subsequent insomnia symptoms. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study prospective cohort study. The baseline data were collected in 2000-02 (n = 8960, response rate 67%) among 40-60-year-old employees of the City Helsinki, Finland. The follow-up data were collected in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations among insomnia symptoms and unhealthy behaviours, including smoking, heavy and binge drinking, physical inactivity and unhealthy food habits. Frequent insomnia symptoms at baseline were associated with subsequent heavy drinking [odds ratio (OR): 1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.68] and physical inactivity (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.48) after full adjustment for gender, age, corresponding unhealthy behaviour at baseline, marital status, occupational class, sleep duration and common mental disorders. Additionally, heavy drinking (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.22-1.80) and binge drinking (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.08-1.46) at baseline were associated with subsequent insomnia symptoms at follow-up after full adjustment. In conclusion, insomnia symptoms were associated with subsequent heavy drinking and physical inactivity, and heavy and binge drinking were also associated with subsequent insomnia symptoms. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.
Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy
This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila
BACKGROUND Although several studies have assessed the price of different food groups in developed countries, there is scarce evidence regarding developing countries. Also, there is no report regarding the price of cardioprotective compared with unhealthy foods. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of food cost across different food groups (cardioprotective vs. unhealthy) and to assess the association between food cost and nutritional quality of foods in Iran. METHODS A list of foods consumed frequently by Iranian population was provided. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed by energy density and nutrient rich foods (NRF) index. Food groups were defined according to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate food groups. The price of food groups was reported as kcal/price and price/serving. RESULTS Although a positive association between different types of nutrient rich foods, nutrient content of foods and food price was observed, there was an inverse relationship between food price and energy density. The kcal/price of "oils" was less than "whole grains" and "refined grains". "Sugar, sweets and beverages" and "beans and legumes" food groups had equal kcal/price media. Among healthy foods for cardiovascular system, nuts had the highest price/serving. On the other hand, among unhealthy foods for cardiovascular system, processed meat had the highest price/serving. The price/serving of healthy oils was similar to saturated and trans fatty acids rich oils. Also, the price/serving of low-fat (healthy) vs. high fat (unhealthy) dairy was not different. Similar finding was observed for white meat vs. red meat. CONCLUSION Our findings revealed that the pattern of food price in Iran is different from developed countries. Also, we found that Iranians can consume a cardioprotective diet without any economic pressure. PMID:28149312
Vervoort, L; Clauwaert, A; Vandeweghe, L; Vangeel, J; Van Lippevelde, W; Goossens, L; Huybregts, L; Lachat, C; Eggermont, S; Beullens, K; Braet, C; De Cock, N
The present study investigated the reinforcing value of healthy and unhealthy snack food in adolescents (n = 108, aged 14-16 years). Moderation by access to different foods, sex and the personality trait reward sensitivity is tested. In a computerized Food Reinforcement Task, adolescents could earn portions of a healthy and an unhealthy snack following an identical progressive reinforcement schedule for both food types. Reinforcing value of food was indexed by the number of button presses for each food type. Participants were allocated randomly to two-order condition: fruit-snack versus snack-fruit. Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Dutch age-downward version of Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale. Results showed that the reinforcing value of an unhealthy snack is higher than that of fruit, with participants making more button presses for unhealthy snacks, M = 1280.40, SD = 1203.53, than for fruit, M = 488.04, SD = 401.45, F(1,48) = 25.37, p present in the snack-fruit condition, not in the fruit-snack condition, indicating that access to food moderates the effect of food type. There is no evidence for moderation by reward sensitivity. Results point to the importance of simultaneously increasing barriers to obtain unhealthy food and promoting access to healthy food in order to facilitate healthy food choices.
Ruggles, Kelly V; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Braithwaite, R Scott
To evaluate and characterize the structure of temporal patterns of depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use among individuals receiving medical care, and to inform discussion about whether integrated screening and treatment strategies for these conditions are warranted. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) we measured depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use and other substance use (stimulants, marijuana, heroin, opioids) and evaluated which conditions tended to co-occur within individuals, and how this co-occurrence was temporally structured (i.e. concurrently, sequentially, or discordantly). Current depression was associated with current use of every substance examined with the exception of unhealthy alcohol use. Current unhealthy alcohol use and marijuana use were also consistently associated. Current status was strongly predicted by prior status (p relationships. Associations in the HIV infected and uninfected subgroups were largely the same with the following exceptions. Smoking preceded unhealthy alcohol use and current smoking was associated with current depression in the HIV infected subgroup only (p smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use were temporally concordant, particularly with regard to depression and substance use. These patterns may inform future development of more integrated screening and treatment strategies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight control behaviors are common among young people and are associated with poor health outcomes. Yet clinicians rarely ask young people about their weight control; this may be due to uncertainty about which questions to ask, specifically around whether certain weight loss strategies are healthier or unhealthy or about what weight loss behaviors are more likely to lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, the aims of the current study are: to confirm, using item response theory analysis, that the underlying latent constructs of healthy and unhealthy weight control exist; to determine the ‘red flag’ weight loss behaviors that may discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight loss; to determine the relationships between healthy and unhealthy weight loss and mental health; and to examine how weight control may vary among demographic groups. Methods Data were collected as part of a national health and wellbeing survey of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9,107 in 2007. Item response theory analyses were conducted to determine the underlying constructs of weight control behaviors and the behaviors that discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight control. Results The current study confirms that there are two underlying constructs of weight loss behaviors which can be described as healthy and unhealthy weight control. Unhealthy weight control was positively correlated with depressive mood. Fasting and skipping meals for weight loss had the lowest item thresholds on the unhealthy weight control continuum, indicating that they act as ‘red flags’ and warrant further discussion in routine clinical assessments. Conclusions Routine assessments of weight control strategies by clinicians are warranted, particularly for screening for meal skipping and fasting for weight loss as these behaviors appear to ‘flag’ behaviors that are associated with poor mental wellbeing.
Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Chidanyika, Agnes; Chipato, Tsungai; van der Straten, Ariane
Male and female gender roles and inequalities are important in contributing to the disproportionate burden of HIV experienced by women in sub-Saharan Africa. Within the context of an HIV prevention trial, we aimed to describe and understand male partner influence on women's use of HIV-prevention methods. Our presumption was not that regressive gender norms prevailed - rather, that a wide range of gendered attitudes and dynamics would be expressed among couples. Data from 16 focus groups with Zimbabwean female trial participants and their male partners and 4 in-depth couples interviews were collected, and form the basis of the analysis. Findings offer descriptions of how couples have adapted techniques for negotiating modern household economies and sexual decision-making in a manner that both preserves traditional gender roles, while accommodating women's entrance into new domains such as the workforce or an HIV-prevention trial. Women's agency to introduce novel female-initiated-method use into her intimate relationships is described. Men and women's accounts of method introduction and use suggest different perceptions about the locus of sexual decision making. The study provides unique insight into a gendered context that is dynamic yet sensitive to change, which in turn can provide useful information to more appropriately guide HIV-prevention activities in this setting.
Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E
From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.
Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Pérez-Bilbao, Txomin; Jiménez Gutiérrez, Alfonso; Beedie, Chris
The effects of a 4-week lower body injury prevention program on knee muscle torque-angle relationship were examined in soccer players. Twenty men were randomly allocated to either a control (n = 10) or training group (n = 10). The training group underwent three training sessions per week, comprising 3 sets of 8 repetitions of one open-chain exercise (Nordic curl) and two closed-chain exercises-forward lunges on a Bosu balance trainer and eccentric single leg dead lifts. Maximal peak knee flex...
Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette; Knäuper, Bärbel
Attachment relationships play an important role in people's wellbeing and affliction with physical and mental illnesses, including eating disorders. Seven reviews from the clinical field have consistently shown that higher attachment insecurity-failure to form trusting and reliable relationships with others-systematically characterized individuals with eating disorders. Nevertheless, to date, it is unclear whether (and if so how) these findings apply to the population at large. Consequently, the objective of the present meta-analysis is to quantify the relationship between attachment and unhealthy and healthy eating in the general population. Data from 70 studies and 19,470 participants were converted into r effect sizes and analysed. Results showed that higher attachment insecurity (r = 0.266), anxiety (r = 0.271), avoidance (r = 0.119), and fearfulness (r = 0.184) was significantly associated with more unhealthy eating behaviors, ps = 0.000; conversely, higher attachment security correlated with lower unhealthy eating behaviors (r = -0.184, p = 0.000). This relationship did not vary across type of unhealthy eating behavior (i.e., binge eating, bulimic symptoms, dieting, emotional eating, and unhealthy food consumption). The little exploratory evidence concerning healthy eating and attachment was inconclusive with one exception-healthy eating was associated with lower attachment avoidance (r = -0.211, p = 0.000). Our results extend previous meta-analytic findings to show that lack of trusting and reliable relationships does not only set apart eating disordered individuals from controls, but also characterizes unhealthy eating behaviors in the general population. More evidence is needed to determine how attachment and healthy eating are linked and assess potential mechanisms influencing the attachment-eating relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chilenski, Sarah M; Welsh, Janet; Olson, Jonathan; Hoffman, Lesa; Perkins, Daniel F; Feinberg, Mark E
The PROSPER model uses a three-tiered community partnership, university researcher, and Cooperative Extension-based technical assistance system to support the delivery of evidence-based interventions in communities. This study examines the trajectory and predictors of the collaborative relationship between technical assistance providers and community teams across the three phases of organization, implementation, and sustainability. Members of 14 PROmoting School-university-community Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) community teams and directors of local agencies rated communities' levels of readiness and adolescent substance use norms. Technical assistance providers rated their collaborative relationship with their teams at 14 occasions across 4.5 years. Results from mixed models show that levels of collaboration were stable until the sustainability phase, when they increased significantly. Team differences in change were significant during the implementation phase. Community readiness predicted levels of the collaborative relationship over time: high community readiness was associated with a high level of collaboration during organization, but a decline in collaboration during implementation. These results provide a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between technical assistance provision and community prevention teams and lead to recommendations to improve dissemination models to achieve a greater public health impact.
Fitzpatrick, Kevin M; LaGory, Mark
... or retrieval system without permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fitzpatrick, Kevin M. Unhealthy places: the ecology of risk in the urban landscape/ Kevin M.Fitzpatrick, Mark E.LaGory p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-415-92371-9 (hb).-ISBN 0-415-92372-7 (pb) 1. In...
A total of 300 females with grossly unhealthy cervix with suspicions of malignancy, who had never undergone cervical cytology or any other cervical neoplasia screening procedure, were included. Unaided visual inspection with Cusco's speculum was performed followed by digital examination. Clinical staging was carried ...
The research team will run a three-year longitudinal investigation involving five studies. They will include a content analysis of TV advertising that promotes unhealthy foods, and a survey measuring children's exposure to this TV content and their eating behaviours. The investigators will share the research findings with ...
Dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse) and sexual violence are prevalent from the middle school years throughout adolescence, peak in young adulthood, and are associated with multiple poor physical and mental health consequences. By offering universal education and brief anticipatory guidance with all adolescent patients about healthy and unhealthy relationships and sexual consent, health care providers can help promote healthy adolescent sexual relationships, ensure youth know about available resources and supports for relationship abuse and sexual violence (including how to help a friend), and facilitate connections to victim service advocates, both for prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the programs of work with teenagers and young people, aimed at primary prevention of violence in intimate relationships. The content models of sex education as one of the highest priorities for primary prevention. A brief description of the methodological foundations of these programs, such as the focus on changing the existing norms of violence, gender stereotypes, pathogenic skills avoiding conflicts. Describes the procedural and substantive content features of these programs. The results of studies on the effectiveness of a number of programs that have demonstrated a decrease in the level of violence, positive changes in the skills that are most scarce to training with regard to the acceptability of violence and behavioral intentions. Highlights those aspects of targeted programs that are short-term and prolonged effects. So changing views on the norms of behavior in intimate relationships, conflict resolution skills and knowledge are stored in the long term, while females exhibit more positive attitudes and behavioral intentions than men.
Cecchini, Michele; Sassi, Franco; Lauer, Jeremy A; Lee, Yong Y; Guajardo-Barron, Veronica; Chisholm, Daniel
The obesity epidemic is spreading to low-income and middle-income countries as a result of new dietary habits and sedentary ways of life, fuelling chronic diseases and premature mortality. In this report we present an assessment of public health strategies designed to tackle behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases that are closely linked with obesity, including aspects of diet and physical inactivity, in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. England was included for comparative purposes. Several population-based prevention policies can be expected to generate substantial health gains while entirely or largely paying for themselves through future reductions of health-care expenditures. These strategies include health information and communication strategies that improve population awareness about the benefits of healthy eating and physical activity; fiscal measures that increase the price of unhealthy food content or reduce the cost of healthy foods rich in fibre; and regulatory measures that improve nutritional information or restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. A package of measures for the prevention of chronic diseases would deliver substantial health gains, with a very favourable cost-effectiveness profile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research is conducted to analysis the impact of Television Advertisement on Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors and Eating Disorder with the mediating role of Body Image. The research is conducted to analyze the mediating impact of body image satisfaction on the relation of other variables. This research is conducted from the urban population of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A Total of 280 questionnaires were floated in the population, out of which 267 were received back. The data was analyzed by employing correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that body image partially mediates the relationship between Television Advertisement and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors and fully mediate the relationship between Television Advertisement and Eating Disorder. This research will help marketers to analyze the dynamics of advertisement and also in understanding the negative outcomes of their certain practices.
Buck, Christoph; Boernhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia; Pigeot, Iris
Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of...
Giese, Helge; König, Laura M; Tăut, Diana; Ollila, Hanna; Băban, Adriana; Absetz, Pilvikki; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta
Building upon previous results, the present study explored the relationship between exposure to unhealthy and healthy food TV commercials, trait self-control, and food intake. In total, 825 Finns (53% female), 1,055 Germans (55% female), and 971 Romanians (55% female) aged 8-21 reported advertisement exposure, self-control, and food intake. Altogether, participants indicated higher exposure to unhealthy compared to healthy food advertisements (F(1, 2848) = 354.73, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with unhealthy food intake (all β ≥ .16, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (β = .10, p advertising and self-control were mainly independent (interactions: β ≤ |.07|, p ≥ .002). Even though the results suggest that healthy advertisement exposure and self-control might be beneficial for children's and adolescents' diet, self-control might be insufficient to alleviate the positive relationship between unhealthy food advertising and unhealthy eating. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Mason, Kate E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M
Evidence of a relationship between residential retail food environments and diet-related outcomes is inconsistent. One reason for this may be that food environments are typically defined in terms of the absolute number of particular store types in an area, whereas a measure of the relative number of healthy and unhealthy stores may be more appropriate. Using cross-sectional data from the VicLANES study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent associations between absolute measures (numbers of healthy and unhealthy stores) and a relative measure (relative density of healthy stores) of the food environment, and self-reported variety of fruit and vegetable purchasing in local households. Purchasing behaviour was measured as the odds of purchasing above the median level of fruit and vegetables. Compared to households in areas where healthy food stores made up no more than 10% of all healthy and unhealthy stores, households in areas with 10.1-15.0% healthy food stores and >15% healthy stores had increased odds of healthier purchasing (OR=1.48 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.96) and OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91), respectively). There was less evidence of an association between absolute numbers of healthy or unhealthy stores and fruit and vegetable purchasing. We found strong evidence of healthier fruit and vegetable purchasing in households located in areas where the proportion of food stores that were healthy was greater. Policies aimed at improving the balance between healthy and unhealthy stores within areas may therefore be effective in promoting greater consumption of fruit and vegetables.
de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Stok, F Marijn; De Wit, John B F; De Ridder, Denise T D
Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome
Vet, de E.; Stok, F.M.; Wit, J.B.F.; Ridder, de D.T.D.
Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome
Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to palatable foods in the environment can trigger impulsive reactions to obtain them, which may lead to unhealthy food choices and eating behaviour. Two studies tested the fundamental question whether impulsive unhealthy food choices can be altered by means of linking unhealthy
Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk
Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food.
Gustav Pavlov and his early work with canines Theory Stimulus Response or Stimulus Stimulus Learn to associate new stimulus Aversion therapy Flooding...Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Medical Command,U.S. Army Public Health Command (Provisional),5158
Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna
The emergence of new media-including branded websites, social media and mobile applications-has created additional touch points for unhealthy food and beverage companies to target children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of new media for three top selling food and beverage brands in Australia. The top selling brand in three of the most advertised food and beverage categories was identified. Facebook, websites and mobile phone applications from these three brands were assessed using a combination of descriptive analyses and structured data collection during June and July 2013. Information on target audience, main focus of the activity, marketing strategies employed and connectivity were collected. Promotional activities were assessed against industry self-regulatory codes. McDonald's, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Dairy Milk were audited, with 21 promotional activities identified. These promotional activities appeared to use a number of marketing strategies, with frequent use of indirect product association, engagement techniques and branding. We identified strategic targeting of both children and adolescents. We found that while all promotional activities technically met self-regulatory codes (usually due to media-specific age restrictions) a number appeared to employ unhealthy food or beverage marketing directed to children. Brands are using engaging content via new media aimed at children and adolescents to promote unhealthy food and beverages. Given the limitations of self-regulatory codes in the context of new media, strategies need to be developed to reduce exposure of children and adolescents to marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products via these avenues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hardy, Louise; Farrell, Louise
Overweight and obesity in Australia is an emerging health concern. Obesity prevention initiatives must consider both physical activity and nutrition to be effective. Community sports venues have the capacity to promote healthy lifestyles through physical activity as well as healthy food choices. A telephone survey was conducted on parents of children aged 5-17 years in NSW to determine the nature of food and beverages purchased by children at community sporting venues and to determine parent's perception of the role that government should play in regulating the types of food and beverages sold at these outlets. The majority of canteens at children's sporting venues were considered to sell mostly unhealthy food and beverages (53%). Very few parents reported that canteens sold mostly healthy food and beverages. Parents reported that their child's most frequently purchased food and beverage items at outdoor sports fields were water, chocolate and confectionery, soft drink and sports drinks, and ice cream. At community swimming pools the most frequently purchased items were ice cream, followed by snack foods, including chips, cakes and biscuits. Most parents (63%) agreed that government should restrict the types of food and beverages that can be sold at children's sporting venues. Children are receiving inconsistent health messages at sporting venues, with healthy lifestyles being promoted through sports participation, but unhealthy dietary choices being provided at sports canteens.
Charlton, Emma L; Kähkönen, Laila A; Sacks, Gary; Cameron, Adrian J
Supermarket marketing activities have a major influence on consumer food purchases. This study aimed to assess and compare the contents of supermarket marketing circulars from a range of countries worldwide from an obesity prevention perspective. The contents of supermarket circulars from major supermarket chains in 12 non-random countries were collected and analysed over an eight week period from July to September 2014 (n=89 circulars with 12,563 food products). Circulars were largely English language and from countries representing most continents. Food products in 25 sub-categories were categorised as discretionary or non-discretionary (core) food or drinks based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The total number of products in each subcategory in the whole circular, and on front covers only, was calculated. Circulars from most countries advertised a high proportion of discretionary foods. The only exceptions were circulars from the Philippines (no discretionary foods) and India (11% discretionary food). Circulars from six countries advertised more discretionary foods than core foods. Front covers tended to include a much greater proportion of healthy products than the circulars overall. Supermarket circulars in most of the countries examined include a high percentage of discretionary foods, and therefore promote unhealthy eating behaviours that contribute to the global obesity epidemic. A clear opportunity exists for supermarket circulars to promote rather than undermine healthy eating behaviours of populations. Governments need to ensure that supermarket marketing is included as part of broader efforts to restrict unhealthy food marketing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; van der Horst, Klazine
We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30%). The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54?4 (SD 13?5) years. There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.
There are gaps in our knowledge of the role attitudes toward suicide play in determining people's willingness to participate (WTP) for suicide prevention. We conducted a large nationwide cross-sectional study with the aim of clarifying the relationship between WTP for reducing suicide risk and attitudes toward suicide. Ordinal logistic regression analyses (n = 1771) showed that there were significant associations of WTP for suicide prevention with 'Suicide as a right' (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.25 to -.04, p = .006), 'Preventability/readiness to help' (β = .81, 95% CI: .69-.94, p suicide prevention is more likely to be achieved through provision of information that increases endorsement of 'preventability/readiness to help' and 'common occurrence' factors, and decreases 'suicide as a right' scores.
Gostoli, Sara; Roncuzzi, Renzo; Urbinati, Stefano; Morisky, Donald E; Rafanelli, Chiara
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is considered the recommended secondary prevention treatment for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in terms of health behaviours and, secondarily, better cardiac outcomes promotion. However, the role of psychiatric and psychosomatic distress on the efficacy of CR is unclear. This research aimed to evaluate the impact of CR on unhealthy behaviour modification and cardiac course, considering the moderating role of depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic syndromes. A longitudinal design between and within groups was employed. The assessment was repeated four times: at admission to CR (T1), at discharge (T2), 6 (T3) and 12 months following CR completion (T4). One hundred and eight patients undergoing CR versus 85 patients with CVD not referred to CR, underwent psychiatric, psychosomatic, and health behaviour assessment. The assessment included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (depression and anxiety), the interview based on Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research, GOSPEL Study questionnaire (health behaviours), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Cardiac rehabilitation was associated with maintenance of physical activity, improvement of behavioural aspects related to food consumption, stress management, and sleep quality. On the contrary, CR was not associated with weight loss, healthy diet, and medication adherence. Depression and psychosomatic syndromes seem to moderate the modification of specific health-related behaviours (physical activity, behavioural aspects of food consumption, stress management, and pharmacological adherence). In CR settings, an integrated assessment including both psychiatric and psychosomatic syndromes is needed to address psychological factors associated with unhealthy behaviour modification. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is considered a class 1A treatment recommendation and the most cost
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Method Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22 were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. Conclusions The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of
Chung, Alexandra; Shill, Jane; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Lawrence, Mark; Loff, Bebe; Crammond, Bradley; Sacks, Gary; Allender, Steven; Peeters, Anna
In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22) were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of unhealthy food to children should ideally occur under the direction
This background paper examines the relationship between child abuse and the workplace and discusses employer-based strategies that can reduce the stress levels of working parents and provide a buffer against problems of child abuse and neglect. Part 1, "Child Abuse and the World of Work," discusses the kinds of stress experienced by…
Chilenski, Sarah M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Olson, Jonathan; Hoffman, Lesa; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark; Welsh, Janet; Crowley, D. Max; Spoth, Richard
Background Historically, effectiveness of community collaborative prevention efforts has been mixed. Consequently, research has been undertaken to better understand the factors that support their effectiveness; theory and some related empirical research suggests that the provision of technical assistance is one important supporting factor. The current study examines one aspect of technical assistance that may be important in supporting coalition effectiveness, the collaborative relationship between the technical assistance provider and site lead implementer. Methods Four and one-half years of data were collected from technical assistance providers and prevention team members from the 14 community prevention teams involved in the PROSPER project. Results Spearman correlation analyses with longitudinal data show that the levels of the collaborative relationship during one phase of collaborative team functioning associated with characteristics of internal team functioning in future phases. Conclusions Results suggest that community collaborative prevention work should consider the collaborative nature of the technical assistance provider – prevention community team relationship when designing and conducting technical assistance activities, and it may be important to continually assess these dynamics to support high quality implementation. PMID:26476860
Liu, Yihao; Song, Yifan; Koopmann, Jaclyn; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Shi, Junqi
Although organizational research on health-related behaviors has become increasingly popular, little attention has been paid to unhealthy eating. Drawing on the self-regulation perspective, we conducted 2 daily diary studies to examine the relationships between work-related stressors, sleep quality, negative mood, and eating behaviors. Study 1 sampled 125 participants from 5 Chinese information technology companies and showed that when participants experienced higher levels of job demands in the morning, they consumed more types of unhealthy food and fewer types of healthy food in the evening. In addition, sleep quality from the previous night buffered the effect of morning job demands on evening unhealthy food consumption. Study 2 used data from 110 customer service employees from a Chinese telecommunications company and further demonstrated a positive association between morning customer mistreatment and evening overeating behaviors, as well as the buffering effect of sleep quality. Results from Study 2 also supported afternoon negative mood as a mediator linking morning customer mistreatment to evening overeating behaviors. Finally, our findings revealed that the buffering effect of sleep quality was channeled through employees' vigor in the morning, which subsequently weakened the effect of customer mistreatment on negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
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Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage—s...
Holland, Lauren A; Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K
The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Ha, Hoehun. Geographic variation in mentally unhealthy days: air pollution and altitude perspectives. High Alt Med Biol. 18:258-266, 2017. Mental health incorporates our emotional, psychological, and social well-being and it is critical at each phase of life, from youth and preadulthood through adulthood. We assessed the association between mentally unhealthy days (MUDs), air pollutant concentrations, and altitude on the basis of cross-county studies. Data on poor mental health days for the United States were based on health-related telephone surveys conducted by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Average annual regional air pollution data were obtained from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER Environmental data, and altitude data were collected from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In the data set (across 2589 U.S. counties for 2011), even after accounting for potential confounding variables and multicollinearity, a significant association between altitude, air pollution, and poor mental health days was found, explaining that poor mental health days increase with increasing air pollution concentrations and with decreasing altitude (R 2 = 0.663, p factors did not change these findings. In this study, we found that counties with lower air pollution and higher altitude had significantly lower average number of MUDs reported within the past 30 days. This association has not been reported before in the literature. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the extent that air quality and altitude may serve as significant factors for mental health and have major implications in our understanding of the etiology of mental health by medical professionals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income, WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment, unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities, grade repetition, low school performance ( Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47% with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78% with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions Compared with French students
Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela
Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.
Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with eating related parental rules and eating habits of adolescents. The data on 2765 adolescents aged 13-15 years (mean age: 14.4; 50.7 % boys) from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study 2014 were assessed. The associations between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating patterns using logistic regression were assessed using logistic regression. Unhealthy eating habits occurred frequently among adolescents (range: 18.0 % reported skipping breakfast during weekends vs. 75.8 % for low vegetables intake). Of all adolescents, 20.5 % reported a lack of any parental rules on eating (breakfast not mandatory, meal in front of TV allowed, no rules about sweets and soft drinks). These adolescents were more likely to eat unhealthily, i.e. to skip breakfast on weekdays (odds ratio/95 % confidence interval: 5.33/4.15-6.84) and on weekends (2.66/2.12-3.34), to report low consumption of fruits (1.63/1.30-2.04) and vegetables (1.32/1.04-1.68), and the frequent consumption of sweets (1.59/1.30-1.94), soft drinks (1.93/1.56-2.38) and energy drinks (2.15/1.72-2.70). Parental rule-setting on eating is associated with eating behaviours of adolescents. Further research is needed to disentangle causality in this relationship. If causal, parents may be targeted to modify the eating habits of adolescents.
Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B
Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.
This dissertation studied sexual risk-taking behavior among gay men in steady relationships. The main targets of this study were to establish: (a) whether steady relationships form a risk environment for HIV-infection; (b) some of the determinants of risky and protective behavior between steady
Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V
Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....
De Vet, Emely; Stok, F Marijn; De Wit, John B F; De Ridder, Denise T D
Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome habitual snacking. A total of 11,392 adolescents aged 10-17 years from nine European countries completed a cross-sectional survey about healthy eating intentions, snacking habit strength, eating self-regulation strategies, and daily intake of unhealthy snacks. The results showed that habit strength was positively associated with intake of unhealthy snack foods, also when healthy eating intentions were accounted for. Use of self-regulation strategies was negatively associated with unhealthy snacking. The interaction effect of habit strength and use of self-regulation strategies was significant. Strong snacking habits were associated with higher consumption, but this effect could be attenuated by use of temptation-oriented self-regulation strategies. The present study highlights that habit strength is associated with unhealthy snacking already in adolescents. The findings suggest that teaching self-regulation strategies may help adolescents to overcome unhealthy snacking habits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Keagy, Carolyn D
Youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at risk for poor health outcomes. Characteristics of these neighborhoods may translate into intensified risk due to barriers utilizing preventive care such as substance use prevention programs. While family-level risks affect recruitment into prevention programs, few studies have addressed the influence of neighborhood risks. This study consists of 744 families with an 11- to 12-year-old child recruited for a family-based substance use prevention program. Using US Census data, logistic regressions showed neighborhoods were related to recruitment, beyond individual characteristics. Greater neighborhood unemployment was related to decreased agreement to participate in the study and lower rates of high school graduation were related to lower levels of actual enrolment. Conversely, higher rates of single-female-headed households were related to increased agreement. Recruitment procedures may need to recognize the variety of barriers and enabling forces within the neighborhood in developing different strategies for the recruitment of youth and their families.
A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier
Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes
interrelated, especially at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community level. The negative influences at an intrapersonal level were as follows: body image concerns, attitudes and misconceptions, substance use behavior, and taste for unhealthy foods. In the interpersonal domain, household poverty and parenting practices that condone unhealthy habits were identified risk factors. Availability of affordable unhealthy foods, high prices for nutritious food, farming practices, gambling, and influx of transportation alternatives in the community were interrelated but also had relationships with intrapersonal and interpersonal risk factors. Modernization and poor implementation of policies were discussed as enabling factors especially by stakeholders from a societal perspective. Seasonality and farming practices, school attendance, community-based services, and regulations mitigating adolescents’ engagement in gambling were identified as potential protective factors. Our findings provide a unique qualitative insight of the factors underlying adolescents’ dietary and sedentary lifestyle and highlight the need for ecological intervention approaches to address these forms of health risk behavior in a rural African setting.
Ssewanyana, Derrick; Abubakar, Amina; van Baar, Anneloes; Mwangala, Patrick N; Newton, Charles R
intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community level. The negative influences at an intrapersonal level were as follows: body image concerns, attitudes and misconceptions, substance use behavior, and taste for unhealthy foods. In the interpersonal domain, household poverty and parenting practices that condone unhealthy habits were identified risk factors. Availability of affordable unhealthy foods, high prices for nutritious food, farming practices, gambling, and influx of transportation alternatives in the community were interrelated but also had relationships with intrapersonal and interpersonal risk factors. Modernization and poor implementation of policies were discussed as enabling factors especially by stakeholders from a societal perspective. Seasonality and farming practices, school attendance, community-based services, and regulations mitigating adolescents' engagement in gambling were identified as potential protective factors. Our findings provide a unique qualitative insight of the factors underlying adolescents' dietary and sedentary lifestyle and highlight the need for ecological intervention approaches to address these forms of health risk behavior in a rural African setting.
Ssewanyana, Derrick; Abubakar, Amina; van Baar, Anneloes; Mwangala, Patrick N.; Newton, Charles R.
, especially at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community level. The negative influences at an intrapersonal level were as follows: body image concerns, attitudes and misconceptions, substance use behavior, and taste for unhealthy foods. In the interpersonal domain, household poverty and parenting practices that condone unhealthy habits were identified risk factors. Availability of affordable unhealthy foods, high prices for nutritious food, farming practices, gambling, and influx of transportation alternatives in the community were interrelated but also had relationships with intrapersonal and interpersonal risk factors. Modernization and poor implementation of policies were discussed as enabling factors especially by stakeholders from a societal perspective. Seasonality and farming practices, school attendance, community-based services, and regulations mitigating adolescents’ engagement in gambling were identified as potential protective factors. Our findings provide a unique qualitative insight of the factors underlying adolescents’ dietary and sedentary lifestyle and highlight the need for ecological intervention approaches to address these forms of health risk behavior in a rural African setting. PMID:29479525
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Soupen, Alanna; Swinburn, Boyd
To comprehensively assess the extent, nature and impact of unhealthy food advertising targeted to children on New Zealand television. Four weekdays and four weekend days were randomly selected over the period June-August 2015. Programming was recorded from 06.00 to 00.00 hours (midnight), for a total of 432 h. Audience ratings were used to identify children's peak viewing times. New Zealand. The three major free-to-air channels. The majority of foods advertised (n 1807) were unhealthy; 68·5 % of food advertisements included at least one food not permitted to be marketed to children according to the WHO nutrient profiling model. The mean hourly rate of unhealthy food advertising was 9·1 (sd 5·2). One-third of unhealthy food advertisements included a promotional character and one-third a premium offer. About 88 % of unhealthy food advertisements were shown during children's peak viewing times. If unhealthy food advertisements were to be restricted during times when at least 25 % of children are watching television, this would reduce the average unhealthy food advertising impact by 24 % during weekdays and 50 % during weekend days, and if the WHO instead of the current nutrient profiling model were used to restrict unhealthy food advertising to children, the average impact would be reduced by 24 % during weekdays and 29 % during weekend days. Current self-regulation is ineffective in protecting children from exposure to unhealthy food advertising on television. The WHO nutrient profiling model needs to be used to restrict unhealthy food advertising, especially during children's peak viewing times.
Whiteis, D G
The growing corporate dominance in U.S. medical care has been a major factor in the increasingly inequitable distribution of health care resources and the declining public health conditions in poor and minority urban communities. Alongside this trend has been a parallel phenomenon of economic disinvestment and political neglect in these same at-risk neighborhoods. This article analyzes these trends as related components of austerity, retrenchment, and capital consolidation policies that have characterized the U.S. political economy for several decades. Emphasized are the relationships among corporatization, capital consolidation, deindustrialization of the workforce, and medical indigence; the resulting economic stress placed upon community hospitals and other caregivers in poor and minority communities; and the marked discrepancy between conditions of development and underdevelopment in American cities. It is argued that the effects of these policies are pathogenic in nature: they place populations at risk for disease and social dysfunction, they reduce access to necessary preventive and curative services, and they weaken coping mechanisms. Community economic development, empowerment, and a direct challenge to the growing concentration of wealth and power in the corporate class are proposed as essential elements of public health policy.
Conclusion: Regarding the low rate of knowledge and performance of the subjects as well as the high age of patients suffering from kidney stones and lack of enough education in this group, health staff can be the most important source of knowledge for these people about preventive behaviors of kidney stones recurrence.
Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila
The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention.
Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio
Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A key barrier to changing unhealthy eating habits is the current food-rich environment. Today, there are many palatable food cues that trigger unhealthy eating habits, and once a habit is strongly engrained, it becomes very difficult to change. This research examined the effects of diet priming that is a type of cueing intervention that activates a dieting goal in a tempting situation and thus reduces unhealthy eating behavior in line with the dieting goal. This research was conducted both in a laboratory and in two field experiments. In the three experiments, participants were randomly assigned to conditions where they were either primed by an image of a slim model associated with dieting (priming condition) or were presented with an image of an animal unrelated to dieting (control condition). The dependent variable was the number of snacks that participants took in the laboratory in Study 1 and the number of snacks consumed within the next two weeks in a daily setting in Study 2 and 3. The three studies showed that unhealthy eating habits strongly affect general eating behavior. However, in this research, diet priming changed the influence of unhealthy eating habits and resulted in the decrease of unhealthy eating. Exposure to diet priming cues moderated the influence of unhealthy eating habits triggered by palatable food cues in today's food-rich environment. These findings suggest that diet priming can change habitual reactions to temptations associated with unhealthy eating. Implications for diet priming as an intervention for unhealthy eating habits are discussed herein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henning van den Brink
Full Text Available There are very few qualitative studies about the different models of cooperation founded in the last years in the field of community crime prevention in Germany. Qualitative methods are helpful in identifying and in analyzing the conflicts in interest and the negotiation process that takes place among the local institutes. The conflict in interest makes it difficult to work together and in the worst case it can completely block cooperation. With the help of qualitative methods, the soft skills and structural requirements for successful cooperation can be identified and discussed. The aim of this article is to show that it is necessary to examine the "inner life" of cooperation especially in crime prevention committees by using qualitative methods and with more rigor than in the past. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503202
per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) July 2008 – July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a Multilevel Prevention Program for Improved...members have been tremendously strained by deployments and high operations’ tempo. This study involves the first steps in developing a multilevel approach
Chi, Donald L
The aim of this study was to examine caregivers' refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 1.96; P refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children.
Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Williams, Lauren; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods. School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P snack consumption. The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.
Cragun, Deborah; Ata, Rheanna N; Debate, Rita D; Thompson, J Kevin
To examine gender differences in unhealthy weight-control behaviors (UWCB) and identify key psychosocial and demographic correlates of UWCB among sixth-graders. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 146 boys and 153 girls at a middle school. Secondary data analyses included bivariate tests and multivariable logistic regression. Forty-seven percent of participants reported 1 or more UWCB, with no differences by gender (P = .75). Factors common to boys and girls included: lower global self-esteem; lower body-esteem; and greater negative parental modeling among participants who engaged in UWCB compared to those who did not. However, multivariable models revealed gender differences. Among boys, body mass index, negative parental modeling, and global self-esteem retained statistically significant associations with UWCB after controlling for other variables in the model, whereas race and weight-related body-esteem remained significant for girls. This research highlights the need for gender-specific UWCB prevention programs implemented in late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mayer-Brown, Sarah; Lawless, Casey; Fedele, David; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Janicke, David M
Youth engage in a variety of methods to manage their weight, including unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs). The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with youth's engagement in UWCBs, including media influence, youth's BMI z-score and self-esteem. Participants were 179 youth, aged 10-17, attending a primary care clinic appointment. Youth completed questionnaires assessing frequency of UWCBs, global self-worth, and perception of media influence to lose weight. BMI z-score was calculated based on height and weight measurements obtained from medical charts. The SPSS macro, PROCESS, was used to conduct moderation analyses. Over 40% of youth endorsed using at least one UWCB in the past year. Girls reported using more UWCBs and engaging in UWCBs more frequently than boys. For boys, media influence to lose weight was only related to UWCB frequency for those with a BMI z-score of 1.23 and above. For girls, media influence was only related to UWCB frequency for those with low to average levels of global self-worth. Girls' and boys' use of UWCBs is impacted by different factors. Prevention efforts should consider targeting factors, such as weight status and self-esteem, which are uniquely associated with gender. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Indashyikirwa is a Rwandan intimate partner violence (IPV prevention program being implemented by CARE International Rwanda, Rwanda Women’s Network (RWN, and Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre (RWAMREC. A central aspect of the programme is a 20-session curriculum for heterosexual couples designed to support healthy, non-violent relationships. This paper draws on qualitative interviews with 15 couples (before and after the curriculum and 9 field staff to assess couples’ impressions, comprehension of, and engagement with this innovative training. Thematic analysis was conducted to compare key findings from both data sources. Couples and staff offered positive assessments of the curriculum including the contextual relevance, the participatory approach, and a high level of dedication to the training was shown by the majority of couples. Many couples appreciated being trained together, and although some men dominated the first few sessions, participation gradually became more gender-balanced, and facilitators emphasized creating a safe environment for equal participation. Curriculum content that was initially resisted or difficult reportedly became easier through couples learning and trying new skills and experiencing relationship benefits first-hand, which emphasizes the value of the skills building component and take home exercises. Important insights for couples-based, educational approaches to IPV prevention are identified from this process review.
Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves
Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All
Ana Paula Stenzel
Full Text Available Considering the inadequacy of some antioxidant nutrients in severely obese adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between antioxidant micronutrients status and metabolic syndrome components in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO and unhealthy obesity (MUO. We performed an observational study in severely obese adolescents (body mass index > 99th percentile and they were classified into MHO or MUO, according to the criteria adapted for adolescents. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical variables were analyzed to characterize the sample of adolescents. The serum antioxidant nutrients assessed were retinol, β-carotene, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, zinc and selenium. A total of 60 adolescents aged 17.31 ± 1.34 years were enrolled. MHO was identified in 23.3% of adolescents. The MHO group showed lower frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (14.3% vs. 78.3%, p < 0.001 when compared to MUO. A correlation was found between retinol and β-carotene concentrations with glycemia (r = −0.372; p = 0.011 and r = −0.314; p = 0.034, respectively and between Vitamin E with waist circumference (r = −0.306; p = 0.038 in the MUO group. The current study shows that some antioxidant nutrients status, specifically retinol, β-carotene, and Vitamin E, are negatively associated with metabolic alterations in MUO. Further studies are necessary to determine the existing differences in the serum antioxidant profile of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese adolescents.
Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.
Investigating the reasons that people give for unhealthy snacking behavior is important for developing effective health interventions. Little research, however, has identified reasons that apply to a large audience and most studies do not integrate multiple factors, precluding any conclusions
Cairns, Georgina; de Andrade, Marisa; MacDonald, Laura
Population-level compliance with health protective behavioral advice to prevent and control communicable disease is essential to optimal effectiveness. Multiple factors affect perceptions of trustworthiness, and trust in advice providers is a significant predeterminant of compliance. While competency in assessment and management of communicable disease risks is critical, communications competency may be equally important. Organizational reputation, quality of stakeholder relationships and risk information provision strategies are trust moderating factors, whose impact is strongly influenced by the content, timing and coordination of communications. This article synthesizes the findings of 2 literature reviews on trust moderating communications and communicable disease prevention and control. We find a substantial evidence base on risk communication, but limited research on other trust building communications. We note that awareness of good practice historically has been limited although interest and the availability of supporting resources is growing. Good practice and policy elements are identified: recognition that crisis and risk communications require different strategies; preemptive dialogue and planning; evidence-based approaches to media relations and messaging; and building credibility for information sources. Priority areas for future research include process and cost-effectiveness evaluation and the development of frameworks that integrate communication and biomedical disease control and prevention functions, conceptually and at scale.
Full Text Available Screen time is negatively associated with markers of health in western youth, but very little is known about these relationships in Chinese youth. Middle-school and high-school students (n = 2625 in Wuhan, China, completed questionnaires assessing demographics, health behaviors, and self-perceptions in spring/summer 2016. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether, after adjustment for covariates, screen time was associated with body mass index (BMI, eating behaviors, average nightly hours of sleep, physical activity (PA, academic performance, and psychological states. Watching television on school days was negatively associated with academic performance, PA, anxiety, and life satisfaction. Television viewing on non-school days was positively associated with sleep duration. Playing electronic games was positively associated with snacking at night and less frequently eating breakfast, and negatively associated with sleep duration and self-esteem. Receiving electronic news and study materials on non-school days was negatively associated with PA, but on school days, was positively associated with anxiety. Using social networking sites was negatively associated with academic performance, but positively associated with BMI z-score, PA and anxiety. Screen time in adolescents is associated with unhealthy behaviors and undesirable psychological states that can contribute to poor quality of life.
Yan, Hanyi; Zhang, Rui; Oniffrey, Theresa M; Chen, Guoxun; Wang, Yueqiao; Wu, Yingru; Zhang, Xinge; Wang, Quan; Ma, Lu; Li, Rui; Moore, Justin B
Screen time is negatively associated with markers of health in western youth, but very little is known about these relationships in Chinese youth. Middle-school and high-school students ( n = 2625) in Wuhan, China, completed questionnaires assessing demographics, health behaviors, and self-perceptions in spring/summer 2016. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether, after adjustment for covariates, screen time was associated with body mass index (BMI), eating behaviors, average nightly hours of sleep, physical activity (PA), academic performance, and psychological states. Watching television on school days was negatively associated with academic performance, PA, anxiety, and life satisfaction. Television viewing on non-school days was positively associated with sleep duration. Playing electronic games was positively associated with snacking at night and less frequently eating breakfast, and negatively associated with sleep duration and self-esteem. Receiving electronic news and study materials on non-school days was negatively associated with PA, but on school days, was positively associated with anxiety. Using social networking sites was negatively associated with academic performance, but positively associated with BMI z-score, PA and anxiety. Screen time in adolescents is associated with unhealthy behaviors and undesirable psychological states that can contribute to poor quality of life.
Full Text Available Background: The concept of the quality of life (HRQOL related to health and its determinants contain aspects of quality of life that clearly affect people’s physical or mental health. One of the newest ways to assess the health and also the quality of life-related to health is the self-assessed health of the individual. The aim of the present study was assessment of unhealthy days, self-reported health status, and its influencing factors on residents of the marginalpart of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, 580 citizens of the marginal regions and slum areas of Mashhad city were enrolled through cluster sampling method using governmental health care services divisions. The Persian version of the questionnaire CDC HRQOL-4 was used to measure the unhealthy days. Data was analyzed using SPSS, version 11.5, running ANOVA, chi-square, and t-tests. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In the present study, 359 persons (61% were women and the mean age of participants was 32.6±11.51 years. The means of unhealthy days, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and days with dysfunction were found to be 7.2, 2.8, 4.1, and 1.7 days, respectively. The unhealthiest days (physical and mental were seen in unemployed people and the best to excellent health days were seen in housewives. Conclusion: Unhealthy days and days with dysfunction were reported higher in slum inhabitants, especially female, low literacy, and housewife participants. Providing the education and employment facilities for people who live in marginal city areas might decrease the unhealthy days.Keywords: Unhealthy days; Health; Urban Marginal Inhabitants; Mashhad
Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Kelly, Bridget; Donovan, Robert; Chapman, Kathy; Wakefield, Melanie
Assess the effect of counter-advertisements on parents' appraisals of unhealthy foods featuring front-of-package promotions (FOPPs). A 2 × 2 × 5 between-subjects Web-based experiment. Parents were randomly shown an advertisement (counter-advertisement challenging FOPP/control advertisement) and then a pair of food products from the same category: an unhealthy product featuring an FOPP (nutrient content claim/sports celebrity endorsement) and a healthier control product with no FOPP. Australia. A total of 1,269 Australian-based parents of children aged 5-12 years recruited from an online panel. Parents nominated which product they would prefer to buy and which they thought was healthier, then rated the unhealthy product and FOPP on various characteristics. Differences between advertisement conditions were assessed using logistic regression (product choice tasks) and analysis of variance tests (ratings of unhealthy product and FOPP). Compared with parents who saw a control advertisement, parents who saw a counter-advertisement perceived unhealthy products featuring FOPPs as less healthy, expressed weaker intentions for buying such products, and were more likely to read the nutrition facts panel before nominating choices (all P advertising may help reduce the misleading influence of unhealthy food marketing and improve the accuracy of parents' evaluations of how nutritious promoted food products are. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ravensbergen, E.A.H.; Waterlander, W.E.; Kroeze, W.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.
Background: It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was
Geyer, Chelsea; Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor
In an effort to further understand the impact of domestic violence (DV) on infant and toddlers' development, this research utilized data from the second cohort of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II) to examine the relationship between maternal DV and infant and toddlers' emotional regulation, and determine whether mothers' receipt of DV services mediated this relationship. The sample was limited to children aged 0 to 3 years and included (a) infants less than 1 year old ( n = 603), (b) infants 1 to less than 2 years old ( n = 310), and (c) toddlers 2 to 3 years old ( n = 268). Infant/toddlers' emotional regulation was measured using mothers' response on the How My Infant/Toddler/Child Usually Acts questionnaire. In addition, data were collected to assess whether (a) active DV was present during the time of the Child Protective Services (CPS) investigation and (b) mothers received DV services during the past year. Study research questions were examined using a series of multiple regression analyses. Mediation was tested based on Baron and Kenny's recommended model for establishing mediation. The mediational model was not found to be significant; however, a positive relationship existed between maternal DV and emotional regulation among infants aged less than 1 year old (β = 1.61, p = .039). There were no statistically significant relationships between DV and emotional regulation in the other age groups. These findings highlight the need to provide CPS-involved families victimized by DV with services that focus on preventing poor infant emotional regulation.
Zarychta, Karolina; Chan, Carina K Y; Kruk, Magdalena; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
Theoretical models, such as the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders highlight the role of cognitive factors (e.g., the way people perceive their bodies) and their associations with maladaptive weight management behaviors resulting in underweight. This paper aims at testing the indirect association of adolescent's body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI) through restrictive dieting, healthy eating or unhealthy eating as well as moderating role of adolescent's weight status. The study was conducted in 16 public middle and high schools in Central and Eastern Poland. A sample of 1042 under- and healthy-weight white adolescents aged 13-20 (BMI: 12.63-24.89) completed two self-reported questionnaires (fruit, vegetable, and energy-dense food intake) with a 11-month interval. Weight and height were measured objectively. Multiple mediation analysis and moderated multiple mediation analysis were conducted to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents less satisfied with their bodies were more likely to diet restrictively and at the same time ate more unhealthy energy-dense food rather than healthy food, which in turn predicted lower BMI. No moderating effects of weight status were found. Low body satisfaction is a risk for restrictive diet and unhealthy food intake. Prevention programs may target under- and healthy-weight adolescents who are highly dissatisfied with their bodies, have a high intake of energy-dense food and apply a restrictive diet at the same time. Level III: longitudinal cohort study.
McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H
This study examined in young adolescent girls the fit of a theoretical model of the contribution of media literacy to body dissatisfaction via the mediating influences of internalisation of media ideals and appearance comparisons. Female Grade 7 students (N=469) completed self-report assessments of media literacy, internalisation, appearance comparisons, body dissatisfaction, and media exposure. Strong, significant inverse associations between media literacy and body dissatisfaction, internalisation, and appearance comparisons were observed. Path analysis revealed that a slightly modified revision of the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, body dissatisfaction was influenced directly by appearance comparisons, internalisation, and body mass index, and indirectly by media literacy and media exposure. Indirect pathways were mediated by appearance comparisons and internalisation. Thus, a relationship between media literacy and eating disorder risk factors was observed. Findings may explain positive outcomes of media literacy interventions in eating disorder prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakazaki, Shoko; Akiyama, Koichi; Yamauchi, Satoshi
The structure-activity relationship of the antifungal fluorinated dihydroguaiaretic acid derivatives was evaluated. Some of the newly synthesized lignan compounds were found to show higher antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata (Japanese pear and apple pathotypes) and A. citri than the lead compound, 3-fluoro-3'-methoxylignan-4'-ol (3). The broad antifungal spectrum of 3'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 16 was observed, and the 3'-fluoro-4'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 38 was found to show the highest activity against the A. alternata Japanese pear pathotype, with an EC 50 value of 11 μM. The preventive effect of the potent lignan on the infection of A. alternata in the Japanese pear's leaves was also shown.
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A
Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (ηp2 = .01, p sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men.
Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won
The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest
Carter, Mary-Ann; Signal, Louise; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Maher, Anthony
High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of
Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Omidvar, Nasrin; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rashidian, Arash
Background: Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Among other aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS) program that was launched in 2011, has an important aim of promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affecting unhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors were obtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Results: Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27), being a male (PRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) were associated with higher weekly unhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) negatively influenced the frequency of unhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (Pconsumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthy snacking (PRR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). Conclusion: Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmental influences, namely by factors relating to poor parenting practices, high SES level, family characteristics, improper social norms pressure, and less knowledge and self-efficacy of students. This evidence can be used to inform a more evidencebased IHPS program through focusing on supportive strategies at the home, school, and local community levels. PMID:28949464
Full Text Available In recent years, the complex network as the frontier of complex system has received more and more attention. Peer-to-peer (P2P networks with openness, anonymity, and dynamic nature are vulnerable and are easily attacked by peers with malicious behaviors. Building trusted relationships among peers in a large-scale distributed P2P system is a fundamental and challenging research topic. Based on interpersonal relationships among peers of large-scale P2P networks, we present prevention and trust evaluation scheme, called IRTrust. The framework incorporates a strategy of identity authentication and a global trust of peers to improve the ability of resisting the malicious behaviors. It uses the quality of service (QoS, quality of recommendation (QoR, and comprehensive risk factor to evaluate the trustworthiness of a peer, which is applicable for large-scale unstructured P2P networks. The proposed IRTrust can defend against several kinds of malicious attacks, such as simple malicious attacks, collusive attacks, strategic attacks, and sybil attacks. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides greater accuracy and stronger resistance compared with existing global trust schemes. The proposed scheme has potential application in secure P2P network coding.
Sargent, Kelli S; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Although bystander programs to prevent relationship and sexual violence have been evaluated with college students, few evaluations have been conducted with high school students. This study evaluated the effectiveness of TakeCARE, a brief video bystander program designed to promote helpful bystander behavior in situations involving relationship violence among high school students. Students (N = 1295; 52.5% female; 72.3% Hispanic) reported their bystander behavior at a baseline assessment. Classrooms (N = 66) were randomized to view TakeCARE or to a control condition, and high school counselors administered the video in the classrooms assigned to view TakeCARE. Students again reported their bystander behavior at a follow-up assessment approximately 3 months afterward. Results indicate that students who viewed TakeCARE reported more helpful bystander behavior at the follow-up assessment than students in the control condition. Results of exploratory analyses of the likelihood of encountering and intervening upon specific situations calling for bystander behavior are also reported. TakeCARE is efficacious when implemented in an urban high school by high school counselors.
Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; Mackenbach, Johan; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008-2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008-2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are likely needed to protect vulnerable groups during severe recessions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kern, David M; Auchincloss, Amy H; Stehr, Mark F; Diez Roux, Ana V; Moore, Kari A; Kanter, Genevieve P; Robinson, Lucy F
This study examined the association between the price of healthier food relative to unhealthy food and type 2 diabetes prevalence, incidence and insulin resistance (IR). Data came from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis exam 5 administered 2010-2012 (exam 4, five years prior, was used only for diabetes incidence) and supermarket food/beverage prices derived from Information Resources Inc. For each individual, average price of a selection of healthier foods, unhealthy foods and their ratio was computed for supermarkets within 3miles of the person's residential address. Diabetes status was confirmed at each exam and IR was assessed via the homeostasis model assessment index. Multivariable-adjusted logistic, modified Poisson and linear regression models were used to model diabetes prevalence, incidence and IR, respectively as a function of price and covariates; 2353 to 3408 participants were included in analyses (depending on the outcome). A higher ratio of healthy-to-unhealthy neighborhood food price was associated with greater IR (4.8% higher HOMA-IR score for each standard deviation higher price ratio [95% CI -0.2% to 10.1%]) after adjusting for region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, income/wealth index, education, smoking status, physical activity, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. No association with diabetes incidence (relative risk=1.11, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.44) or prevalence (odds ratio=0.95, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.11) was observed. Higher neighborhood prices of healthier food relative to unhealthy food were positively associated with IR, but not with either diabetes outcome. This study provides new insight into the relationship between food prices with IR and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wiegersma, P.A.; Hofman, A.; Zielhuis, G.A.
Background In this study the effect is assessed of (repeated) well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools on the prevalence of adolescent health-compromising behaviour and later obesity. Methods An ecological case-referent study design was used with data from the
Full Text Available Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention, efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e. in people not seeking help for their drug use. Substantial evidence now suggests efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity, concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g. from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin. Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of screening and brief intervention that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use.
Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bere, Elling
A diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is inversely related to chronic diseases, and some studies suggest that increasing the intake of FV reduces the intake of unhealthy snacks. The objectives were to analyze changes in the frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks (soda, candy, and potato chips) from 2001 to 2008 in Norwegian children, to assess whether being part of a school fruit program reduces the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption, and to explore differences in sex and socioeconomic status. Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks, 1488 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire in 2001, and 1339 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. In 2001, none of the schools had any organized school fruit program. In 2008, 15 schools participated in a program and 12 did not participate in any program. From 2001 to 2008, the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 6.9 to 4.6 times/wk (P snack consumption in children of parents without higher education (from 7.8 to 4.0 times/wk; P = 0.004). The frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 2001 to 2008 in schoolchildren in Norway. The decrease was most evident among children at schools participating in the national free school fruit program and in children with a low socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test of this novel suggestion by investigating the mediating role of habit in explaining the relation between self-control and unhealthy snacking behavior. Results showed that self-control was negatively associated with unhealthy snack consumption and unhealthy snacking habits. As hypothesized, the relation between self-control and unhealthy snack intake was mediated by habit strength. Self-control was not associated with fruit consumption or fruit consumption habits. These results provide the first evidence for the notion that high self-control may influence the formation of habits and in turn affect behavior. Moreover, results imply that self-control may be particularly influential in case of inhibiting unhealthy food intake rather than promoting healthy food intake.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with eating related parental rules and eating habits of adolescents. Methods The data on 2765 adolescents aged 13–15 years (mean age: 14.4; 50.7 % boys from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC study 2014 were assessed. The associations between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating patterns using logistic regression were assessed using logistic regression. Results Unhealthy eating habits occurred frequently among adolescents (range: 18.0 % reported skipping breakfast during weekends vs. 75.8 % for low vegetables intake. Of all adolescents, 20.5 % reported a lack of any parental rules on eating (breakfast not mandatory, meal in front of TV allowed, no rules about sweets and soft drinks. These adolescents were more likely to eat unhealthily, i.e. to skip breakfast on weekdays (odds ratio/95 % confidence interval: 5.33/4.15–6.84 and on weekends (2.66/2.12–3.34, to report low consumption of fruits (1.63/1.30–2.04 and vegetables (1.32/1.04–1.68, and the frequent consumption of sweets (1.59/1.30–1.94, soft drinks (1.93/1.56–2.38 and energy drinks (2.15/1.72–2.70. Conclusions Parental rule-setting on eating is associated with eating behaviours of adolescents. Further research is needed to disentangle causality in this relationship. If causal, parents may be targeted to modify the eating habits of adolescents.
Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D
Food and beverage companies have pledged to reduce unhealthy marketing to children through the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI). However, public health experts question the initiative's effectiveness because pledges apply to only some types of marketing. For instance, the CFBAI covers only TV advertising that is "child-directed," defined as advertising during programs for which children make up 35% or more of the viewing audience. To quantify the proportion of food and beverage TV advertisements (ads) viewed by children that is covered by current CFBAI pledges and examine the potential impact of broader definitions of child-directed advertising. Nielsen data were used to quantify percentages of children (aged 2-11 years) in the audience (i.e., child-audience share), as well as absolute numbers of child viewers, for all national TV programs in 2009. Nielsen advertising data provided the number of food and beverage ads viewed by preschoolers (aged 2-5 years); older children (aged 6-11 years); and adults (aged 18-49 years) during programs with various child-audience compositions. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2011. Just 45%-48% of food ads viewed by children met current CFBAI definitions of child-directed advertising. Expanding this definition to include advertising during programs with a child-audience share of 20% or higher and/or 100,000 or more child viewers would cover 70%-71% of food advertising seen by children but just one third of ads seen by adults. Children viewed an estimated 35% fewer food ads during TV programs with a high child-audience share (≥50%) in 2009 compared with 2004. However, ensuring that nutrition standards apply to the majority of food ads viewed by children requires broader definitions of child-directed advertising. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eline W M Scholten
Full Text Available Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight.This study examines 1 the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition and children's weight, 2 the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3 the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight.Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT. Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations.Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores.No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.
Scholten, Eline W M; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef P J; Rodenburg, Gerda
Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight. Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations. Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.
Newcomb, Michael E; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Feinstein, Brian A; Bettin, Emily; Swann, Gregory; Whitton, Sarah W
Young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV, and most new HIV infections occur in serious relationships. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the 2GETHER couples-based HIV prevention and relationship education intervention for young same-sex male couples. We enrolled 57 young male couples (N = 114) into a four-session hybrid group and individual intervention. We assessed acceptability via post-session surveys and exit interviews, and we examined preliminary efficacy at a two week posttest. The vast majority of participants (93%) reported exclusively positive impressions of 2GETHER, and all components received high mean ratings. We observed decreases in HIV risk behavior, increases in information, motivation and behavioral skills related to HIV prevention, and improvement in relationship investment between pretest and posttest. Integrating relationship education and sexual health programming may be an effective way to reduce HIV transmissions in young male couples.
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd
Reducing childhood obesity is now a high priority for Government and New Zealand society, and foremost in these efforts should be getting serious about protecting children from being targeted by sophisticated marketing for the very foods and beverages that are making them fat. The marketing of unhealthy food products to children is powerful, pervasive and predatory. Previous studies in New Zealand found that food marketing targeted at children through various media is predominantly for unhealthy food products. Statutory comprehensive regulations providing full protections for children against unhealthy food marketing are recommended, but strengthening voluntary codes into a more quasi-regulatory system would allow food companies to clearly demonstrate their commitments to becoming part of the solution for New Zealand's unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity.
Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas
This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of satisfaction of their basic psychological needs. In turn, psychological need satisfaction was hypothesised to negatively predict body image concerns (i.e. drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) and, indirectly, unhealthy weight control behaviours. The predictions of the model were largely supported indicating that parental autonomy support and adaptive life goals can indirectly impact upon the extent to which female adolescents engage in unhealthy weight control behaviours via facilitating the latter's psychological need satisfaction.
Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah
Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television.
Full Text Available Background: Youth athletes with intensive sports participation are at an increased risk of sustaining injuries. Neuromuscular training programs reduce sports-related injury risk in this population, however, the dose-response relationship is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was to identify the optimal frequency, volume, duration, and period of neuromuscular training to prevent injuries in youth athletes.Methods: Computerized database searches (PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, The Cochrane Library, PEDro were conducted in January 2017, with search terms related to youth sports, neuromuscular training, and injury prevention. Eligible trials (i evaluated a neuromuscular training program; (ii included youth athletes of 21 years or younger; (iii had an analytical design (RCTs, quasi-experimental, cohort studies; (iv contained original data; (v and provided injury data. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality of eligible studies. Injury rate ratios (IRRs for lower extremity injuries were pooled meta-analytically, and moderator analyses examined the effect of training frequency, duration, volume, and period.Results: Data from 16 trials yielded an overall risk reduction of 42% with neuromuscular training (IRR = 0.58, 95%CI 0.47–0.72. Training frequencies of two (IRR = 0.50; 95%CI 0.29–0.86 or three times (IRR = 0.40; 95%CI 0.31–0.53 per week revealed the largest risk reduction, and a weekly training volume of more than 30 min tended to be more effective compared to lower volumes. Programs with 10–15 min (IRR = 0.55; 95%CI 0.42–0.72 session duration produced effects comparable to those with longer session duration (IRR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.46–0.76. Interventions lasting more than 6 months were not superior to shorter programs.Conclusion: This meta-analysis revealed that NMT performed in short bouts of 10–15 min, two to three times per week, with a weekly training volume of 30–60 min had the largest
Howell, Jennifer L.; Koudenburg, Namkje; Loschelder, David D.; Weston, Dale; Fransen, Katrien; De Dominices, Stefano; Gallagher, Stephen; Haslam, S. Alexander
Social connections are essential to health and well-being. However, when pursing social acceptance, people may sometimes engage in behavior that is detrimental to their health. Using a multi-time-point design, we examined whether the structure of an emerging network of students in an academic summer
So, Winnie K W; Law, Bernard M H; Law, Patrick T W; Chan, Carmen W H; Chair, Sek Ying
Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. The development of effective chemopreventive strategies to reduce CRC incidence is therefore of paramount importance. Over the past decade, research has indicated the potential of rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling, in CRC chemoprevention. This was recently suggested to be partly attributable to modification in the composition of intestinal microbiota when rice bran was ingested. Indeed, previous studies have reported changes in the population size of certain bacterial species, or microbial dysbiosis, in the intestines of CRC patients and animal models. Rice bran intake was shown to reverse such changes through the manipulation of the population of health-promoting bacteria in the intestine. The present review first provides an overview of evidence on the link between microbial dysbiosis and CRC carcinogenesis and describes the molecular events associated with that link. Thereafter, there is a summary of current data on the effect of rice bran intake on the composition of intestinal microbiota in human and animal models. The article also highlights the need for further studies on the inter-relationship between rice bran intake, the composition of intestinal microbiota and CRC prevention.
Lederman, Regina P; Mian, Tahir S
The Parent-Adolescent Relationship Education (PARE) Program, designed for parents and middle school students, focuses on strengthening family communication about sexual issues and behaviors to help prevent teen pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The program includes content about reproduction, STDs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), contraception, sex risks, and safe-sex behaviors. The course uses social learning and cognitive behavioral concepts to enhance decision-making, refusal, and resistance skills. A randomized treatment or control group design is used to assign parent-child dyads to an experimental education group (social learning) or an attention-control group (traditional didactic teaching). Three post-program maintenance or booster sessions are held at 6-month intervals and at times prior to peak teen conception periods to reinforce the knowledge and skills learned. Pre- and posttests for parents and students assess group differences in parental involvement and communication, contraception, sex attitudes and intentions, sex behaviors (initiation of sexual intercourse, frequency, number of partners, contraceptive practices, refusal skills), and the incidence of pregnancy.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Health Literacy has been defined as the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health. People with inadequate health literacy have poorer health status. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the status of health literacy and its relationship with general health status, use of health services and preventive behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 400 individuals aged 18to 65 years in Balochestan, Iran. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used. Data were collected using Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HELIA questionnaires. Data analyses were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, using SPSS (version 18. Results: The mean age of the studied population was 9.29± 28.7years. Only %32 of adults were found to have adequate health literacy. Inadequate health literacy was more common in older people, ones with fewer years of schooling or lower household income, and females. The health literacy level was associated with outpatient visits, screening, and health status. Individuals with higher levels of health literacy had performed screening more than others. conclusions: Due to the low health literacy level in the target population, educational interventions are needed to develop health literacy skills in the community.
Cahill, Sara; Mussap, Alexander J
We explored the extent to which changes in emotional states following exposure to images of idealized bodies predict unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviors in women and men, and whether particular psychological traits mediate these effects. One hundred thirty-three women and 93 men were assessed for unhealthy attitudes and behaviors related to body weight and muscles using the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, and the strategies to increase muscles subscale of the Body Change Inventory. Psychological traits assessed included body dissatisfaction (EDI-2), internalization of the thin/athletic ideal (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3), body comparison (Body Comparison Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and identity confusion (Self-Concept Clarity Scale). Participants were then exposed to photographs of thin female models and muscular male models, and visual analogue scales were used to measure changes in postexposure state body dissatisfaction, anger, anxiety, and depression. Postexposure increases in state anger, anxiety, depression, and body dissatisfaction correlated with drive for thinness and disordered eating symptomatology in women, while postexposure increases in state body dissatisfaction correlated with muscle development in men. Analyses revealed that internalization and body comparison mediated these relationships, with trait body dissatisfaction, trait depression, self-esteem, and self-concept/identity confusion serving as mediators for women only. These results are indicative of gender differences in: (a) reactions to idealized bodies; (b) psychological traits that predispose individuals to experience these reactions; and (c) types of body change behavior that are associated with these reactions.
Widenfelt, B. van; Hosman, C.; Schaap, C.; Staak, C. van der
A preventive intervention was randomly offered to a group of 67 non- to mildly distressed couples who participated in a larger study on relationships. At the 9-month follow-up, couples in which one partner experienced parental divorce demonstrated a significant increase in problem intensity and a
Parnell, Ashleigh; Edmunds, Melinda; Pierce, Hannah; Stoneham, Melissa J
Exposure to advertising for unhealthy food, alcohol and gambling has been shown to influence children and adolescents' behaviours and attitudes. This exploratory study aimed to assess the volume and type of unhealthy bus shelter advertisements near schools in five local government areas in Perth, Western Australia and to monitor whether the volume of unhealthy advertisements varied seasonally. The 29 local governments in the Perth metropolitan region were contacted seeking information regarding the locations of bus shelters featuring advertisements in their local government area. Five local governments provided sufficient information for an audit of the bus shelter advertisements in their area to be conducted. Every bus shelter within 500 m of a school was photographed and the type of advertisement recorded. The advertisements in the food, non-alcoholic beverage, alcohol, or gambling categories were then classified as being healthy, moderate, or unhealthy. This process was carried out in June, September, December 2016, and March 2017 to ascertain whether the type of advertisements displayed changed depending on the season. Of the 293 advertisements recorded over the four audits, 31% featured unhealthy products, 3% moderate, and advertisements were classified as being healthy. Seasonal variation in the volume of unhealthy advertisements was not identified. SO WHAT?: Western Australian school students are regularly exposed to unhealthy bus shelter advertisements. Stricter regulation of outdoor advertising is needed to ensure that young people are protected from the influence of unhealthy industries. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M
Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Silva, Kelly Samara; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; de Oliveira, Elusa Santina Antunes; Nahas, Markus Vinicius
To analyze the clustering of four unhealthy behaviors (tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables) and their association with sociodemographic factors among adult industrial workers in Brazil. Data from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District were collected via questionnaire from 2006 to 2008. Clustering of risk behaviors was identified using the ratio between the observed and expected percentages of each combination of unhealthy behaviors. Among the 44,477 workers surveyed, 18.0% of men and 11.4% of women accumulated three or four unhealthy behaviors. The most frequent combination was physical inactivity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables. The concurrent presence of all four behaviors was 86% higher in men and 148% higher in women than would be predicted if the frequency of these behaviors were independent. Presence of one or more negative behaviors was more frequent in men, younger individuals and in those with lower levels of education and family income than subjects without these characteristics. There was a strong tendency for unhealthy behaviors to assume combinatorial patterns, mainly in men, people with less education, income, and age, suggesting important disparities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available It is well established that both acute and chronic stress can be detrimental to health and wellbeing by directly increasing the risk of several chronic diseases and related health problems. In addition, stress may contribute to ill-health indirectly via its downstream effects on individuals’ health-related behaviour, such as promoting the intake of unhealthy palatable foods high in fat and sugar content. This paper reviews (a the research literature on stress-models; (b recent research investigating stress-induced eating and (c the potential physiological and psychological pathways contributing to stress-induced eating. Particular attention is given to (d the role of physical exercise in attenuating acute stress, with exploration of potential mechanisms through which exercise may reduce unhealthy food and drink consumption subsequent to stressor exposure. Finally, exercise motivation is discussed as an important psychological influence over the capacity for physical exercise to attenuate unhealthy food and drink consumption after exposure to stressors. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of how physical exercise might alleviate stress-induced unhealthy food choices.
Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; de Ridder, D.T.D.
Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Wang, Chun; Sun, Guoxiang; Li, Shuangshuang; Li, Xian; Liu, Ying
The present study sampled the intestinal content of healthy and unhealthy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the ambient water of unhealthy fish, and the biofilter material in the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to understand differences in the intestinal microbiota. The V4-V5 regions of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes in the samples were analyzed by MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The fish were adults with no differences in body length or weight. Representative members of the intestinal microbiota were identified. The intestinal microbiota of the healthy fish included Proteobacteria (44.33%), Actinobacteria (17.89%), Bacteroidetes (15.25%), and Firmicutes (9.11%), among which the families Micrococcaceae and Oxalobacteraceae and genera Sphingomonas, Streptomyces, Pedobacter, Janthinobacterium, Burkholderia, and Balneimonas were most abundant. Proteobacteria (70.46%), Bacteroidetes (7.59%), and Firmicutes (7.55%) dominated the microbiota of unhealthy fish, and Chloroflexi (2.71%), and Aliivibrio and Vibrio as well as genera in the family Aeromonadaceae were most strongly represented. Overall, the intestinal hindgut microbiota differed between healthy and unhealthy fish. This study offers a useful tool for monitoring the health status of fish and for screening the utility of probiotics by studying the intestinal microbiota.
Full Text Available Background: A healthy lifestyle is important because of its long-term benefits; however, there is a paucity of information concerning health choices among Iranians. We evaluated personal health behaviors, attempts to change unhealthy behaviors, and factors affecting attempts at change. Methods: The design of this cross-sectional study was to assemble a representative cadre of> 18-year-old adults in Shiraz, Iran, using a multistage cluster sampling technique. Validated questionnaires collected participant's demographic information, such as weight, height, cigarette smoking history, physical activity, and attempts at lifestyle changes during the previous year. To determine predictors of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle and to identify confounders, we applied single and multivariable logistic regression methods, respectively. A confidence interval of 95% was calculated for each odds ratio. Results: The prevalence of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle was 42%, 64.8%, and 27.8%, respectively, for losing weight, being more physically active, and smoking cessation. Unemployment, low levels of education, and decreased socioeconomic status have important roles in attempts to change lifestyle conditions. Low socioeconomic status was a risk factor for quitting smoking. Occupation (unemployed/homemaker and low level of education were two significant factors for being more physically active. Conclusions: The prevalence of inadequate physical activity and being overweight or obese was considerable in Shiraz, Iran. Attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle were less than ideal. Social determinants of health factors including unemployment and low levels of education and socioeconomic status play important roles in attempts to change current lifestyles.
Ohmori, Yumi; Ito, Hiroto; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijo; Miyachi, Motohiko
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether depression was associated with metabolic syndrome and unhealthy behaviours in community residents. Using the 2009-2010 baseline data of the Saku Cohort Study, 1,225 men and women who participated in a community health screening were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Consistent with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine's definition, we defined metabolic syndrome as abdominal obesity plus two or more of the following: high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia. We defined 'pre- and metabolic syndrome' as the presence of one or more of the three criteria in addition to abdominal obesity. There was no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome. In women, the prevalence of pre- and metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the depression group than that in the non-depression group (17.5% vs 9.5%, p=0.046), whereas no such significant association was observed in men. Logistic regression analysis showed that depression was associated with unhealthy behavioural factors differently in men and women. This study revealed that depression was associated with several unhealthy behavioural factors in both men and women, but depression was associated with pre- and metabolic syndrome only in women. These findings suggest that depression may be a warning sign of metabolic syndrome in women with unhealthy behavioural factors. Psychological factors should be considered in addition to the assessment of physical status.
Horsley, Jason A; Absalom, Katie Ar; Akiens, Evie M; Dunk, Robert J; Ferguson, Alice M
To investigate the proportion of foods that are unhealthy to which children are exposed at the checkout of convenience supermarkets. We performed a cross-sectional survey of foodstuffs displayed at the checkout. Products displayed at or below children's eye-level were designated as healthy, unhealthy or unclassifiable using the Food Standards Agency's scoring criteria. Thirteen convenience supermarkets from the three leading UK supermarket chains were selected on the basis of proximity to the town hall in Sheffield, England. Convenience supermarkets were defined as branches of supermarket chains that were identified as being other than superstores on their company's store locator website. In almost all of the convenience supermarkets surveyed, the main healthy product on display was sugar-free chewing gum. On average, when chewing gum was not included as a foodstuff, 89% of the products on display at the checkouts of convenience supermarkets were unhealthy using the Food Standards Agency's criteria. One store was a notable outlier, providing only fruit and nuts at its checkout. The overwhelming majority of products to which children are exposed at the convenience supermarket checkout are unhealthy. This is despite all the supermarket chains surveyed having signed up to the UK Government's 'responsibility deal'.
Full Text Available Azizi A Seixas,1 Joao V Nunes,2 Collins O Airhihenbuwa,3 Natasha J Williams,1 Seithikurippu Ratnas Pandi-Perumal,1 Caryl C James,4 Girardin Jean-Louis11Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, Division of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 2Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City College of New York, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA; 4Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaObjective: The objective of the study was to examine the independent association of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep duration (defined as <7 or >8 hours.Methods: Data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, a cross-sectional household survey, were analyzed to investigate the associations of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep durations, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health risks, and chronic diseases through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis.Participants: A total of 27,731 participants (age range 18–85 years from the NHIS 2009 dataset were interviewed.Measures: Unhealthy sleep duration is defined as sleep duration <7 or >8 hours, whereas healthy sleep is defined as sleep duration lasting for 7–8 hours. Emotional distress is based on the Kessler 6 Non-Specific Distress Battery, which assesses the frequency of feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, and burdened, over a 30-day period.Results: Of the sample, 51.7% were female; 83.1% were white and 16.9% were black. Eleven percent experienced emotional distress and 37.6% reported unhealthy sleep. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with emotional distress had 55% greater odds of reporting unhealthy sleep (odds ratio [OR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.42, 1.68, P<0.001.Conclusion: Emotional distress, an important proxy for
Edelman, E Jennifer; Hansen, Nathan B; Cutter, Christopher J; Danton, Cheryl; Fiellin, Lynn E; O'Connor, Patrick G; Williams, Emily C; Maisto, Stephen A; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A
Effective counseling and pharmacotherapy for unhealthy alcohol use are rarely provided in HIV treatment settings to patients. Our goal was to describe factors influencing implementation of a stepped care model to address unhealthy alcohol use in HIV clinics from the perspectives of social workers, psychologists and addiction psychiatrists. We conducted two focus groups with Social Workers (n = 4), Psychologists (n = 2), and Addiction Psychiatrists (n = 4) involved in an ongoing randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of integrated stepped care for unhealthy alcohol use in HIV-infected patients at five Veterans Health Administration (VA) HIV clinics. Data collection and analyses were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) domains, with a focus on the three domains which we considered to be most relevant: intervention characteristics (i.e. motivational interviewing, pharmacotherapy), the inner setting (i.e. HIV clinics), and characteristics of individuals (i.e. the providers). A multidisciplinary team used directed content analysis to identify major themes. From the providers' perspective, the major implementation themes that emerged by CFIR domain included: (1) Intervention characteristics: providers valued tools and processes for facilitating patient motivation for treatment of unhealthy alcohol use given their perceived lack of motivation, but expressed a desire for greater flexibility; (2) Inner setting: treating unhealthy alcohol use in HIV clinics was perceived by providers to be consistent with VA priorities; and (3) Characteristics of individuals: there was high self-efficacy to conduct the intervention, an expressed need for more consistent utilization to maintain skills, and consideration of alternative models for delivering the components of the intervention. Use of the CFIR framework reveals that implementation of integrated stepped care for unhealthy alcohol use in HIV clinics is facilitated by
Full Text Available Abstract Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target
Stok, F Marijn; De Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A; De Wit, John B F
Being integral to adolescent health, autonomy presumably also is related to adolescent unhealthy snacking. We distinguish two differently motivated forms of autonomy: agentic autonomy, driven by a motivation to self-regulate, and self-presentational autonomy, driven by motives of image cultivation. The present study aimed to investigate the differential associations of these two types of motivation with unhealthy snack purchase in a prospective study among 105 adolescents. Results confirmed that agentic autonomy correlated with less unhealthy snack purchase, while self-presentational autonomy correlated with increased unhealthy snack purchase in males but not in females. This supports the hypothesis that autonomy is related to adolescent unhealthy eating, but can do so in different ways. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conway, Richard; McCarthy, Geraldine M
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease globally and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Increasing evidence points to an important inflammatory component in the development and progression of OA. The precise pathways involved in OA inflammatory processes remain to be clarified. Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP) crystals can induce inflammation and arthritis and recent studies point to a potential pathogenic role in OA. In the light of this evidence, we explore the relationship and potential mechanistic pathways linking calcium-containing crystals and OA. CPP crystals induce inflammation through the NLRP3 inflammasome while BCP crystals mediate both NLRP3 dependent and independent effects. BCP crystals have been demonstrated to induce key mitogenic and inflammatory pathways and contribute to cartilage degradation. Calcium-containing crystals induce key inflammatory pathways and may represent an attractive novel target in OA, a condition devoid of effective treatments.
In 2015,. NCDP invites research award proposals that advance our program by exploring the challenges of adopting and implementing policies that prevent NCDs and reduce the major risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol misuse, and physical inactivity. This includes evidence for policies and laws that:.
Karla C. Paz-Salinas
Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that presents a significant burden on health care systems in many countries. With the rise of obesity, the incidence of Type 2 diabetes has also been steadily increasing. A healthy lifestyle and understanding of diabetes management are important factors for delaying the onset of comorbidities associated with Type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the self-perception of health in individuals with Type 2 diabetes as it relates to BMI status, which has important implications for the implementation of preventive programs. Methods: A cross-sectional lifestyle survey was implemented in the region of Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, targeting 100 participants diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric measurements and participant characteristics were also obtained. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine if the proportions of lifestyles perceptions differed by BMI status. Results: Participants had a mean age of 56.12 ± 10.26, a mean BMI of 29.13 ± 5.48 kg/m2, were mostly married (67.0%, and female (70.0%. None of the normal weight participants perceived themselves as unhealthy. 95% of overweight/obese participants perceived themselves to be healthy, despite a diagnosis of diabetes and being overweight/obese, while only 5% perceived themselves to be unhealthy. However, these differences in the perceptions of health classified by BMI status were not statistically significant (p = 0.42.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that overweight and obese persons with Type 2 diabetes in Celaya, Mexico may have misperceptions about their own health, even though these findings were not statistically significant. These preliminary data highlight the importance of implementing prevention and educational programs among those with diabetes, in order to combat health misperceptions and raise awareness about the dangers of diabetes and obesity. Furthermore, more research with larger sample sizes
McMahon, James M; Chimenti, Ruth; Trabold, Nicole; Fedor, Theresa; Mittal, Mona; Tortu, Stephanie
Heterosexual transmission of HIV often occurs in the context of intimate sexual partnerships. There is mounting evidence that couple-based HIV prevention interventions may be more effective than individual-based interventions for promoting risk reduction within such relationships. Yet, concerns have been raised about the safety of couple-based prevention approaches, especially with regard to the risk of intimate partner violence against women. Although several international studies have examined the potential for adverse consequences associated with couple-based interventions, with inconsistent results, there is little data from U.S. studies to shed light on this issue. The current study analyzed data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City with 330 heterosexual couples to examine whether participation in couple-based or relationship-focused HIV counseling and testing (HIV-CT) interventions resulted in an increased likelihood of post-intervention breakups, relationship conflicts, or emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, compared with standard individual HIV-CT. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the odds of experiencing change in partner violence from baseline to follow-up by treatment condition. A high prevalence of partner-perpetrated violence was reported by both male and female partners across treatment conditions, but there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in relationship dissolution or partner violence subsequent to participation in either the couple-based HIV-CT intervention or relationship-focused HIV-CT intervention compared with controls. Qualitative data collected from the same participants support this interpretation. HIV prevention interventions involving persons in primary sexual partnerships should be sensitive to relationship dynamics and the potential for conflict, and take precautions to protect the safety of both male and female participants. © The Author(s) 2015.
Brooks, Ronald A.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews conducted with a multiracial/-ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV-serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, CA. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to id...
Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.
Hillier, Amy; Cole, Brian L; Smith, Tony E; Yancey, Antronette K; Williams, Jerome D; Grier, Sonya A; McCarthy, William J
Using GPS devices and digital cameras, we surveyed outdoor advertisements in Austin, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. GIS and hot spot analysis revealed that unhealthy ads were clustered around child-serving institutions in Los Angeles and Philadelphia but not in Austin. Multivariate generalized least square (GLS) regression models showed that percent black (p<0.04) was a significant positive predictor of clustering in Philadelphia and percent white (p<0.06) was a marginally significant negative predictor of clustering in Los Angeles after controlling for several land use variables. The results emphasize the importance of zoning and land use regulations to protect children from exposure to unhealthy commercial messages, particularly in neighborhoods with significant racial/ethnic minority populations.
Kelly, Bridget; Freeman, Becky; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Baur, Louise A; Gill, Tim
The formation of food brand associations and attachment is fundamental to brand preferences, which influence purchases and consumption. Food promotions operate through a cascade of links, from brand recognition, to affect, and on to consumption. Frequent exposures to product promotions may establish social norms for products, reinforcing brand affect. These pathways signify potential mechanisms for how children's exposure to unhealthy food promotions can contribute to poor diets. The present study explored children's brand associations and attachments for major food brands. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. Fourteen study brands were used, with each child viewing a set of seven logos. The questionnaire assessed perceptions of food brands and perceptions of users of brands, using semantic differential scales, and perceived brand 'personalities', using Likert scales. New South Wales, Australia, October-November 2014. Children aged 10-16 years (n 417). Children demonstrated strong positive affect to certain brands, perceiving some unhealthy food brands to have positive attributes, desirable user traits and alignment to their own personality. Brand personality traits of 'smart' and 'sporty' were viewed as indicators of healthiness. Brands with these traits were ranked lower for popularity. Children's brand associations and attachments indicate the potential normative social influences of promotions. While children are aware of brand healthiness as an attribute, this competes with other brand associations, highlighting the challenge of health/nutrition messaging to counter unhealthy food marketing. Restricting children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing and the persuasive nature of marketing is an important part of efforts to improve children's diet-related health.
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mackenzie, Tara; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni
In-store availability of healthy and unhealthy foods may influence consumer purchases. Methods used to measure food availability, however, vary widely. A simple, valid, and reliable indicator to collect comparable data on in-store food availability is needed. Cumulative linear shelf length of and variety within 22 healthy and 28 unhealthy food groups, determined based on a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems, were measured in 15 New Zealand supermarkets. Inter-rater reliability was tested in one supermarket by a second researcher. The construct validity of five simple indicators of relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods was assessed against this 'gold standard'. Cumulative linear shelf length was a more sensitive and feasible measure of food availability than variety. Four out of five shelf length ratio indicators were significantly associated with the gold standard (ρ = 0.70-0.75). Based on a non-significant difference from the 'gold standard' (d = 0.053 ± 0.040) and feasibility, the ratio of cumulative linear shelf length of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables versus soft and energy drinks, crisps and snacks, sweet biscuits and confectionery performed best for use in New Zealand supermarkets. Four out of the five shelf length ratio indicators of the relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods in-store tested could be used for future research and monitoring, but additional validation studies in other settings and countries are recommended. Consistent use of those shelf length ratio indicators could enhance comparability of supermarket food availability between studies, and help inform policies to create healthy consumer food retail environments.
Carter Mary-Ann; Signal Louise; Edwards Richard; Hoek Janet; Maher Anthony
Abstract Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages do...
Guo, Fangjian; Garvey, W Timothy
To assess the stability of metabolic status and body mass index (BMI) status and their relative contribution to risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, and mortality. A total of 14,685 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and 4,990 from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were included. People with healthy obesity (HO) are defined as those meeting all three indices of blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids. People with unhealthy obesity crossed the risk threshold for all three criteria. In both healthy and unhealthy subgroups, risks for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and mortality were comparable among BMI status during a mean 18.7-year follow-up. When compared with HO, hazard ratios were increased for diabetes (5.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.12-7.48), CHD (5.60, 95% CI 3.14-9.98), stroke (4.84, 95% CI 2.13-10.97), and mortality (2.6, 95% CI 1.88-3.61) in people with unhealthy obesity. BMI only moderately increased the risks for diabetes among healthy subjects. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study over 20 years, 17.5% of lean subjects and 67.3% of overweight subjects at baseline developed obesity during follow-up. Despite rising BMI, metabolic status remained relatively stable. Metabolic status is relatively stable despite rising BMI. HO had lower risks for diabetes, CHD, stroke, and mortality than unhealthy subjects but increased diabetes risks than healthy lean people. Cardiometabolic risk factors confer much higher risk than obesity per se. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to assess the effects of advertising of unhealthy food products on student's decision and eating behavior. In the present research participated 272 students aged between 18-29 years from the State University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Nicolae Testemitanu” from the Republic of Moldova. Unfortunately, the findings showed that promotional policy of companies in the food sector have escalated and can influence food product purchase behavior among students.
Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Booth, David A
Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; Gillebaart, Marleen; De Ridder, Denise T. D.
In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test of this novel suggestion by investigating the mediating role of habit in explaining the relation between self-control and unhealthy snacking behavior. Results showed that self-control was negativel...
Chang, Angela; Schulz, Peter J.; Schirato, Tony; Hall, Brian J.
Previous studies indicated that television (TV) advertising is associated with higher rates of obesity. The rate of obesity and overweight continues to rise in mainland China, bringing into question whether TV advertising to young audiences might be partly to blame. This study investigated messaging delivered through TV advertisements regarding healthy and unhealthy foodstuffs. A total of 42 major food brands and 480 advertisements were analysed for content in this study. The results showed t...
Watson, Wendy L; Lau, Vivien; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Chapman, Kathryn
In response to rising childhood obesity rates, the Australian food industry implemented two initiatives in 2009 to reduce the marketing of unhealthy food to children. This study evaluated the efficacy of these initiatives on the rate of unhealthy food advertising to children on Australian television. The rates of food advertisements on three free-to-air commercial television channels and a youth-oriented digital channel in Sydney, Australia were analysed over 2 weekdays (16 h) and two weekend days (22 h). Advertisements were categorized according to the healthiness of foods advertised (non-core, core, miscellaneous) and signatory status to the food industry advertising initiatives. Total food advertising rates for the three channels increased from 5.5/h in 2011 to 7.3/h in 2015, due to an increase of 0.8/h for both core and miscellaneous foods. The rate of non-core food advertisements in 2015 (3.1/h) was similar to 2011 (3.0/h). The youth-oriented channel had fewer total food advertisements (3.7/h versus 7.3/h) but similar fast-food advertisement rates (1.3/h versus 1.3/h). There was no change in the rate of unhealthy food advertising since 2011, suggesting minimal impact of the current food industry initiatives on reducing children's exposure to unhealthy food advertising. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Slof-Op't Landt, Margarita C T; Claes, Laurence; van Furth, Eric F
Perfectionism and impulsivity are associated with eating disorders (EDs). The current study examines whether clinically relevant subgroups of women with EDs can be identified based on "healthy" and "unhealthy" perfectionism and impulsivity. Latent profile analyses (LPA) were performed on data of 844 patients (DSM-IV diagnosis: 381 anorexia nervosa, 146 bulimia nervosa, 56 binge-eating disorder, 261 ED not otherwise specified). "Healthy" and "unhealthy" forms of perfectionism and impulsivity were assessed by the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Dickman Impulsivity Inventory, respectively. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was completed to assess ED psychopathology. Furthermore, in 229 patients additional ED symptoms, depression, self-esteem, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and personality features were assessed. The LPA revealed four profiles; 1. "Healthy Impulsivity" (HI; n = 191), 2. "Unhealthy Impulsivity" (UI; n = 238), 3. "Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionism" (HP + UP; n = 153), 4. "Healthy Perfectionism" (HP; n = 262). Patients belonging to the "HP + UP" and the "UI" classes reported higher levels of ED psychopathology. More severe comorbid symptoms (depressive, obsessive-compulsive and self-esteem) were found in the patients belonging to the "HP + UP" class. Patients from the "HP + UP" and "HP" classes had higher scores for the personality features Harm Avoidance, Persistence and Cooperativeness. Women with EDs could be meaningfully grouped according to perfectionism and impulsivity. These findings can be used to improve treatment matching and intervention strategies. The use of dimensional features, like perfectionism and impulsivity, in ED research, may enable the identification of fundamental underlying mechanisms and provide more insight into potential mechanisms that may drive or maintain disordered eating. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:673-680). © 2016 Wiley
Luana Peter Hoefelmann
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n3p318 Inadequate sleep has been associated with unhealthy behavior in adolescence. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of negative sleep indicators (perceived poorquality sleep and insufficient sleep duration among students and to identify unhealthy behaviors associated with this outcome. This study is part of a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2011 in adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. High school students aged 15 to 19 years (n = 6,529 and enrolled in state public schools participated in the study. The students responded to a questionnaire on the number of hours slept (insufficient: < 8 h, sufficient: ≥ 8 h; perceived sleep quality (good or poor; and behavioral variables. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using reports of positive sleep indicators, and negative reports of one or two sleep indicators. Approximately 30% of adolescents reported a negative perception of sleep, indicating poor quality and insufficient duration. The use of computers/videogames (≥ 4 h/d and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, salty snacks or sweets were associated with negative sleep indicators. A high number of young people displayed one or two negative sleep indicators, and it was found an association between these indicators and a number of unhealthy behaviors.
Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D
Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6(th) to 8(th) grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method. Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.
Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho
Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.
Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne
Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods.
Full Text Available The pathogenesis of obesity (OB and metabolic syndrome (MetS implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-, and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues.
Mangge, Harald; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Puerstner, Peter; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Reeves, Gloria; Postolache, Teodor T; Weghuber, Daniel
The obesity prevalence is growing worldwide and largely responsible for cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death in the western world. The rationale of this study was to distinguish metabolically healthy from unhealthy overweight/obese young and adult patients as compared to healthy normal weight age matched controls by an extensive anthropometric, laboratory, and sonographic vascular assessment. Three hundred fifty five young [8 to obese(ow/ob), 56 normal weight (nw)] and 354 adult [>18-60 years, 175 (ow/ob), 179 nw)] participants of the STYJOBS/EDECTA (STYrian Juvenile Obesity Study/Early DEteCTion of Atherosclerosis) cohort were analyzed. STYJOBS/EDECTA (NCT00482924) is a crossectional study to investigate metabolic/cardiovascular risk profiles in normal and ow/ob people free of disease except metabolic syndrome (MetS). From 299 young ow/ob subjects (8-adult ow/ob subjects (>18-60 years), 79 (45%) had positive criteria for MetS. In both age groups, prevalence of MetS was greater among males. Overweight/obese subjects were divided into "healthy" (no MetS criterion except anthropometry fulfilled) and "unhealthy" (MetS positive). Although percentage body fat did not differ between "healthy" and "unhealthy" ow/ob, nuchal and visceral fat were significantly greater in the "unhealthy" group which had also significantly higher values of carotid intima media thickness (IMT). With MetS as the dependent variable, two logistic regressions including juveniles adults >18 years were performed. The potential predictor variables selected with the exception of age and gender by t test comparisons included IMT, ultrasensitive c-reactive protein (US-CRP), IL-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, leptin, adiponectin, uric acid (UA), aldosterone, cortisol, transaminases, fibrinogen. In both groups, uric acid and in adults only, leptin and adiponectin, turned out as the best predictor. Serum levels of UA are a significant predictor of unhealthy obesity in juveniles
Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita
Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn
The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control. One hundred and fifty-six undergraduate women were randomised to complete a depleting e-crossing task or a non-depleting task, followed by a lab-based measure of snack intake, and self-report measures of motivation and desire strength. In partial support of the process model, ego depletion was related to higher intake, but only indirectly via the influence of lowered motivation. Motivation was more strongly predictive of intake for those in the non-depletion condition, providing partial support for the reflective-impulsive model. Ego depletion did not affect desire, nor did depletion moderate the effect of desire on intake, indicating that desire may be an appropriate target for reducing unhealthy behaviour across situations where self-control resources vary. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia; Pigeot, Iris
The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around child-serving institutions was conducted using an inhomogeneous K-function to calculate global 95% confidence envelopes. Furthermore, a food retail index was implemented considering the kernel density of junk food supplies per service area, adjusted for residential density. We linked the food retail index to FFQ and 24-HDR data of 384 6- to 9-year-old school children in the study region and investigated the impact of the index on food intake, using multilevel regression models adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parent's education and income, as well as adjusting for over- and underreporting of food intake. Comparing the 95% confidence envelopes to the observed K-function, we showed that food stores and fast food restaurants do not significantly cluster around schools. Apart from this result, the food retail index showed no effect on BMI (β=0.01,p=0.11) or food intake variables assessed by FFQ and 24-HDR. In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young
Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around child-serving institutions was conducted using an inhomogeneous K-function to calculate global 95% confidence envelopes. Furthermore, a food retail index was implemented considering the kernel density of junk food supplies per service area, adjusted for residential density. We linked the food retail index to FFQ and 24-HDR data of 384 6- to 9-year-old school children in the study region and investigated the impact of the index on food intake, using multilevel regression models adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parent’s education and income, as well as adjusting for over- and underreporting of food intake. Results Comparing the 95% confidence envelopes to the observed K-function, we showed that food stores and fast food restaurants do not significantly cluster around schools. Apart from this result, the food retail index showed no effect on BMI (β=0.01,p=0.11) or food intake variables assessed by FFQ and 24-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest
Derrick Ssewanyana; Derrick Ssewanyana; Amina Abubakar; Amina Abubakar; Amina Abubakar; Amina Abubakar; Anneloes van Baar; Patrick N. Mwangala; Patrick N. Mwangala; Charles R. Newton; Charles R. Newton; Charles R. Newton
Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are among the key modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although such diseases often only appear in adulthood, these behaviors are typically initiated or reinforced already during adolescence. However, knowledge on underlying factors for adolescents’ unhealthy dieting and physical inactivity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is poor. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to ex...
Gao, Guilin; Wang, Tianyi
This article systematically expounds the status quo and sources of air pollution, the experience of foreign environmental tax policy, the advantages and disadvantages of environmental taxes levied in our country through literature research, historical analysis and comparative analysis and put forward recommendations on tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution by combining with the specific national conditions in our country. As one of the basic means of national macro-control, the tax policy is the major countermeasure that cannot be ignored in the prevention and control of air pollution. Studying the tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution will help to effectively control air pollution, develop a green economy and recycle economy and achieve the goal of improving environmental quality.
Gingras, Véronique; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Tchernof, André; Weisnagel, S John; Robitaille, Julie
Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are encouraged to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. The objective was to examine the association between the adoption of preventive practices and the metabolic profile of women with prior GDM. Analyses included 181 women who had GDM between 2003 and 2010. The preventive practices examined included (i) regular physical activity (≥150 min·week(-1)) assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; (ii) a healthy diet (score derived from the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and associated with a lower metabolic risk) evaluated from a food frequency questionnaire; and (iii) exclusive breastfeeding (≥6 months). Women were classified according to the number of preventive practices adopted. Waist circumference, weight, and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Fasting insulinemia and glycemia were obtained and Matsuda index for insulin sensitivity was calculated. Nearly one-third of women adopted none of the listed preventive practices. For each increase of 1 preventive practice adopted, women were 30% less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 kg·m(-2) (odds ratio (OR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.50-0.98)), they were 34% less likely to have a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm (OR: 0.66, 95%CI (0.47-0.92)) and they were 33% less likely to have a Matsuda index for insulin sensitivity practices in the years following delivery are less likely to have lower insulin sensitivity, less likely to be overweight-obese, and less likely to be characterized by abdominal obesity.
Earhart, James Allen, Jr.
Bullying in schools has revealed deleterious psychosocial consequences for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Programs aimed at preventing bullying have largely revealed limited positive outcomes. Efforts that have been associated with positive results have drawn from the social-ecological model, focusing on the constellation of individual…
M. V. Avdeeva
Full Text Available The article contains the modern literature data about impact of various infectious agents on the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. The data are demonstrated the role of various infectious diseases, including periodontal diseases, in the development of biological degradation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. The article questions of organization of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease based on the screening assessment by stomatologist the oral sanitary status. Necessary to carry out sanitation of chronic infection foci of the mouth on the basis of existing children’s health centers. The children’s health centers have a set of dental equipment, with which can perform a screening diagnosis of dental caries, periodontal diseases, non-carious lesions, diseases of the mucous membranes, and conduct preventive oral sanitation. The duties of dental hygienists is teaching children of different age groups to the rules of oral care, demonstration of skills, brushing teeth, information about the importance of prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease, as it is not only important for the preservation of the teeth, but also may prevent the development of ardiovasculardisease adulthood.
Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Roca, Miquel; Kohls, Elisabeth; Watkins, Ed; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Depression, one of the most prevalent and disabling disorders in Europe, is thought to be associated with unhealthy eating styles. As prevalence of depression and eating styles potentially differ across Europe, the current study aimed to investigate in a large, European sample, the associations of history of major depressive disorder and depression severity with unhealthy eating styles. Baseline data of the MooDFOOD prevention study was used. The current analysis included 990 participants of four European countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany, Spain). Analyses of Covariance and linear regression analyses were performed with depression history or depression severity as determinants, and emotional, uncontrolled, and cognitive restrained eating (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised, 18 item) as outcomes. Depression history and severity were associated with more emotional and uncontrolled eating and with less cognitive restrained eating. Mood, somatic, and cognitive symptom clusters were also associated with more emotional and uncontrolled eating, and with less cognitive restrained eating. The somatic depressive symptoms "increased appetite" and "increased weight" were more strongly associated to unhealthy eating styles compared to other symptoms. No differences in associations between depression and unhealthy eating were found between European countries. Our results suggest that depression is related to more unhealthy eating styles. Diminishing unhealthy eating styles in subthreshold depressed persons could potentially reduce adverse health consequences like weight gain, unhealthy dietary patterns and weight-related diseases. It is also possible that interventions that decrease depressive symptoms can lead to a decrease in unhealthy eating styles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There are 30-40% of people with allergies world wide in 2011, this is based on data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC more than tripled from 1993 to 2006. Parents play an important role in overcoming the recurrence of allergies in children in order of recurrence allergies and more severe recurrence. The goal of the study is to analyze association mothers’s role and knowledge in recurrence prevention of food allergy in children under five years-old. The study is an analytic observational research with cross sectional design. Method of sampling usedis simple random sampling. The samples were 39 mothers who have children under five years-old with food allergy in Rumah Sakit Islam Jemursari Surabaya. Analysis used chi-square test with α = 0.05 significance level.The results revealed the knowledge of mothers’ with allergy recurrance is 15 person (38,5% have a good knowledge in prevention of food allergy in children under five years-old, while mothers’s role in recurrence prevention of food allergy in children under five years-old is 26 person (66,7% have a role unfavorable. The statistical test by using chi-square revealed there were association between mothers’role (ρ=0,030 and mother’s of knowledge (ρ=0,00001in recurrence prevention of food allergy for children under five years-old.The conclusions of the results this study is mothers’s role with unfavorable to have children under five years-old with an allergy recurrence of severe allergy, while mothers with good knowledge to have children under five years-old with an allergy reccurrance of mild allergy. Keywords: recurrence allergies, mother’s role, mother’s knowledge
Costello, Leslie C.; Franklin, Renty B.
