WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent subsequent exposure

  1. How can you prevent falls and subsequent fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Jacqueline C T

    2013-12-01

    Over the years, a number of strategies have been investigated to prevent falls in older people in a number of settings. Over 200 randomised controlled trials now exist, and the challenge for the discerning clinician is to read and interpret the existing literature so as to be able to implement effective strategies, targeting the right individual with the right intervention. This chapter reviews the current literature and attempts to simplify what has become an enormously complex area. Interventions are reviewed in three main settings - community, hospital and care facilities and based on the type of approach - single, multiple or multifactorial interventions. It also considers the reality in which we practise and provides some 'best bets' to consider at this point in time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventing exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia; Lam, Tai Hing

    2003-11-01

    To report the effectiveness of a health education intervention provided by nurses to prevent second-hand smoke exposure in sick children in Hong Kong. A clinical trial, international and national government reports, and research studies. Exposure to second-hand smoke is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nursing interventions to reduce exposure are critical and need further study. Nurses are in a vital position to carry out health education about the health risks associated with second-hand smoke exposure and to protect the child from such exposure.

  3. Evaluation of an integrated services program to prevent subsequent pregnancy and birth among urban teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Loral; Letourneau, Kathryn; Berggren, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This article details the evaluation of a clinical services program for teen mothers in the District of Columbia. The program's primary objectives are to prevent unintended subsequent pregnancy and to promote contraceptive utilization. We calculated contraceptive utilization at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery, as well as occurrence of subsequent pregnancy and birth. Nearly seven in ten (69.5%) teen mothers used contraception at 24 months after delivery, and 57.1% of contraceptive users elected long-acting reversible contraception. In the 24-month follow-up period, 19.3% experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy and 8.0% experienced a subsequent birth. These results suggest that an integrated clinical services model may contribute to sustained contraceptive use and may prove beneficial in preventing subsequent teen pregnancy and birth.

  4. The Consequences of Subsequent Exposures of Mild and Moderate Hypoxia on the Flight Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Although the deficits associated with mild hypoxia are relatively minor, even subtle impairments in vision, procedural execution, reasoning, or memory ...Raman, A., Schlader, Z., & Mundel, T. (2014). Effect of Mild Hypoxia on Working Memory , Complex Logical Reasoning, and Risk Judgment. The...Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton THE CONSEQUENCES OF SUBSEQUENT EXPOSURES OF MILD AND MODERATE HYPOXIA ON THE FLIGHT PROFILE

  5. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Methods and Results: Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa, and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population stru...

  6. Childhood Thyroid Radioiodine Exposure and Subsequent Infertility in the Intermountain Fallout Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L.; VanDerslice, James A.; Alder, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Above-ground and underground nuclear weapon detonation at the Nevada Test Site (1951–1992) has resulted in radioiodine exposure for nearby populations. Although the long-term effect of environmental radioiodine exposure on thyroid disease has been well studied, little is known regarding the effect of childhood radioiodine exposure on subsequent fertility. Objectives: We investigated early childhood thyroid radiation exposure from nuclear testing fallout (supplied predominantly by radioactive isotopes of iodine) and self-reported lifetime incidence of male or female infertility or sterility. Methods: Participants were members of the 1965 Intermountain Fallout Cohort, schoolchildren at the time of exposure who were reexamined during two subsequent study phases to collect dietary and reproductive histories. Thyroid radiation exposure was calculated via an updated dosimetry model. We used multivariable logistic regression with robust sandwich estimators to estimate odds ratios for infertility, adjusted for potential confounders and (in separate models) for a medically confirmed history of thyroid disease. Results: Of 1,389 participants with dosimetry and known fertility history, 274 were classified as infertile, including 30 classified as sterile. Childhood thyroid radiation dose was possibly associated with infertility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.67 and AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.90 for the middle and upper tertiles vs. the first tertile of exposure, respectively]. The odds ratios were attenuated (AOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.55 and AOR = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.83 for the middle and upper tertiles, respectively) after adjusting for thyroid disease. There was no association of childhood radiation dose and sterility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that childhood radioiodine exposure from nuclear testing may be related to subsequent adult infertility. Further research is required to confirm this. PMID:23099433

  7. Effects of perinatal daidzein exposure on subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α expression in the adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjun; Tai, Fadao; Zeng, Shuangyan; Zhang, Xia

    2013-06-03

    Daidzein is one of the most important isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The potential role of daidzein in the prevention of some chronic diseases has drawn public attention and increased its consumption in human, including in pregnant women and adolescent. It is unclear whether perinatal exposure to daidzein through maternal diets affects subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in male adults. Following developmental exposure to daidzein through maternal diets during perinatal period, subsequent anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, spatial learning and memory of male mice at adulthood were assessed using a series of tests. The levels of central ER α expression were also examined using immunocytochemistry. Compared with the controls, adult male mice exposed to daidzein during the perinatal period showed significantly less exploration, higher levels of anxiety and aggression. They also displayed more social investigation for females and a tendency to improve spatial learning and memory. The mice with this early daidzein treatment demonstrated significantly higher levels of ERα expression in several brain regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and central amygdaloid mucleus, but decreased it in the lateral septum. Our results indicated that perinatal exposure to daidzein enhanced masculinization on male behaviors which is assocciated with alterations in ERα expression levels led by perinatal daidzein exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of Carbon Monoxide Exposure During Hurricane Sandy and Subsequent Nor'easter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Amy; Law, Royal; Heinzerling, Amy; Sircar, Kanta; Damon, Scott; Yip, Fuyuen; Schier, Josh; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures. This report combined data from 3 separate sources (health departments, poison centers via the National Poison Data System, and state and local public information officers). Results indicated that the number of CO exposures in the wake of Hurricane Sandy was significantly greater than in previous years. The persons affected were mostly females and those in younger age categories and, despite messaging, most CO exposures occurred from improper generator use. Our findings emphasize the continued importance of CO-related communication and ongoing surveillance of CO exposures to support public health response and prevention during and after disasters. Additionally, regional poison centers can be a critical resource for potential on-site management, public health promotion, and disaster-related CO exposure surveillance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:562-567).

  9. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of morphine exposure and subsequent morphine consumption in postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Nyberg, Joakim; Lund, Trine Meldgaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship between exposure of morphine and subsequent morphine consumption and to develop simulation tools for model validation. Methods Dose, formulation and time of morphine administration was available from a published study...... in 63 patients receiving intravenous, oral immediate release or oral controlled release morphine on request after hip surgery. The PK-PD relationship between predicted exposure of morphine and morphine consumption was modeled using repeated time to event (RTTE) modeling in NONMEM. To validate the RTTE...... model, a visual predictive check method was developed with simulated morphine consumption given the exposure of preceding morphine administration. Results The probability of requesting morphine was found to be significantly related to the exposure of morphine as well as night/day. Oral controlled...

  10. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqi Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K three times; continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE and total sleep time (TST. Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  11. Holocaust exposure and subsequent suicide risk: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine; Levav, Itzhak; Levine, Stephen Z

    2017-03-01

    To examine the association between the extent of genocide exposure and subsequent suicide risk among Holocaust survivors. Persons born in Holocaust-exposed European countries during the years 1922-1945 that immigrated to Israel by 1965 were identified in the Population Registry (N = 209,429), and followed up for suicide (1950-2014). They were divided into three groups based on likely exposure to Nazi persecution: those who immigrated before (indirect; n = 20,229; 10%), during (partial direct; n = 17,189; 8%), and after (full direct; n = 172,061; 82%) World War II. Groups were contrasted for suicide risk, accounting for the extent of genocide in their respective countries of origin, high (>70%) or lower levels (Holocaust survivors (full direct exposure) as a resilient group. A tentative mechanism for higher vulnerability to suicide risk of the partial direct exposure group from countries with higher genocide exposure includes protracted guilt feelings, having directly witnessed atrocities and escaped death.

  12. Fermentation and microbial population dynamics during the ensiling of native grass and subsequent exposure to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Wu, Baiyila; Nishino, Naoki; Wang, Xianguo; Yu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    To study the microbial population and fermentation dynamics of large needlegrass (LN) and Chinese leymus (CL) during ensiling and subsequent exposure to air, silages were sampled and analyzed using culture-based techniques and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 112 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated and identified using the 16S rRNA sequencing method. Lactic acid was not detected in the first 20 days in LN silage and the pH decreased to 6.13 after 45 days of ensiling. The temperature of the LN silage increased after approximately 30 h of air exposure and the CL silage showed a slight temperature variation. Enterococcus spp. were mainly present in LN silage. The proportion of Lactobacillus brevis in CL silage increased after exposure to air. LN silage with a higher proportion of Enterococcus spp. and propionic acid concentration did not show higher fermentation quality or aerobic stability than CL silage, which had a higher concentration of acetic acid, butyric acid and increased proportion of L. brevis after exposure to air. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Faupel-Badger

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP, a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI: 1.91-13.0 were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2. In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly.

  14. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, J A; Franco, R B; Palumbo, J D; Hnasko, R; Stanker, L; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-06-01

    To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population structures compared using 16S rRNA gene libraries containing approximately 1900 sequences each. Cultural and chemical analyses were also performed to complement the 16S gene sequence data. Sequence analysis revealed significant differences (P alfalfa-derived library contained mostly sequences associated with the Gammaproteobacteria (including the genera: Enterobacter, Erwinia and Pantoea); the ensiled material contained mostly sequences associated with the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (including the genera: Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Lactococcus). Exposure to air resulted in even greater percentages of LAB, especially among the genus Lactobacillus, and a significant drop in bacterial diversity. In-depth 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed significant bacterial population structure changes during ensiling and again during exposure to air. This in-depth description of the bacterial population dynamics that occurred during ensiling and simulated feed out expands our knowledge of these processes. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to US Government works.

  15. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Orrock

    Full Text Available Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered.

  16. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered.