Introduction Efficacious chemotherapy does not exist for treatment or prevention of prostate, liver, and pancreatic carcinomas, and some other cancers that exhibit decreased zinc in malignancy. Zinc treatment offers a potential solution; but its support has been deterred by adverse bias. Areas covered 1. The clinical and experimental evidence for the common ZIP transporter/Zn down regulation in these cancers. 2. The evidence for a zinc approach to prevent and/or treat these carcinomas. 3. The issues that introduce bias against support for the zinc approach. Expert opinion ZIP/Zn downregulation is a clinically established common event in prostate, hepatocellular and pancreatic cancers. 2. Compelling evidence supports the plausibility that a zinc treatment regimen will prevent development of malignancy and termination of progressing malignancy in these cancers; and likely other carcinomas that exhibit decreased zinc. 3. Scientifically-unfounded issues that oppose this ZIP/Zn relationship have introduced bias against support for research and funding of a zinc treatment approach. 4. The clinically-established and supporting experimental evidence provide the scientific credibility that should dictate the support for research and funding of a zinc approach for the treatment and possible prevention of these cancers. 5. This is in the best interest of the medical community and the public-at-large. PMID:27885880
Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah
This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; ter Bogt, Tom; Pastore, Massimiliano; Siciliano, Valeria; Molinaro, Sabrina
Although substantial research has provided support for the association between parental practices and adolescent gambling, less is known about the role of adolescent attitudes in this relationship. The primary purpose of this study was to test an integrative model linking perceived parental
Bavarian, Niloofar; Duncan, Robert; Lewis, Kendra M; Miao, Alicia; Washburn, Isaac J
The study examined whether adolescents receiving a universal, school based, drug prevention program in Grade 7 varied, by student profile, in substance use behaviors post program implementation. Profiles were a function of recall of program receipt and substance use at baseline. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, a large, geographically diverse, longitudinal school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Take Charge of Your Life drug prevention program. Profiles were created using self-reported substance use (preintervention) and program recall (postintervention) at Grade 7. First, characteristics of each of the 4 profiles of treatment students who varied by program recall and baseline substance use were explored. Then, multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the odds of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among student profiles at the 6 additional study waves (Time 2 [Grade 7] through Time 7 [Grade 11]). Pearson's chi-square tests showed sample characteristics varied by student profile. Multilevel logistic regression results were consistent across all examined substance use behaviors at all time points. Namely, as compared with students who had no baseline substance use and had program recall (No Use, Recall), each of the remaining 3 profiles (No Use, No Recall; Use, Recall; Use, No Recall) were more likely to engage in substance use. Post hoc analyses showed that for the 2 subprofiles of baseline substance users, there were only 2 observed, and inconsistent, differences in the odds of subsequent substance use by recall status. Findings suggest that for students who were not baseline substance users, program recall significantly decreased the likelihood of subsequent substance use. For students who were baseline substance users, program recall did not generally influence subsequent substance use. Implications for school-based drug prevention
Benjamins, Maureen R; Ellison, Christopher G; Krause, Neal M; Marcum, John P
Religious individuals are more likely to engage in healthy practices, including using preventive services; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been adequately explored. To begin addressing this, the current study examines the association between religious attendance, four aspects of congregational support, two health-related religious beliefs, and the use of preventive services (cholesterol screening, flu shot, and colonoscopy) among a national sample of Presbyterian adults (n = 1,076). The findings show that two aspects of congregational support are relevant to these types of behavioral health. First, church-based health activities are significantly related to the use of cholesterol screenings and flu shots (OR = 1.13, P God locus of health control scale or beliefs about the sanctity of the body, are related to preventive service use in this population. Although attendance is predictive of service use in unadjusted models, the association appears to be explained by age rather than by the congregational or belief variables. These findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the various ways in which religion might impact health behaviors and may also help to shape and refine interventions designed to improve individual well-being.
Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R
The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen
The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430
Full Text Available AIM: To analyze alcohol use, clinical data and laboratory parameters that may affect FIB-4, an index for measuring liver fibrosis, in HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-coinfected drug users. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients admitted for substance abuse treatment between 1994 and 2006 were studied. Socio-demographic data, alcohol and drug use characteristics and clinical variables were obtained through hospital records. Blood samples for biochemistry, liver function tests, CD4 cell count, and serology of HIV and HCV infection were collected at admission. Multivariate linear regression was used to analyze the predictors of FIB-4 increase. RESULTS: A total of 472 (83% M, 17% F patients were eligible. The median age at admission was 31 years (Interquartile range (IQR 27-35 years, and the median duration of drug use was 10 years (IQR 5.5-15 years. Unhealthy drinking (>50 grams/day was reported in 32% of the patients. The FIB-4 scores were significantly greater in the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients (1.14, IQR 0.76-1.87 than in the HCV-monoinfected patients (0.75, IQR 0.56-1.11 (p<0.001. In the multivariate analysis, unhealthy drinking (p = 0.034, lower total cholesterol (p = 0.042, serum albumin (p<0.001, higher GGT (p<0.001 and a longer duration of addiction (p = 0.005 were independently associated with higher FIB-4 scores in the HCV-monoinfected drug users. The effect of unhealthy drinking on FIB-4 scores disappeared in the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients, whereas lower serum albumin (p<0.001, a lower CD4 cell count (p = 0.006, higher total bilirubin (p<0.001 and a longer drug addiction duration (p<0.001 were significantly associated with higher FIB-4 values. CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy alcohol use in the HCV-monoinfected patients and HIV-related immunodeficiency in the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients are important risk factors associated with liver fibrosis in the respective populations.
Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros
that contributes positively to the image enhancement of the (unhealthy) target product and affirmed that they are willing to pay reasonable premiums for it. However, the level of consumers’ prior awareness of functionality played a decisive role in their preference for functional products. The type of food...... that ‘‘carries’’ functionality was also more important when consumers had no knowledge of functionality. Overall, prior and accurate awareness was found to increase the variety of functionality types and preferred carriers, the strength of preference per functionality type, and the price premiums willingly paid....
Full Text Available Obesity is a major health issue in developed as well as developing countries. While obesity is associated with relatively good health status in some individuals, it may become a health issue for others. Obesity in the context of inflammation has been studied extensively. However, whether obesity in its various forms has the same adverse effects is a matter of debate and requires further research. During its natural history, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO converts into metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO. What causes this transition to occur and what is the role of obesity-related mediators of inflammation during this transition is discussed in this paper.
Dixon, Helen; Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie
This study aimed to test whether movie tie-in premiums (MTIPs) accompanying unhealthy and healthier fast food meals influenced children's meal preferences and their perceptions of these meals. Nine hundred and four Grade 1 and 2 students (aged 5-9 years) from Melbourne, Australia participated in a between-subjects online experiment comprising the following conditions: (A) unhealthy and healthier meals with no MTIP (control); (B) unhealthy and healthier meals with MTIP (current situation in Australia); (C) unhealthy meals with MTIP and healthier meals without MTIP; (D) unhealthy meals without MTIP and healthier meals with MTIP. The latter condition tested a potential regulatory model restricting premiums to healthier meals. Participants were shown a trailer for a current children's movie followed by an advertisement for an associated McDonald's Happy Meal ® (conditions B-D) or an advertisement for a children's leisure activity (condition A). They were then shown four McDonald's Happy Meal ® options on screen and asked to select their preferred meal before completing detailed meal ratings. Overall, children showed a preference for unhealthy meals over healthier ones. Children were significantly more likely to select a healthier meal over an unhealthy meal when only the healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP (condition D) compared to the other three conditions. When healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP, children reported the meal looked better, would taste better, they would be more likely to ask their parents for this meal, and they would feel happier if their parents bought them this meal, compared to when the healthier meal was not accompanied by a MTIP. Results suggest that modifying the food marketing environment to restrict MTIPs to healthier meals should encourage healthier fast food meal choices by children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yager, Zali; O’Dea, Jennifer A
Background Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Methods Participants were 1148 male adolescen...
Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Schmitt, Jochen; Drexler, Hans
The cumulative effect of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for the worldwide increase in non-melanoma skin cancer, a category that includes squamous cell carcinoma and its precursors (the actinic keratoses) as well as basal-cell carcinoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in areas of the world with a light-skinned population. The occupational exposure to UV radiation is high in many outdoor occupations; recent studies suggest that persons working in such occupations are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer. On the basis of a selective review of the literature, we present the current state of knowledge about occupational and non-occupational UV exposure and the findings of meta-analyses on the association of outdoor activity with non-melanoma skin cancer. We also give an overview of the current recommendations for prevention and for medicolegal assessment. Recent meta-analyses have consistently documented a significantly higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin among persons who work outdoors (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-2.22, pmelanoma skin cancer in persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation should be reported as an occupational disease under § 9, paragraph 2 of the Seventh Book of the German Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch, SGB VII). Preventive measures are urgently needed for persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation.
Lu, Angela H; Dickin, Katherine L; Constas, Mark A; Dollahite, Jamie S
To apply the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine the relationship between the constructs of background factors and beliefs towards using policy, systems and environmental (PSE) strategies and reported use of PSE strategies to prevent obesity by a group of professional nutrition educators. Cross-sectional study using self-reported survey. Cooperative Extension in New York, USA. Nutrition educators (n 58); survey response rate 100 %. Nutrition educators' reported use of PSE strategies to prevent obesity were positively associated with background factors of their community networking and number of staff they managed, their belief of other people's expectations of them to make PSE changes and the belief that their communities were ready to use PSE strategies; and negatively associated with their belief that individual-level factors contributed to obesity. The relationships among these variables were complicated and their use of PSE strategies occurred only when they utilized their professional networks at a moderately high level (above mean of 5·3 on a scale of 1-7), given that their community was also ready to use PSE strategies. Nutrition educators' use of PSE strategies depends on several internal and external factors. Community networking needs to be emphasized as one of the most significant factors contributing to nutrition educators' work in this area. Organizational and community support should be in place in order to facilitate nutrition educators' effective use of PSE strategies.
Forcano, Laura; Mata, Fernanda; de la Torre, Rafael; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio
We systematically reviewed research on cognitive training and neuromodulation interventions for reducing food craving/intake, unhealthy diet and weight, and discussed their mechanisms of action. We reviewed 50 studies involving six cognitive trainings: Approach and Attentional Bias Modification, Implementation Intentions, Response Inhibition, Episodic Future Thinking and Working Memory; and four neuromodulation approaches: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Neurofeedback. Response Inhibition and Implementation Intentions have shown to reduce unhealthy diet and weight in people with overweight/obesity. Attentional Bias Modification has shown promising results in healthy-weight participants. Brain stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex via tDCS and the Hypothalamus via DBS showed benefits for reducing food craving and weight in people with overweight/obesity. Studies quality was generally high, but most trials were short-term and many conducted in healthy-weight samples. Modification of cognitive control and motivational processes/circuits are common mechanisms of beneficial training and neuromodulation interventions, and thus a promising approach for overweight/obesity treatment. Longer duration trials in clinical populations are needed to confirm benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chang, Angela; Schulz, Peter J; Schirato, Tony; Hall, Brian J
Previous studies indicated that television (TV) advertising is associated with higher rates of obesity. The rate of obesity and overweight continues to rise in mainland China, bringing into question whether TV advertising to young audiences might be partly to blame. This study investigated messaging delivered through TV advertisements regarding healthy and unhealthy foodstuffs. A total of 42 major food brands and 480 advertisements were analysed for content in this study. The results showed that the majority of TV spots advertised products with poor nutritional content and had a potential to mislead audiences concerning products' actual nutritional value. The tactics of repetition and appeals of premium offerings on food brands have a potential to influence the purchase intentions. Additional qualitative observation involving the social bond, social context and cultural factors pertaining to mood alterations were highlighted. The discussion addressed product attributes reflected by culture and the implicit messages of marketing claims may increase the risk of obesity. Thus, public health policymakers and researchers were encouraged to act urgently to evaluate the obesity risks of unhealthy food advertised in the media and to support healthy foods.
This study examined the effect of unhealthy eating habits on behavior within the dual-process perspective, including intentional and reactive motivation. Previous studies assumed that habits elicit behavior directly. However, this study hypothesized that habits affect behavior through their effect on action control and reactive motivation. Longitudinal data were available from undergraduate students (n=286) who completed the first questionnaire assessing their habits, action control (internal and external), intentional motivation, and reactive motivation, and the second questionnaire accessing their actual eating behavior of high-calorie snacks in the 2 weeks following the first questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the predictors of their eating behavior. The results showed that habits inhibited internal control and promoted external control. These two sources of control affected intentional and reactive motivations, respectively, which determine behavior. It is concluded that habitual unhealthy eating behavior results from a decrease in conscious control leading to a switch from an intentional to a reactive route. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cleobury, L; Tapper, K
Snack foods are often high in fat and sugar. Thus, reducing snack consumption may be a useful weight management strategy. However, individuals may snack for a variety of reasons with different implications for intervention. The present study examined the perceived reasons for eating main meals, 'unhealthy' snacks (i.e. snacks high in fat or sugar) and 'healthy' snacks in overweight and obese participants. Over a period of 5 days, 28 males and 27 females completed a food diary every time they ate. As well as providing details about the type of eating episode and food eaten, they also rated their agreement with 13 different reasons for eating (identified from relevant literature and a pilot study). Across a total of 1084 eating episodes, 358 were coded as snacks, 79% of which were high in either fat or sugar. The results showed that hunger and temptation (external eating) were reported as a reason for eating unhealthy snacks in 49% and 55% of all episodes, respectively. Eating because the individual was feeling fed up, bored or stressed (emotional eating) was given as a reason in 26% of episodes. These findings point to the potential utility of intervention strategies that target cravings, enhance self-control or promote stimulus control. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Chang, Angela; Schirato, Tony; Hall, Brian J.
Previous studies indicated that television (TV) advertising is associated with higher rates of obesity. The rate of obesity and overweight continues to rise in mainland China, bringing into question whether TV advertising to young audiences might be partly to blame. This study investigated messaging delivered through TV advertisements regarding healthy and unhealthy foodstuffs. A total of 42 major food brands and 480 advertisements were analysed for content in this study. The results showed that the majority of TV spots advertised products with poor nutritional content and had a potential to mislead audiences concerning products’ actual nutritional value. The tactics of repetition and appeals of premium offerings on food brands have a potential to influence the purchase intentions. Additional qualitative observation involving the social bond, social context and cultural factors pertaining to mood alterations were highlighted. The discussion addressed product attributes reflected by culture and the implicit messages of marketing claims may increase the risk of obesity. Thus, public health policymakers and researchers were encouraged to act urgently to evaluate the obesity risks of unhealthy food advertised in the media and to support healthy foods. PMID:29300366
Gazica, Michele W; Spector, Paul E
Safety climate, violence prevention climate, and civility climate were independently developed and linked to domain-specific workplace hazards, although all three were designed to promote the physical and psychological safety of workers. To test domain specificity between conceptually related workplace climates and relevant workplace hazards. Data were collected from 368 persons employed in various industries and descriptive statistics were calculated for all study variables. Correlational and relative weights analyses were used to test for domain specificity. The three climate domains were similarly predictive of most workplace hazards, regardless of domain specificity. This study suggests that the three climate domains share a common higher order construct that may predict relevant workplace hazards better than any of the scales alone.
Minnis, Alexandra M; Doherty, Irene A; Kline, Tracy L; Zule, William A; Myers, Bronwyn; Carney, Tara; Wechsberg, Wendee M
Inequitable gender-based power in relationships and intimate partner violence contribute to persistently high rates of HIV infection among South African women. We examined the effects of two group-based HIV prevention interventions that engaged men and their female partners together in a couples intervention (Couples Health CoOp [CHC]) and a gender-separate intervention (Men's Health CoOp/Women's Health CoOp [MHC/WHC]) on women's reports of power, communication, and conflict in relationships. The cluster-randomized field experiment included heterosexual couples from a high-density South African township in which neighborhoods were randomized to one of the intervention arms or a control arm that received the WHC only. Participants completed in-person study visits at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We examined group differences using one-way analysis of variance and multivariable regression models. Of the 290 couples enrolled, 255 women remained in the same partnership over 6 months. Following the intervention, women in the CHC arm compared with those in the WHC arm were more likely to report an increase in relationship control (β=0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.83, P=0.045) and gender norms supporting female autonomy in relationships (β=0.99, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.91, P=0.035). Women in the MHC/WHC arm were more likely to report increases in relationship equity, relative to those in the CHC arm, and had a higher odds of reporting no victimization during the previous 3 months (MHC/WHC vs WHC: odds ratio =3.05, 95% CI: 1.55, 6.0, P=0.001; CHC vs MHC/WHC: odds ratio =0.38, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.74, P=0.004). Male partner engagement in either the gender-separate or couples-based interventions led to modest improvements in gender power, adoption of more egalitarian gender norms, and reductions in relationship conflict for females. The aspects of relationship power that improved, however, varied between the couples and gender-separate conditions, highlighting the need
Comparison of Fiscal and Regulatory Policies to Prevent Non-Communicable Diseases in India. India is facing a rising burden of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related diabetes due to increasingly unhealthy diets and tobacco use. Educational initiatives to reduce the consumption of "'risky commodities"' such as foods ...
Oluyemisi Folake Folasire
A food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the dietary pattern. Weight, height, waist and hip ... Keywords: adolescents and young adult health, cancer prevention, nutrition knowledge. Introduction. Cancer is one of ... unhealthy eating habits, they eat more fast foods that are usually high in fat, sugar, and salt, and ...
Kennedy, C.J.; Probart, C.K.; Dorman, S.M.
Understanding similarities between health-related and radon-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors may suggest application of effective strategies of radon-related education in targeted populations. A mail survey was returned by 300 randomly selected homeowners in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations (50% response). While 64% were concerned, only 7% tested their homes. The expected association between radon knowledge, radon concern, and information-seeking was identified. In addition, those who tested their homes had greater knowledge and did more information seeking. Health values and radon concern were only weakly related. Environmental concern explained the greatest variance in radon concern (10%). Internal health locus of controls were more likely to have high radon concern. Of the preventive health behaviors, not smoking and seat belt use were the best predictors of variance in radon concern (5%). Segmenting the population is suggested for best educational outcome. Relating information to environmental issues may be helpful. Health-conscious people may need awareness of risks. Issues of self-control and radon testing and reduction may be helpful for some. Synergy between smoke and radon, compounded by smokers lack of concern suggests targeting smokers for education efforts
Yamaguchi, Takumi; Horio, Ikuo; Goto, Masahiro; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Izushi, Fumio
It has been 6 years since the establishment of the position of "sports pharmacist" as one type of pharmacist. In the sporting world of Japan, sports pharmacists are expected to promote athletes' awareness of antidoping regulations and provide them with relevant education. However, currently, these pharmacists' main duty is to provide athletes and their coaches with guidance on medication. Using a model for the prediction of athletes' actions, we have worked to promote athletes' awareness of antidoping regulations and encourage sports pharmacists to perform relevant activities, such as antidoping education. As a result, we clarified that athletes' awareness regarding antidoping rules influences their actions when experiencing minor illnesses. In addition, we have proposed approaches to encourage athletes to undertake antidoping activities. The present study aimed to clarify competitive sports coaches' awareness of antidoping regulations, the instructions that those coaches give athletes when they experience minor illnesses, and coaches' awareness of athletes' usage of drugs and supplements. Analysis using a model for the prediction of actions revealed that to promote coaches' awareness of antidoping regulations, education aimed at raising their level of knowledge of doping is warranted. Furthermore, coaches were aware of the necessity of continuously providing athletes with antidoping instructions, but they did not keep sufficient track of athletes' usage of drugs and supplements. To encourage sports coaches to perform antidoping activities, it is effective to provide them with opportunities to develop their knowledge of doping prevention in their areas.
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Standish, Amber R
Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors are common among adolescents and questions exist regarding their long-term effect on weight status. To examine 10-year longitudinal associations between dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. A diverse population-based sample of middle school and high school adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) was followed up for 10 years. Participants (N = 1,902) completed surveys in 1998-1999 (Project EAT-I), 2003-2004 (Project EAT-II), and 2008-2009 (Project EAT-III). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict 10-year changes in BMI at Time 3, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and Time 1 BMI. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 predicted greater BMI increases at Time 3 in males and females, as compared with no use of these behaviors. For example, females using unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 increased their BMI by 4.63 units as compared with 2.29 units in females not using these behaviors (p meals and reporting eating very little (females and males), use of food substitutes (males), and use of diet pills (females). Findings clearly indicate that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji
The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.
Waśniowska, Anna; Kopeć, Grzegorz; Podolec, Jakub; Kozela, Magdalena; Sarnecka, Agnieszka; Knap, Klaudia; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Podolec, Piotr
INTRODUCTION The current guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in clinical practice emphasizes the importance of education in the media for population-‑based approaches. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between knowledge of CVD risk factors and watching educational television materials in the adult population. PATIENTS AND METHODS After 22 months of repeated broadcasting of educational television materials, which addressed problems related to CVD, a postal survey was conducted on a random sample of 5000 persons aged 18 years or older. The questionnaire included information on demographics, personal and family history of CVD, educational materials, and knowledge of the risk factors. A multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the knowledge of each risk factor and watching educational materials. RESULTS A total of 1129 questionnaires were sent back and used for the analysis. There were 208 participants (18%) who watched the educational materials. The median number of the risk factors listed was 4 (interquartile range, 2-5) for persons who watched the materials and 2 (interquartile range, 0-4) for those who did not watch them. After adjustment for age, sex, education, place of residence, and personal and family history of CVD, the participants who watched the educational materials were 2 to 5 times more likely to have knowledge on particular risk factors, with the exception of hypercholesterolemia for which the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS A strong, plausible relationship revealed by our study supports the idea that in the adult population, better knowledge of CVD risk factors was the effect of watching educational materials.
Vahid Yazdi Feyzabadi
Full Text Available Background Well-informed interventions are needed if school-based health promotion is to be effective. Amongother aims, the Iranian Health Promoting School (IHPS program that was launched in 2011, has an important aimof promoting dietary behaviors of adolescents. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the factors affectingunhealthy snacking of adolescents and provide evidence for a more effective IHPS program. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, 1320 students from 40 schools in Kerman city were selected using aproportional stratified random sampling method. A modified qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ wasused to gather data about unhealthy snacking behavior. Data about intrapersonal and environmental factors wereobtained using a validated and reliable questionnaire. A mixed-effects negative-binomial regression model was usedto analyze the data. Results Taste and sensory perception (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.27, being a male (PRR = 1.20;95% CI: 1.05-1.38 and lower nutritional knowledge (PRR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99 were associated with higher weeklyunhealthy snaking. Perceived self-efficacy (PRR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-1.00 negatively influenced the frequency ofunhealthy snaking, with this approaching significance (P< .06. In case of environmental factors, high socio-economicstatus (SES level (PRR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.26-1.67, single-parent family (PRR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30, more socialnorms pressure (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17, pocket money allowance (PRR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.34, easyaccessibility (PRR = 1.06; 95% CI:1.01-1.11, and less perceived parental control (PRR= 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99 all hada role in higher consumption of unhealthy snacks. Interestingly, larger school size was associated with less unhealthysnacking (PRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92. Conclusion Unhealthy snacking behavior is influenced by individual, socio-cultural and physical-environmentalinfluences, namely by
Altenburg, Teatske M; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Bot, Sandra D; Nijpels, Giel; Chinapaw, Mai J M
Sedentary time has been identified as an important and independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adults. However, to date most studies have focused on TV time, few also included other sedentary behaviours such as computer use and reading, and most studies had a cross-sectional design. We aimed to examine the prospective relationship between time spent on sedentary behaviours in different domains with individual and clustered cardiometabolic risk in adults. Longitudinal data of 622 adults aged 30-50 years (42% males) at increased cardiometabolic risk were used. Leisure time TV viewing, computer use, reading and other sedentary activities (e.g. passive transport) were assessed using a subscale of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (AQuAA), and summed into overall sedentary behaviour (min/day). Weight and blood pressure were measured, waist-to-hip ratio and BMI calculated, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides determined. T2DM risk score was estimated according to the ARIC formula and CVD mortality risk according to the SCORE formula. Generalized Estimating Equation analysis demonstrated that over a two-year period higher levels of overall sedentary time and TV time were weakly but negatively associated with one out of 13 studied cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. HDL cholesterol). Overall sedentary time, as well as sedentary time in different domains, was virtually not related with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Background Sedentary time has been identified as an important and independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adults. However, to date most studies have focused on TV time, few also included other sedentary behaviours such as computer use and reading, and most studies had a cross-sectional design. We aimed to examine the prospective relationship between time spent on sedentary behaviours in different domains with individual and clustered cardiometabolic risk in adults. Methods Longitudinal data of 622 adults aged 30-50 years (42% males) at increased cardiometabolic risk were used. Leisure time TV viewing, computer use, reading and other sedentary activities (e.g. passive transport) were assessed using a subscale of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (AQuAA), and summed into overall sedentary behaviour (min/day). Weight and blood pressure were measured, waist-to-hip ratio and BMI calculated, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides determined. T2DM risk score was estimated according to the ARIC formula and CVD mortality risk according to the SCORE formula. Results Generalized Estimating Equation analysis demonstrated that over a two-year period higher levels of overall sedentary time and TV time were weakly but negatively associated with one out of 13 studied cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. HDL cholesterol). Conclusion Overall sedentary time, as well as sedentary time in different domains, was virtually not related with cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:25027974
Full Text Available Alexandra M Minnis,1,2 Irene A Doherty,1,3 Tracy L Kline,1 William A Zule,1 Bronwyn Myers,4,5 Tara Carney,4 Wendee M Wechsberg1,3,6,7 1RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, 5Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 6North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 7Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Background: Inequitable gender-based power in relationships and intimate partner violence contribute to persistently high rates of HIV infection among South African women. We examined the effects of two group-based HIV prevention interventions that engaged men and their female partners together in a couples intervention (Couples Health CoOp [CHC] and a gender-separate intervention (Men’s Health CoOp/Women’s Health CoOp [MHC/WHC] on women’s reports of power, communication, and conflict in relationships. Methods: The cluster-randomized field experiment included heterosexual couples from a high-density South African township in which neighborhoods were randomized to one of the intervention arms or a control arm that received the WHC only. Participants completed in-person study visits at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We examined group differences using one-way analysis of variance and multivariable regression models.Results: Of the 290 couples enrolled, 255 women remained in the same partnership over 6 months. Following the intervention, women in the CHC arm compared with those in the WHC arm were more likely to report an increase in relationship control (ß=0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.83, P=0.045 and gender norms supporting female autonomy in relationships (ß=0.99, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.91, P=0.035. Women in the MHC/WHC arm were more likely to report increases
Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas
Background Research on the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles has tended to focus mainly upon the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. This study investigated the relevance of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance for multiple unhealthy lifestyles. Method An unhealthy lifestyle index was constructed for 206,457 participants in the 45 and Up Study (2006–2009) by summing binary responses on smoking, alcohol, physical activity and five diet-related variables. Higher scores indicated the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles. Association with self-rated health, quality of life; and risk of psychological distress was investigated using multilevel logistic regression. Association between the unhealthy lifestyle index with neighborhood characteristics (local affluence and geographic remoteness) were assessed using multilevel linear regression, adjusting for individual-level characteristics. Results Nearly 50% of the sample reported 3 or 4 unhealthy lifestyles. Only 1.5% reported zero unhealthy lifestyles and 0.2% had all eight. Compared to people who scored zero, those who scored 8 (the ‘unhealthiest’ group) were 7 times more likely to rate their health as poor (95%CI 3.6, 13.7), 5 times more likely to report poor quality of life (95%CI 2.6, 10.1), and had a 2.6 times greater risk of psychological distress (95%CI 1.8, 3.7). Higher scores among men decreased with age, whereas a parabolic distribution was observed among women. Neighborhood affluence was independently associated with lower scores on the unhealthy lifestyle index. People on high incomes scored higher on the unhealthy lifestyle index if they were in poorer neighborhoods, while those on low incomes had fewer unhealthy lifestyles if living in more affluent areas. Interpretation Residents of deprived neighborhoods tend to report more unhealthy lifestyles than their peers in affluent areas, regardless of their individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Future
Prestwich, Andrew; Hurling, Robert; Baker, Stephen
Implicit attitudes, evaluations that can occur without effort, quickly and without conscious intent, have been shown to predict self-reported diets and objectively measured food choices within the laboratory. We present two studies which extend the literature by demonstrating that implicit attitudes predict objective purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods. Both Study 1 (N=40) and Study 2 (N=36) utilised an online shopping paradigm and concerned purchasing of fruit and chocolate. In both studies, implicit attitudes predicted purchases. Explicit attitudes towards buying or eating fruit versus chocolate did not predict purchase behaviour. These studies represent an original test of whether implicit attitudes predict healthy consumer behaviour, which involves participants paying for products. This research provides the strongest evidence yet that implicit attitudes play a role in predicting health food purchases. A comprehensive model of health behaviour should take into account the role of implicit attitudes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Schwartz, S; Susser, E
Studies comparing cases with controls to uncover the causes of psychiatric disorders are common in biological research. The validity of these studies depends upon adherence to the methodological principles underlying the case-control design. However, these principles are often violated. One common practice that violates these principles is the use of well controls. In this paper we describe the bias that it can cause and discuss why the use of well controls leads to invalidity in case-control studies. Using hypothetical numerical examples we illustrate the consequences of using well controls. The results illustrate that the use of well controls can cause substantial bias. In no instance does the use of well controls improve validity. We conclude that the use of well controls is an unhealthy practice in psychiatric research.
Lehnert, T; Riedel-Heller, S; König, H-H
Due to the substantial health burden and costs caused by malnutrition in Germany, for instance as a result of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, the taxation of unhealthy foods/nutrients has been proposed as a possible health promoting measure. In order to evaluate whether such a fiscal intervention constitutes an effective and suitable measure to promote population health in Germany, the article outlines central empirical findings regarding malnutrition in Germany. Subsequently, the economic background (price elasticity of demand) is explained, and empirical evidence on the influence of changes in price on changes in consumption and health is presented. As a result of findings from the international literature being heterogeneous, and because very little research has been conducted in Germany on this matter until now, the taxation/subsidization of foods in order to promote population health is difficult to justify at this point.
Winther, Robert; Aasbrenn, Martin; Farup, Per G.
.003), fat (p = 0.013), carbohydrates (p = 0.002), sugar (p = 0.003) and salt (p = 0.001); and with reduced intake of the vitamins A (p = 0.001), C (p = 0.002) and D (p = 0.016). Conclusions: The use of NNS-containing beverages was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle, reduced physical and mental health...... and unfavourable dietary habits with increased energy intake including sugar, and reduced intake of some vitamins....... intake of NNS was 3.3 units (range 0 - 43). Intake of NNS was not associated with BMI (p = 0.64). The intake of NNS was associated with reduced heavy physical activity (p = 0.011), fatigue (p reduced well-being (p = 0.046); with increased intake of total energy (p = 0...
Lind, Pernille L; Jensen, Pernille V; Glümer, Charlotte
stores (CS) and dietary quality within the Capital Region of Denmark. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of the geographic food environment in the Capital Region of Denmark based on 47 623 subjects (age 16+ years) with complete information on retail food environment and dietary quality. A categorization...... procedure to identify CS from a government list of inspected food stores (the Smiley register) was developed. Using GIS network analyses, density of CS within 0.25 km and 0.5 km network buffers from residency was calculated for participants in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, respectively....... Information on dietary intake and confounders is derived from a questionnaire survey. Multi-level analyses were performed, adjusting for age, sex, individual socio-economic factors and area socio-economic status. RESULTS: In the non-metropolitan population, the odds of having an unhealthy diet increased...
Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann
Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy...... to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around....... Results Comparing the 95% confidence envelopes to the observed K-function, we showed that food stores and fast food restaurants do not significantly cluster around schools. Apart from this result, the food retail index showed no effect on BMI (β=0.01,p=0.11) or food intake variables assessed by FFQ and 24...
Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04. The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006. In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index.
Tajik, Esra; Latiffah, Abd Latiff; Awang, Hamidin; Siti Nur'Asyura, Adznam; Chin, Yit Siew; Azrin Shah, Abu Bakar; Patricia Koh, Chai Hsia; Mohd Izudin Hariz, Che Ghazali
Missing main meals and an unhealthy snacking pattern can lead to poor diet quality and consequently to the presence of chronic diseases among which mental disorder is no exception. Since there is little research on diet, skipping meals and psychological status in Asian countries, this study tries to determine eating behaviour and predicting symptoms of stress and depression of adolescents in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Form 1 secondary school-going adolescents (n 1565, response rate: 90%) in southern Malaysia from April to May 2013. A self-administered structured and validated questionnaire (socio-demographic, eating behaviour questionnaire, and depression, anxiety and stress scales (DASS-21)) was used for data collection. Among respondents, 803 (51.3%) were female, 1125 were Malay (71.9%) with a mean age of 13.7 (SD=0.8) years. Logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were underweight (OR=3.07, 95% CI 1.21, 7.76), obese (OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.01, 6.87), used to eat out of home (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.28, 2.13), eat dinner (>4 days/week) (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.43) were more likely to have depression or stress symptoms. Moreover, participants with 4-7 days/week eating breakfast (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.21, 0.89) were less likely to be at mild/moderate stress. Findings underscore the effect of unhealthy eating practices among adolescents on mental health. Targeted education should be implemented to improve psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Bryan Y; Kobayashi, Leo; Pathania, Shivany; Miller, Courtney B; Locke, Emma R; Stearns, Branden C; Hudepohl, Nathan J; Patefield, Scott S; Suner, Selim; Williams, Kenneth A; Machan, Jason T; Jay, Gregory D
To measure unhealthy aerosol materials in an Emergency Department (ED) and identify their sources for mitigation efforts. Based on pilot findings of elevated ED particulate matter (PM) levels, investigators hypothesized that unhealthy aerosol materials derive from exogenous (vehicular) sources at ambulance receiving entrances. The Aerosol Environmental Toxicity in Healthcare-related Exposure and Risk program was conducted as an observational study. Calibrated sensors monitored PM and toxic gases at Ambulance Triage Exterior (ATE), Ambulance Triage Desk (ATD), and control Public Triage Desk (PTD) on a 3/3/3-day cycle. Cassette sampling characterized PM; meteorological and ambulance traffic data were logged. Descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses assessed for interactions between aerosol material levels, location, temporal variables, ambulance activity, and meteorological factors. Sensors acquired 93,682 PM0.3, 90,250 PM2.5, and 93,768 PM5 measurements over 366 days to generate a data set representing at least 85.6% of planned measurements. PM0.3, PM2.5, and PM5 mean counts were lowest in PTD; 56%, 224%, and 223% higher in ATD; and 996%, 200%, and 63% higher in ATE, respectively (all p < .001). Qualitative analyses showed similar PM compositions in ATD and ATE. On multiple linear regression analysis, PM0.3 counts correlated primarily with location; PM2.5 and PM5 counts correlated most strongly with location and ambulance presence. PM < 2.5 and toxic gas concentrations at ATD and PTD patient care areas did not exceed hazard levels; PM0.3 counts did not have formal safety thresholds for comparison. Higher levels of PM were linked with ED ambulance areas, although their health impact is unclear. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zhang, Donglan; van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Shi, Lu; Cole, Brian; Fielding, Jonathan
Studies have shown that immigrants' acculturation is associated with numerous unhealthy behaviours. Yet, the role of environmental factors in modifying the effect of acculturation on health behaviours has received little attention. This study aims to create a more nuanced understanding of the health effects of acculturation by examining how neighbourhood immigrant composition modifies the association between individuals' eating patterns and acculturation. Cross-sectional Data from Los Angeles County Health Survey 2007 adult sample were linked to data on retail food establishments and US Census 2000 neighbourhood characteristics. Acculturation was measured by language spoken at home and years stayed in the US. Eating fast food more than once per week and eating zero serving of fruit or vegetables during the previous day were used as proxy indicators for unhealthy dietary behaviour. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed in the full sample and in the sample with only Latino adults. Immigrants' lack of acculturation and living in a neighbourhood with a high percentage immigrants were associated with healthier dietary behaviour. We also identified that lack of acculturation conveyed a significantly stronger protective effect on regular fast-food consumption for immigrants living in neighbourhoods with higher percentage immigrants (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.93). Among immigrants in Los Angeles County, living in a neighbourhood with a high density of other immigrants attenuates the negative effects of acculturation on healthy eating behaviours. Healthy eating promotion efforts should build on this protective effect in outreach to acculturating immigrant communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Attwell, Katie; Smith, David T; Ward, Paul R
To address the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy and rejection, researchers increasingly recognise the need to engage with the social context of parents' decision-making. This study examines how vaccine rejecting parents socially construct the vaccinating mainstream in opposition to themselves. We analyse qualitative data from interviews with parents in Adelaide, South Australia. Applying insights from Social Identity Theory (SIT), we show how these parents bolster their own sense of identity and self-belief by employing a discourse that casts vaccinators as an Unhealthy Other. We demonstrate how the parents identify vaccination as a marker of parental conformity to the 'toxic practices of mass industrial society', linking it to other ways in which membership of the consumerist mainstream requires individuals to 'neglect their health.' This is explored through themes of appearance, diet, (over) consumption of pharmaceuticals, inadequate parenting values and wilful or misguided ignorance. This construction of the Unhealthy Other elevates the self-concept of vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents, who see themselves as part of an enlightened, but constantly besieged, group of healthy and virtuous parents. It is common for the vaccinating mainstream to present vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents as a group subject to epistemic closure, groupthink, confirmation bias and over-confidence in their own expertise. However, vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents also see mainstream society as a group-a much larger one-subject to the same problems. We suggest the need to mitigate the 'groupness' of vaccination and non-vaccination by extending the practice of vaccination to recognisable practitioners of holistic health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Weidong; Wang, Yongbo; Pedram, Pardis; Cahill, Farrell; Zhai, Guangju; Randell, Edward; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang
Metabolic abnormalities are more associated with central obesity than peripheral obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study was to identify serum metabolic biomarkers which distinguish metabolically unhealthy centrally obese (MUCO) from metabolically healthy peripherally obese (MHPO) individuals. A two-stage case-control study design was employed. In the discovery stage, 20 individuals (10 MHPO and 10 MUCO) were included and in the following validation stage, 79 individuals (20 normal weight (NW), 30 MHPO, 29 MUCO) were utilized. Study groups were matched for age, sex, physical activity and total dietary calorie intake with MHPO and MUCO additionally matched for BMI. Metabolic abnormality was defined as: 1) HOMA-IR > 4.27 (90(th) percentile), 2) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. MUCO individuals had all of these abnormalities whereas MHPO and NW individuals had none of them. A targeted metabolomics approach was performed on fasting serum samples, which can simultaneously identify and quantify 186 metabolites. In the discovery stage, serum leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine, alpha-aminoadipic acid, methioninesulfoxide and propionylcarnitine were found to be significantly higher in MUCO, compared with MHPO group after multiple testing adjustment. Significant changes of five metabolites (leucine, isoleucine, valine, alpha-aminoadipic acid, propionylcarnitine) were confirmed in the validation stage. Significantly higher levels of serum leucine, isoleucine, valine, alpha-aminoadipic acid, propionylcarnitine are characteristic of metabolically unhealthy centrally obese patients. The finding provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities in obesity.
Brooks, Ronald A; Kaplan, Rachel L; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews conducted with a multiracial/-ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV-serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, CA. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to identify major themes relating to future adoption of PrEP for HIV prevention. Motivators for adoption included protection against HIV infection, less concern and fear regarding HIV transmission, the opportunity to engage in unprotected sex, and endorsements of PrEP's effectiveness. Concerns and barriers to adoption included the cost of PrEP, short- and long-term side effects, adverse effects of intermittent use or discontinuing PrEP, and accessibility of PrEP. The findings suggest the need for a carefully planned implementation program along with educational and counseling interventions in the dissemination of an effective PrEP agent.
Lessons Learned in Evaluating a Multisite, Comprehensive Teen Dating Violence Prevention Strategy: Design and Challenges of the Evaluation of Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships.
Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Taylor, Bruce G; Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Valle, Linda Anne; Tharp, Andra T
This paper describes the multisite, longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design of the evaluation of the Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Relationships initiative, and discusses challenges faced in conducting this evaluation. Health departments in 4 communities are partnering with middle schools in high-risk, urban communities to implement 2 models of teen dating violence (TDV) prevention over 4 years. Schools were randomized to receive either the Dating Matters comprehensive strategy or the "standard of care" strategy (an existing, evidence-based TDV prevention curriculum). Our design permits comparison of the relative effectiveness of the comprehensive and standard of care strategies. Multiple cohorts of students from 46 middle schools are surveyed in middle school and high school, and parents and educators from participating schools are also surveyed. Challenges discussed in conducting a multisite RCT include site variability, separation of implementation and evaluation responsibilities, school retention, parent engagement in research activities, and working within the context of high-risk urban schools and communities. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approaches to these challenges in the hopes of informing future research. Despite multiple challenges, the design of the Dating Matters evaluation remains strong. We hope this paper provides researchers who are conducting complex evaluations of behavioral interventions with thoughtful discussion of the challenges we have faced and potential solutions to such challenges.
Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.
Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…
Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Welch, Carol A; Prochaska, Janice M; Paiva, Andrea L
Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices , a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition ( n =2,000) or a Comparison condition ( n =1,901). Emotional and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration were assessed at 6 and 12 months in the subset of participants (total n =2,605) who reported a past-year history of dating violence at baseline, and/or who dated during the study. The Teen Choices program was associated with significantly reduced odds of all four types of dating violence (adjusted ORs ranging from .45 to .63 at 12 months follow-up). For three of the four violence outcomes, participants with a past-year history of that type of violence benefited significantly more from the intervention than students without a past-year history. The Teen Choices program provides an effective and practicable strategy for intervention for teen dating violence prevention.
Kobayashi, Mamoru; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Ono, Aoi; Nakano, Yuki; Nishiyama, Akira; Tsujikawa, Akitaka
Excitotoxicity, which is due to glutamate-induced toxic effects on the retinal ganglion cell (RGC), is one of several mechanisms of RGC loss. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has also been implicated in RGC death. Therefore, it is important to determine the exact relationship between the RAAS and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated signal in order to prevent RGC death. N-methyl-d-aspartate or aldosterone was injected into the vitreous body. After intravitreal injection of NMDA or aldosterone, animals were treated with spironolactone or memantine. Retinal damage was evaluated by measuring the number of RGCs at 4 weeks after local administration of aldosterone or at 2 weeks after local administration of NMDA. Vitreous humor levels of aldosterone were measured using enzyme immunoassay kits. A significantly decreased number of RGCs were observed after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Although spironolactone did not show any neuroprotective effects, memantine significantly reduced NMDA-induced degeneration in the retina. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of RGCs was observed after an intravitreal injection of aldosterone. While memantine did not exhibit any neuroprotective effects, spironolactone caused a significant reduction in the aldosterone-induced degeneration in the retina. There was no change in the aldosterone concentration in the vitreous humor after an NMDA injection. Our findings indirectly show that there is no relationship between the RAAS and NMDA receptor-mediated signal with regard to RGC death.
Arbeit, Miriam R
Sexual violence continues to present a problem on college campuses nationwide and among members of the U.S. military. This study attended to patterns of response in how students (cadets) at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) discussed sexual and romantic relationships, both potential and actual, in order to examine how, if at all, they enact their sexuality-related values. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze semistructured interviews with three male and three female cadets from each of the 4 years of the undergraduate program, in which they are intended to become "leaders of character" who will serve as Army officers. Findings indicated limitations in cadets' access to developing and implementing sexuality-related skills within this context. Cadets' fear and distrust erected barriers to their pursuing their desires; the ways in which cadets avoided getting in trouble for sexual harassment or sexual assault shifted responsibility from a potential perpetrator onto a potential victim; and cadets were caught in dilemmas regarding romantic relationships as sources of both emotional support and social stigma. These findings have implications for promoting gender equity and for preventing sexual violence at this institution and at others like it, including both university campuses and other military settings.
Baumann, Michèle; Tchicaya, Anastase; Vanderpool, Kyle; Lorentz, Nathalie; Le Bihan, Etienne
Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions, but their respective influence remains unclear. Our aim is to analyze LS and its relationships with those factors. Among the 4,391 patients initially contacted, 547 deaths were reported and 209 had an invalid address. In 2013-2014, 3,635 patients who underwent coronary angiography in 2008-2009 at the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention (INCCI) in Luxembourg were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing LS [1-10] and other variables. Data were analysed via multiple regression models adjusted initially on age, sex and income, and for a second time with the addition of all CVRF. LS of 1,289 volunteers (69.2 years) was 7.3/10. Most were men, Luxembourgish, employees and manual workers, had secondary education and an income of 36,000 euros or more per year. LS was lowest in female patients, and those with a low to middle income. Patients who lived in a couple had the best LS. Patients with a history in the previous 5 years of physical inactivity (regression coefficient: -0.903), angina pectoris (rc -0.843), obesity (rc -0.512), diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, were more likely to have lower LS. The previous associations were mostly maintained on the second analysis, with the exceptions of diabetes and obesity. In addition, patients who stopped smoking because of peer pressure (rc -0.011) had a lower LS. The finding that LS was lowest among female patients calls for further research on symptoms, and potential risk factors. Also, certain patient profiles are linked with low LS: 'inclined abstainers' who intended to modify their behaviours, but could not do so, and 'disinclined abstainers' who had no intention of changing and were insufficiently concerned to do so. Patients who stopped smoking and perceived it as
Sirri, Laura; Ricci Garotti, Maria Grazia; Grandi, Silvana; Tossani, Eliana
There is little previous literature on hypochondriacal attitudes in teens. We examined the relationship between adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, demographic features, psychological distress and well-being, and health-related behaviors. Nine hundred and forty-eight students (53.4% males), aged 14-19years (mean 15.8±1.3years), completed the Illness Attitude Scales, the Symptom Questionnaire, and the Psychological Well-Being scales. Demographic features and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit substance use, and sedentary, eating and sleep habits) were also collected. Hypochondriacal concerns were significantly higher among females and correlated with increased psychological distress and reduced well-being. One hundred and forty-nine participants (15.7% of the sample) reached the threshold of the "hypochondriacal responses", identified by Kellner as a screening method for clinically significant hypochondriacal symptoms. The "hypochondriacal responses" were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress, decreased well-being, and some unhealthy behaviors: smoking, use of illicit substances, physical inactivity, and short sleep. Female gender, physical inactivity, and higher levels of hostility independently predicted the "hypochondriacal responses" pattern. A substantial percentage of adolescents experience significant concerns about health. Excessive illness fears are associated with less healthy behaviors. A thorough assessment of illness-related concerns may be crucial for the prevention of both the development of more structured forms of abnormal illness behavior (e.g., severe health anxiety) and the engagement in some unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. However, it may also be that unhealthy behaviors lead to increased preoccupation with one's own health through adolescents' implicit knowledge about possible consequences of such behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Talati, Zenobia; Pettigrew, Simone; Dixon, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Ball, Kylie; Hughes, Clare
Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts) that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim) and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), and the Health Star Rating (HSR)). Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc.) and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce a positivity bias, while FoPLs did, with the DIG being the most likely to elicit this bias. The HSR most frequently led to lower ratings of unhealthy foods than the DIG and MTL, suggesting that this FoPL has the lowest risk of creating an inaccurate positivity bias in unhealthy foods.
Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael
Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…
Full Text Available Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, and the Health Star Rating (HSR. Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc. and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce a positivity bias, while FoPLs did, with the DIG being the most likely to elicit this bias. The HSR most frequently led to lower ratings of unhealthy foods than the DIG and MTL, suggesting that this FoPL has the lowest risk of creating an inaccurate positivity bias in unhealthy foods.
Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta
The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers' meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change.
Mozzillo, Enza; Zito, Eugenio; Maffeis, Claudio; De Nitto, Elena; Maltoni, Giulio; Marigliano, Marco; Zucchini, Stefano; Franzese, Adriana; Valerio, Giuliana
Management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) influences several aspects of life, such as adherence to healthy lifestyle habits and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our aim was to evaluate the association between unhealthy lifestyle habits and HRQoL in adolescents and young adults with T1DM. Two hundred and forty-two Caucasian patients (13-19 years) consecutively enrolled over a 12-month period in three Regional Pediatric Diabetes Centers in Italy. Demographics, clinical, and laboratory parameters, adherence to lifestyle habits (Mediterranean Diet assessed by KIDMED, Physical Activity levels and sedentary behavior by questionnaire) considered either separately or in cluster, and HRQoL by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes Module (PedsQL 3.0 DM) were collected. Metabolic control was determined by HbA1c mean of previous year. Only 15 (6.2%) patients fulfilled the cluster of three healthy lifestyle habits without gender differences (p = 0.353); 62 (25.6%) had 1 unhealthy lifestyle habit, and 165 (68.2%) had ≥2. Adolescents meeting physical activity recommendations had better PedsQL scores than those who did not meet. PedsQL total score and specific sub-scales decreased in patients with unhealthy lifestyle habits. High PedsQL was significantly associated with being male, living in South Italy, having lower HbA1c mean levels, and reporting lower adherence to unhealthy lifestyle habits. The clustering of unhealthy lifestyle habits is associated with reduced HRQoL in adolescents and young adults with T1DM. Promoting multiple behavior changes may be a useful approach to improve the health status and the HRQoL in youths with T1DM.
Azeredo, Catarina Machado; de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Canella, Daniela Silva; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; França-Junior, Ivan; Kinra, Sanjay; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Levy, Renata Bertazzi
Evidence of the influence of the school food environment on adolescent diet is still little explored in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to evaluate the association between food environment in schools and the immediate vicinity and the regular consumption of unhealthy food among adolescents. We used cross-sectional data collected by the Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) from a representative sample of adolescents attending 9th grade public and private schools in Brazil, in 2012. We estimated students' regular consumption (>5days/week) of unhealthy food (soft drinks, bagged salty snacks, deep fried salty snacks and sweets) and school availability, in the cafeteria or an alternative outlet, of the same food plus some healthy options (fruit and natural fruit juice). We performed multilevel logistic regression models. Having a cafeteria inside school selling soft drinks (private schools OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.14-1.33; public schools OR=1.13; 95% CI=1.06-1.20) and deep fried salty snacks (private schools OR=1.41 95% CI=1.26-1.57; public schools OR=1.16 95% CI=1.08-1.24) was associated with a higher consumption of these unhealthy foods of among students. In private schools, cafeteria selling fruit and natural fruit juice was associated with lower student consumption of bagged salty snacks (OR=0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.96) and soft drinks (OR=0.85; 95% CI=0.76-0.94). In addition, eating meals from the Brazilian School Food Program in public schools was associated with a lower consumption of unhealthy foods. Foods available in the school food environment are associated with the consumption of unhealthy food among adolescents in Brazil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Noetel, Melissa; Dawson, Lisa; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen
This study aimed to explore and synthesize expert clinical knowledge on defining and managing unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. The Delphi methodology was used. Clinicians (n = 25) considered experts in the treatment of AN in adolescents were recruited internationally to form the panel. The first round of the questionnaires was comprised of five open-ended questions regarding defining, assessing, and treating unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. Statements were derived from this data using content analysis, and included as Likert-based items in two subsequent rounds, in which panellists were required to rate their level of agreement for each item. All 25 respondents completed the three rounds of questionnaires. Consensus was achieved for 59.0% of the items included in the second and third round of questionnaires. Although consensus was not achieved, compulsive exercise was the preferred term for the panel when referring to unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. The panel clearly delineated features of unhealthy and healthy exercise, and endorsed a number of items considered important to assess for when evaluating exercise in this clinical population. A variety of treatment approaches and strategies reached consensus. Notably, for those who are medically stable and progressing toward recovery, the panel recommended initial exercise restriction practices and reintroducing healthy exercise behaviors, rather than exercise cessation practices. The current findings can serve as preliminary treatment guidelines. A unified approach to labeling and defining unhealthy exercise in the eating disorder literature and clinical settings is required to achieve further progress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Caroli, M; Argentieri, L; Cardone, M; Masi, A
To assess the role of television as tool for childhood obesity prevention. Review of the available literature about the relationship between television and childhood obesity, eating habits and body shape perception. The reviewed studies showed the following: television watching replaces more vigorous activities; there is a positive correlation between time spent watching television and being overweight or obese on populations of different age; obesity prevalence has increased as well as the number of hours that TV networks dedicate to children; during the last 30 y, the rate of children watching television for more than 4 h per day seems to have increased; children are exposed to a large number of important unhealthy stimulations in terms of food intake when watching television; over the last few years, the number of television food commercials targeting children have increased especially when it comes to junk food in all of its forms; the present use of food in movies, shows and cartoons may lead to a misconception of the notion of healthy nutrition and stimulate an excessive intake of poor nutritional food; and obese subjects shown in television programmes are in a much lower percentage than in real life and are depicted as being unattractive, unsuccessful and ridiculous or with other negative traits and this is likely to result in a worsening of the isolation in which obese subjects are often forced. The different European countries have different TV legislations. The usual depiction of food and obesity in television has many documented negative consequences on food habits and patterns. The different national regulations on programs and advertising directed to children could have a role in the different prevalence of childhood obesity in different European countries. Television could be a convenient tool to spread correct information on good nutrition and obesity prevention.
Relationship between Risk Factor Control and Compliance with a Lifestyle Modification Program in the Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.
Turan, Tanya N; Al Kasab, Sami; Nizam, Azhar; Lynn, Michael J; Harrell, Jamie; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Janis, L Scott; Lane, Bethany F; Montgomery, Jean; Chimowitz, Marc I
Lifestyle modification programs have improved the achievement of risk factor targets in a variety of clinical settings, including patients who have previously suffered a stroke or transient ischemic attack and those with multiple risk factors. Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) was the first vascular disease prevention trial to provide a commercially available lifestyle modification program to enhance risk factor control. We sought to determine the relationship between compliance with this program and risk factor control in SAMMPRIS. SAMMPRIS aggressive medical management included a telephonic lifestyle modification program provided free of charge to all subjects (n = 451) during their participation in the study. Subjects with fewer than 3 expected lifestyle-coaching calls were excluded from these analyses. Compliant subjects (n = 201) had greater than or equal to 78.5% of calls (median % of completed/expected calls). Noncompliant subjects (n = 200) had less than 78.5% of calls or refused to participate. Mean risk factor values or % in-target for each risk factor was compared between compliant versus noncompliant subjects, using t tests and chi-square tests. Risk factor changes from baseline to follow-up were compared between the groups to account for baseline differences. Compliant subjects had better risk factor control throughout follow-up for low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure (SBP), hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c), non-high-density lipoprotein, nonsmoking, and exercise than noncompliant subjects, but there was no difference for body mass index. After adjusting for baseline differences between the groups, compliant subjects had a greater change from baseline than noncompliant subjects for SBP did at 24 months and HgA1c at 6 months. SAMMPRIS subjects who were compliant with the lifestyle modification program had better risk factor control during the study for almost
Abdel-Megeid, Fadia Y; Abdelkarem, Hala M; El-Fetouh, Aisha M
To evaluate the relationship between the nutritional habits of university students with health parameters related to cardiovascular risk. Three hundred and twelve students (180 females and 132 males; mean age 21.1 +/- 2.8 years) attending King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA were randomly selected from the university register and invited to participate in the study during 2008-2009. Students who consented to participate completed a self-reported questionnaire including: nutritional screen, health habits, and lifestyle practice. Daily food consumption was recorded, and nutritional analysis was performed. Blood pressure (BP) was also measured. A quarter of students was found to be overweight (21%) or obese (6.5%). The percentage of overweight and obese male students was 23% and 7% compared with female students who were 19% overweight and 6% obese. There was a positive correlation between fat consumption and BMI as well as BP in both genders, between economical status and BMI (p=0.05), and between salty food and BP (p=0.05). There was a negative correlation between consumption of fiber, grains, vegetables, fruits, beans, and BMI as well as BP in both genders (p=0.05). Our findings suggest that lifestyle modification is important especially in young age groups. The preventive interventions should focus not only on obesity, but also on related diseases. There is a need for strategies and coordinated efforts to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity among college students.
Varanda, Jorge; Cleveland, Todd
The Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, or Diamang, mined for diamonds in colonial Angola from 1917 until independence in 1975. The enterprise's Health Services Division (SSD) was responsible for supplying mine managers with an African labour force comprised of healthy, and therefore productive, employees. In practice, though, this otherwise 'healthy' system did not always work. While SSD personnel attempted to fulfil their charge by implementing a series of screening measures, production targets and a scarcely-populated regional labour pool regularly prompted senior officials to compel the SSD to clear recruits who were otherwise unfit for mine service. Drawing upon interviews with former SSD staff and African labourers, as well as company and colonial archival sources, this article focuses on the interplay over time between the SSD, the company's production demands and these labourers.
Vilaro, M J; Barnett, T E; Watson, A M; Merten, J W; Mathews, A E
In 2006, food industry self-regulatory efforts aimed to balance the mix of food advertisements to limit children's exposure to unhealthy food products. An update to these efforts proposed to eliminate all unhealthy advertisements during peak child viewing times and implement uniform nutrition criteria by December, 2013. Marketing techniques are not currently addressed in self-regulatory efforts. The food industry's pledge prompted researchers to conduct a content analysis to assess nutritional quality and presence of persuasive marketing techniques in child-directed food and beverage advertisements. Content analysis. 32 h of children's television programming were recorded in February, 2013. Three independent coders assessed the nutritional content of food and beverage advertisements using the UK Nutrition Profiling System and assessed presence of persuasive techniques (PTs) using a rating form developed for this study. Overall, 13.75% of advertisements promoted a food or beverage product. Most food advertisements, 54.6%, represented unhealthy products and 95.48% of food advertisements contained at least one PT. The number of PTs was not significantly different for healthy (M = 4.98, SD = 2.07) and unhealthy food advertisements (M = 4.66, SD = 1.82) however food advertisements aimed at children used significantly more PTs (M = 5.5, SD = 1.43) than those targeting adults (M = 1.52, SD = 1.54), t (153) = 11.738, P < 0.0001. Saturday morning children's programming showed significantly fewer food advertisements compared to weekday morning children's programming. While a majority of food-related advertisements represented unhealthy items, advertisements airing during Saturday morning programming featured fewer food advertisements overall and were more frequently for healthier items compared to weekdays. Industry self-regulation may not be effective for reducing overall unhealthy ad exposure but may play a role in reduced exposure on weekends. Despite
This paper shows how two publicly available epidemiological modelling packages, namely the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model and the ASSA2003 AIDS and Demographic Model, predict very different impacts from rolling out highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on new HIV infections. Using South Africa as a case study, it shows that the ASSA2003 model predicts a significant drop in new HIV infections as HAART is rolled out, whereas the Spectrum model assumes that HAART does not have a preventative impact (and in fact generates a small increase in new HIV infections). Users will thus draw different conclusions about the public health benefits of HAART depending on which modelling package they use. Despite being presented as a policy-oriented modelling tool capable of exploring 'what if' questions about the impact of different policy choices, the Spectrum model is illequipped to do so with regard to a HAART rollout. Unlike Spectrum, ASSA2003 is more flexible and its assumptions are clear. Better modelling and more information (including about the relationship between HAART and sexual risk behaviour) is required to develop appropriate public-policy modelling for the HAART era.
Harris, J L; Haraghey, K S; Lodolce, M; Semenza, N L
Food companies often use healthy lifestyle messages in child-directed advertising, raising public health concerns about health halo effects for nutrient-poor food/drinks. Examine effects of health messages promoting nutrient-poor foods in child-directed advertising. Randomized controlled experiment (N = 138). Children (7-11 years) viewed three child-friendly commercials in one of three conditions: (1) health halo (unfamiliar nutrient-poor food/drink ads with healthy messages); (2) nutrient-poor food/drink ads with other messages and (3) healthy food/drink ads. They rated the commercials and advertised products, provided attitudes about exercise and nutrition and consumed and rated healthy and unhealthy snack foods. Children in the health halo condition rated the advertised nutrient-poor products as significantly healthier compared with children in other conditions (p = .003), but the other commercials did not affect children's attitudes about other advertised products (p's > .50). Child age, gender or TV viewing habits did not significantly predict their ratings (p's > .18). There was no evidence that healthy lifestyle messages and/or healthy food commercials improved children's attitudes about nutrition, exercise or healthy snack consumption. Promoting healthy lifestyle messages in child-directed commercials for nutrient-poor food/drinks likely benefits brands by increasing products' perceived healthfulness, but these ads are unlikely to positively affect children's attitudes about health and nutrition. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Jenkin, Gabrielle; Wilson, Nick; Hermanson, Nicole
To evaluate the feasibility of the UK Nutrient Profile (NP) model for identifying 'unhealthy' food advertisements using a case study of New Zealand television advertisements. Four weeks of weekday television from 15.30 hours to 18.30 hours was videotaped from a state-owned (free-to-air) television channel popular with children. Food advertisements were identified and their nutritional information collected in accordance with the requirements of the NP model. Nutrient information was obtained from a variety of sources including food labels, company websites and a national nutritional database. From the 60 h sample of weekday afternoon television, there were 1893 advertisements, of which 483 were for food products or retailers. After applying the NP model, 66 % of these were classified as advertising high-fat, high-salt and high-sugar (HFSS) foods; 28 % were classified as advertising non-HFSS foods; and the remaining 2 % were unclassifiable. More than half (53 %) of the HFSS food advertisements were for 'mixed meal' items promoted by major fast-food franchises. The advertising of non-HFSS food was sparse, covering a narrow range of food groups, with no advertisements for fresh fruit or vegetables. Despite the NP model having some design limitations in classifying real-world televised food advertisements, it was easily applied to this sample and could clearly identify HFSS products. Policy makers who do not wish to completely restrict food advertising to children outright should consider using this NP model for regulating food advertising.
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents. Data on BMI, BWP, UWCBs, and suicidal ideation were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, a school-based survey conducted on a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12 (36,463 boys and 33,433 girls). Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. BMI was significantly associated with both UWCB and suicidal ideation among boys and girls, even after controlling for covariates. However, the significance and magnitude of the association between BMI and UWCB were considerably attenuated when BWP was added to the model. When BWP was included, the association between overweight BMI status and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant in both sexes, whereas the association between underweight BMI status and suicidal ideation remained significant among boys. Adolescent boys and girls engaging in multiple UWCBs were at greater risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts. This study suggests that BWP represents a potential mediator between BMI and UWCB, and between BMI and suicidal ideation among both boys and girls. Thus, school programs addressing issues related to BWP should be developed and targeted at adolescents to reduce the potential risks for both UWCB and suicidal behavior.
Full Text Available Food deserts—areas with a significant low-income population experiencing low accessibility to healthy food sources—have been well studied in terms of their connection to obesity and its related health outcomes. Measuring food accessibility is the key component in food desert research. However, previous studies often measured food accessibility based on large geographic units (e.g. census tract, zip code with few transportation modes (e.g. driving or taking public transit and limited vulnerable population measures. This paper aims to demonstrate a new method to measure food access for different vulnerable population groups at a smaller geographic scale with different transportation modes. In detail, this paper improves on previous studies from the following three perspectives: (1 Measuring food accessibility with a smaller geographic scale: block group vs. census track which on average includes 1000 people vs. 4000 people; (2 Measuring food accessibility with different transportation modes: walking, biking, transit, and driving vs. driving only; and (3 Measuring food accessibility for different vulnerable population groups. The proposed method was tested in the city of Austin, which is the capital of Texas and the 11th largest city in the US, and measured people’s accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food sources within the city. The methods can be applied to address food accessibility issues in other cities or regions.
Luedicke, Joerg; Dorsey, Marice; Fiore, Susan S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.
Objectives. We analyzed the impact of Connecticut legislation incentivizing voluntary school district–level elimination of unhealthy competitive foods on National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation. Methods. We analyzed data on free, reduced, and paid participation in the NSLP from 904 schools within 154 Connecticut school districts from the 2004–2005 to the 2009–2010 school year, resulting in 5064 observations of annual school-level meal participation. We used multilevel regression modeling techniques to estimate the impact of the state competitive food legislation on the count of NSLP lunches served per student in each school. Results. Overall, the state statute was associated with an increase in school lunch participation. We observed increases between 7% and 23% for middle- and high-school meal programs, and a slight decrease of 2.5% for the elementary school free meal eligibility category, leading to an estimated revenue increase of roughly $30 000 for an average school district per school year. Conclusions. This study provides support for national implementation of proposed rigorous competitive food standards that can improve the health of students while supporting local school district finances. PMID:23678930
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sagar, Karuna; Kelly, Bridget; Swinburn, Boyd
To assess the extent and nature of unhealthy food marketing to New Zealand children and adolescents through the internet. Internet traffic data for January 2014 was purchased from AC Nielsen to identify the most popular websites (n=110) among children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. In addition, websites (n=70) of food and beverage brands most frequently marketed to children through television, sports, magazines and Facebook were included. Marketing techniques and features on those websites were analysed. The extent of food marketing on popular non-food websites was low. A wide range of marketing techniques and features was, however, identified on food brand websites, including advercation (87%), viral marketing (64%), cookies (54%), free downloadable items (43%), promotional characters (39%), designated children's sections (19%) and advergaming (13%). Most techniques appeared more frequently on websites specifically targeting children and adolescents, than on other websites targeting the general public. Compared to traditional media, the internet allows food marketers to use engaging techniques to directly interact with children. While the range of marketing techniques and features identified on food brand websites was extensive, the most popular websites among children and adolescents were non-food related, and the extent of food marketing on those websites was found to be low. Additional assessment of food marketing to children through social and other digital media is recommended.
Crovetto, Mirta; Valladares, Macarena; Espinoza, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Oñate, Gloria; Fernandez, Macarena; Durán-Agüero, Samuel
Our aim was to characterize and compare eating patterns of university students in Chile, by sex and body weight, body mass index, and nutritional status. This was a cross-sectional study. University students (n = 1454) of Chile were evaluated. A self-assessment survey was used to evaluate healthy eating habits using a questionnaire with values between 1 (do not consume) and 5 (consume) for a total of 9 to 45 points (higher values represent better eating habits). Unhealthy habits were assessed with six questions, including consumption of sugary soft drinks, alcohol, fried foods, fast food, and snacks and adding salt to foods without tasting first. Obese students had a lower consumption of healthy foods (P food consumption (P consumption of ≥2 servings of vegetables (OR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.4-0.7). Risk factors included consumption (more than 1 cup a day) of sugary soft drinks (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.1) and male sex (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.4). The consumption of vegetables and belonging to an undergraduate program in health sciences at a university contributed to protection against for obesity. On the other hand, male sex and consumption of sugary drinks were found to be risk factors for obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gillebaart, Marleen; Schneider, Iris K; De Ridder, Denise T D
Self-control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, self-control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self-control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self-control success. Trait self-control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; M age = 33.03; 59 females, 83 males, 4 unknown). The response conflict process was assessed in Study 2 (N = 118; M age = 21.45; 68 females, 41 males, 9 unknown). Outcomes showed that self-reported evaluative response conflict about food items was smaller for people high in trait self-control. Study 2 revealed that higher trait self-control predicted faster resolution of self-control conflict, and an earlier peak of the response conflict. Taken together, these results provide insight into what makes people with high trait self-control successful, namely, how they handle response conflict. Implications for self-control theories and future directions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miqueleiz, Estrella; Lostao, Lourdes; Ortega, Paloma; Santos, Juana M; Astasio, Paloma; Regidor, Enrique
To investigate the possible association of dietary patterns associated with obesity and socioeconomic status in Spanish children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study. Data were drawn from the 2007 National Health Survey, conducted on a representative sample of Spanish 0-15 years. In this study we have analyzed 6143 subjects from 5 to 15 years. It has been estimated prevalence of breakfast skipping, the prevalence of low consumption of fruit and vegetable and the prevalence of high fast food, snacks and sugary drinks consumption. Socioeconomic status indicators were educational level and social class of primary household earner. In each type of food consumption socioeconomic differences were estimated by prevalence ratio using the higher socioeconomic status as reference category. Both in childhood and adolescence, the magnitude of the prevalence ratio shows an inverse socioeconomic gradient in all foods consumption investigated: the lowest and highest prevalence ratios have been observed in subjects from families of higher socioeconomic status and lower, respectively. Unhealthy food related with obesity show a clear socioeconomic pattern in Spanish children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Food deserts-areas with a significant low-income population experiencing low accessibility to healthy food sources-have been well studied in terms of their connection to obesity and its related health outcomes. Measuring food accessibility is the key component in food desert research. However, previous studies often measured food accessibility based on large geographic units (e.g. census tract, zip code) with few transportation modes (e.g. driving or taking public transit) and limited vulnerable population measures. This paper aims to demonstrate a new method to measure food access for different vulnerable population groups at a smaller geographic scale with different transportation modes. In detail, this paper improves on previous studies from the following three perspectives: (1) Measuring food accessibility with a smaller geographic scale: block group vs. census track which on average includes 1000 people vs. 4000 people; (2) Measuring food accessibility with different transportation modes: walking, biking, transit, and driving vs. driving only; and (3) Measuring food accessibility for different vulnerable population groups. The proposed method was tested in the city of Austin, which is the capital of Texas and the 11th largest city in the US, and measured people's accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food sources within the city. The methods can be applied to address food accessibility issues in other cities or regions.