  17. Melatonin prevents postovulatory oocyte aging and promotes subsequent embryonic development in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Gao, Ying-Ying; Chen, Li; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Schatten, Heide; Zhang, Xia; Miao, Yi-Liang

    2017-06-26

    Oxidative stress is known as a major contributing factor involved in oocyte aging, which negatively affects oocyte quality and development after fertilization. Melatonin is an effective free radical scavenger and its metabolites AFMK and AMK are powerful detoxifiers that eliminate free radicals. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that melatonin could scavenge free radicals produced during oocyte aging, thereby maintaining oocyte quality. We compared reactive oxygen species levels, apoptosis levels, mitochondrial membrane potential ratios, total glutathione contents and expression levels in fresh, aged and melatonin-treated aged porcine oocytes and observed the percentage of blastocyst formation following parthenogenetic activation. We found that melatonin could effectively maintain the morphology of oocytes observed in control oocytes, alleviate oxidative stress, markedly decrease early apoptosis levels, retard the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly promote subsequent embryonic development in oocytes aged for 24 hr in vitro . These results strongly suggest that melatonin can prevent postovulatory oocyte aging and promote subsequent embryonic development in the pig, which might find practical applications to control oocyte aging in other mammalian species including humans to maintain the quality of human oocytes when performing clinical assisted reproductive technology.

  18. Genocide Exposure and Subsequent Suicide Risk: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Levav, Itzhak; Yoffe, Rinat; Becher, Yifat; Pugachova, Inna

    2016-01-01

    The association between periods of genocide-related exposures and suicide risk remains unknown. Our study tests that association using a national population-based study design. The source population comprised of all persons born during1922-1945 in Nazi-occupied or dominated European nations, that immigrated to Israel by 1965, were identified in the Population Register (N = 220,665), and followed up for suicide to 2014, totaling 16,953,602 person-years. The population was disaggregated to compare a trauma gradient among groups that immigrated before (indirect, n = 20,612, 9%); during (partial direct, n = 17,037, 8%); or after (full direct, n = 183,016, 83%) exposure to the Nazi era. Also, the direct exposure groups were examined regarding pre- or post-natal exposure periods. Cox regression models were used to compute Hazard Ratios (HR) of suicide risk to compare the exposure groups, adjusting for confounding by gender, residential SES and history of psychiatric hospitalization. In the total population, only the partial direct exposure subgroup was at greater risk compared to the indirect exposure group (HR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.10, 2.73; P < .05). That effect replicated in six sensitivity analyses. In addition, sensitivity analyses showed that exposure at ages 13 plus among females, and follow-up by years since immigration were associated with a greater risk; whereas in utero exposure among persons with no psychiatric hospitalization and early postnatal exposure among males were at a reduced risk. Tentative mechanisms impute biopsychosocial vulnerability and natural selection during early critical periods among males, and feelings of guilt and entrapment or defeat among females.

  19. Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPhail Robert C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful.

  20. JP-8 jet fuel can promote auditory impairment resulting from subsequent noise exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline; Fulton, Sherry; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeffrey; Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Moon, Patrick; Pouyatos, Benoit

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transient and persistent effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on auditory function in rats. JP-8 has become the standard jet fuel utilized in the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries for military use and it is closely related to Jet A fuel, which is used in U.S. domestic aviation. Rats received JP-8 fuel (1000 mg/m(3)) by nose-only inhalation for 4 h and half of them were immediately subjected to an octave band of noise ranging between 97 and 105 dB in different experiments. The noise by itself produces a small, but permanent auditory impairment. The current permissible exposure level for JP-8 is 350 mg/m(3). Additionally, a positive control group received only noise exposure, and a fourth group consisted of untreated control subjects. Exposures occurred either on 1 day or repeatedly on 5 successive days. Impairments in auditory function were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions and compound action potential testing. In other rats, tissues were harvested following JP-8 exposure for assessment of hydrocarbon levels or glutathione (GSH) levels. A single JP-8 exposure by itself at 1000 mg/m(3) did not disrupt auditory function. However, exposure to JP-8 and noise produced an additive disruption in outer hair cell function. Repeated 5-day JP-8 exposure at 1000 mg/m(3) for 4 h produced impairment of outer hair cell function that was most evident at the first postexposure assessment time. Partial though not complete recovery was observed over a 4-week postexposure period. The adverse effects of repeated JP-8 exposures on auditory function were inconsistent, but combined treatment with JP-8 + noise yielded greater impairment of auditory function, and hair cell loss than did noise by itself. Qualitative comparison of outer hair cell loss suggests an increase in outer hair cell death among rats treated with JP-8 + noise for 5 days as compared to noise alone. In most instances, hydrocarbon constituents of the fuel

  1. Prevention of occupational allergy caused by exposure to acid anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, K; Takeshita, T; Morimoto, K

    1999-07-01

    This paper focuses on the prevention of IgE-mediated symptoms of the eyes and airways caused by exposure to acid anhydrides in the workplace. Acid anhydrides are widely used in the production of alkyd resins and as curing agents for epoxy resins. Heavy exposure to acid anhydrides causes severe irritation. However, reports of direct irritation of mucous membranes or skin are rare in recent years, since a package of multiple engineering controls has been introduced to reduce exposure. On the other hand, acid anhydrides are well-known industrial inhalant sensitizers and can cause occupational allergy even at very low exposure intensities. Therefore, safe use in industry demands both control of the level of exposure causing allergic diseases in the workshop and programmes for prevention of occupational allergy.

  2. Pre-adult famine exposure and subsequent colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Morris P; Peeters, Petra Hm; van Gils, Carla H; Elias, Sjoerd G

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional deprivation during growth and development may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in later life. We studied 7906 women who were aged 0-21 years during the 1944-45 Dutch famine, who enrolled in the Prospect-EPIC study between 1993 and 1997. We used Cox proportional hazard analyses to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal (proximal, distal and rectal) cancer risk across self-reported famine exposure and exposure-age categories, while adjusting for potential confounders. During a median of 17.3 years of follow-up, 245 CRC cases occurred. Moderately and severely famine-exposed women showed a respective 24% and 44% higher CRC risk compared with women who reported no exposure [HR moderate 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64); HR severe 1.44 (1.03-2.03); P trend 0.027]. This relation attenuated when adjusted for potential confounders [adjusted HR moderate 1.15 (0.87-1.53); HR severe 1.35 (0.96-1.90); P trend 0.091]. Stratified results suggested that severe famine exposure between 10 and 17 years of age was particularly related to CRC risk[adjusted HR moderate 1.39 (0.91-2.11); HR severe 1.76 (1.10-2.83); P trend 0.019; P interaction(famine*10-17yrs) 0.096]. Overall, we found no differences in famine effects across CRC subsites, but age-at-exposure stratified results suggested an increased risk for proximal CRC in those aged 10-17 years during exposure to the famine [adjusted HR moderate 2.14 (1.06-4.32), HR severe 2.96 (1.35-6.46); P trend 0.005]. Overall and within age-at-exposure categories, tests for subsite specific heterogeneity in famine effects were not significant. Our findings suggest that severe exposure to a short period of caloric restriction in pre-adult women may relate to CRC risk decades later. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  3. Exposure to Blue Light Increases Subsequent Functional Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex During Performance of a Working Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Pisner, Derek A.; Vanuk, John R.; Berryhill, Sarah M.; Fridman, Andrew; Shane, Bradley R.; Knight, Sara A.; Killgore, William D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prolonged exposure to blue wavelength light has been shown to have an alerting effect, and enhances performance on cognitive tasks. A small number of studies have also shown that relatively short exposure to blue light leads to changes in functional brain responses during the period of exposure. The extent to which blue light continues to affect brain functioning during a cognitively challenging task after cessation of longer periods of exposure (i.e., roughly 30 minutes or longer), however, has not been fully investigated. Methods: A total of 35 healthy participants (18 female) were exposed to either blue (469 nm) (n = 17) or amber (578 nm) (n = 18) wavelength light for 30 minutes in a darkened room, followed immediately by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while undergoing a working memory task (N-back task). Results: Participants in the blue light condition were faster in their responses on the N-back task and showed increased activation in the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex compared to those in the amber control light condition. Furthermore, greater activation within the VLPFC was correlated with faster N-back response times. Conclusions: This is the first study to suggest that a relatively brief, single exposure to blue light has a subsequent beneficial effect on working memory performance, even after cessation of exposure, and leads to temporarily persisting functional brain changes within prefrontal brain regions associated with executive functions. These findings may have broader implication for using blue-enriched light in a variety of work settings where alertness and quick decision-making are important. Citation: Alkozei A, Smith R, Pisner DA, Vanuk JR, Berryhill SM, Fridman A, Shane BR, Knight SA, Killgore WD. Exposure to blue light increases subsequent functional activation of the prefrontal cortex during performance of a working memory task. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1671–1680. PMID:27253770

  4. Alcohol's Collateral Damage: Childhood Exposure to Problem Drinkers and Subsequent Adult Mortality Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard G; Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2016-12-07

    The importance of childhood circumstances, broadly defined, for shaping adult health and longevity is well-established. But the significance of one of the most prevalent childhood adversities-exposure to problem drinkers-has been understudied from a sociological perspective and remains poorly understood. We address this gap by drawing on cumulative inequality theory, using data from the 1988-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, and estimating Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between exposure to problem drinkers in childhood and adult mortality risk. Childhood exposure to problem drinkers is common (nearly 1 in 5 individuals were exposed) and elevates adult overall and cause-specific mortality risk. Compared to individuals who had not lived with a problem drinker during childhood, those who had done so suffered 17 percent higher risk of death (prisk. Favorable socioeconomic status in adulthood does not ameliorate the consequences of childhood exposure to problem drinkers. The primary intervening mechanisms are risky behaviors, including adult drinking and smoking. The findings-which reveal that the influence of problem drinking is far-reaching and long-term-should inform policies to improve childhood circumstances, reduce detrimental effects of problem drinking, and increase life expectancy.

  5. Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Jacob B; Southwell, Brian G; Betzner, Anne E; Walsh, Barbara M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential link between smoking behavior and exposure to mass media depictions of smoking on social networking Web sites. A representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults in Connecticut. Telephone surveys were conducted by using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology and electronic dialing for random digit dialing and listed samples. Connecticut residents aged 18 to 24 years. To measure encoded exposure, respondents were asked whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and about how often they had seen tobacco use on television, in movies, and in social media content. Respondents were also asked about cigarette use in the past 30 days, and a series of additional questions that have been shown to be predictive of tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to test for our main prediction that reported exposure to social media tobacco depictions at time 1 would influence time 2 smoking behavior. Encoded exposure to social media tobacco depictions (B = .47, p social media depictions of tobacco use predict future smoking tendency, over and above the influence of TV and movie depictions of smoking. This is the first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in informing tobacco behavior.

  6. The influence of antenatal exposure to phthalates on subsequent female reproductive development in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger; Doherty, Dorota A; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that antenatal exposure to ubiquitous phthalates may lead to an earlier menarche and a lower prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCO) in adolescence. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 3000 women at 18...... weeks of gestation in 1989-91, 1377 had antenatal serum stored without thawing at -80°C. An unselected subset was evaluated in the early follicular phase for PCO and PCOS by ultrasound and serum evaluation in adolescence. Serum was analysed for Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), inhibin B, sex.......m) was protective against PCOS in adolescence (p=0.001, p=0.005, respectively). There were negative associations of MEP with PCO (p=0.022), and MEP with serum AMH (p=0.031). Consequently our data suggests that antenatal exposure to environmental phthalates may be associated with oestrogenic and/or anti...

  7. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Minqi Yang; Ning Ma; Yingying Zhu; Ying-Chu Su; Qingwei Chen; Fan-Chi Hsiao; Yanran Ji; Chien-Ming Yang; Guofu Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light o...

  8. Effect of medical x-ray exposure on subsequent reproductive outcomes in scoliosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was done which was designed to assess the effects of medical x-ray exposure on cancer incidence among scoliosis patients. Although the primary purpose of the study was to assess cancer incidence, a secondary goal was to investigate whether diagnostic x-ray exposure is related to adverse reproductive events in the female subjects. A series of case-control analyses were done which were designed to assess these effects. Radiation exposure was measured both by total films received and by an estimate of the number of films received and by an estimate of the number of films which involved ovarian irradiation. Radiation appeared to increase a woman's risk of any adverse event in the overall analysis and her risk of a premature or low birth weight infant in the separate analyses. Radiation did not appear to be related to spontaneous abortion, complications of pregnancy or delivery or birth defects, although the results of the pregnancy complications analysis was suggestive

  9. Medication Exposures and Subsequent Development of Ewing Sarcoma: A Review of FDA Adverse Event Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith U. Cope

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT are rare but deadly cancers of unknown etiology. Few risk factors have been identified. This study was undertaken to ascertain any possible association between exposure to therapeutic drugs and ESFT. Methods. This is a retrospective, descriptive study. A query of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS was conducted for all reports of ESFT, January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2013. Report narratives were individually reviewed for patient characteristics, underlying conditions and drug exposures. Results. Over 16 years, 134 ESFT reports were identified, including 25 cases of ESFT following therapeutic drugs and biologics including immunosuppressive agents and hormones. Many cases were confounded by concomitant medications and other therapies. Conclusions. This study provides a closer look at medication use and underlying disorders in patients who later developed ESFT. While this study was not designed to demonstrate any clear causative association between ESFT and prior use of a single product or drug class, many drugs were used to treat immune-related disease and growth or hormonal disturbances. Further studies may be warranted to better understand possible immune or neuroendocrine abnormalities or exposure to specific classes of drugs that may predispose to the later development of ESFT.

  10. Does evening exposure to mobile phone radiation affect subsequent melatonin production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew W; Loughran, Sarah P; Stough, Con

    2006-02-01

    To test whether exposure to the emissions from a digital mobile phone handset prior to sleep alters the secretion of melatonin. In a double-blind cross-over design, 55 adult volunteers were both actively exposed or sham-exposed (in random order on successive Sunday nights) to mobile phone emissions for 30 min (0.25 W average power). Urine collection occurred immediately prior to retiring to bed and on rising the next morning. Melatonin output was estimated from principal metabolite concentrations (6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) via radioimmunoassay), urine volumes and creatinine concentrations. Total melatonin metabolite output (concentration x urine volume) was unchanged between the two exposure conditions (active 14.1+/-1.1 microg; sham 14.6+/-1.3 microg). The pre- and post-bedtime outputs considered separately were also not significantly different, although the pre-bedtime value was less for active versus sham exposure. When melatonin metabolite output was estimated from the ratio of aMT6s to creatinine concentrations, the pre-bedtime value was significantly less (p = 0.037) for active compared to sham. Examination of individual responses is suggestive of a small group of 'responders'. Total nighttime melatonin output is unchanged by mobile phone handset emissions, but there could be an effect on melatonin onset time.

  11. Healthcare-Associated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection Subsequent to Heater-Cooler Device Exposure During Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh, Allen; Weiner, Menachem; Goldberg, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    A SERIES of reports in the United States and Europe have linked Mycobacterium chimaera infections to contaminated heater-cooler devices used during cardiac surgery. Heater-cooler devices commonly are used for cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery. M. chimaera is a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium that has been shown to cause cardiac complications that can lead to fatal disease following cardiac surgery. Given that more than 250,000 cardiothoracic surgical procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass take place each year in the United States, the estimated number of patient exposures to M. chimaera has prompted a public health crisis. The goal of this review is to summarize the present status of the M. chimaera outbreak and provide cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiac anesthesiologists, and other clinicians with current approaches to patient management and to discuss risk mitigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the phytohemagglutinin stimulation of rat lymphocytes subsequent to exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohletz, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation of rats with 10rd on ten subsequent days, and of a single irradiation with 100 rd, on the DNA synthesis of peripheral blood lymphocytes with and without stimulation by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) has been studied by means of impulse cytophotometry. In addition, a procain-vitamin mixture ('GERIOPTIL PLUS H 3 ') has been tested with regard to its radioprotective effect. The examinations have been performed 2 hours, 14 days, and 28 days p.r. Both after irradiation with 10 x 10 rd and after a single dose of 100 rd, a significant increase in the number of DNA-synthetizing lymphocytes has been observed 2 hours p.r., the extent of the increase corresponding to a PHA stimulation of non-irradiated control animals. The 10 x 10 rd irradiation produced a radiation-induced 'stimulation' which is inversely proportional to the PHA stimulation. Contrary to this, the PHA effect produced by the single dose of 100 rd has been found to be significant 2 hours after irradiation: 41% of the cells have been observed to be in the S or G2 phase. 14 days p.r., this effect had changed to the reverse: there has been no detectable PHA effect indicating a radiation damage. In a third experimental series, 'GERIOPTIL PLUS H3' has been injected s.c. prior to the irradiation with 100 rd, and then daily. The lymphocytes of the injected animals behaved as if they had not been irradiated, which leads to the conclusion that this procain-vitamin mixture must have some kind of radioprotective effect. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Diagnosis, injury and prevention of internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure is classified into three categories: external exposure, surface contamination, and internal exposure (also called internal contamination). Internal exposure is an exposure by the ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive materials taken into a human body. Uptake of radioactive materials can go through inhalation, ingestion, or wound contamination. Not like external exposure, alpha ray or beta ray, which has a limited penetration, is also important in internal exposure. Diagnosis of internal exposure is based on measurement and dose assessment in addition to the history taking. Two methods, direct measurement and/or bioassay (indirect measurement), are used for the measurement. These measurements provide information of radioactive materials in the body at the time of the measurement. The exposure dose to the body needs to be calculated in a process of dose assessment, based on the results of these measurements and history of intake, either acute intake or chronic intake. Another method, measurement of environmental samples or food stuff, is also used for dose assessment. For internal exposure, radiation dose to the body is expressed as committed effective dose or committed equivalent dose, which are accumulation of dose over a defined period. Radioactive materials taken into body are transferred among many body components depending on the type of radionuclide or chemicals etc. Some radioactive materials concentrate in a specific organ. Symptoms and signs depend on the distribution of the radioactive materials in the body. Monitoring the concentration in air or foods is conducted in order to control human activities and foods and consequently reduce the amount of intake to human bodies as a preventive measure. Prevention of internal exposure is also conducted by protective gears such as full face masks. Iodine prophylaxis could be used against radioactive iodine intake. Stable iodine, mostly potassium iodide, could be taken into the thyroid and

  14. Exposure to Blue Light Increases Subsequent Functional Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex During Performance of a Working Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Pisner, Derek A; Vanuk, John R; Berryhill, Sarah M; Fridman, Andrew; Shane, Bradley R; Knight, Sara A; Killgore, William D S

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged exposure to blue wavelength light has been shown to have an alerting effect, and enhances performance on cognitive tasks. A small number of studies have also shown that relatively short exposure to blue light leads to changes in functional brain responses during the period of exposure. The extent to which blue light continues to affect brain functioning during a cognitively challenging task after cessation of longer periods of exposure (i.e., roughly 30 minutes or longer), however, has not been fully investigated. A total of 35 healthy participants (18 female) were exposed to either blue (469 nm) (n = 17) or amber (578 nm) (n = 18) wavelength light for 30 minutes in a darkened room, followed immediately by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while undergoing a working memory task (N-back task). Participants in the blue light condition were faster in their responses on the N-back task and showed increased activation in the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex compared to those in the amber control light condition. Furthermore, greater activation within the VLPFC was correlated with faster N-back response times. This is the first study to suggest that a relatively brief, single exposure to blue light has a subsequent beneficial effect on working memory performance, even after cessation of exposure, and leads to temporarily persisting functional brain changes within prefrontal brain regions associated with executive functions. These findings may have broader implication for using blue-enriched light in a variety of work settings where alertness and quick decision-making are important. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Early exposure to paraquat sensitizes dopaminergic neurons to subsequent silencing of PINK1 gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongxia; Huang, Cao; Tong, Jianbin; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Environmental exposure, genetic modification, and aging are considered risky for Parkinson's disease (PD). How these risk factors cooperate to induce progressive neurodegeneration in PD remains largely unknown. Paraquat is an herbicide commonly used for weed and grass control. Exposure to paraquat is associated with the increased incidence of PD. In contrast to familial PD, most sporadic PD cases do not have genetic mutation, but may suffer from partial dysfunction of neuron-protective genes as aging. Using conditional transgenic RNAi, we showed that temporal silencing of PINK1 expression in adult mice increased striatal dopamine, the phenotype that could not be induced by constitutive gene silencing. Moreover, early exposure to paraquat sensitized dopaminergic neurons to subsequent silencing of PINK1 gene expression, leading to a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons. Our findings suggest a novel pathogenesis of PD: exposure to environmental toxicants early in the life reduces the threshold of developing PD and partial dysfunction of neuron-protective genes later in the life initiates a process of progressive neurodegeneration to cross the reduced threshold of disease onset.