Nichols, S D; Dookeran, S S; Ragbir, K K; Dalrymple, N
In this study, we sought to determine whether dissatisfaction with one's body was associated with unhealthy behaviours among University students. A cross-section of 383 male and female students recruited from the general University population completed a questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic items, Eating Attitudes Test (EATS-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-16), Body Silhouette Chart, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CES-D). Overall, 4.2% of participants reported to have been diagnosed with an eating problem. Females had significantly higher EATS-26, BSQ-1 6 and RSE scores than males. They were significantly more likely than males to choose silhouettes that were underweight to represent their current or desired body sizes and to engage in dieting behaviours. Additionally, persons who reported being diagnosed with an eating disorder were significantly more likely than those not diagnosed to report binging, bulimic and other eating-related behaviours (p < 0.01). For both males and females, perceived body image was significantly and positively associated with BSQ-16, EATS-26, and CES-D and inversely associated with RSE scores. Females of African-descent were significantly more likely than those of East Indian descent and other ethnic groups to report higher weights and to select larger silhouettes to represent their current body figure. Among participants, body dissatisfaction was associated with increased risk for depression, lower self-esteem, disordered eating and other weight related behaviours.
Ricardo Guimarães de Paula
Full Text Available Abstract In the typical activities of quarries, it is common for the employees to be exposed to diverse risk factors, pertaining to their health or physical integrity. This kind of exposition, in Brazil, entitles these employees to additional payments, defined in law from different technical parameters. The controversies concerning the payment of these premiums between the employers and the employees, like the other conflicts between capital and labor, are solved in Brazil by the Labor Courts, and the forensic expert survey is one of the main tools used by the judges. This study aimed to characterize the unhealthy or hazardous situations in quarries using the forensic expert survey, focusing on the concepts and the legal definitions of the unhealthy or hazardous situations in labor activities, as well as the main aspects of the expert evidence technique and the judicial proceeding. This analysis revealed that most of the functions in quarries mean exposure to hazards, requiring appropriate management
van Vliet, Jolanda S; Gustafsson, Per A; Nelson, Nina
Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence. For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC). Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (peating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (peating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.
Sally Dunlop; Becky Freeman; Sandra C. Jones
The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy ...
Amanda J. Lee
Full Text Available Abstract Background Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended and current (unhealthy diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. Results The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended diets, with the majority (53–64 % of the food budget being spent on ‘discretionary’ choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20–31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Conclusions Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.
Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Baur, Louise; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie
To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students and the association between their perceptions of availability, convenience and intake with consumption. Cross-sectional survey of students' eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours using validated instruments administered via an online questionnaire. Australian secondary schools across all states/territories. Secondary-school students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2009-10 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 12 188). Approximately one in five students (21 %) reported consuming unhealthy snack foods ≥14 times/week ('frequent snackers'). After adjusting for all covariates, older students and those with a BMI of ≥25 kg/m² were less likely to be frequent snackers, while students who reported high fast-food and high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and those who watched television for >2 h/d were more likely to snack frequently. Furthermore, after adjusting for all covariates and demographic factors, students who agreed that snack foods are usually available at home, convenient to buy and that they eat too many snack foods were more likely to be snacking frequently. Conversely, students who agreed that fruit is a convenient snack were less likely to be frequent snackers. Frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption appears to cluster with other poor health behaviours. Perceptions of availability and convenience are factors most readily amenable to change, and findings suggest interventions should focus on decreasing the availability of unhealthy snack foods in the home and promoting healthier options such as fruit as convenient snacks.
Lenk, Kathleen M; Caspi, Caitlin E; Harnack, Lisa; Laska, Melissa N
Small and non-traditional food stores (e.g., corner stores) are often the most accessible source of food for residents of lower income urban neighborhoods in the U.S. Although healthy options are often limited at these stores, little is known about customers who purchase healthy, versus less healthy, foods/beverages in these venues. We conducted 661 customer intercept interviews at 105 stores (corner stores, gas marts, pharmacies, dollar stores) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, assessing all food and beverage items purchased. We defined three categories of "healthy" and four categories of "unhealthy" purchases. Interviews assessed customer characteristics [e.g., demographics, body-mass index (BMI)]. We examined associations between healthy versus unhealthy purchases categories and customer characteristics. Overall, 11% of customers purchased ≥1 serving of healthy foods/beverages in one or more of the three categories: 8% purchased fruits/vegetables, 2% whole grains, and 1% non-/low-fat dairy. Seventy-one percent of customers purchased ≥1 serving of unhealthy foods/beverages in one or more of four categories: 46% purchased sugar-sweetened beverages, 17% savory snacks, 15% candy, and 13% sweet baked goods. Male (vs. female) customers, those with a lower education levels, and those who reported shopping at the store for convenience (vs. other reasons) were less likely to purchase fruits/vegetables. Unhealthy purchases were more common among customers with a BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 (vs. lower BMI). Results suggest intervention opportunities to increase healthy purchases at small and non-traditional food stores, particularly interventions aimed at male residents, those with lower education levels and residents living close to the store.
Lee, Amanda J; Kane, Sarah; Ramsey, Rebecca; Good, Elizabeth; Dick, Mathew
Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy) diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy) diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended) diets, with the majority (53-64 %) of the food budget being spent on 'discretionary' choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20-31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy) diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.
مریم جهان بخش; ابوالقاسم خوش کنش; محمود حیدری
The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive...
Brion, John M; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K; Sloane, Rick; Corless, Inge B; Lindgren, Teri G; Wantland, Dean J; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Nokes, Kathleen M; Kirksey, Kenn M; Eller, Lucille; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L; Portillo, Carmen J; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen; Willard, Suzanne
Unhealthy substance-use behaviors, including a heavy alcohol intake, illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage their disease-related symptoms. This study, based on data from a larger randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual, examines the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms. The mean age of the sample (n = 775) was 42.8 years and 38.5% of the sample was female. The mean number of years living with HIV was 9.1 years. The specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were the use of marijuana, cigarettes, a large amount of alcohol, and illicit drugs. A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance-use behaviors, including amphetamine and injection drug use, heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. The implications for clinical practice include the assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons regarding the self-management of HIV.
Full Text Available Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24 in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42, to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15 in the healthy supplier network (HSN and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41 in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN. Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001, and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001. Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001 fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.
Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y; Adam, Atif; Kharmats, Anna Y; Budd, Nadine; Nau, Claudia; Gittelsohn, Joel
Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24) in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA) and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42), to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15) in the healthy supplier network (HSN) and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41) in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN). Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores' HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.
Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y.; Adam, Atif; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Budd, Nadine; Nau, Claudia; Gittelsohn, Joel
Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24) in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA) and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42), to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15) in the healthy supplier network (HSN) and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41) in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN). Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider. PMID:26633434
Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Slagboom, Eline; Chen-An, Pingping; Alexandersen, Peter; Qvist, Per; Christiansen, Claus; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Karsdal, Morten A
Joint health is affected by local and systemic hormones. It is well accepted that systemic factors regulate the metabolism of joint tissues, and that substantial cross-talk between tissues actively contributes to homeostasis. In the current review, we try to define a subtype of osteoarthritis (OA), metabolic OA, which is dependent on an unhealthy phenotype. Peer-reviewed research articles and reviews were reviewed and summarized. Only literature readily available online, either by download or by purchase order, was included. OA is the most common joint disease and is more common in women after menopause. OA is a disease that affects the whole joint, including cartilage, subchondral bone, synovium, tendons, and muscles. The clinical endpoints of OA are pain and joint space narrowing, which is characterized by cartilage erosion and subchondral sclerosis, suggesting that cartilage is a central tissue of joint health. Thus, the joint, more specifically the cartilage, may be considered a target of endocrine function in addition to the well-described traditional risk factors of disease initiation and progression such as long-term loading of the joint due to obesity. Metabolic syndrome affects a range of tissues and may in part be molecularly described as a dysregulation of cytokines, adipokines, and hormones (e.g., estrogen and thyroid hormone). Consequently, metabolic imbalance may both directly and indirectly influence joint health and cartilage turnover, altering the progression of diseases such as OA. There is substantial evidence for a connection between metabolic health and development of OA. We propose that more focus be directed to understanding this connection to improve the management of menopausal health and associated comorbidities.
Park, Y-M; Steck, S E; Fung, T T; Zhang, J; Hazlett, L J; Han, K; Merchant, A T
The Mediterranean diet has been consistently associated with reduced mortality risk. Few prospective studies have examined whether the benefits from a Mediterranean diet are equally shared by obese individuals with varying metabolic health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Mediterranean diet, metabolic phenotypes and mortality risk in a representative obese US population. Data from 1739 adults aged 20-88 years were analyzed from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994 followed up for deaths until 31 December 2011 in a prospective cohort analysis. Mediterranean Diet Scores (MDS) were created to assess the adherence to Mediterranean diet. Participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype (0 or 1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) phenotype (two or more metabolic abnormalities), based on high glucose, insulin resistance, blood pressure, triglycerides, C-reactive protein and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The MHO phenotype (n=598) was observed in 34.8% (s.e., 1.7%) of those who were obese (mean body mass index was 33.4 and 34.8 in MHO and MUO phenotypes, respectively). During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, there were 77 (12.9%) and 309 (27.1%) deaths in MHO and MUO individuals, respectively. In MHO individuals, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality in the highest tertile compared with the first tertile of MDS was 0.44 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-0.75; P for trend Mediterranean dietary pattern appears to reduce mortality in the MHO phenotype, but not among the MUO phenotype in an obese population.
Hirschler, Valeria; Meroño, Tomas; Maccallini, Gustavo; Gomez Rosso, Leonardo; Aranda, Claudio; Brites, Fernando
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been proposed to be associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Increased CETP activity was previously reported in obese adults, although its association with lifestyle behaviors has not been assessed in healthy adolescents. We undertook this study to determine the association between CETP activity and overweight/obesity, insulin resistance markers, components of the metabolic syndrome and lifestyle behaviors in healthy adolescent males. Data were collected from 164 adolescents from an amateur rugby club. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), Tanner stages, lipids, glucose, insulin and CETP activity were measured. Questionnaires for daily intake of breakfast, sweet drinks, milk, and hours of TV watching were completed. About 26% of the adolescents were obese and 23% overweight. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.7%. CETP activity was higher in obese than in normal and overweight adolescents (174 ± 35, 141 ± 30, and 149 ± 38%/ml/min, respectively; p TV watching >2 h/day (r = 0.17; p 0.02), and milk intake >3 glasses/day (r = 0.16; p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, TV watching >2 h/day, milk intake >3 glasses/day and BMI were significant independent predictors for CETP (R(2) = 0.41). Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as TV watching >2 h daily and milk intake higher than three glasses per day and the increase in BMI were shown to be closely associated with high CETP activity in apparently healthy adolescent males. Future longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F
Implementation intentions promote acting on one's good intentions. But does specifying where and when to act also suffice when goals involve complex change that requires not merely initiating a behavior but rather substituting a habit with a new response? In a pilot study and two experiments, the authors investigated the efficacy of implementation intentions to replace unhealthy snacks with healthy snacks by linking different types of cues for unhealthy snacking (if-part) to healthy snacking (then-part). The pilot study identified cues for unhealthy snacking, differentiating between situational (where/when) and motivational (why) cues. Studies 1 and 2 tested the efficacy of implementation intentions that specified either situational or motivational cues in altering snacking habits. Results showed that implementation intentions specifying motivational cues decreased unhealthy snack consumption whereas the classic specification of where and when did not. Extending previous research, for complex behavior change "why" seems more important than "where and when."
Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Holm, Lotte
It has been suggested that optimistic self-assessments of unhealthy diets constitute a barrier to the promotion of healthier eating practices. In order to discuss possible reasons for such optimistic assessments, knowledge about the considerations underlying self-assessments of unhealthy diets...... emerge as decisive criteria in self-assessments. Those who experience problems in these areas tend to be realistic about the unhealthy character of their diets, while optimistic assessments appear to be linked to tendencies to perceive oneself as not being overweight, not having experienced weight gain...... or loss, or not being concerned about weight. This study concludes that decisive criteria in lay people's self-assessments of unhealthy diets – with regard to feeling and looking good – differ markedly from the criteria employed in food-based dietary guidelines. These broader criteria of assessment should...
Full Text Available The link between the use of ICT and QoL has only been recently theorized because ICT is not, per se, a correct and easy tool to improve elderly people’s QoL. We conducted a research consisting of two studies: the first one involved healthy and unhealthy seniors and the second one was a pilot study inspired by Action Research. We aimed to investigate whether elderly people’s QoL was influenced by higher beliefs, self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards ICT. Regarding the first study, most participants did not have any digital skills or only a very low level. Their perceived QoL was quite good. Their self-efficacy beliefs were very high. Their attitudes towards ICT were on the the mid-point scale. The QoL was affected by self-efficacy. In respect to the second study, data were collected before and after tests focused on improving the seniors’ digital skills. The post-training data were significantly more positive than pre-training. Self-efficacy was significantly higher after training, as was perceived QoL. The results provide evidence that seniors perceive their own lives as better than other age cohorts attribute to them. The quality of the relationship between seniors and trainers represents a main point that positively affects the QoL.
Stok, F Marijn; De Vet, Emely; Wardle, Jane; Chu, Maria T; De Wit, John; De Ridder, Denise T D
Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy snacking among adolescents. We also investigated whether self-regulatory competence could attenuate the negative effects of being sensitive to the food environment. A survey was completed by 11,392 European adolescents (10-17years old). The survey measured psychological sensitivity to the food environment, self-regulatory competence and self-reported unhealthy snack intake. Higher food environment sensitivity and lower self-regulatory competence were associated with more unhealthy snacking. The two factors also interacted, with self-regulatory competence attenuating the influence of high food environment sensitivity. Adolescents who are sensitive to the food environment reported higher unhealthy snack intake. More frequent use of self-regulation strategies on the other hand was associated with lower unhealthy snack intake. Moreover, self-regulatory competence was found to moderate the influence of psychological sensitivity to the food environment on unhealthy snacking, although the effect size was small. Fostering adolescents' self-regulatory competence can help enable them to better navigate the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Bellisario, Cristina; Di Stefano, Francesca; Segnan, Nereo
Background and aim: Unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking are key risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The screening procedure may represent an ideal setting for promoting healthy lifestyles as it represents a time when subjects are probably more inclined to consider a relationship between their own habits and their effects on health. The aim of this study is to review available evidence concerning interventions combining screening and primary prevention interventions, aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane library electronic databases for intervention studies of primary prevention interventions implemented in the context of established screening programmes, or of pilot screening projects, where the study design included a comparison group. Results: Comprehensive interventions are acceptable for asymptomatic subjects targeted for cancer screening, can result in improvements and may be cost–effective. A positive impact of these interventions in favoring the adoption of cancer protective dietary behaviors was observed in all studies. Conflicting results were instead reported with respect to physical activity, while no impact could be observed for interventions aimed to favor smoking cessation. Conclusions: The retrieved studies suggest that the screening setting may offer valuable opportunities to provide credible, potentially persuasive life style advice, reaching a wide audience. A multiple risk factor approach may maximize the benefit of behavioral change, as the same health related habits are associated not only with cancers targeted by screening interventions, but also with other cancers, coronary artery disease, and other chronic conditions, while unhealthy behaviors may be mutually reinforcing. In order to cover a maximum number of possibilities, health education programmes should include multiple strategies
Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
During adolescence, teenagers try a range of risk behaviors including smoking, drinking, and the use of soft drugs. Because substance use contributes to an unhealthy lifestyle of teenagers on the short term and can lead to serious health problems on the longer term, prevention in this target group is important. This chapter provides an overview of…
Sarah M Camhi
Full Text Available Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO. Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women.Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2. Time (mins/day in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time. Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data or logistic regression (categorical data after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate.Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9, MHO (n = 37; 80% spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02, more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02, and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03. MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day compared to MUO.Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed
Blüher, S; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Graf, C; Grünewald-Funk, D; Widhalm, K; Korsten-Reck, U; Markert, J; Güssfeld, C; Müller, M J; Moss, A; Wabitsch, M; Wiegand, S
Current guidelines for the prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence are presented. A literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, and appropriate studies were analysed. Programs to prevent childhood obesity were to date mainly school-based. Effects were limited to date. Analyses tailored to different age groups show that prevention programs have the best effects in younger children (adolescence, school-based interventions were most effective when adolescents were directly addressed. To date, obesity prevention programs have mainly focused on behavior oriented prevention. Recommendations for condition oriented prevention have been suggested by the German Alliance of Non-communicable Diseases and include one hour of physical activity at school, promotion of healthy food choices by taxing unhealthy foods, mandatory quality standards for meals at kindergarten and schools as well as a ban on unhealthy food advertisement addressing children. Behavior oriented prevention programs showed hardly any or only limited effects in the long term. Certain risk groups for the development of obesity are not reached effectively by available programs. Due to the heterogeneity of available studies, universally valid conclusions cannot be drawn. The combination with condition oriented prevention, which has to counteract on an obesogenic environment, is crucial for sustainable success of future obesity prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
health is a bedrock value of the SDA. God tells man in Genesis what to eat and the bible emphasizes a vegetarian diet , an example of a biblical health...nurses within the church to educate people away from unhealthy eating behaviors. There are plans to present health fairs along with the homecoming...do things in order to prevent disease such as maintain a healthy diet . Life style, temperance, nutrition, exercise, good water, sunshine. No access of
Hu, Sydney X; Luk, Andrew; Leong, Carmen; U, Cecilia; Van, Florence
The Macau economy and employment of residents rely heavily on the gaming industry. It is important that the working conditions in casinos are not harmful to the health of the casino employees. This study examines the correlations between work conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and occupational health problems amongst casino croupiers in Macau. Its findings will provide casino managers and policy makers with evidence and awareness of the workplace health risks for the casino workers. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 1,042 croupiers, which represents roughly 5 % of the croupier population in Macau. Work conditions were measured by worker satisfaction towards the biological, chemical and physical elements in their work environments. Unhealthy lifestyles were measured by practices of excessive drinking, smoking, electronic game playing and addictive substance use as well as gambling. Occupational health problems were measured by experiences of work related illnesses or symptoms. Results showed that high percentages of respondents were dissatisfied with the work conditions. On average each croupier experienced 10 work related health problems in the past 7 days. Over 5 % of the respondents drank more than three glasses of alcohol a day, 24 % smoked cigarettes, 12 % took addictive substances, 14 % gambled in the past 7 days. The analysis showed that dissatisfaction with work conditions did not correlate with unhealthy lifestyles but were strongly and significantly correlated with stress-related occupational health problems (R = 0.377-0.479, P occupational health problems (R = 0.348-0.461, P work conditions that can be hazardous to their health. The working conditions in casinos need to be regularly monitored and improvements such as occupational health training and enhanced health related policies can be introduced.
مریم جهان بخش
Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive and negative perfectionism scale and type A personality. The collected data was analyzed by statistical tests MANOVA and ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. Results indicated that healthy perfectionism in the authoritative parenting style is more and in negligent parenting style is lower than the other parenting styles. The unhealthy perfectionism of the boys was more than girls. The interactive effect of the two variables namely parenting styles and gender upon healthy perfectionism was significant. Healthy perfectionism in authoritative parenting style in girls was more than boys and in permissive parenting style healthy perfectionism in boys was more than girls. The general effect of parenting styles and general effect of gender in score of type A personality did not show significant difference; however, the interactive effect of parenting styles and gender upon type A personality was supported. Here in permissive parenting style the type A personality in boys is higher than girls and in authoritarian parenting style the type A personality in girls is higher than boys. Conclusion: Due to the crucial role of parents' parenting styles in creating healthy and unhealthy perfectionism and also due to interactive effect of parenting style and gender on the healthy perfectionism and type A personality, educating parents on parenting styles and also giving instruction to the families for raising healthy persons in the society is a high priority.
Zhou, Zhenghua; Diao, Qinqin; Shao, Nan; Liang, Youke; Lin, Li; Lei, Yan; Zheng, Lingmei
Objective To conduct an analysis of the frequency of unhealthy food advertising on mainland Chinese television (TV) and children and adolescents? risk of exposure to them. Methods The frequencies of all types of advertisements (ads) on forty TV channels in mainland China, the exact ad broadcast times, and the name and brand of all snacks and western fast foods advertised were recorded from 0800 hours to 2400 hours on both a weekday and a weekend day in a week. The difference in the frequencie...
van der Berg, Julianne D.; van der Kallen, Carla J. H.; Schram, Miranda T.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Henry, Ronald M. A.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Koster, Annemarie
Background Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although both frequently occur together in the same individual, obesity and the metabolic syndrome can also develop independently from each other. The (patho)physiology of “metabolically healthy obese” (i.e. obese without metabolic syndrome) and “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” phenotypes (i.e. non-obese with metabolic syndrome) is not fully understood, but physical activity and sedentary behavior may play a role. Objective To examine objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior across four groups: I) “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO); II) “metabolically unhealthy obese” (MUO); III)”metabolically healthy non-obese” (MHNO); and IV) “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” (MUNO). Methods Data were available from 2,449 men and women aged 40–75 years who participated in The Maastricht Study from 2010 to 2013. Participants were classified into the four groups according to obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome (ATPIII definition). Daily activity was measured for 7 days with the activPAL physical activity monitor and classified as time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. Results In our study population, 562 individuals were obese. 19.4% of the obese individuals and 72.7% of the non-obese individuals was metabolically healthy. After adjustments for age, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, waking time, T2DM, history of CVD and mobility limitation, MHO (n = 107) spent, per day, more time stepping (118.2 versus 105.2 min; psedentary (563.5 versus 593.0 min., p = 0.02) than MUO (n = 440). In parallel, MHNO (n = 1384) spent more time stepping (125.0 versus 115.4 min; psedentary (553.3 versus 576.6 min., psedentary and more physically active than the metabolically unhealthy groups. Therefore, physical activity and sedentary time may partly explain the presence of the metabolic
David M. Kern
Full Text Available It is known that the price of food influences the purchasing and consumption decisions of individuals; however, little work has examined if the price of healthier food relative to unhealthier food in an individual’s neighborhood is associated with overall dietary quality while using data from multiple regions in the United States. Cross-sectional person-level data came from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (exam 5, 2010–2012, n = 2765; a food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Supermarket food/beverage prices came from Information Resources Inc. (n = 794 supermarkets. For each individual, the average price of select indicators of healthier foods (vegetables, fruits, dairy and unhealthier foods (soda, sweets, salty snacks, as well as their ratio, was computed for supermarkets within three miles of the person’s residential address. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios of a high-quality diet (top quintile of Healthy Eating Index 2010 associated with healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio, adjusted for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses used an instrumental variable (IV approach. Healthier foods cost nearly twice as much as unhealthier foods per serving on average (mean healthy-to-unhealthy ratio = 1.97 [SD 0.14]. A larger healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio was associated with lower odds of a high-quality diet (OR = 0.76 per SD increase in the ratio, 95% CI = [0.64–0.9]. IV analyses largely confirmed these findings although—as expected with IV adjustment—confidence intervals were wide (OR = 0.82 [0.57–1.19]. Policies to address the large price differences between healthier and unhealthy foods may help improve diet quality in the United States.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A
Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trendnetworks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight.
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
To determine parents' and children's attitudes towards food, beverage and alcohol sponsorship of elite and children's sports and the acceptability of policies and alternative funding models to limit this sponsorship. Telephone surveys were conducted with parents in February-May 2011. One child from each household was invited to complete an online survey. Surveys assessed parents' perceptions about the influence of sponsorship on children and support for limiting sponsorship, and children's awareness of and attitudes towards sponsors. Randomly sampled households in New South Wales, Australia. Parents (n 825) and children aged 10–16 years (n = 243). Three-quarters of parents supported the introduction of policies to restrict unhealthy food, beverage and alcohol sponsorship of children's and elite sports. More parents (81 %) supported the introduction of alternative funding models to allow these companies to sponsor sport provided there was no visible branding. Two-thirds of children recalled sponsors of their favourite elite sports team/athlete, with 428 sponsors recalled. Of these, 11 % were food/beverage companies and 3 % were alcohol-related. For 39 % of sponsors, children reported feeling better about the company after it had sponsored a team/athlete. Australian parents support restrictions on unhealthy food, beverage and alcohol sport sponsorship. Children's positive associations regarding sponsors are likely to be linked to brand preferences and usage.
Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Buijzen, Moniek
Previous studies have focused on the acute effects of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children; however, the long-term effects of this food cue reactivity on weight gain have not been examined. The main aim of this study was to explore if reactivity to food cues in an advertisement was associated with weight status two years later. Children wo had previously taken part in an experiment investigating the impact of advergames on food intake had their height and weight re-measured two years later, for assessment of body mass index (BMI). A within-subject design was used to test the associations between food choices and BMI over time. In the previous experiment, children played an advergame that promoted energy-dense snacks, fruit, or nonfood products, or did not play an advergame (control condition). After playing the game, the free intake of energy-dense snacks and fruits was measured. Children who ate more apple after playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks had a lower BMI two years later. Consumption of energy-dense snacks after playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks was not associated with BMI two years later. In other condition, no association was found between food intake and BMI after two years . The findings suggest that coping with environmental cues that trigger unhealthy eating behavior is associated with the body mass index of young children two years later. This might imply that learning to respond to food cues by choosing healthy options might prevent children from excessive weight gain. This trial was registered at as ISRCTN17013832 .
Full Text Available This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC “500 Cities Project” which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the “The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, V1 (1998–2012” datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.
Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey.
Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K; Smith, Jane R; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R
Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2) = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.
Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey.
Full Text Available Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour.We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963. Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours.To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.
Mediational Effects of Self-Efficacy Dimensions in the Relationship between Knowledge of Dengue and Dengue Preventive Behaviour with Respect to Control of Dengue Outbreaks: A Structural Equation Model of a Cross-Sectional Survey
Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K.; Smith, Jane R.; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R.
Background Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. Methods and Findings We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Conclusions To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy. PMID:24086777
Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.
Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi
Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.
Esteghamati, A; Aryan, Z; Esteghamati, A; Nakhjavani, M
This study aimed to compare concentrations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and inflammatory markers in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO), and to determine whether the relationship between vitamin D levels and both cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers differs between MHO and MUO. This cross-sectional study comprised 4391 obese subjects aged>18 years. A panel of cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers, including anthropometric variables, glycaemic indices, lipid profiles, liver enzymes, homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, was investigated. All cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MHO and MUO as well as in vitamin D deficiency were compared. Prevalence of MHO was 41.9% in our obese subjects using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Considering insulin resistance and inflammation, the prevalence of MHO was 38.4%. Individuals with MHO had significantly higher vitamin D concentrations compared with MUO, and this difference in vitamin D status persisted after accounting for BMI and waist circumference. Subjects with MHO had significantly better metabolic status, lower liver enzymes, lower inflammatory markers and higher serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than those with MUO. Associations between vitamin D levels and inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers differed according to MHO/MUO status. Among MUO subjects, vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher liver marker and homocysteine levels. Serum vitamin D was negatively associated with fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c in MHO only. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were lower in MUO vs MHO, and reduced vitamin D concentrations were more strongly associated with cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MUO than in MHO subjects. These findings suggest that a deficiency in vitamin D could be a key component of MUO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Shaw, Steven R.; Gomes, Paul; Polotskaia, Anna; Jankowska, Anna M.
Children who are unhealthy are at higher risk for school problems than students who are free from medical problems. Students with poor health have a higher probability of school failure, grade retention, and dropout. The relationship between student health and academic success is complex. Common manageable factors of student health are nutrition,…
Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane
This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.
Paige, Samantha R.; Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, Don J.; Alber, Julia M.; Chappell, Chelsea; Barry, Adam E.
Background: College students actively seek online health information and use Instagram, an image- and video-based social networking website, to build social networks grounded in trust and behavioral norms (social capital), which have the potential to prevent chronic disease. Purpose: This study aimed to (1) examine how intensity of Instagram use…
Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.
Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…
Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Bazzarre, Terry L.; Resnick, Barbara
Purpose of the Study: The Exercise Assessment Screening for You (EASY) tool was developed to encourage older adults at every functional level to be more physically active. The purposes of this study were to examine characteristics of older adults who participated in an evidence-based falls prevention program by their entry to EASY tool scores,…
Choi, Hye Jeong; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Rachel A
Interpersonal communication among participants plays an important role in the impact and effectiveness of prevention programs (Southwell & Yzer, Communication Theory 19:1-8, 2009). This study focused on adolescents' informal conversations about a prevention program, referred to as social talk, from a social network perspective. We provide both a conceptualization of social talk in relation to prevention programs and an operationalization of it by examining adolescents' social networks. Participants (N = 185) were eighth-grade students attending a middle school substance-abuse prevention program called keepin' it REAL (kiR). Participants engaged in both positive and negative social talk about kiR. Students with higher friendship indegree centrality were more likely to have greater positive social talk indegree centrality (r = .23 p social talkers by their peers appeared to have less personal anti-substance injunctive norms (b = -0.92, p < .05). Furthermore, youth who were more likely to talk negatively about kiR were less likely to perceive that their best friends (b = -1.66, p < .05) or most youth in their age (b = -1.49, p < .05) disapprove of substance use.
Nevanperä, Nina; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Remes, Jouko; Hopsu, Leila; Auvinen, Juha; Tammelin, Tuija; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana
Most of the few studies that exist on the longitudinal associations between health behaviors and work ability target to single health behaviors. To investigate how lifetime clusters of unhealthy behaviors associate with perceived work ability in early midlife. The study population consisted of 46-year-old men and women (n = 3107) born in Northern Finland in 1966. Their current perceived work ability compared to lifetime best, and their unhealthy behaviors (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) were assessed by questionnaires. We determined clusters of unhealthy behaviors at the ages of 14, 31, and 46 and created lifetime development trajectories of health behaviors. We also assessed stress-related eating and drinking at the ages of 31 and 46. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between clusters of health behaviors, stress-related eating and drinking, and work ability at 46 years. The analyses were controlled for basic education and physical strenuousness of work, psychosocial job characteristics, perceived work ability, and BMI (kg/m(2)) at 31 years. Four health behavior trajectories emerged: always healthy, moderate (reference group), deteriorated. and always unhealthy. Among men, always unhealthy behaviors [OR (95 % confidence interval) 2.81 (1.35, 5.86)], and among women, deteriorated health behaviors [1.67 (1.07, 2.58)] associated with poor perceived work ability at 46 years. In addition, stress-related eating and drinking associated independently with poor perceived work ability at 46 years [men 2.58 (1.62, 4.12) and women 2.48 (1.70, 3.61)]. Long-lasting and stress-related unhealthy behaviors increase the risk of poor work ability in midlife.
To our knowledge, Kids FIRST is the first pilot RCT to examine the effectiveness of behaviour change strategies for reducing children’s screen-time and unhealthy snacking. The integration of consistent, evidence-based and theory informed strategies and messages to children and their parents in the family and school settings are critical components of this pilot study. The results of this study will provide evidence on the feasibility and effectiveness of single versus multiple behaviour intervention strategies. If shown to be feasible and effective, the Kids FIRST study may have a significant impact on the home environment and parenting practices relating to screen time and unhealthy snacking.
... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...
Uribe, Rodrigo; Fuentes-García, Alejandra
This paper examines the effect of unhealthy food brand placement on children across different age groups (9, 12 and 15 year-old children). Results show that both brand awareness, and the behavioral disposition (toward junk food and McDonald's) increased when children were exposed to this marketing technique (in comparison with the control group). In the case of age, older groups (12-15) performed better in brand awareness, but scored lower in behavioral disposition than the 9-year-old group. Moreover, the joint use of advertising and placement (synergy) increased the effect of these communication tactics on children. Results are discussed in terms of previous results of the studies providing evidence of the influence of promotional tools of junk food on children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Zhou, Zhenghua; Diao, Qinqin; Shao, Nan; Liang, Youke; Lin, Li; Lei, Yan; Zheng, Lingmei
To conduct an analysis of the frequency of unhealthy food advertising on mainland Chinese television (TV) and children and adolescents' risk of exposure to them. The frequencies of all types of advertisements (ads) on forty TV channels in mainland China, the exact ad broadcast times, and the name and brand of all snacks and western fast foods advertised were recorded from 0800 hours to 2400 hours on both a weekday and a weekend day in a week. The difference in the frequencies of the diverse types of ads over eight time intervals (each time interval was 2 hours) were compared, and the trends in ad frequencies during the time intervals were described. The TV channels broadcast 155 (91-183) (expressed as median [P25-P75]) food ads, 87 (38-123) snack ads, 49 (11-85) beverage ads, and 58 (25-76) ads of snacks suitable for limited consumption (SSLCs) in a day. The proportion of snack ads among food ads (SPF%) was 55.5% (40.3%-71.0%), and the proportion of SSLC ads among snack ads (LPS%) was 67.4% (55.4%-79.3%). The ad frequencies for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages demonstrated significant differences among the eight time intervals (all P=0.000). TV channels broadcast the most frequent ads for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages during the time interval from 2000 hours to 2200 hours among the eight time intervals. Chinese children and adolescents may be at a high risk of exposure to unhealthy food advertising on TV. Reducing the exposure risk strongly requires multisectoral cooperation.
Full Text Available To conduct an analysis of the frequency of unhealthy food advertising on mainland Chinese television (TV and children and adolescents' risk of exposure to them.The frequencies of all types of advertisements (ads on forty TV channels in mainland China, the exact ad broadcast times, and the name and brand of all snacks and western fast foods advertised were recorded from 0800 hours to 2400 hours on both a weekday and a weekend day in a week. The difference in the frequencies of the diverse types of ads over eight time intervals (each time interval was 2 hours were compared, and the trends in ad frequencies during the time intervals were described.The TV channels broadcast 155 (91-183 (expressed as median [P25-P75] food ads, 87 (38-123 snack ads, 49 (11-85 beverage ads, and 58 (25-76 ads of snacks suitable for limited consumption (SSLCs in a day. The proportion of snack ads among food ads (SPF% was 55.5% (40.3%-71.0%, and the proportion of SSLC ads among snack ads (LPS% was 67.4% (55.4%-79.3%. The ad frequencies for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages demonstrated significant differences among the eight time intervals (all P=0.000. TV channels broadcast the most frequent ads for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages during the time interval from 2000 hours to 2200 hours among the eight time intervals.Chinese children and adolescents may be at a high risk of exposure to unhealthy food advertising on TV. Reducing the exposure risk strongly requires multisectoral cooperation.