  16. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Brennan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  17. Effect of oral antigen and antibody exposure at birth on subsequent immune status. A study in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverson, Karin; Corfield, Gaynor; Jones, Philip H; Kenny, Martin; Fowler, Jenny; Bailey, Mick; Stokes, Christopher R; Miller, Bevis G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of early low-level exposure to either antigen or antibody alone on subsequent immune responses in entirely immunologically naïve animals. This is impossible in species with a permeable placenta such as rodents or humans, where both antigen and antibody can be transferred in utero. It is, however, possible in pigs, due to the impermeable placenta of the sow. Thus, neonatal piglets were used for this study. Newborn piglets were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) at dosages similar to those used in rodents to sensitise, as well as to serum containing anti-OVA antibodies. Both single low doses of OVA (10 and 1,000 mg per animal) induced classical oral tolerance following a systemic challenge: both doses reduced specific systemic IgG responses and tertiary in vitro recall proliferative responses by splenocytes and especially by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Additionally, dietary challenge had phenotypic effects on helper T cells in MLN, which could be reversed by OVA at birth. In contrast, giving antibody as serum collected from hyperimmune or orally tolerant pigs had no functional effects. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that contrary to previous work in rodents, very early exposure of neonatal pigs to a single small dose of antigen can reduce subsequent immune responses. This may have implications for human health. However, although these data point to a reducing/regulatory effect of low doses of antigen in very young animals, they cannot be extrapolated directly to allergy. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Genetic variation as a modifier of association between therapeutic exposure and subsequent malignant neoplasms in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita

    2015-03-01

    Subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are associated with significant morbidity and are a major cause of premature mortality among cancer survivors. Several large studies have demonstrated a strong association between the radiation and/or chemotherapy used to treat primary cancer and the risk of developing SMNs. However, for any given therapeutic exposure, the risk of developing an SMN varies between individuals. Genomic variation can potentially modify the association between therapeutic exposures and SMN risk and may explain the observed interindividual variability. In this review, the author provides a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the role of genomic variation in the development of therapy-related SMNs and discusses the methodological challenges in undertaking an endeavor to develop a deeper understanding of the molecular underpinnings of therapy-related SMNs, such as an appropriate study design, the identification of an adequately sized study population together with a reliable plan for collecting and maintaining high-quality DNA, clinical validation of the phenotype, and the selection of an appropriate approach or platform for genotyping. Understanding the factors that can modify the risk of treatment-related SMNs is critical to developing targeted intervention strategies and optimizing risk-based health care for cancer survivors. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Exposure to bullying behaviors at work and subsequent symptoms of anxiety: the moderating role of individual coping style

    Science.gov (United States)

    REKNES, Iselin; EINARSEN, Ståle; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; MOEN, Bente Elisabeth; MAGERØY, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than do others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style. PMID:27151548

  20. Concurrent exposure to methamphetamine and sexual behavior enhances subsequent drug reward and causes compulsive sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Lehman, Michael N; Laviolette, Steven R; Coolen, Lique M

    2011-11-09

    Methamphetamine (Meth) users report having heightened sexual pleasure, numerous sexual partners, and engaging in unprotected sex due to loss of inhibitory control. This compulsive sexual behavior contributes to increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, but the neural basis for this is unknown. We previously established a paradigm for compulsive sexual behavior in male rats in which visceral illness induced by lithium chloride was paired with sexual behavior (Davis et al., 2010; Frohmader et al., 2010a). The current study examined the effects of repeated Meth administration on sexual performance, compulsive sexual behavior, and sex or Meth reward. First, results demonstrated that seven daily administrations of 2 mg/kg, but not 1 mg/kg, Meth increased latencies to initiate mating. This impairment was evident 30 min after last Meth administration, but dissipated after 1 or 7 d of subsequent drug abstinence. Repeated 1 mg/kg Meth exposure resulted in compulsive sex-seeking behavior 2 weeks following last Meth administration. This effect was dependent on Meth administration being concurrent with sexual experience and was not observed in sexually experienced animals that received Meth alone. Moreover, concurrent Meth and sexual experience enhanced conditioned place preference (CPP) for Meth, and for concurrent Meth and mating compared with Meth or mating alone. In contrast, CPP for mating alone was decreased. Together, these data indicate that the association between drug use and mating may be required for expression of compulsive sexual behavior and is correlated with increased reward seeking for concurrent Meth exposure and mating.

  1. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions.

  2. Can Skin Exposure to Sunlight Prevent Liver Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Gorman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR, the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation.

  3. Percutaneous blood exposure among Danish doctors: exposure mechanisms and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the mechanisms of percutaneous blood exposure (PCE) among doctors and discuss rational strategies for prevention. Data were obtained as part of a nation-wide questionnaire survey of occupational blood exposure among hospital employed doctors in Denmark...... described PCE the majority were caused by suture needles (n = 483), i.v.-catheter-stylets (n = 94), injection needles (n = 75), phlebotomy needles (n = 53), scalpels (n = 45), arterial blood sample needles (n = 41) and bone fragments (n = 23). Inattentiveness was the most common cause, contributing to 30...

  4. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze, and allergic sensitization in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Stelma, Foekje F.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Penders, John; Huber, Machteld; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic exposure in early life may be associated with atopic disease development either by interfering with bacterial commensal flora or by modifying the course of bacterial infections. We evaluated early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze,

  5. Combining biomedical preventions for HIV: Vaccines with pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides or other HIV preventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biomedical preventions for HIV, such as vaccines, microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs, can each only partially prevent HIV-1 infection in most human trials. Oral PrEP is now FDA approved for HIV-prevention in high risk groups, but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP) an HIV vaccine could provide protection when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. Other types of PrEP or microbicides may also be partially protective. When licensed, first generation HIV vaccines are likely to be partially effective. Individuals at risk for HIV may receive an HIV vaccine combined with other biomedical preventions, in series or in parallel, in clinical trials or as part of standard of care, with the goal of maximally increasing HIV prevention. In human studies, it is challenging to determine which preventions are best combined, how they interact and how effective they are. Animal models can determine CBP efficacy, whether additive or synergistic, the efficacy of different products and combinations, dose, timing and mechanisms. CBP studies in macaques have shown that partially or minimally effective candidate HIV vaccines combined with partially effective oral PrEP, vaginal PrEP or microbicide generally provided greater protection than either prevention alone against SIV or SHIV challenges. Since human CBP trials will be complex, animal models can guide their design, sample size, endpoints, correlates and surrogates of protection. This review focuses on animal studies and human models of CBP and discusses implications for HIV prevention. PMID:27679928

  6. Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors during Pavlovian conditioning enhances subsequent cue-induced reinstatement of operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploense, Kyle L; Kerstetter, Kerry A; Wade, Matthew A; Woodward, Nicholas C; Maliniak, Dan; Reyes, Michael; Uchizono, Russell S; Bredy, Timothy W; Kippin, Tod E

    2013-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) strengthen memory following fear conditioning and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Here, we examined the effects of two nonspecific HDACIs, valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaB), on appetitive learning measured by conditioned stimulus (CS)-induced reinstatement of operant responding. Rats were trained to lever press for food reinforcement and then injected with VPA (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.), NaB (250-1000 mg/kg, i.p.), or saline vehicle (1.0 ml/kg), 2 h before receiving pairings of noncontingent presentation of food pellets preceded by a tone+light cue CS. Rats next underwent extinction of operant responding followed by response-contingent re-exposure to the CS. Rats receiving VPA (100 mg/kg) or NaB (1000 mg/kg) before conditioning displayed significantly higher cue-induced reinstatement than did saline controls. Rats that received either vehicle or VPA (100 mg/kg) before a conditioning session with a randomized relation between presentation of food pellets and the CS failed to show subsequent cue-induced reinstatement with no difference between the two groups. These findings indicate that, under certain contexts, HDACIs strengthen memory formation by specifically increasing the associative strength of the CS, not through an increasing motivation to seek reinforcement. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  7. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  8. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  9. Adolescent pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daisy Maria; de Sant’Anna Carvalho, Alexandre Machado; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV) drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a new intervention for people at high risk for acquiring HIV, with an estimated HIV incidence of >3%. Recent data from trials show evidence of the efficacy of PrEP as a powerful HIV prevention tool in high-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, and IV drug users. The reported efficacy in those trials of the daily use of oral tenofovir, alone or in combination with emtricitabine, to prevent HIV infection ranged from 44% to 75% and was heavily dependent on adherence. Despite the proven efficacy of PrEP in adult trials, concerns remain about its feasibility in real-life scenarios due to stigma, cost, and limited clinician experience with PrEP delivery. Recent studies are attempting to expand the inquiry into the efficacy of such HIV prophylaxis approaches in adolescent populations, but there are still many gaps in knowledge, and no country has yet approved it for use with adolescents. The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from studies on PrEP for adolescents. We have compiled and reviewed published studies focusing on safety, feasibility, adherence to therapeutics, self-perception, and legal issues related to PrEP in people aged between 10 and 24 years. PMID:29238237

  10. Peripartum nevirapine exposure and subsequent clinical outcomes among HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintu, Namwinga; Giganti, Mark J; Putta, Nande B; Sinkala, Moses; Sadoki, Ebedy; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2010-07-01

    Prior exposure to intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine (NVP) is associated with compromised virologic treatment outcomes once non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is initiated. We examined the longer-term clinical outcomes in a programmatic setting. We compared post-12 month mortality and clinical treatment failure (defined by WHO clinical and immunologic criteria) among women with and without prior NVP exposure in Lusaka, Zambia. Between April 2004 and July 2006, 6740 women initiated an NNRTI-containing regimen. At 12 months, 5172 (78%) remained active and were included in this analysis. Of these, 596 (12%) reported prior NVP exposure, whose time from exposure to ART initiation was: 12 months for 37%, unknown for 39%. Overall, women with prior NVP exposure trended towards increased survival (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-1.06, P = 0.07) and towards increased hazard of clinical treatment failure (AHR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.95-1.47, P = 0.14), particularly those with exposure for <6 months (AHR: 1.52; 95% CI: 0.94-2.45, P = 0.09). Prior NVP exposure appeared to increase risk for clinical treatment failure after 12 months of follow-up, but this finding did not reach statistical significance. With growing evidence linking recent NVP exposure to virologic failure, optimized monitoring algorithms should be considered for women with starting NNRTI-based ART. The association between prior NVP exposure and improved survival has not been previously shown and may be a result of residual confounding around health-seeking behaviours.

  11. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet: systematic review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M; Tuorila, H; Bertenshaw, E J; de Graaf, C; Mela, D J

    2018-03-01

    There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet. Systematic searches were conducted to identify all studies testing relations of variation in exposure to sweetness through foods and beverages with subsequent variation in the generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweetened foods or beverages, in humans aged >6 mo. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 7 population cohort studies involving 2320 children and 14 controlled trials involving 1113 individuals. These studies were heterogeneous in study design, population, exposure, and outcomes measured, and few were explicitly designed to address our research question. The findings from these were inconsistent. We found equivocal evidence from population cohort studies. The evidence from controlled studies suggests that a higher sweet taste exposure tends to lead to reduced preferences for sweetness in the shorter term, but very limited effects were found in the longer term. A small and heterogeneous body of research currently has considered the impact of varying exposure to sweet taste on subsequent generalized sweet taste preferences, and this evidence is equivocal regarding the presence and possible direction of a relation. Future work should focus on adequately powered studies with well-characterized exposures of sufficient duration. This review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016051840, 24 November 2016.

  12. Microbial exposure in infancy and subsequent appearance of type 1 diabetes mellitus-associated autoantibodies: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Suvi M; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Nwaru, Bright I; Kaila, Minna; Ahonen, Suvi; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Niinistö, Sari; Siljander, Heli; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Hyöty, Heikki; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael

    2014-08-01

    The role of microbial exposure during early life in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus is unclear. To investigate whether animal contact and other microbial exposures during infancy are associated with the development of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes. A birth cohort of children with HLA antigen-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes was examined. Participants included 3143 consecutively born children at 2 hospitals in Finland between 1996 and 2004. The following exposures during the first year of life were assessed: indoor and outdoor dogs and cats, farm animals, farming, visit to a stable, day care, and exposure to antibiotics during the first week of life. Clinical and preclinical type 1 diabetes were used as outcomes. The latter was defined as repeated positivity for islet-cell antibodies plus for at least 1 of 3 other diabetes-associated autoantibodies analyzed and/or clinical type 1 diabetes. The autoantibodies were analyzed at 3- to 12-month intervals since the birth of the child. Children exposed to an indoor dog, compared with otherwise similar children without an indoor dog exposure, had a reduced odds of developing preclinical type 1 diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.80; P = .005) and clinical type 1 diabetes (adjusted OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.14-1.14; P = .08). All of the other microbial exposures studied were not associated with preclinical or clinical diabetes: the odds ratios ranged from 0.74 to 1.58. Among the 9 early microbial exposures studied, only the indoor dog exposure during the first year of life was inversely associated with the development of preclinical type 1 diabetes. This finding needs to be confirmed in other populations.

  13. Modeling spatial patterns of link-based PM2.5 emissions and subsequent human exposure in a large canadian metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requia, Weeberb J.; Dalumpines, Ron; Adams, Matthew D.; Arain, Altaf; Ferguson, Mark; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the relationship between mobile source emissions and subsequent human exposure is crucial for emissions control. Determining this relationship over space is fundamental to improve the accuracy and precision of public policies. In this study, we evaluated the spatial patterns of link-based PM2.5 emissions and subsequent human exposure in a large Canadian metropolitan area - the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA). This study was performed in three stages. First, we estimated vehicle emissions using transportation models and emission simulators. Then we evaluated human exposure to PM2.5 emissions using the Intake fraction (iF) approach. Finally, we applied geostatistical methods to assess spatial patterns of vehicle emissions and subsequent human exposure based on three prospective goals: i) classification of emissions (Global Moran's I test), ii) level of emission exposure (Getis-Ord General G test), and; iii) location of emissions (Anselin Local Moran's I). Our results showed that passenger vehicles accounted for the highest total amount of PM2.5 emissions, representing 57% emissions from all vehicles. Examining only the emissions from passenger vehicles, on average, each person in the GTHA inhales 2.58 × 10-3 ppm per day. Accounting the emissions from buses and trucks, on average each person inhales 0.12 × 10-3 and 1.91 × 10-3 ppm per day, respectively. For both PM2.5 emissions and human exposure using iF approach, our analysis showed Moran's Index greater than 0 for all vehicle categories, suggesting the presence of significant clusters (p-value businesses centers and inter-connectivity of transportation networks across the region, where a policy cannot simply be based on a municipal or other boundaries.

  14. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pprevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum. PMID:26595267

  15. The influence of fetal ethanol exposure on subsequent development of the cerebral cortex as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Lindsey A; Ford, Matthew M; Lerch, Jason P; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2013-06-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome and related disorders (commonly referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, or FASD) cause significant hardships to the individuals affected. Previously, histological studies in animals have characterized developmental cerebral cortical abnormalities that result from prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have identified abnormalities associated with fetal EtOH exposure in the cerebral cortices of human children and adolescents. However, there is still a need to bridge the gap between human MRI studies and animal histological studies. The goal of the research presented here was to perform postmortem MRI experiments on rodents, during time periods relative to late human gestation through adulthood, to characterize anomalies associated with FASD throughout development. Additionally, by determining how histologically identified abnormalities are manifest in MRI measurements specifically during the critical early time points, neuroimaging-based biomarkers of FASD can potentially be identified at much earlier ages in humans, thus reducing the impact of these disorders. Cerebral cortical volume, thickness, and surface area were characterized by ex vivo MRI in Long-Evans rat pups born from dams that were EtOH-treated, maltose/dextrin-treated, or untreated throughout gestation at 6 developmental time points (postnatal day [P] 0, P3, P6, P11, P19, and P60). Brain volume, isocortical volume, isocortical thickness, and isocortical surface area were all demonstrated to be reduced following prenatal exposure to EtOH. Significant differences among the treatment groups were observed throughout the range of time points studied, allowing for a comprehensive view of FASD influenced MRI outcomes throughout development. Isocortical surface area and isocortical thickness results contributed independent information important to interpreting effects of prenatal EtOH exposure on cerebral cortical development

  16. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  17. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Aldridge, Justin E.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to apparently unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless converge on common neurodevelopmental events. We examined the long-term effects of developmental exposure of rats to terbutaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) separately and together. Treatments mimicked the appropriate neurodevelopmental stages for human exposures: terbutaline on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in CNS cell signaling mediated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), a transduction pathway shared by numerous neuronal and hormonal signals. Terbutaline altered signaling in the brainstem and cerebellum, with gender differences particularly notable in the cerebellum (enhanced AC in males, suppressed in females). By itself, CPF exposure elicited deficits in AC signaling in the midbrain, brainstem, and striatum. However, sequential exposure to terbutaline followed by CPF produced larger alterations and involved a wider spectrum of brain regions than were obtained with either agent alone. In the cerebral cortex, adverse effects of the combined treatment intensified between PN45 and PN60, suggesting that exposures alter the long-term program for development of synaptic communication, leading to alterations in AC signaling that emerge even after adolescence. These findings indicate that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and reinforce the idea that its use in preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to long-term CNS effects of organophosphorus insecticides

  18. Effect of continuous gamma-ray exposure on performance of learned tasks and effect of subsequent fractionated exposures on blood-forming tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, J. F.; Holland, L. M.; Prine, J. R.; Farrer, D. N.; Braun, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Sixteen monkeys trained to perform continuous and discrete-avoidance and fixed-ratio tasks with visual and auditory cues were performance-tested before, during, and after 10-day gamma-ray exposures totaling 0, 500, 750, and 1000 rads. Approximately 14 months after the performance-test exposures, surviving animals were exposed to 100-rad gamma-ray fractions at 56-day intervals to observe injury and recovery patterns of blood-forming tissues. The fixed-ratio, food-reward task performance showed a transient decline in all dose groups within 24 hours of the start of gamma-ray exposure, followed by recovery to normal food-consumption levels within 48 to 72 hours. Avoidance tasks were performed successfully by all groups during the 10-day exposure, but reaction times of the two higher dose-rate groups in which animals received 3 and 4 rads per hour or total doses of 750 and 1000 rads, respectively, were somewhat slower.

  19. Effectiveness of peri-abortion counselling in preventing subsequent unplanned pregnancy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah; McCall, Stephen J; McPherson, Calum; Towers, Lucinda C; Lloyd, Bethany; Fletcher, Jack; Bhattacharya, Sohinee

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed whether enhanced peri-abortion contraceptive counselling had an effect on subsequent unplanned pregnancies and the uptake and continuation of contraceptive methods. A systematic review of English-language articles published prior to May 2014 was conducted, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving enhanced pre- and post-abortion contraceptive counselling were included. The authors independently applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria to the identified records, and extracted data from each included paper using a predefined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate and based on random effects models. Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Three RCTs investigated the effect of enhanced counselling on subsequent unplanned pregnancy. The results of the meta-analysis were non-significant [pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.47; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.12-1.90]. Four RCTs reported results relating to the uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and continuation of chosen method of contraception at 3 months. Findings were non-significant (pooled OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.20-5.69 and pooled OR 3.22; 95% CI 0.85-12.22, respectively). This review found no evidence of effect resulting from enhanced peri-abortion contraceptive counselling on subsequent unplanned pregnancy rate or the uptake of LARC. However, these findings are limited by the small number of relevant studies available and the marked heterogeneity between published studies. Further, larger-scale RCTs should be undertaken to ensure that there is sufficient power to detect an effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Exposure of undergraduates to authentic GP teaching and subsequent entry to GP training: a quantitative study of UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Hugh; Randles, Hannah L; Harding, Alex; McKinley, Robert K