Zhou, Zhenghua; Diao, Qinqin; Shao, Nan; Liang, Youke; Lin, Li; Lei, Yan; Zheng, Lingmei
Objective To conduct an analysis of the frequency of unhealthy food advertising on mainland Chinese television (TV) and children and adolescents’ risk of exposure to them. Methods The frequencies of all types of advertisements (ads) on forty TV channels in mainland China, the exact ad broadcast times, and the name and brand of all snacks and western fast foods advertised were recorded from 0800 hours to 2400 hours on both a weekday and a weekend day in a week. The difference in the frequencies of the diverse types of ads over eight time intervals (each time interval was 2 hours) were compared, and the trends in ad frequencies during the time intervals were described. Results The TV channels broadcast 155 (91-183) (expressed as median [P25-P75]) food ads, 87 (38-123) snack ads, 49 (11-85) beverage ads, and 58 (25-76) ads of snacks suitable for limited consumption (SSLCs) in a day. The proportion of snack ads among food ads (SPF%) was 55.5% (40.3%-71.0%), and the proportion of SSLC ads among snack ads (LPS%) was 67.4% (55.4%-79.3%). The ad frequencies for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages demonstrated significant differences among the eight time intervals (all P=0.000). TV channels broadcast the most frequent ads for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages during the time interval from 2000 hours to 2200 hours among the eight time intervals. Conclusions Chinese children and adolescents may be at a high risk of exposure to unhealthy food advertising on TV. Reducing the exposure risk strongly requires multisectoral cooperation. PMID:26133984
Janaina Maria Setto
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Life habits such as physical activity, leisure, eating habits, stress, smoking, and alcohol consumption can directly affect individuals' health. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health behaviors and diseases self-reported by employees of a federal public university in southeastern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 815 employees, of whom 347 were teachers and 468 were technical-administrative staff, aged between 20 and 65 years old. Data from this study were collected from a secondary database, from the Health Questionnaire (self-reported health conditions by teachers and technical-administrative employees, and from the institution's Vice Dean of Community Affairs. Among the variables assessed, the relationship between eating habits, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and self-reported illnesses (chronic diseases and infectious and parasitic diseases diagnosed by a doctor within the last 12 months was analyzed. Results: The mean prevalence of these diseases among teachers and technical-administrative staff was 3.1 and 2.9, respectively. This study showed a statistically significant association between unhealthy diet and cerebrovascular accidents; between irregular performance of physical activity/sedentary lifestyle and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic and digestive diseases; between overweight and cardiovascular diseases, endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension; and between smoking and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: We suggest the adoption of preventative measures and the control of risk behaviors among these employees.
sports associated with leanness such as gymnastics or wrestling are more likely to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors than athletes involved...effects of stress mediators: Central role of the brain . Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8(4), 367-381. McNulty, P. A. (1997). Prevalence and
Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wardle, J.; Chu, M.T.; Wit, J.B.F.; Ridder, de D.T.D.
Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy
J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); C.A.M. Cecil (Charlotte A.M.); E. Walton (Esther); Mesirow, M.S.C. (Maurissa S. C.); C.L. Relton (Caroline); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); Barker, E.D. (Edward D.)
textabstractBackground: Conduct problems (CP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid and have each been linked to 'unhealthy diet'. Early-life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural
Conclusions: The hepatokine FGF21 exerts weak lipogenic and anti-adipogenic actions and marked adiponectin-suppressive and leptin and interleukin-6 release-promoting effects in human differentiating preadipocytes. Together with the higher serum concentrations in MUHO subjects, our findings reveal FGF21 as a circulating factor promoting the development of metabolically unhealthy adipocytes.
Chaparro, M Pia; Harrison, Gail G; Wang, May C; Seto, Edmund Y W; Pebley, Anne R
Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but not much is known about the mechanisms behind this association. The objective of this study was to determine if the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets modifies the association between obesity and participation in SNAP. Data comes from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey; included are a subsample of adults (18+ years) who were SNAP participants or eligible non-participants (N = 1,176). We carried out multilevel analyses with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m 2 ), SNAP participation, and the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets as dependent, independent and modifying variables, respectively, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, working status, mental health, and neighborhood poverty. SNAP participants had double the odds of obesity compared to eligible non-participants (OR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.44-2.83). However, the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets did not modify this association. SNAP participation was associated with higher odds of obesity in our primarily Hispanic sample in Los Angeles County, with no effect modification found for the unhealthy portion of the food environment. More research is needed with additional food environment measures to confirm our null findings. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking SNAP participation and obesity as they remain unclear.
Kornienko, D S; Kozlov, A I; Otavina, M L
Self-assessment of health is the one out of the most important characteristics, which gives an idea about the health of the respondent as a psychophysiological continuum. The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between indices of self-rated health and characteristics of the psychological well-being. Sample 344 young adults - students at an average age of 20.9 ± 1.6 years. Methods. “Self-assessment of health” questionnaire was used; MOSSF36 questionnaire and “Psychological wellbeing scale” developed by K. Riff. Respondents were divided into groups: (1) without chronic diseases; (2) having one or more chronic diseases of any etiology. Results. The presence of chronic diseases was shown to negatively effect on the self-estimation of physical and psychological state. The significant positive correlation (p <0,001) between the perceived health and subjective well-being was found. Healthy individuals perceive the state of their own physical health and psychological wellbeing as unrelated to each other characteristics. In contrast, in cases with even mild chronic health problems there is pronounced the relationship between somatic and psychological health, which forms a complex of physical and psychological factors determining the general state of a person.
Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.
The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.
Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson
Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.
Sadeghirad, B; Duhaney, T; Motaghipisheh, S; Campbell, N R C; Johnston, B C
Marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt are suggested to contribute to poor dietary behaviours in children and diet-related diseases later in life. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials aimed to assess the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on dietary intake (grams or kilocalories) and dietary preference (preference score or percentage of participants who selected specific foods/beverages) among children 2 to 18 years of age. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up to January 2015 for terms related to advertising, unhealthy foods or beverages among children. Randomized trials that assessed the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing compared with non-dietary advertisement or no advertisement in children were considered eligible. Two authors independently extracted information on study characteristics and outcomes of interest and assessed risk of bias and the overall quality of evidence using grade methodology. Meta-analysis was conducted separately for dietary intake and preference using a random-effects model. We identified 29 eligible studies, of which 17 studies were included for meta-analysis of dietary preference and nine for meta-analysis of dietary intake. Almost half of the studies were at high risk of bias. Our meta-analysis showed that in children exposed to unhealthy dietary marketing, dietary intake significantly increased (mean difference [MD] = 30.4 kcal, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9 to 57.9, and MD = 4.8 g, 95%CI 0.8 to 8.8) during or shortly after exposure to advertisements. Similarly, children exposed to the unhealthy dietary marketing had a higher risk of selecting the advertised foods or beverages (relative risk = 1.1, 95%CI 1.0 to 1.2; P = 0.052). The evidence indicates that unhealthy food and beverage marketing increases dietary intake (moderate quality evidence) and preference (moderate to low quality evidence) for energy-dense, low-nutrition food
Chen, Jessica A; Owens, Mandy D; Browne, Kendall C; Williams, Emily C
Unhealthy alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur. Patients with both conditions have poorer functioning and worse treatment adherence compared to those with either condition alone. Therefore, it is possible that PTSD, when co-occurring with unhealthy alcohol use, may influence receipt of evidence-based alcohol-related care and mental health care. We evaluated receipt of interventions for unhealthy alcohol use and receipt of mental health follow-up care among patients screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use with and without PTSD in a national sample from the Veterans Health Administration (VA). National clinical and administrative data from VA's electronic medical record were used to identify all patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score≥5) between 10/1/09-5/30/13. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the relative rate and prevalence of receipt of: brief interventions (advice to reduce or abstain from drinking≤14days after positive screening), specialty addictions treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD; documented visit≤365days after positive screening), pharmacotherapy for AUD (filled prescription≤365days after positive screening), and mental health care ≤14days after positive screening for patients with and without PTSD (documented with ICD-9 CM codes). In secondary analyses, we tested effect modification by both severity of unhealthy alcohol use and age. Among 830,825 patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use, 140,388 (16.9%) had documented PTSD. Of the full sample, 71.6% received brief interventions, 10.3% received specialty AUD treatment, 3.1% received pharmacotherapy for AUD, and 24.0% received mental health care. PTSD was associated with increased likelihood of receiving all types of care. Adjusted relative rates were 1.04 (95% CI 1.03-1.05) for brief interventions, 1.06 (1.05-1.08) for specialty AUD treatment, 1.35 (1.31-1.39) for
Granheim, Sabrina Ionata; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Torheim, Liv Elin
Overweight and obesity in children is rising at the global level, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Among the causes for this increase is the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products, which affects children's food preferences, purchasing requests and consumption patterns. The need to address harmful marketing to children has been recognized at the World Health Organization, with Member States having agreed in 2010 to implement a set of recommendations to restrict such practices. Concurrently, there is an increasing understanding of unhealthy food and malnutrition as human rights concerns. This paper explores the potential of existing legally and non-legally binding human rights instruments for accelerating the implementation of comprehensive restrictions to reduce harmful marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. Four relevant themes were identified in existing human rights instruments: (i) the best interest of the child should be considered above all other interests; (ii) the rights to health and adequate food cannot be realized without supportive healthy environments; (iii) children should be protected from economic exploitation; and (iv) the persuasive marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products is explicitly recognized as a threat to the rights to food and health. In conclusion, existing human rights instruments could be harnessed to advance public health measures to restrict the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products to children. Policy-makers and advocates should draw from these instruments and refer to State's obligations within international and domestic human rights law to strengthen their efforts to restrict harmful marketing practices to children. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Rolón, María Luisa; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Partner communication about HIV sexual risk behaviors represents a key area of epidemiologic and social importance in terms of infection acquisition and potential for tailored interventions. Nevertheless, disclosing sexual risk behaviors often presents myriad challenges for marginalized couples who engage in stigmatized behaviors. Using qualitative data from a social epidemiology study of risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial male partners along the Mexico-U.S. border, we examined both partners' perspectives on sex work and the ways in which couples discussed associated HIV/STI risks in their relationship. Our thematic analysis of individual and joint interviews conducted in 2010 and 2011 with 44 couples suggested that broader contexts of social and economic inequalities profoundly shaped partner perspectives of sex work. Although couples accepted sex work as an economic contribution to the relationship in light of limited alternatives and drug addiction, it exacted an emotional toll on both partners. Couples employed multiple strategies to cope with sex work, including psychologically disconnecting from their situation, telling "little lies," avoiding the topic, and to a lesser extent, superficially discussing their risks. While such strategies served to protect both partners' emotional health by upholding illusions of fidelity and avoiding potential conflict, non-disclosure of risk behaviors may exacerbate the potential for HIV/STI acquisition. Our work has direct implications for designing multi-level, couple-based health interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki
A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.
Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte
Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use...... to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative multi-site study was conducted, utilising in......-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women’s spousal relationships...
Gualteros, Julián Alberto; Torres, Jorge Andrés; Umbarila-Espinosa, Luz Marina; Rodríguez-Valero, Francisco Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
Several studies have shown that low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a significant independent risk factor for future cardiometabolic disease in adult life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between CRF and health status in children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 921 children and adolescents aged 9-17 years living in the metropolitan area of the District of Bogotá, Colombia (2,480m asl). CRF was assessed with the 20m shuttle run test (Course-Navette) according to ALPHA-FITNESS and FITNESSGRAM standards. Blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference, body composition (body fat percentage, fat body mass, and fat-free mass by bioimpedance), skin fold calipers, body mass index, and sexual maturity (Tanner) were used as indicators of physical health. After adjusting for sex, age, and sexual maturity, significant inverse relationships were seen between CRF and body mass index (r=-0.107), body fat percentage (r=-0.197), fat body mass (r=-0.159), skin fold (r=-0.246), and waist circumference (r=-0.169); P<.001. Schoolchildren with low CRF levels showed OR 6.06 (95% CI 3.98-9.24) increase in body fat by bioimpedance; OR 4.04 (95% CI 1.83-9.11) risk of overweight/obese by body mass index and OR 2.47 (95% CI 1.14-5.37) abdominal obesity due to increased waist circumference. Approximately two thirds of participants had a CRF level suggesting future cardiovascular disease. Early identification of children and adolescents with low CRF levels will allow for implementing interventions to prevent cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Polidori, M C; Pientka, L
A large number of published overview and original articles provide evidence and declare the need for immediate, appropriate preventive lifestyle measures to prevent the development of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, despite this, there are great difficulties in drafting effective guidelines in this field. This is mainly due to a lack of not only (comparable) randomized controlled trials but also a lack of homogeneous measures of type and degree of managed risk. Several risk factors for dementia are non-modifiable, such as genes and age. Factors related to lifestyle habits and vascular risk factors are classified as modifiable risk factors. While waiting for effective drug therapies and first-level evidence data, geriatricians, general practitioners, neurologists, and health professionals should be encouraged to improve early diagnosis of cognitive impairment and activate control strategies against vascular disease and unhealthy lifestyle habits.
Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd. Taib, Mohd. Nasir; Mohd. Shariff, Zalilah
Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordere...
Sonneville, Kendrin R; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Resch, Stephen C; Wang, Y Claire; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Moodie, Marj L; Carter, Rob; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Gortmaker, Steven L
Food and beverage TV advertising contributes to childhood obesity. The current tax treatment of advertising as an ordinary business expense in the U.S. subsidizes marketing of nutritionally poor foods and beverages to children. This study models the effect of a national intervention that eliminates the tax subsidy of advertising nutritionally poor foods and beverages on TV to children aged 2-19 years. We adapted and modified the Assessing Cost Effectiveness framework and methods to create the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study model to simulate the impact of the intervention over the 2015-2025 period for the U.S. population, including short-term effects on BMI and 10-year healthcare expenditures. We simulated uncertainty intervals (UIs) using probabilistic sensitivity analysis and discounted outcomes at 3% annually. Data were analyzed in 2014. We estimated the intervention would reduce an aggregate 2.13 million (95% UI=0.83 million, 3.52 million) BMI units in the population and would cost $1.16 per BMI unit reduced (95% UI=$0.51, $2.63). From 2015 to 2025, the intervention would result in $352 million (95% UI=$138 million, $581 million) in healthcare cost savings and gain 4,538 (95% UI=1,752, 7,489) quality-adjusted life-years. Eliminating the tax subsidy of TV advertising costs for nutritionally poor foods and beverages advertised to children and adolescents would likely be a cost-saving strategy to reduce childhood obesity and related healthcare expenditures. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria João Gregório
Full Text Available ObjectiveWe aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs of Portuguese adults, to assess their socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle determinants, and to identify their impact on health.DesignEpiDoC 2 study included 10,153 Portuguese adults from the EpiDoC Cohort, a population-based study. In this study, trained research assistants using computer-assisted telephone interview collected socioeconomic, demographic, dietary, lifestyles, and health information from March 2013 to July 2015. Cluster analysis was performed, based on questions regarding the number of meals, weekly frequency of soup consumption, vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, dairy products, and daily water intake. Factors associated with DP were identified through logistic regression models.ResultsTwo DPs were identified: the “meat dietary pattern” and the “fruit & vegetables dietary pattern.” After multivariable adjustment, women (OR = 0.52; p < 0.001, older adults (OR = 0.97; p < 0.001, and individuals with more years of education (OR = 0.96; p = 0.025 were less likely to adopt the “meat dietary pattern,” while individuals in a situation of job insecurity/unemployment (OR = 1.49; p = 0.013, Azores island residents (OR = 1.40; p = 0.026, current smoking (OR = 1.58; p = 0.001, daily alcohol intake (OR = 1.46; p = 0.023, and physically inactive (OR = 1.86; p < 0.001 were positively and significantly associated with “meat dietary pattern.” Moreover, individuals with depression symptoms (OR = 1.50; p = 0.018 and the ones who did lower number of medical appointments in the previous year (OR = 0.98; p = 0.025 were less likely to report this DP.ConclusionOur results suggest that unhealthy DPs (meat DP are part of a lifestyle behavior that includes physical inactivity, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption. Moreover, depression symptoms are also associated with unhealthy DPs.
Kim, Theresa W; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M; Bernstein, Judith; Wang, Na; German, Jacqueline; Saitz, Richard
Although it is well known that addiction is associated with adverse medical consequences, the effects of the spectrum of unhealthy drug use (illicit drug or prescription misuse) on chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes are understudied. This study evaluated the associations between measures of drug use (ie, frequency, severity and type) and standard quality metrics for inadequate blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose (BG) control. Longitudinal cohort study. Adult primary care patients with unhealthy drug use and hypertension or diabetes. Urban hospital-based primary care practice. Outcomes were (1) inadequate BP (systolic BP ≥ 140 or diastolic BP ≥ 90) and (2) inadequate BG (glycated haemoglobin ≥ 8%) control (Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set criteria). Drug use was characterised by a primary independent variable, drug use frequency, and two secondary variables, severity of use and drug type. We fit separate regression models for each drug use measure and outcome. Overall, 40% (65/164) of the sample with hypertension had inadequate BP control and 44% (24/54) of those with diabetes had inadequate BG control. More frequent drug use was not significantly associated with inadequate BP control (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.67; 95% CI 0.31 to 1.46, highest vs lowest tertile; AOR 0.72; 95% CI 0.36 to 1.41, middle vs lowest tertile) or BG control (AOR 0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 1.10, highest vs lowest tertile; AOR 1.01; 95% CI 0.38 to 2.69, middle vs lowest tertile). Drug use severity was also not associated with BP or BG control. Cocaine use was associated with inadequate BG control compared to marijuana use (AOR 8.82; 95% CI1.86 to 41.90). Among primary care patients with recent drug use and hypertension or diabetes, drug type was significantly associated with inadequate BG, but not BP control. Frequency and severity of use were not significant predictors of either outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where
Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...
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Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To explore relationships between harassment (i.e., race-, weight-, socioeconomic-status (SES)-based, and sexual) and health-related outcomes, including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behavior, among diverse adolescents. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 years). Sample was socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income). Having experienced any type of harassment was significantly associated with poor self-esteem, depressive symptoms, low body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behaviors. After mutually adjusting for other types of harassment, weight-based harassment was consistently associated with lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction in both genders (standardized βs ranged in magnitude from .39 to .48); sexual harassment was significantly associated with self-harm and substance use in both genders (ORs: 1.64 to 2.92); and both weight-based and sexual harassment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among girls (standardized βs = .34 and .37). Increases in the number of different harassment types reported by adolescents were associated with elevated risk for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, and self-harm (ORs: 1.22 to 1.42) as well as emotional well-being (standardized βs: .13 to .26). Having had any harassment experience was significantly associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes among adolescents, and risk for these outcomes increases with the number of harassment types an adolescent experiences. Early detection and intervention to decrease harassment experiences may be particularly important in mitigating psychological and behavioral harm among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
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Miyake, Tamon; Tsukune, Mariko; Kobayashi, Yo; Sugano, Shigeki; Fujie, Masakatsu G
Elderly people are at risk of tripping because of their narrow range of articular motion. To avoid tripping, gait training that improves their range of articular motion would be beneficial. In this study we propose a gait-training robot that applies a torque during the pre-swing phase to achieve this goal. We investigated the relationship between magnitude of applied torque and change in the range of knee-articular motion while walking before and after the application of this torque. We developed a wearable robot and carried out an experiment on human participants in which a motor pulls a string embedded on the robotic frame, applying torque in the pre-swing phase for a period of 20 [s]. Before and after applying torque the participant walked normally for 15 [s] without interference from the robot. We found that knee flexion angle increased after applying the torque if the torque was within the range of approximately 6-8 [Nm]. Therefore, we were able to verify that a new range of knee articular motion can be learned through application of torque.
Benjamin G. Sykes
Full Text Available It has been known that both estrogen (E2 and nitric oxide (NO are critical for proper cardiovascular system (CVS function. It has also been demonstrated that E2 acts as an upstream effector in the nitric oxide (NO pathway. Results from this study indicate that the use of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor (NOSI which targets specifically neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1, proadifen hydrochloride, caused a significant depression of fish heart rates (HR accompanied by increased arrhythmic behavior. However, none of these phenotypes were evident with either the inhibition of endothelial NOS (eNOS or inducible NOS (iNOS isoforms. These cardiac arrhythmias could also be mimicked by inhibition of E2 synthesis with the aromatase inhibitor (AI, 4-OH-A, in a manner similar to that of nNOSI. In both scenarios, by using an NO donor (DETA-NO in either NO + nNOSI or E2 + AI co-treatments, fish could be significantly rescued from decreased HR and increased arrhythmias. However, the addition of an NOS inhibitor (L-NAME to the E2 + AI co-treatment fish prevented the rescue of low heart rates and arrhythmias, which strongly implicates the NO pathway as a downstream E2 targeted molecule for the maintenance of healthy cardiomyocyte contractile conditions in the developing zebrafish. Cardiac arrhythmias could be mimicked by the S-nitrosylation pathway inhibitor DTT (1,4-dithiothreitol but not by ODQ (1H-[1–3]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, the inhibitor of the NO receptor molecule sGC in the cGMP-dependent pathway. In both the nNOSI and AI-induced arrhythmic conditions, 100% of the fish expressed the phenotype, but could be rapidly rescued with maximum survival by a washout with dantrolene, a ryanodine Ca2+ channel receptor blocker, compared to the time it took for rescue using a control salt solution. In addition, of the three NOS isoforms, eNOS was the one most implicated in the maintenance of an intact developing fish vascular system. In conclusion, results
Kasckow, J; Brown, C; Morse, J; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F
This study examined the rates of syndromal and subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptom scores in participants with symptoms of emotional distress, subsyndromal depression, and a history of traumatic exposure. Participants had been referred to a study of an indicated depression prevention intervention using problem-solving therapy in primary care. We hypothesized that higher severity of PTSD symptom scores would predict poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, some reports have suggested that there are higher rates of PTSD in minority populations relative to Caucasians; thus we hypothesized that race would also predict problem-solving skills in these individuals. We examined the rates of traumatic exposure, syndromal, and subthreshold PTSD. In those exposed to trauma, we performed a multiple linear regression to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, race, age, and gender on social problem-solving skills. Of the 244 participants, 64 (26.2%) reported a traumatic event; 6/234 (2.6%) had syndromal PTSD, and 14/234 (6.0%) had subthreshold PTSD. By way of regression analysis, higher PTSD symptom scores predicted poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, racial status (Caucasian vs. African American) predicted problem-solving skills; Caucasians exhibited lower levels of problem-solving skills. Individuals presenting with subsyndromal depressive symptoms may also have a history of traumatic exposure, subthreshold and syndromal PTSD. Thus, screening these individuals for PTSD symptoms is important and may inform clinical management decisions because problem-solving skills are lower in those with more severe PTSD symptoms (even after adjusting for race, age, gender, and depressive symptoms). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Wakefield, Melanie
This study aimed to test whether counter-advertisements (i.e. messages contesting industry marketing) make pre-adolescent children less susceptible to the influence of food promotions. Since children have lower media literacy levels due to their immature cognitive abilities, specific research questions explored were: (1) whether the effectiveness of counter-ads is contingent on children having understood them; and (2) whether counter-ads may be detrimental when they are misinterpreted. A between-subjects experimental design using a web-based methodology was employed. 1351 grade 5-6 students (mean age 11 years) from schools located in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia participated. Participants were randomly shown an animated web banner advertisement (counter-ad challenging front-of-package promotion or control ad) and a pair of food packages from the same product category comprising an unhealthy product featuring a front-of-package promotion (nutrient content claim or sports celebrity endorsement) and a healthier control pack without a front-of-package promotion. Responses to the assigned advertisement, choice of product (healthy versus unhealthy) and ratings of the unhealthy product and front-of-package promotion on various nutritional and image-related attributes were recorded for each child. Sixty-six percent of children who viewed a counter-ad understood its main message. These children rated the front-of-package promotion as less believable and rated the unhealthy product bearing the front-of-package promotion as less healthy compared to the control group. However, children who misunderstood the counter-ad rated the unhealthy product bearing a front-of-package promotion as more healthy and rated the front-of-package promotion more favourably than those who correctly understood the counter-ad. Counter-advertising may have unintended consequences when misunderstood. If public health organizations or government pursue counter-advertising as a strategy to reduce
Caitlin S Latimer
Full Text Available Healthy brain aging and cognitive function are promoted by exercise. The benefits of exercise are attributed to several mechanisms, many which highlight its neuroprotective role via actions that enhance neurogenesis, neuronal morphology and/or neurotrophin release. However, the brain is also composed of glial and vascular elements, and comparatively less is known regarding the effects of exercise on these components in the aging brain. Here, we show that aerobic exercise at mid-age decreased markers of unhealthy brain aging including astrocyte hypertrophy, a hallmark of brain aging. Middle-aged female mice were assigned to a sedentary group or provided a running wheel for six weeks. Exercise decreased hippocampal astrocyte and myelin markers of aging but increased VEGF, a marker of angiogenesis. Brain vascular casts revealed exercise-induced structural modifications associated with improved endothelial function in the periphery. Our results suggest that age-related astrocyte hypertrophy/reactivity and myelin dysregulation are aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and accompanying reductions in vascular function. However, these effects appear reversible with exercise initiated at mid-age. As this period of the lifespan coincides with the appearance of multiple markers of brain aging, including initial signs of cognitive decline, it may represent a window of opportunity for intervention as the brain appears to still possess significant vascular plasticity. These results may also have particular implications for aging females who are more susceptible than males to certain risk factors which contribute to vascular aging.
Knøsgaard, L; Thomsen, S B; Støckel, M
with the metabolic syndrome had a higher LF% and higher levels of the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 (P=0.003 and P=0.014) as well as a tendency towards higher levels of sCD36. CONCLUSION: sCD36 was reduced by weight loss and associated with an unhealthy fat accumulation and circulating triglycerides, which support......BACKGROUND: The recently identified circulating sCD36 has been proposed to reflect tissue CD36 expression, and is upregulated in case of obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of weight loss secondary to bariatric surgery in relation to s......CD36 among morbidly obese individuals. Furthermore, we investigated the levels of sCD36 in relation to obesity-related metabolic complications, low-grade inflammation and fat distribution. METHODS: Twenty morbidly obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 43.0±5.4 kg m(-2)) with a referral to Roux...
Borgogna, Nicholas; Lockhart, Ginger; Grenard, Jerry L; Barrett, Tyson; Shiffman, Saul; Reynolds, Kim D
Adolescents' technology use is generally associated with food cravings, but it is not clear whether specific types of technology elicit particular types of cravings or whether personal characteristics play a role in these associations. We examined whether momentary associations between four technology types (ie, television, video games, computer messaging, and phone messaging) and cravings for unhealthy snack foods and sweetened drinks were moderated by youths' sex, ethnicity, body mass index, and age. Urban adolescents (N=158) aged 14 to 17 years provided momentary information about their technology use and food cravings during the course of 1 week and completed survey reports of their personal characteristics. We used multilevel modeling to determine momentary associations and interactions. Non-Hispanic adolescents showed stronger associations between television exposure and cravings for sweet snacks, salty snacks, and sweetened drinks. Being Hispanic was associated with stronger associations between phone messaging and cravings for sweet snacks, salty snacks, and sweetened drinks. Males showed stronger associations between video game use and salty snack cravings. As the public health field continues to monitor the effects of technology use on adolescents' eating and overall health, it will be important to determine the extent to which these groups are differentially affected by different forms of technology. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferriz, R; González-Cutre, D; Sicilia, Á; Hagger, M S
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between three dimensions of the structured teaching environment (promotion of theoretical knowledge, physical learning, and health improvement) in physical education (PE) and the adoption of health-related behaviors by students. The study adopted a two-occasion longitudinal design based on self-determination theory (SDT). PE students (N = 654, mean age = 16.13, SD = .77) completed measures of perceived structured teaching environment, satisfaction of basic psychological needs and motivation for PE, and healthy (physical activity, sport participation, and healthy eating) and unhealthy (consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs) behaviors at the beginning and end of the first year of post-compulsory secondary education. Path analysis of the proposed relations among variables supported SDT tenets and showed positive relations between the three dimensions of the structured teaching environment, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and autonomous motivation in PE. Autonomous motivation contributed to an explanation of variance in two healthy behaviors, physical activity and sport participation. However, no relation was found among motivation in PE, healthy eating, and consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. These results show negligible trans-contextual influence of SDT motivational factors in PE on other healthy behaviors beyond physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie
Extrinsic information, such as packaging, branding and labeling, can significantly alter our experience of food and drink through a process of 'sensation transfer', in which extrinsic attributes are transferred to our sensory perception of a product. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on sensation transfer for unhealthy food and drink and to investigate personal factors that may influence its occurrence. Seventy-eight studies in 69 articles, published between 1966 and 2014 were identified which evaluated sensation transfer. Sixty-five of the 78 studies found an effect of extrinsic information on taste and/or hedonic outcomes, providing strong evidence for sensation transfer. The majority of studies identified that specific extrinsic information influenced particular products or specific sensory outcomes. Study designs incorporating a measure of expectation allowed a tighter assessment of sensation transfer. The results of such studies confirm the hypothesis that these effects occur when extrinsic information elicits an expectation of product taste, which then forms a framework to guide sensory perception. These studies also support the hypothesis that where sensation transfer does not occur, this is likely due to a mismatch between the expectations elicited by the extrinsic information and the sensory characteristics being measured, or the failure of the extrinsic information to elicit an expectation of taste for that product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Svansdottir, Erla; Denollet, Johan; Thorsson, Bolli; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Halldorsdottir, Sigrun; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D
Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing CAD, and previous cardiac events. Cross-sectional study in the general Icelandic population. A random sample of 4753 individuals (mean age 49.1 ± 12.0 years; 49% men) from the REFINE-Reykjavik study completed assessments for Type D personality and conventional CAD risk factors. Ten-year risk of developing CAD was estimated with the Icelandic risk calculator. Type D personality (22% of sample) was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension (35 vs. 31%, p = 0.009), but less use of hypertension medication (58 vs. 65%, p = 0.013) in hypertensives, more diabetes (6 vs. 4%, p = 0.023), wider waist circumference (p = 0.007), and elevated body mass index (p = 0.025) and blood lipids (p personality was associated with differences in lifestyle-related CAD risk factors, a higher estimated risk of developing CAD, and higher incidence of previous cardiac events. Unhealthy lifestyles may partly explain the adverse cardiovascular effect of Type D personality.
Full Text Available The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy products such as energy dense and nutrient poor food and beverages, alcohol, and tobacco on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. We explore emerging evidence about the extent of exposure to marketing of these harmful products through social media platforms and potential impacts of exposure on adolescent health. Secondly, we present examples of health-promoting social media campaigns aimed at youth, with the purpose of describing innovative campaigns and highlighting lessons learned for creating effective social media interventions. Finally, we suggest implications for policy and practice, and identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research.
Romano, C; De Giovanni, L; Santoro, P E; Spataro, M
the presence of depression and systematic isolation, and depression and the changes in the working tasks. The survey has pointed out the working conditions that may lead to Mobbing situations and to psychological frustration; it follows that the Mobbing prevention is a key element if you want to better working life and avoid social emargination.
Cezarina Maria Nobre Souza
Full Text Available Diversos discursos podem ser encontrados na literatura científica, indicativos de como o saneamento vem sendo percebido em sua relação com a saúde e o ambiente. Entre eles destaca-se um grupo de discursos alicerçados na prevenção de doenças, segundo os quais cabe ao saneamento higienizar o ambiente e com isso evitar as doenças. Há também outro grupo, cujos discursos se aproximam dos pressupostos da promoção da saúde, de acordo com os quais o saneamento assume ações para a melhoria da qualidade ambiental e de vida e para a erradicação das doenças. Foi realizada pesquisa em base eletrônica de dados com o fim de identificar artigos científicos publicados em periódicos da área de saneamento. A partir destes, foram resgatados e examinados quatro discursos coletivos sobre a relação saneamento-saúde-ambiente com o propósito de identificar suas possíveis afiliações a um dos grupos acima citados. Os discursos obtidos revelaram um viés essencialmente preventivista.Discourses about sanitation, water supply, solid waste, urban drainage, and the relationship between sanitation, health and environment can be found in the scientific literature. There is a group of them based on the point of view of health promotion. Another one is based on the diseases prevention approach. Four collective discourses about the sanitation-health-environment relationship, captured in specific texts present in an electronic database, were analyzed. The results showed that the prevention point of view was predominant in this context.
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; De La Rosa, Mario; Brook, David W
To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the early forties are similar or different in terms of lack of preventive health behaviors (e.g., underuse of preventive health services, unhealthy eating habits) in early midlife. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties (N = 548). Data were collected from adolescence to early midlife (mean age = 43 years, standard deviation [SD] = 2.8) at seven time points. Using growth mixture modeling, we statistically identified the number of smoking trajectories. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the probabilities of participants' smoking trajectory group membership and lack of preventive behaviors in early midlife. Five trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. With controls, as compared with the nonsmoker trajectory group, higher probabilities of belonging to the heavy/continuous smoker trajectory group and the late starter trajectory groups were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of lack of preventive health behaviors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.49 and 4.02 respectively). In addition, as compared to the quitter/decreaser trajectory group, higher probabilities of belonging to the heavy/continuous smoker trajectory group and the late starter trajectory group were also significantly associated with a higher likelihood of lack of preventive health behaviors (AOR = 3.51 and 4.04 respectively). Intervention programs may consider focusing on heavy/continuous smokers and late starters in programs designed to promote adequate use of preventive health services and healthy general lifestyles in early midlife.
Scientific literature underpinning prevention of injuries in sport continues to grow. Preventive measures proven effective in experimental research is however, challenged by implementation issues and understanding contextual factors. A designed-based research approach treat the problem of context...... and involves a relationship between researchers and implementers. Perceiving research as a continuum, design-based research could complement experimental research. The adaption by athletes, coaches and physical therapists of designed preventive interventions is a prerequisite of successful injury prevention....
Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Mackenzie, Tara; Vandevijvere, Stefanie
Promotion of unhealthy foods and drinks is a significant, modifiable risk factor for child obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. We compared three accepted nutrient profiling systems: the Health Star Rating (HSR), the Ministry of Health Food and Beverage Classification System (FBCS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model, to identify the best system to protect New Zealand children from exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages. 13,066 packaged foods from the 2014 New Zealand Nutritrack database were classified as 'restricted' or 'not restricted' as per the WHO model; 'everyday/sometimes' or 'occasional' as per the FBCS model; and '3.5 stars, were determined. Under any of the three nutrient profiling systems, approximately one-third (29-39%) of New Zealand packaged foods would be permitted to be marketed to children. The WHO Model would permit marketing of 29% of products; the HSR system would permit 36%; and the FBCS system would permit 39%. The WHO Model restricts marketing of unhealthy foods more effectively than the other two systems. The HSR and FBCS systems would permit marketing of a number of food products of concern, particularly high-sugar breakfast cereals, fruit juices and ready meals. The WHO Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model should underpin the Advertising Standards Authority revised Children's Code for Advertising Food. The effectiveness of the new Code in reducing New Zealand children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks should be subject to evaluation by an independent body.