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity of exposure to general practice teaching at medical school is associated with future choice of a career as a GP. To examine the relationship between general practice exposure at medical school and the percentage of each school's graduates appointed to a general practice training programme after foundation training (postgraduate years 1 and 2). A quantitative study of 29 UK medical schools. The UK Foundation Programme Office (UKFPO) destination surveys of 2014 and 2015 were used to determine the percentage of graduates of each UK medical school who were appointed to a GP training programme after foundation year 2. The Spearman rank correlation was used to examine the correlation between these data and the number of sessions spent in placements in general practice at each medical school. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between the quantity of authentic general practice teaching at each medical school and the percentage of its graduates who entered GP training after foundation programme year 2 in both 2014 (correlation coefficient [r] 0.41, P = 0.027) and 2015 (r 0.3, P = 0.044). Authentic general practice teaching here is described as teaching in a practice with patient contact, in contrast to non-clinical sessions such as group tutorials in the medical school. The authors have demonstrated, for the first time in the UK, an association between the quantity of clinical GP teaching at medical school and entry to general practice training. This study suggests that an increased use of, and investment in, undergraduate general practice placements would help to ensure that the UK meets its target of 50% of medical graduates entering general practice. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  1. E-cigarette advertising exposure in e-cigarette naïve adolescents and subsequent e-cigarette use: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa; Gutierrez, Kevin M; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana; Simon, Patricia; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-06-01

    Electronic (E-) cigarettes are one of the most popular tobacco products used by adolescents today. This study examined whether exposure to advertisements in (1) social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest/Google Plus), (2) traditional media (television/radio, magazines, billboards), or (3) retail stores (convenience stores, mall kiosks, tobacco shops) was associated with subsequent e-cigarette use in a longitudinal cohort of adolescents. Data were drawn from longitudinal surveys conducted in fall 2013 (wave 1) and spring 2014 (wave 2) of a school-based cohort attending 3 high schools and 2 middle schools in Connecticut. Adolescents were asked about tobacco use behaviors and where they had recently seen e-cigarette advertising at wave 1. We used logistic regression to determine whether advertising exposure at wave 1 increased the odds of e-cigarette use by wave 2, controlling for demographics and cigarette smoking status at wave 1. Among those who have never used e-cigarettes in wave 1 (n = 1742), 9.6% reported e-cigarette use at wave 2. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to e-cigarette advertising on Facebook (OR 2.12 = p advertising on social networking sites among youth who had never used e-cigarettes increases the likelihood of subsequent e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Televised obesity-prevention advertising across US media markets: exposure and content, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M; Emery, Sherry L

    2015-04-01

    To examine levels of exposure and content characteristics for recent televised obesity-prevention campaigns sponsored by state and community health departments, federal agencies, non-profit organizations and television stations in the USA. Nielsen television ratings for obesity-prevention advertising were collected for the top seventy-five US media markets and were used to calculate household exposure levels for 2010 and 2011. Governmental advertisements were coded for content. United States. Average household exposure to obesity-prevention campaigns was 2·6 advertisements per month. Exposure increased by 31 % between 2010 and 2011, largely driven by increases in federal advertisements. In 2011, the federal government accounted for 62 % of obesity-prevention exposure, non-profit organizations for 9 %, community departments for 8 %, state departments for 3 %, and television station-sponsored public-service announcements for 17 %. The greatest percentage increase between 2010 and 2011 was in community advertising, reflecting efforts funded by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) programme. Among thirty-four state and community campaigns, the majority advocated both healthy eating and physical activity (53 %). Campaigns typically had positive or neutral emotional valence (94 %). Obesity or overweight was mentioned in 47 % of campaigns, but only 9 % specifically advocated weight loss. Exposure to televised obesity-prevention advertising increased from 2010 to 2011 and was higher than previously found in 1999-2003, apart from in 2003 during the federal VERB campaign. Nevertheless, exposure remains low relative to advertising for unhealthy foods. New federal campaigns have increased exposure to obesity-prevention advertising nationally, while CPPW grants have increased exposure for targeted areas.

  3. Applications of nanoporous cyclodextrin polymers to prevent exposure to mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a continued effort to maintain a safe food supply, new strategies and technologies are developed in order to reduce human and animal exposure to contaminants. Agricultural commodities are occasionally contaminated by certain species of fungi that produce mycotoxins at levels that are health risks...

  4. Tanshinone IIA Prevents Leu27IGF-II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Mediated by Estrogen Receptor and Subsequent Akt Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Pai, Pei-Ying; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chung, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; HsuanDay, Cecilia; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    IGF-IIR plays important roles as a key regulator in myocardial pathological hypertrophy and apoptosis, which subsequently lead to heart failure. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound in Danshen and is structurally similar to 17[Formula: see text]-estradiol (E[Formula: see text]. However, whether tanshinone IIA improves cardiomyocyte survival in pathological hypertrophy through estrogen receptor (ER) regulation remains unclear. This study investigates the role of ER signaling in mediating the protective effects of tanshinone IIA on IGF-IIR-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Leu27IGF-II (IGF-II analog) was shown in this study to specifically activate IGF-IIR expression and ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist used to investigate tanshinone IIA estrogenic activity. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation through ER activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin expression and subsequent NFATc3 nuclear translocation to suppress myocardial hypertrophy. Tanshinone IIA reduced the cell size and suppressed ANP and BNP, inhibiting antihypertrophic effects induced by Leu27IGF-II. The cardioprotective properties of tanshinone IIA that inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and promote cell survival were reversed by ICI. Furthermore, ICI significantly reduced phospho-Akt, Ly294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and PI3K siRNA significantly reduced the tanshinone IIA-induced protective effect. The above results suggest that tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which was mediated through ER, by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin and NFATC3. Tanshinone IIA exerted strong estrogenic activity and therefore represented a novel selective ER modulator that inhibits IGF-IIR signaling to block cardiac hypertrophy.

  5. Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Youn; Park, June-Soo; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Linderholm, Linda; Bergman, Ake; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2009-01-01

    Background Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), unlike PCBs, are in general readily excreted yet are still detected in humans and animals. Active transport of OH-PCBs across the placenta and hydroxylation of PCBs by the fetus suggest the potential for greater impact on the fetus compared with the parent PCB compounds, but little is known about their health effects, particularly in humans. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal OH-PCB exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 16 months of age in eastern Slovakia. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1,134) was enrolled during 2002–2004. We analyzed six OH-PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB-107, 3-OH-CB-153, 4-OH-CB-146, 3′-OH-CB-138, 4-OH-CB-187, and 4′-OH-CB-172) in a subset of the cohort. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children at the 16-month follow-up visit. We developed multiple linear regression models predicting standardized scores for the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) from maternal (n = 147) and cord (n = 80) serum OH-PCB concentrations, adjusting for sex of child, district, HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) score, and maternal score on Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results Cord 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −2.27; p = 0.01) and PDI (β = −4.50; p = 0.004). Also, maternal 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −1.76; p = 0.03) but not PDI. No other OH-PCB metabolites were associated with decreased PDI or MDI. Conclusions Our findings showed a significant association of 4-OH-CB-107 with decreased MDI, which can possibly be mediated by endocrine disruption, altered neurotransmitter functions, or reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in brain. PMID:20019912

  6. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New Yo...

  7. Screening for elevated albuminuria and subsequently hypertension identifies subjects in which treatment may be warranted to prevent renal function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyilmaz, Akin; de Jong, Paul E; Bakker, Stephan J L; Visser, Sipke T; Thio, Chris; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether initial population screening for elevated albuminuria with subsequent screening for hypertension in case albuminuria is elevated may be of help to identify subjects at risk for accelerated decline in kidney function. We included subjects who participate in the PREVEND observational, general population-based cohort study and had two or more glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements available during follow-up. Elevated albuminuria was defined as an albumin concentration ≥20 mg/L in a first morning urine sample confirmed by an albumin excretion ≥30 mg/day in two 24-h urines. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or use of blood pressure-lowering drugs. eGFR was estimated with the CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation. Overall, 6471 subjects were included with a median of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2-5] eGFR measurements during a follow-up of 11.3 (95% CI 4.0-13.7) years. Decline in eGFR was greater in the subgroups with elevated albuminuria. This held true, not only in subjects with known hypertension (-1.84 ± 2.27 versus -1.16 ± 1.45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 per year, P albuminuria had higher blood pressure than subjects with normoalbuminuria, and in subjects with elevated albuminuria as yet undiagnosed hypertension was twice as prevalent as diagnosed hypertension. Initial screening for elevated albuminuria followed by screening for hypertension may help to detect subjects with increased risk for a steeper decline in kidney function.

  8. Prevention of Subsequent Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Using Catheter Locks in High-Risk Patients Receiving Home Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob B; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Okano, Akiko; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Bonnes, Sara L; Kelly, Darlene G; Mundi, Manpreet S; Hurt, Ryan T

    2017-05-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a serious complication in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) and ethanol lock therapy (ELT) can be used to prevent CRBSI episodes in high-risk patients. Following institutional review board approval, all patients enrolled in the Mayo Clinic HPN program from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013, with catheter locking were eligible to be included. Patients without research authorization and ELT were estimated in all patients. A total of 63 patients were enrolled during the study period. Of 59 eligible patients, 29 (49%) were female, and 30 (51%) were male. The median duration of HPN was 3.66 (interquartile range, 0.75-8.19) years. The mean age ± SD at initiation of HPN was 49.89 ± 14.07 years. A total of 51 patients were instilled with ALT, and 8 patients were instilled with ELT during their course of HPN. A total of 313 CRBSI episodes occurred in these patients, 264 before locking and 49 after locking ( P ELT can reduce the overall rate of infections per 1000 catheter days. ALT or ELT can be used in appropriate clinical setting for patients receiving HPN.

  9. 5-azacytidine promotes microspore embryogenesis initiation by decreasing global DNA methylation, but prevents subsequent embryo development in rapeseed and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa eSolís

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microspores are reprogrammed by stress in vitro towards embryogenesis. This process is an important tool in breeding to obtain double-haploid plants. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that changes in differentiation and proliferation. We have shown changes in global DNA methylation during microspore reprogramming. 5-Azacytidine (AzaC cannot be methylated and leads to DNA hypomethylation. AzaC is a useful demethylating agent to study DNA dynamics, with a potential application in microspore embryogenesis. This work analyzes the effects of short and long AzaC treatments on microspore embryogenesis initiation and progression in two species, the dicot Brassica napus and the monocot Hordeum vulgare. This involved the quantitative analyses of proembryo and embryo production, the quantification of DNA methylation, 5mdC immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the analysis of chromatin organization (condensation/ decondensation by light and electron microscopy. Four days of AzaC treatments (2.5 µM increased embryo induction, response associated with a decrease of DNA methylation, modified 5mdC and heterochromatin patterns compared to untreated embryos. By contrast, longer AzaC treatments diminished embryo production. Similar effects were found in both species, indicating that DNA demethylation promotes microspore reprogramming, totipotency acquisition and embryogenesis initiation, while embryo differentiation requires de novo DNA methylation and is prevented by AzaC. This suggests a role for DNA methylation in the repression of microspore reprogramming and possibly totipotency acquisition.Results provide new insights into the role of epigenetic modifications in microspore embryogenesis and suggest a potential benefit of inhibitors, such as AzaC, to improve the process efficiency in biotechnology and breeding programs.

  10. Enhancement of catalase activity by repetitive low-grade H2O2 exposures protects fibroblasts from subsequent stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Prosenjit; Mukherjee, Sebanti; Bhaumik, Gayaram; Das, Pradeep; Ganguly, Sandipan; Choudhury, Nandini; Raha, Sanghamitra

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts to mild and repetitive H 2 O 2 doses in culture for 15 weeks produced no change in lipid peroxidation status, GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione peroxidase activity of these cells (VST cells). In contrast, in VST cells catalase levels underwent a prominent increase which could be significantly inhibited and brought down to control levels after treatment with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT). When control (VC) cells were exposed to UV radiation (UVC 5 J/m 2 ) or H 2 O 2 (7.5 mM, 15 min), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels rose prominently with significant activation of caspase-3. Marked nuclear fragmentation and lower cell viability were also noted in these cells. In contrast, VST cells demonstrated a significantly lower ROS level, an absence of nuclear fragmentation and an unchanged caspase-3 activity after exposure to UVC or H 2 O 2 . Cell viability was also significantly better preserved in VST cells than VC cells after UV or H 2 O 2 exposures. Following 3-AT treatment of VST cells, UVC radiation or H 2 O 2 brought about significantly higher elevations in intracellular ROS, increases in caspase-3 activity, significantly lowered cell viability and marked nuclear fragmentation, indicating the involvement of high catalase levels in the cytoprotective effects of repetitive stress. Therefore, upregulation of the antioxidant defense after repetitive oxidative stress imparted a superior ability to cope with subsequent acute stress and escape apoptotic death and loss of viability

  11. Effect of in vivo jet fuel exposure on subsequent in vitro dermal absorption of individual aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon fuel constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, F; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E

    2005-05-14

    The percutaneous absorption of topically applied jet fuel hydrocarbons (HC) through skin previously exposed to jet fuel has not been investigated, although this exposure scenario is the occupational norm. Pigs were exposed to JP-8 jet fuel-soaked cotton fabrics for 1 and 4 d with repeated daily exposures. Preexposed and unexposed skin was then dermatomed and placed in flow-through in vitro diffusion cells. Five cells with exposed skin and four cells with unexposed skin were dosed with a mixture of 14 different HC consisting of nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, ethyl benzene, o-xylene, trimethyl benzene (TMB), cyclohexyl benzene (CHB), naphthalene, and dimethyl naphthalene (DMN) in water + ethanol (50:50) as diluent. Another five cells containing only JP-8-exposed skin were dosed solely with diluent in order to determine the skin retention of jet fuel HC. The absorption parameters of flux, diffusivity, and permeability were calculated for the studied HC. The data indicated that there was a two-fold and four-fold increase in absorption of specific aromatic HC like ethyl benzene, o-xylene, and TMB through 1- and 4-dJP-8 preexposed skin, respectively. Similarly, dodecane and tridecane were absorbed more in 4-d than 1-dJP-8 preexposed skin experiments. The absorption of naphthalene and DMN was 1.5 times greater than the controls in both 1- and 4-d preexposures. CHB, naphthalene, and DMN had significant persistent skin retention in 4-d preexposures as compared to 1-d exposures that might leave skin capable of further absorption several days postexposure. The possible mechanism of an increase in HC absorption in fuel preexposed skin may be via lipid extraction from the stratum corneum as indicated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This study suggests that the preexposure of skin to jet fuel enhances the subsequent in vitro percutaneous absorption of HC, so single-dose absorption data for jet fuel HC from

  12. Enhancement of catalase activity by repetitive low-grade H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposures protects fibroblasts from subsequent stress-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Prosenjit; Mukherjee, Sebanti; Bhaumik, Gayaram; Das, Pradeep; Ganguly, Sandipan; Choudhury, Nandini; Raha, Sanghamitra

    2003-08-28

    Exposure of Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts to mild and repetitive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} doses in culture for 15 weeks produced no change in lipid peroxidation status, GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione peroxidase activity of these cells (VST cells). In contrast, in VST cells catalase levels underwent a prominent increase which could be significantly inhibited and brought down to control levels after treatment with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT). When control (VC) cells were exposed to UV radiation (UVC 5 J/m{sup 2}) or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (7.5 mM, 15 min), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels rose prominently with significant activation of caspase-3. Marked nuclear fragmentation and lower cell viability were also noted in these cells. In contrast, VST cells demonstrated a significantly lower ROS level, an absence of nuclear fragmentation and an unchanged caspase-3 activity after exposure to UVC or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Cell viability was also significantly better preserved in VST cells than VC cells after UV or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposures. Following 3-AT treatment of VST cells, UVC radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} brought about significantly higher elevations in intracellular ROS, increases in caspase-3 activity, significantly lowered cell viability and marked nuclear fragmentation, indicating the involvement of high catalase levels in the cytoprotective effects of repetitive stress. Therefore, upregulation of the antioxidant defense after repetitive oxidative stress imparted a superior ability to cope with subsequent acute stress and escape apoptotic death and loss of viability.

  13. Evaluation of internal alpha radiation exposure and subsequent infertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieve, L. A.; Davis, F.; Roeske, J.; Handler, A.; Freels, S.; Stinchcomb, T.; Keane, A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Chicago; DePaul Univ.

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n=603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed with in the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility.

  14. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Silbergeld, E K

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposur...

  15. Children’s Environmental Health in the Digital Era: Understanding Early Screen Exposure as a Preventable Risk Factor for Obesity and Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Candice; Wolf, Seth; Weiss, Miriam; Nino, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    The quantity, accessibility and focus on child-targeted programming has exponentially increased since it entered American households in the early 1900s. It may have started with the television (TV), but technology has evolved and now fits in our pockets; as of 2017, 95% of American families own a smartphone. Availability and child-tailored content has subsequently led to a decrease in the age at initial screen exposure. The negative effects that accompany the current culture of early screen exposure are extensive and need to be considered as technology continues to enter the home and inundate social interactions. Increased levels of early screen exposure have been associated with decreased cognitive abilities, decreased growth, addictive behavior, poor school performance, poor sleep patterns, and increased levels of obesity. Research on the adverse effects of early screen exposure is mounting, but further epidemiological studies are still needed to inform prevention and regulation policies. PMID:29473855

  16. Children's Environmental Health in the Digital Era: Understanding Early Screen Exposure as a Preventable Risk Factor for Obesity and Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Candice; Wolf, Seth; Weiss, Miriam; Nino, Gustavo

    2018-02-23

    The quantity, accessibility and focus on child-targeted programming has exponentially increased since it entered American households in the early 1900s. It may have started with the television (TV), but technology has evolved and now fits in our pockets; as of 2017, 95% of American families own a smartphone. Availability and child-tailored content has subsequently led to a decrease in the age at initial screen exposure. The negative effects that accompany the current culture of early screen exposure are extensive and need to be considered as technology continues to enter the home and inundate social interactions. Increased levels of early screen exposure have been associated with decreased cognitive abilities, decreased growth, addictive behavior, poor school performance, poor sleep patterns, and increased levels of obesity. Research on the adverse effects of early screen exposure is mounting, but further epidemiological studies are still needed to inform prevention and regulation policies.

  17. Children’s Environmental Health in the Digital Era: Understanding Early Screen Exposure as a Preventable Risk Factor for Obesity and Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Wolf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantity, accessibility and focus on child-targeted programming has exponentially increased since it entered American households in the early 1900s. It may have started with the television (TV, but technology has evolved and now fits in our pockets; as of 2017, 95% of American families own a smartphone. Availability and child-tailored content has subsequently led to a decrease in the age at initial screen exposure. The negative effects that accompany the current culture of early screen exposure are extensive and need to be considered as technology continues to enter the home and inundate social interactions. Increased levels of early screen exposure have been associated with decreased cognitive abilities, decreased growth, addictive behavior, poor school performance, poor sleep patterns, and increased levels of obesity. Research on the adverse effects of early screen exposure is mounting, but further epidemiological studies are still needed to inform prevention and regulation policies.

  18. Enhancing Exposure and Response Prevention for OCD: A Couple-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Boeding, Sara; Fabricant, Laura E.; Paprocki, Christine; Fischer, Melanie S.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of individual therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is well established, yet not all patients respond well, and some show relapse on discontinuation. This article begins by providing an overview of the personal and interpersonal experiences of OCD, focusing on interpersonal…

  19. Behavioural treatment of tics: Habit reversal and exposure with response prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griendt, J.M.T.M. van de; Verdellen, C.W.J.; Dijk, M.K. van; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER.