Jolanda S. van Vliet
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC. Results: Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05. The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01. Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI among boys (p<0.01 and WC among girls (p<0.05. In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05. Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.
Gaylis, Jaclyn B; Levy, Susan S; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah; DeHamer, Rebecca; Hong, Mee Young
Given the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity and risk of developing chronic disease, there has been great interest in preventing these conditions during childhood by focusing on healthy lifestyle habits, including nutritious eating and physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between PA, body mass index (BMI) and food choices in adolescent males and females. This cross-sectional study, using a survey questionnaire, evaluated 1212 Southern Californian adolescents' self-reported PA, BMI and food frequency. Results revealed that even though males are more active than females, they have higher BMI percentile values (p teens consumed red meat, processed meat and cheese more frequently than healthy weight teens (p teens. These results demonstrate that higher levels of PA may not counteract an unhealthy diet. Even though PA provides numerous metabolic and health benefits, this study suggests that healthy food choices may have a protective effect against overweight and obesity. Healthy food choices, along with PA, should be advocated to improve adolescent health by encouraging maintenance of a healthy weight into adulthood.
Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte
BACKGROUND: Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving...... inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives....... these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle...
Hung, Dorothy Y; Glasgow, Russell E; Dickinson, L Miriam; Froshaug, Desireé B; Fernald, Douglas H; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Green, Larry A
The chronic care model (CCM) is a system-level framework used to guide quality improvement efforts in health care. However, little is known about its relationship to patient-level health measures. This study describes the implementation of the CCM as adapted for prevention and health behavior counseling in primary care practices, and examines relationships between the CCM and patient health measures, including general health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Baseline data from Round 2 of the Prescription for Health initiative (2005-2007) were used to assess CCM implementation in 57 practices located nationwide. Relationships between the CCM and three separate measures of health among 4735 patients were analyzed in 2007. A hierarchical generalized linear modeling approach to ordinal regression was used to estimate categories of general health status, unhealthy days, and activity-limiting days, adjusting for patient covariates and clustering effects. Outcome variances were significantly accounted for by differences in practice characteristics (pPractices that used individual or group planned visits were more likely to see patients in lower health categories across all measures (OR=0.74-0.81, pPractices that used patient registries, health promotion champions, evidence-based guidelines, publicly reported performance measures, and support for behavior change were associated with higher patient health levels (OR=1.28-1.98, ppractice's implementation of the CCM was significantly related to patient health status and HRQOL. Adapting the CCM for prevention may serve to reorient care delivery toward more proactive behavior change and improvements in patient health outcomes.
Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S
The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors
Bosco, Maria Giuseppina; Salerno, Silvana
Psychological violence in the workplaces is increasing and the Italian national health service and trade unions are mostly involved in single cases of diagnosis strategy. To analyse published mobbing cases using a mobbing prevention approach that takes account of the main civil rights violation in mobbing actions. 25 cases were analysed in order to identify the type of mobbing, gender, the professional position and the main civil rights that were violated. Seven main civil rights had been violated in the 25 mobbing cases: health, work, professional skills, equal treatment, legality, diversity, dignity. Men working in unhealthy conditions, mostly due to unhealthy working environments, were forced to leave under the pressure of moral violence. In women, equal treatment and diversity were the main rights that were violated. Co-worker support was absent in all cases. A civil rights assessment to prevent mobbing is considered. Italian legislation, particularly the Civil Code, can be the legislation key for prevention, with the employer responsible for providing a violence-free environment as indicated in European Directive 626/94.
Howell, Jennifer L.; Koudenburg, Namkje; Loschelder, David D.
Social connections are essential to health and well-being. However, when pursing social acceptance, people may sometimes engage in behavior that is detrimental to their health. Using a multi-time-point design, we examined whether the structure of an emerging network of students in an academic sum...
Moore, Susan Fordney
The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…
Maria Helena Ruzany
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a ocorrência de situações de violência no cotidiano de adolescentes e jovens de comunidades de baixa renda; pesquisar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamentos de risco de DST/AIDS; e verificar se a violência nas relações afetivas entre adolescentes e jovens dificulta a prevenção de DST/AIDS. MÉTODOS: estudo epidemiológico com adolescentes e jovens de dois bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, a partir dos dados obtidos de um questionário estruturado que versava sobre perfil da clientela, informações sobre a família, uso de drogas, situações de violência do cotidiano, experiência sexual, entre outras. Para o presente artigo, somente as variáveis que particularizavam agressividade, uso de drogas, comportamentos sexuais de risco e violência nas relações afetivas foram analisadas. Em particular, destacou-se a associação da variável "eu usei camisinha na última relação sexual" com as questões que indicavam ou não atitudes violentas nas relações afetivas. RESULTADOS: participaram 1.041 indivíduos na faixa etária entre 14 e 22 anos, sendo 53,6% do sexo feminino. Entre os resultados mais relevantes, observou-se uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre o não uso de preservativo (pOBJECTIVES: to identify violent situations in the daily life of adolescents and young people of low-income communities; to establish a relation between the use of drugs and STD/AIDS risk behavior; and to verify if violence in the emotional relationships between adolescents and young people make the STD/AIDS prevention more difficult. METHOD: epidemiological study with adolescents and young people of two neighborhoods in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on the results obtained from a structured questionnaire that dealt with subjects' profile, information about the family, use of drugs, daily violent situations, sexual experience, among others. For the present article, only the variables that dealt with
Now more than ever, bullying has become common among students in American schools and playgrounds. According to the U.S. Justice Department, one in four children is bullied every day. As a result of these incidents, children may suffer from anxiety, depression, or low self-esteem. This book was written for today's parents and teachers who are…
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...
The new German prevention act attempts to deal with the influx of obesity and chronic diseases by educating and informing. It seeks to change individual behaviour and supress lifestyle-related risk factors. In the past, however this behavioural prevention strategy has proved ineffective. A structural prevention strategy, as requested by the WHO, should additionally be put into effect with measures that reach all walks of life, not just the health-conscious people in society. It proposes the following: · At least one hour of daily physical activity or sport at school and kindergarten. · A differential food tax that makes unhealthy foods more expensive and healthy foods cheaper (taxing sugary / fatty foods). · Mandatory quality standards for kindergarten and school meals. · Banning food advertising targeted at children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Relationship between a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded HIV testing initiative and past-year testing by race/ethnicity: a multilevel analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Gaines, Tommi L; Caldwell, Julia T; Ford, Chandra L; Mulatu, Mesfin S; Godette, Dionne C
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship between state-level ETI participation and past-year HIV testing among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult respondents to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System who accessed health services within the 12 months prior to being interviewed. Controlling for individual- and state-level characteristics in a multilevel logistic regression model, ETI participation was independently and positively associated with past-year testing, but this association varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanics had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11-2.02) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had lower odds (AOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) of testing if they resided in states with (vs. without) ETI participation. State-level ETI participation did not significantly alter past-year testing among other racial/ethnic groups. Prioritizing public health resources in states most affected by HIV can improve testing patterns, but other mechanisms likely influence which racial/ethnic groups undergo testing.
Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila S; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Englebert, Nicole E; Arheart, Kristopher L
To assess the impact of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention "Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children" (HC2) on dietary patterns and body mass index percentile (PBMI) over 2 school years. Randomized controlled trial. Childcare centers. Low-income families. Intervention centers (N = 12) received HC2 which consisted of (1) menu modifications, (2) a healthy eating and physical activity curriculum for children, and (3) a parent curriculum for healthy meal preparation, reinforced through a role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an injury prevention/safety intervention. Child PBMI and parent report of child's consumption of fruits/vegetables and unhealthy food. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the psychometric properties of factor scores for children's consumption of fruits/vegetables and unhealthy food. Growth curve analysis assessed the impact of HC2 on change in consumption of fruits/vegetables and unhealthy food and PBMI over 2 school years. Children in the intervention group (n = 754) had a negative slope (β = -1.95, standard error [SE] = 0.97, P = .04), indicating less increase in PBMI versus control children (n = 457). Stratified analyses showed that obese children in the intervention arm had a significantly higher increase in fruit/vegetable consumption versus control group obese children (β = 0.24, SE = 0.08, P = .003). The HC2 intervention resulted in the maintenance of healthy PBMI over 2 preschool years among low-income multiethnic children. These findings support efforts to implement healthy weight programs in the childcare setting.
Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...
Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...
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... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...
Full Text Available Nowadays many research dealing with the food consumer behavior and its relationship with health status of population, thus the demand of pharmaceutical market. It is well known that cardiovascular diseases such as ischaemic heart diseases are the most common cause of the early and suddenly mortality. The higher level of pharmaceutical preventive technologies may result partly that fewer people need to consume heart medicines due to the healthy diet, on the other hand that the therapies can keep low the heart mortality rate inside of all mortality. Effectiveness of medicine treating heart diseases is not same in the examined OECD countries, which can also be traced back to different food consumption due to the same forms of treatment and the risks of the disease between regions. The examined OECD countries were selected based on consumer data availability. The target of analysis is to research the relationship between the „ineffectiveness” of heart medicine consumption (via the heart mortality data and the health awareness in food consumption that also shows the subjective utility of preventive health services. During the examination of preventive services market it could be consider only costumer decisions those motivate effort to realize and maximize health utility that can obtain by reducing the objective likelihood of later illness (prevention defined by the reduction of influenced risk factors. For this it has to be eliminated the impact of all factors in consumption those are not associated with health consciousness – calculation of price and income flexibility serve it. Every nutritional culture considered unhealthy or incorrect, which exceeds the critical values expressed in dietetics recommendations. The data described in a 2 dimensional diagrams, and between diagrams the distances from reference country data to data of another country examine with correlation coefficient. It can conclude there is a strongest connection between the
Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and great advertising of high calorie junk foodstuffs cause the change of the nutritional pattern of children and adolescents. This study has been carried out with this objective: determining the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in the elementary students in Kermanshah City in 2015-2016. This research is a quasi-experimental study. Research setting was the primary schools in Kermanshah city. Sampling was conducted in multi-stage random method. Three hundred and fourteen female and male students were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups of Case and Control. The data collection tool in this study was a questionnaire. Status of snacks consumption among students in both study groups was examined after four weeks. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used in order to analyze data. Before intervention, there were no significant differences between two groups of case and control. The average grades of the theory of planned behavior structures have increased in case group after intervention and it shows a significant difference (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in each structure in control group after intervention. The results indicate the positive effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in elementary students. Theory-based educational intervention has also increased students’ willingness to consume healthy snacks.
Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik
This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...
Pistole, M. Carole
Efforts to prevent unintended teen pregnancy seem to have ignored emotional motivations in romantic relationships. Proposes a model that may provide mental-health counselors with a theoretical-research base for interventions and programming designed to enhance teens' romantic relationships while simultaneously preventing unwanted consequences such…
Abdi A. Gele
Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in some immigrant and refugee communities in Norway, there is very little information available on their utilization of diabetes prevention interventions, particularly for women from Somali immigrant communities. A qualitative study of 30 Somali immigrant women aged 25 years and over was carried out in the Oslo area. Unstructured interviews were used to explore women’s knowledge of diabetes, their access to preventive health facilities, and factors impeding their reception of preventive health programs targeted for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study participants were found to have a good knowledge of diabetes. They knew that a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are among the risk factors for diabetes. Regardless of their knowledge, participants reported a sedentary lifestyle accompanied with the consumption of an unhealthy diet. This was attributed to a lack of access to tailored physical activity services and poor access to health information. Considering gender-exclusive training facilities for Somali immigrant women and others with similar needs, in addition to access to tailored health information on diet, may encourage Somali women to adopt a healthy lifestyle, and it will definitely contribute to a national strategy for the prevention of diabetes.
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Full Text Available Background. The noncommunicable disease (NCDs are very common among population around the world. They are the main cause of preventable mortality, cause temporary and permanent disability. NCDs are the major reason for attending for medical care and lead to economic losses. The implementations of preventive strategy, increasing the role of preventive measures are general tasks for all health care system. The analysis of trends of preventive measure for NCD nowadays is the aim of this research. Materials and methods. The study included the result of analysis of science publication and WHO database about NCD and preventive measure used as well as the results of the analysis of data of the Center for Statistics in Medicine of MoH of Ukraine. Results. Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases are the major NCDs. The base factors which lead to NCD are behavioral risk factors, namely tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and alcohol abuse. The WHO prepared a lot of documents, among which the most significant are the strategies on noncommunicable diseases prevention, convention against smoking, strategy on diet and physical activity, global strategy on reducing alcohol abusing and so on. Nowadays the world population follows Global Action Plan for Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases for 2013–2020. The documents emphasize the importance of state support, the use of scientific potential and intersectoral interaction to effectively combat noncommunicable diseases. The major of scientific direction are NCD monitoring, detection of the determinant of NCD development and making strategy for usage it in conditions of limited resources. The role of Digital marketing today increases that leads to the acquisition and consolidation of the habits and behavior of modern youth. Internet marketing is very effective to form unhealthy food behavior in children and adolescents that requires adequate and urgent actions. The
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV. Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 2/1/2012.
Full Text Available There is evidence that food outlet access differs according to level of neighbourhood deprivation but little is known about how individual circumstances affect associations between food outlet access and diet. This study explored the relationship between dietary quality and a measure of overall food environment, representing the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlet access in individualised activity spaces. Furthermore, this study is the first to assess effect modification of level of educational attainment on this relationship. A total of 839 mothers with young children from Hampshire, United Kingdom (UK completed a cross-sectional survey including a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to measure diet and questions about demographic characteristics and frequently visited locations including home, children's centre, general practitioner, work, main food shop and physical activity location. Dietary information was used to calculate a standardised dietary quality score for each mother. Individualised activity spaces were produced by creating a 1000m buffer around frequently visited locations using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid onto activity spaces to derive an overall food environment score for each mother. These scores represented the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlets using weightings to characterise the proportion of healthy or unhealthy foods sold in each outlet type. Food outlet access was dominated by the presence of unhealthy food outlets; only 1% of mothers were exposed to a healthy overall food environment in their daily activities. Level of educational attainment moderated the relationship between overall food environment and diet (mid vs low, p = 0.06; high vs low, p = 0.04. Adjusted stratified linear regression analyses showed poorer food environments were associated with better dietary quality among mothers with degrees (β = -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.001 and a tendency
Vogel, Christina; Lewis, Daniel; Ntani, Georgia; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis
There is evidence that food outlet access differs according to level of neighbourhood deprivation but little is known about how individual circumstances affect associations between food outlet access and diet. This study explored the relationship between dietary quality and a measure of overall food environment, representing the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlet access in individualised activity spaces. Furthermore, this study is the first to assess effect modification of level of educational attainment on this relationship. A total of 839 mothers with young children from Hampshire, United Kingdom (UK) completed a cross-sectional survey including a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to measure diet and questions about demographic characteristics and frequently visited locations including home, children's centre, general practitioner, work, main food shop and physical activity location. Dietary information was used to calculate a standardised dietary quality score for each mother. Individualised activity spaces were produced by creating a 1000m buffer around frequently visited locations using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid onto activity spaces to derive an overall food environment score for each mother. These scores represented the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlets using weightings to characterise the proportion of healthy or unhealthy foods sold in each outlet type. Food outlet access was dominated by the presence of unhealthy food outlets; only 1% of mothers were exposed to a healthy overall food environment in their daily activities. Level of educational attainment moderated the relationship between overall food environment and diet (mid vs low, p = 0.06; high vs low, p = 0.04). Adjusted stratified linear regression analyses showed poorer food environments were associated with better dietary quality among mothers with degrees (β = -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.001) and a tendency toward poorer
Full Text Available Overweight in children is more prevalent than ever before. What can parents do to try to promote health and prevent obesity in their own children? The present paper reviews research related to parenting and childhood obesity. The review describes what food-related parenting practices may be helpful: modeling healthy eating behaviors, making time for family meals, making sure healthy food is available and accessible, becoming aware of appropriate portion sizes, encouraging children to eat breakfast, and limiting soda and fast food intake. The paper also discusses food-related parenting practices that may not work to help prevent obesity: pressure to eat, food rewards, restriction, permissiveness, and modeling of unhealthy eating behaviors. Additional parenting practices such as supporting and engaging in physical activity, encouraging an adequate amount of sleep, and limiting television and other screen-media may also help children to maintain healthy weights. Suggestions are also given for professionals working with youth.
Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes
Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college stu...
Larsen, Morten H
Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already
The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…
Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...
CDCâs Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it. Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB). Date Released: 8/6/2015.
... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...
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This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...
This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness ("open expression", "control of emotion", "consideration for others" and "self-direction") and mental health. In Study 1, the analysis of interviews with thirteen high school students suggested that some components did not have a positive relationship with mental health. In Study 2, 176 high school students completed a questionnaire which included the UCLA isolation scale, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and a scale to measure the four components of assertiveness. The results showed that an excessively high score for "consideration for others" was associated with mental unhealthiness. This component probably has an optimum level to maintain mental health.
Pâmela Ferreira Todendi
Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J
Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Accuracy of the Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ACASI ASSIST) for identifying unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders in primary care patients.
Kumar, Pritika C; Cleland, Charles M; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rotrosen, John; Strauss, Shiela; Russell, Linnea; McNeely, Jennifer
An Audio Computer-assisted Self Interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) could reduce barriers to substance use screening and assessment in primary care settings. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an ACASI ASSIST for identification of unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). 399 adult patients were consecutively recruited from an urban safety-net primary care clinic. ACASI ASSIST scores for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine were compared against reference standard measures to assess the instrument's diagnostic accuracy for identifying unhealthy use and SUD, first using empirically-derived optimal cutoffs, and second using the currently recommended ASSIST cutoffs. For identifying any unhealthy use, at the empirically-derived cutoffs the ACASI ASSIST had 93.6% sensitivity and 85.8% specificity (AUC=0.90) for tobacco, 85.9% sensitivity and 60.3% specificity (AUC=0.73), for alcohol in men, 100% sensitivity and 62.4% specificity (AUC=0.81) for alcohol in women, 94.6% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity (AUC=0.88) for marijuana, and 86.1% sensitivity, 84.0% specificity (AUC=0.85) for cocaine. For SUD, sensitivity ranged from 79% (for alcohol in males), to 100% (for tobacco), and specificity was 83% or higher (AUCs ranged 0.83-0.91). For substances other than tobacco, empirically-derived cutoff scores were lower than the standard cutoffs, and resulted in higher sensitivity and lower specificity for identifying unhealthy substance use. The ACASI ASSIST is a valid measure of unhealthy use and SUD for substances that are commonly used by primary care patients, and could facilitate effective and efficient screening for substance use in medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven
Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Obesity prevention research since the 1970's represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions. We propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes.
Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten
The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.
Eslami, Solat; Barzgari, Zahra; Saliani, Negar; Saeedi, Nazli; Barzegari, Abolfazl
Essentially, people's diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF) before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.
Scott, Stephanie; Reilly, Jessica; Giles, Emma L; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Ells, Louisa; Kaner, Eileen; Adamson, Ashley
Excess body weight and risky alcohol consumption are two of the greatest contributors to global disease. Health behaviours cluster in adolescence and track to adulthood. Very little is known about similar and contrasting influences on young people's eating behaviours and alcohol use. Whilst there are bodies of literature which explore the influences on young people's eating behaviour and alcohol consumption respectively, no qualitative studies have been identified with an explicit and concurrent focus on adolescent eating behaviours and alcohol consumption. This review will identify and synthesise qualitative research evidence to provide insight into common underlying factors which influence alcohol use and unhealthy eating behaviours amongst young people aged 10-17. This will involve bringing together two separate bodies of literature to enable analysis and comparison across two associated fields of study. We will conduct searches in MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts (via ProQuest social science premium collection), CINAHL, ERIC, IBSS (via ProQuest social science premium collection), ASSIA (via ProQuest social science premium collection), and Web of Science Core Collection. Studies reporting primary data of any qualitative design, for example, ethnographic studies, studies that used a phenomenological or grounded theory approach, or participatory action research will be included in the review. Database searches will be supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals, and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Search records will be independently screened by two researchers, with full text copies of potentially relevant papers retrieved for in-depth review against the inclusion criteria. Reporting of identified studies will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Qualitative Research Checklist. GRADE-CERQual will also be used to assess confidence in the
Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David
Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)
Knee, C Raymond; Canevello, Amy; Bush, Amber L; Cook, Astrid
Relationship-contingent self-esteem (RCSE) emerges from perspectives on authenticity, need fulfillment, and relationship functioning and is an unhealthy form of self-esteem that depends on one's relationship. Four studies provided evidence of convergent, discriminant, incremental, and predictive validity for RCSE. Study 1 tested associations between RCSE and several conceptually related and unrelated constructs in multiple samples. In Study 2, the authors employed an event-contingent diary procedure to examine reports of self-esteem as a function of everyday relationship events. The association between event valence and changes in self-esteem became stronger with RCSE, and this interaction remained controlling for several parallel interactions by other constructs. Study 3 employed an interval-contingent diary procedure and found support for a mediation model in which the moderating role of RCSE largely occurred through momentary emotions, which in turn predicted momentary self-esteem. Study 4 sampled couples and found that partners who were both higher in RCSE felt more committed but not more satisfied or close.
Speed, Kelsey A; Meyer, Samantha B; Hanning, Rhona M; Majowicz, Shannon E
Food insecurity and foodborne disease are important issues in Canada, and the public health actions taken to address them can be conceptualized as factors shaping the food environment. Given emerging evidence that these two areas may interrelate, the objective of this study was to explore ways in which community food security efforts and food safety practices (and the population health issues they aim to address) may intersect in British Columbia, Canada, and interpret what this might mean for conceptualizing and attaining healthier food environments. We conducted 14 key informant interviews with practitioners working in community food security and food safety in British Columbia, and used qualitative descriptive analysis to identify examples of intersections between the sectors. Participants identified four key ways that the two sectors intersect. They identified (1) how their daily practices to promote safe or healthy food could be helped or hindered by the activities of the other sector; (2) that historically disjointed policies that do not consider multiple health outcomes related to food may complicate the interrelationship; (3) that the relationship of these sectors is also affected by the fact that specific types of food products, such as fresh produce, can be considered both risky and beneficial; and (4) that both sectors are working towards the same goal of improved population health, albeit viewing it through slightly different lenses. Food security and food safety connect in several ways, with implications for characterizing and improving Canadian food environments. Collaboration across separated public health areas related to food is needed when designing new programs or policies aimed at changing the way Canadians eat.
Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E
Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.
This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs
Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Page, Rachel; Matheson, Anna; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Mishra, Shiva Raj
Developing countries such as Nepal are experiencing a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) resulting in social and economic losses. In Nepal, more than half of the disease burden is due to NCDs. The major NCDs in Nepal are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Behavioural factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are driving the epidemic of NCDs, which are further influenced by social, economic and environmental determinants. The health system of Nepal has not been able to address the ever-increasing burden of NCDs. With the formulation of the Multisectoral Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCDs 2014-2020, there has been some hope for tackling the NCDs and their social determinants in Nepal through a primary prevention approach. This paper discusses the systemic challenges and recommends two key actions for the prevention and control of NCDs in Nepal.
Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias; Rowlands, Gill
Individuals with a lower education level frequently have unhealthier behaviors than individuals with a higher education level, but the pathway is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health literacy mediates the association between educational attainment and health...... between educational attainment and health behavior, especially in relation to being physically inactive (accounting for 20% of the variance), having a poor diet (accounting for 13% of the variance), and being obese (accounting for 16% of the variance). These findings suggest that strategies for improving...... health behavior and reducing health inequalities may benefit from adopting a stronger focus on health literacy within prevention, patient education, and other public health interventions....
Whalen, Rosa; Harrold, Joanne; Child, Simon; Halford, Jason; Boyland, Emma
Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts ( n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010) from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4%) to 2010 (23.2%). Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81.1% were for non-core foods. The appearance of health claims in food adverts in 2010 increased 4.1 percentage points from 2008 levels (20.7% to 24.8%) where the majority of food adverts featuring health and nutrition claims were for non-core foods (58.3%). Health-related (e.g., health/nutrition, weight loss/diet) appeals were used in 17.1% of food adverts during peak child-viewing times, rising to 33.0% of adverts shown on dedicated children's channels in 2010. Implicit (physical activity) and explicit (health claims) health messages are increasingly prevalent in UK television food advertising viewed by children, and are frequently used to promote unhealthy foods. Policy makers in the UK should consider amendments to the existing statutory approach in order to address this issue.
Full Text Available Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts (n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010 from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4% to 2010 (23.2%. Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81.1% were for non-core foods. The appearance of health claims in food adverts in 2010 increased 4.1 percentage points from 2008 levels (20.7% to 24.8% where the majority of food adverts featuring health and nutrition claims were for non-core foods (58.3%. Health-related (e.g., health/nutrition, weight loss/diet appeals were used in 17.1% of food adverts during peak child-viewing times, rising to 33.0% of adverts shown on dedicated children’s channels in 2010. Implicit (physical activity and explicit (health claims health messages are increasingly prevalent in UK television food advertising viewed by children, and are frequently used to promote unhealthy foods. Policy makers in the UK should consider amendments to the existing statutory approach in order to address this issue.
Dussaillant, Catalina; Echeverría, Guadalupe; Villarroel, Luis; Marin, Pedro Paulo; Rigotti, Attilio
metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of risk factors known to promote cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Environmental factors, such as unhealthy diet, play a major role in the development of this condition. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of MS and its association with food intake quality among Chilean adults. we analyzed data of 2 561 adults (≥ 18 years-old) included in the last National Health Survey (NHS 2009-2010) who had appropriate information to diagnose MS based on ATP III-NCEP guidelines. Consumption frequency of fish, whole grains, dairy, fruits and vegetables was also analyzed and associated with MS prevalence. Using a healthy diet score (HDS), we described the overall diet quality and further correlated it with MS prevalence. we found that lower whole grain intake was associated with greater MS prevalence (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.088-2.919; p = 0.022). HDS showed better diet quality among women and in subjects with increasing age and higher educational level. A HDS Chilean adult population exhibits a high prevalence of MS linked to a poor diet quality. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Truncali, Andrea; Lee, Joshua D; Ark, Tavinder K; Gillespie, Colleen; Triola, Marc; Hanley, Kathleen; Gourevitch, Marc N; Kalet, Adina L
The authors developed and evaluated an interactive, Web-based module to train medical students in screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use. First-year students were randomized to module versus lecture. Change in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence were compared. Performance was assessed by objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and analyzed by intention to treat and treatment received. Of 141 consenting students, 64% (n = 90) completed an intervention (54% lecture vs. 70% Web assigned). Knowledge, confidence, and attitudes improved in both groups, with more improvement in Advise-Assist knowledge for Web students (14% vs. -3%, p = .003). Web students outperformed their lecture peers in both general communication (65% vs. 51% items well done, p = .004) and alcohol-specific tasks (54% vs. 41%, p = .021) on OSCE. Analysis by treatment received enhanced between-group differences. Use of a Web-based module to teach SBI is associated with greater knowledge gain and skills performance compared with a lecture covering similar content. The module provides an efficient means for training in this area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Folkvord, Frans; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Bogliacino, Francesco; Veltri, Giuseppe; Gaskell, George
The weight of evidence points to the advertising of food affecting food consumption, especially among children. Such advertising often promotes unhealthy foods. Current policy deliberations focus on developing effective 'protective' messages to increase advertising literacy and consequent scepticism about advertising targeting children. This study examined whether incorporating a 'protective' message in an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks would reduce children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted in the Netherlands (N = 215) and Spain (N = 382) with an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. The results showed that playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks increased caloric intake in both countries, irrespective of whether the 'protective' message was present or not. These results point to the limitations of 'protective' messages and advertising literacy and provide policy makers with a rationale for extending the current prohibition of food advertising to young children in the terrestrial media to online environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Ruengdej, Praewrapee
Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies ( n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity.
Potvin Kent, Monique; Pauzé, Elise
To assess the effectiveness of the self-regulatory Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) in limiting advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages on children's preferred websites in Canada. Design/Setting/Subjects Syndicated Internet advertising exposure data were used to identify the ten most popular websites for children (aged 2-11 years) and determine the frequency of food/beverage banner and pop-up ads on these websites from June 2015 to May 2016. Nutrition information for advertised products was collected and their nutrient content per 100 g was calculated. Nutritional quality of all food/beverage ads was assessed using the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and UK Nutrient Profile Models (NPM). Nutritional quality of CAI and non-CAI company ads was compared using χ 2 analyses and independent t tests. About 54 million food/beverage ads were viewed on children's preferred websites from June 2015 to May 2016. Most (93·4 %) product ads were categorized as excessive in fat, Na or free sugars as per the PAHO NPM and 73·8 % were deemed less healthy according to the UK NPM. CAI-company ads were 2·2 times more likely (OR; 99 % CI) to be excessive in at least one nutrient (2·2; 2·1, 2·2, Padvertising on children's preferred websites in Canada. Mandatory regulations are needed.
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Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose
The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…
Hall, S M; Wasserman, D A; Havassy, B E
Although knowledge about relapse prevention is still at an early stage, the extant data highlight the importance of several constructs. 1. Motivation for abstinence remains central. The construct itself is often clouded because of its association with mystical notions such as willpower and self-control. We know that manipulation of environmental events can increase motivation. These interventions are effective, however, only as long as the contingencies are in effect. We need to develop and evaluate strategies for transferring contingency management to the natural environment, that is, to institutions and groups that can perpetuate them for the long term. Also, clarification of the kinds of abstinence goals needed to prevent relapse is important. 2. Coping skills have been studied by several investigators, but research on these, except for job-finding skills, is not encouraging. The skills usually taught may be too basic. Skills training oriented to complex targets, such as building nondrug-using networks, may be useful and should be further explored. 3. Social support is clearly important, yet we do not know how best to use it to promote abstinence. The little research available suggests that both familial and nonfamilial systems should be mobilized. We need to define abstinence-promoting supportive behaviors, identify and engage important support systems in treatment, and help patients expand their nondrug-using contacts. 4. Negative affect may be causally related to relapse. We need to continue efforts to identify dysphoric patients and develop interventions to ameliorate dysphoria concurrent with drug abuse treatment (cf. Zweben and Smith 1989). 5. Drug cue reactivity and extinction to drug cues have been demonstrated in the laboratory. What is needed in this promising line of research are (1) investigation of cues and cue-reactivity phenomena in the natural environment or in conditions closely mimicking that environment and (2) extinction methods that transfer
Roberti, Joseph V.
Notes that the derivative of the area of a circle yields the circumference and the derivative of the volume of a sphere yields the surface area. Explores where these or other such relationships are generalizable. (PK)
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Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness- preliminary study.
Petrescu, C M; Gheorghe, I R; Petrescu, G D
In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. The panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non-alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. After applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health behavior.
Magriplis, Emmanuela; Farajian, Paul; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Risvas, Grigoris; Zampelas, Antonis
Numerous factors have been associated with the increase in childhood overweight and obesity, including environmental, dietary and behavioral. The latter have been associated with unhealthy eating behaviors but studies of their relation to dietary patterns are limited. Dietary patterns serve as a better means to evaluate children's diet and risk of obesity and therefore the aim of the study was to examine the relationship of behavioral factors with a specific dietary pattern developed for children (child derived Food Index (cdFI)), and to assess how behavioral and diet are related to children's weight status when addressed together in a model. Study included school-aged children (n = 4434) from the Greek Childhood Obesity study (GRECO), a cross-sectional survey. Participants self-reported behavioral habits and dietary intake, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A high dietary pattern-cdFI is related to a healthier dietary pattern. Anthropometric data were measured. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed, adjusting for age and gender. The dietary pattern was positively associated with sleep, family meals and study hours, and was inversely associated with total screen time, frequency of eating out and eating while on some screen. Overweight and obese children were more likely to have a lower cdFI score (2%), sleep less (8%) and report more study hours (6%). In order to reduce and prevent child overweight and obesity, interventions probably need to address specific behavioral and dietary patterns together. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS
Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; López-Guimerà, Gemma
The serious consequences of obesity and eating disorders (ED), difficulties encountered in treatment and the high prevalence of these conditions are important reasons to develop efforts aimed at their prevention. The implementation of integrated interventions aimed at preventing risk factors for both obesity and ED constitutes a very exciting development. In the present paper we discuss and review the main reasons for an integrated approach to the spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anorexic and bulimic behaviours, unhealthy dieting practices, body dissatisfaction, binge-eating disorder, overweight and obesity. Given differences between the fields with regard to current perspectives and objectives, key barriers to an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. In order to show the possibilities of development of this approach, we review the main contributions made to date in the fields of both obesity and ED prevention. In particular, environmental approaches in the prevention of obesity and ED are reviewed, given their potential for preventing a broad spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems. Furthermore, several examples of initiatives that have utilized an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. Narrative review. We recommend a scenario in which the two fields share knowledge to enhance the difficult work of preventing and treating both ED and obesity.
Boals, Adriel; Vandellen, Michelle R; Banks, Jonathan B
Trait self-control is related to a number of positive outcomes, including mental health, interpersonal success, academic success and health-related behaviours. This study sought to explore the relationships between self-control, reports of mental and physical health symptoms and coping styles. The results revealed that higher self-control was related to fewer mental and physical health symptoms and less avoidance coping. There was not a significant relationship between self-control and problem-focused or emotion-focused coping styles. Further, the relationships between self-control and mental and physical health outcomes were partially mediated by avoidance coping style. Specifically, the data suggest lower self-control is associated with unhealthy coping strategies (avoidance coping), which in turn are associated with worse mental health outcomes and greater reports of physical health symptoms. Thus lower trait self-control can serve as an indicator, suggesting circumstances in which individuals' tendencies to engage in unhealthy coping strategies are increased. These findings add to a growing body of literature underscoring the importance of trait self-control.