  20. Offering pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention to pregnant and postpartum women: a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika L; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah

    2017-03-08

    HIV prevention during pregnancy and lactation is critical for both maternal and child health. Pregnancy provides a critical opportunity for clinicians to elicit women's vulnerabilities to HIV and offer HIV testing, treatment and referral and/or comprehensive HIV prevention options for the current pregnancy, the postpartum period and safer conception options for future pregnancies. In this commentary, we review the safety of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine in pregnant and lactating women and suggest opportunities to identify pregnant and postpartum women at substantial risk of HIV. We then describe a clinical approach to caring for women who both choose and decline pre-exposure prophylaxis during pregnancy and postpartum, highlighting areas for future research. Evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine is safe in pregnancy and lactation. Identifying women vulnerable to HIV and eligible for pre-exposure prophylaxis is challenging in light of the myriad of individual, community, and structural forces impacting HIV acquisition. Validated risk calculators exist for specific populations but have not been used to screen and offer HIV prevention methods. Partner testing and engagement of men living with HIV are additional means of reaching at-risk women. However, women's vulnerabilities to HIV change over time. Combining screening for HIV vulnerability with HIV and/or STI testing at standard intervals during pregnancy is a practical way to prompt providers to incorporate HIV screening and prevention counselling. We suggest using shared decision-making to offer women pre-exposure prophylaxis as one of multiple HIV prevention strategies during pregnancy and postpartum, facilitating open conversations about HIV vulnerabilities, preferences about HIV prevention strategies, and choosing a method that best meets the needs of each woman. Growing evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir

  1. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkala Moses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. Methods We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed and those that had not (unexposed and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Results Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0. Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19% at both the first (unexposed and second (exposed delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. Conclusion These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  2. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jan; Kuhn, Louise; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2008-12-30

    Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed) and those that had not (unexposed) and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0). Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19%) at both the first (unexposed) and second (exposed) delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  3. Exposure and Response Prevention Process Predicts Treatment Outcome in Youth with OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Katharina; Peris, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the treatment of adults with anxiety disorders suggests that aspects of the in-session exposure therapy process are relevant to clinical outcomes. However, few comprehensive studies have been conducted with children and adolescents. In the present study, 35 youth diagnosed with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; M age=12.9 years, 49% male, 63% Caucasian) completed 12 sessions of exposure and response prevention (ERP) in one of two treatment conditions as part of a pilot randomized controlled testing of a family focused intervention for OCD. Key exposure process variables, including youth self-reported distress during ERP and the quantity and quality of ERP completed, were computed. These variables were examined as predictors of treatment outcomes assessed at mid-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up, partialing treatment condition. In general, greater variability of distress during ERP and completing a greater proportion of combined exposures (i.e., exposures targeting more than one OC symptom at once) were predictive of better outcomes. Conversely, greater distress at the end of treatment was generally predictive of poorer outcomes. Finally, several variables, including within- and between-session decreases in distress during ERP, were not consistently predictive of outcomes. Findings signal potentially important facets of exposure for youth with OCD and have implications for treatment. A number of results also parallel recent findings in the adult literature, suggesting that there may be some continuity in exposure processes from child to adult development. Future work should examine additional measures of exposure process, such as psychophysiological arousal during exposure, in youth. PMID:25052626

  4. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURNANE, Pamela M.; HEFFRON, Renee; RONALD, Allan; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; DONNELL, Deborah; MUGO, Nelly R.; WERE, Edwin; MUJUGIRA, Andrew; KIARIE, James; CELUM, Connie; BAETEN, Jared M.

    2014-01-01

    Background For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities. Methodology In a clinical trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we estimated the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (oral contraceptive pills, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and hormonal implants) for pregnancy prevention relative to no contraception among 1785 HIV-1 uninfected women followed up to 36 months. We compared the effectiveness of each method among women assigned PrEP versus placebo. Contraception was not required for participation but was offered on-site and was recorded monthly; incident pregnancy was determined by monthly urine testing. Results For women using no contraception, overall pregnancy incidence was 15.4% per year. Women reporting oral contraceptive use had comparable pregnancy incidence to women using no contraception, and this lack of contraceptive effectiveness was similar for those assigned PrEP and placebo (17.7% and 10.0% incidence per year respectively; p-value for difference in effect by PrEP use=0.24). Women reporting injectable contraception had reduced pregnancy incidence compared to those reporting no contraception, which did not differ by arm (PrEP 5.1%, placebo 5.3% per year; p-value for difference=0.47). Contraceptive effectiveness was highest among women using implants (pregnancy incidence contraceptive effectiveness for pregnancy prevention. As seen previously in similar populations, women reporting contraceptive pill use had little protection from pregnancy, possibly due to poor adherence. Injectable or implantable hormonal contraception plus PrEP provides effective prevention for pregnancy and HIV-1. PMID:24785951

  5. Common Pitfalls in Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) for OCD

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Williams, Monnica T.; Malcoun, Emily; Yadin, Elna; Foa, Edna B.

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating disorder. Fortunately there are treatments that help the majority of OCD sufferers. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support for its efficacy is exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Over the years in our supervision meetings and in our clinical practice we have noted a number of relatively common therapist pitfalls that decrease the effectiveness of EX/RP. These pitfalls include not encouraging patients to appro...

  6. Common Pitfalls in Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) for OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Williams, Monnica T; Malcoun, Emily; Yadin, Elna; Foa, Edna B

    2012-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating disorder. Fortunately there are treatments that help the majority of OCD sufferers. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support for its efficacy is exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Over the years in our supervision meetings and in our clinical practice we have noted a number of relatively common therapist pitfalls that decrease the effectiveness of EX/RP. These pitfalls include not encouraging patients to approach the most distressing situations, doing imaginal exposure when in vivo is called for (and vice versa), encouraging distraction during exposure, providing reassurance, failing to address the core fear, ineffective handling of mental compulsions, and difficulty working with close others in the patient's life. In the current article we describe these common pitfalls and how to avoid them.

  7. Piracetam prevents memory deficit induced by postnatal propofol exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Li, Feng; Chen, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Postnatal propofol exposure impairs hippocampal synaptic development and memory. However, the effective agent to alleviate the impairments was not verified. In this study, piracetam, a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor was administered following a seven-day propofol regime. Two months after propofol administration, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory decreased, while intraperitoneal injection of piracetam at doses of 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg following last propofol exposure reversed the impairments of memory and LTP. Mechanically, piracetam reversed propofol exposure-induced decrease of BDNF and phosphorylation of mTor. Similar as piracetam, BDNF supplementary also ameliorated propofol-induced abnormalities of synaptic plasticity-related protein expressions, hippocampal LTP and long-term memory. These results suggest that piracetam prevents detrimental effects of propofol, likely via activating BDNF synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention of risks in relation with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation; Prevention des risques lies a l'exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    After remind the base notions in the field of ionizing radiation, this file evaluates the situation on the natural and occupational exposures: modes, sources, and exposure level, risk for health. It presents the principles of prevention allowing in a professional area (out of nuclear industry) to reduce and control these exposures. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. references are given: regulatory benchmarks, useful links, books to consult. (N.C.)

  9. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Perceptions and Preventive Practices of Indian Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nurses have a frontier caring role that brings them in close contact with patients' blood and body fluids. An understanding of their professional behavior is essential to assess and minimize the occupational exposure to HIV among them. Objectives. (1) To appraise the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices of nursing students pertaining to occupational exposure to HIV. (2) To quantify the risk and correlates of exposure to HIV among them. Methodology. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a nursing college of Varanasi, India. A semistructured and pretested pro forma consisting of questions pertaining to modes of HIV transmission, universal precaution practices, and various aspects of nursing HIV patients was utilized. Independent sample t- and z-tests were applied to judge the association of study variables with the knowledge and risk of HIV. Results. The study sample consisted of 87 female and 16 male nurses. Participants' knowledge of HIV transmission was satisfactory. More than 80% of them had an exposure to blood/body fluid in the last year. Exposure rates for blood/body fluid did not show a significant association (P > 0.05) with study variables. Conclusion. There were serious lacunae in implementation of the universal precautions despite satisfactory knowledge. Reinforcement of universal precautions is required.

  10. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Perceptions and Preventive Practices of Indian Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses have a frontier caring role that brings them in close contact with patients' blood and body fluids. An understanding of their professional behavior is essential to assess and minimize the occupational exposure to HIV among them. Objectives. (1 To appraise the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices of nursing students pertaining to occupational exposure to HIV. (2 To quantify the risk and correlates of exposure to HIV among them. Methodology. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a nursing college of Varanasi, India. A semistructured and pretested pro forma consisting of questions pertaining to modes of HIV transmission, universal precaution practices, and various aspects of nursing HIV patients was utilized. Independent sample t- and z-tests were applied to judge the association of study variables with the knowledge and risk of HIV. Results. The study sample consisted of 87 female and 16 male nurses. Participants' knowledge of HIV transmission was satisfactory. More than 80% of them had an exposure to blood/body fluid in the last year. Exposure rates for blood/body fluid did not show a significant association P>0.05 with study variables. Conclusion. There were serious lacunae in implementation of the universal precautions despite satisfactory knowledge. Reinforcement of universal precautions is required.

  11. Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk.

  12. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis prevents vaginal transmission of HIV-1 in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Denton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, vaginal transmission now accounts for more than half of newly acquired HIV-1 infections. Despite the urgency to develop and implement novel approaches capable of preventing HIV transmission, this process has been hindered by the lack of adequate small animal models for preclinical efficacy and safety testing. Given the importance of this route of transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of humanized mice to intravaginal HIV-1 infection.We show that the female reproductive tract of humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ T and other relevant human cells, rendering these humanized mice susceptible to intravaginal infection by HIV-1. Effects of HIV-1 infection include CD4+ T cell depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT that closely mimics what is observed in HIV-1-infected humans. We also show that pre-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs is a highly effective method for preventing vaginal HIV-1 transmission. Whereas 88% (7/8 of BLT mice inoculated vaginally with HIV-1 became infected, none of the animals (0/5 given pre-exposure prophylaxis of emtricitabine (FTC/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF showed evidence of infection (Chi square = 7.5, df = 1, p = 0.006.The fact that humanized BLT mice are susceptible to intravaginal infection makes this system an excellent candidate for preclinical evaluation of both microbicides and pre-exposure prophylactic regimens. The utility of humanized mice to study intravaginal HIV-1 transmission is particularly highlighted by the demonstration that pre-exposure prophylaxis can prevent intravaginal HIV-1 transmission in the BLT mouse model.

  13. THE USE OF VAPOR EXTRACTION SYSTEM AND ITS SUBSEQUENT REDUCTION OF WORKER EXPOSURE TO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE DURING RETRIEVAL OF HANFORDS LEGACY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PITTS DA

    2008-03-18

    The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear productions complex located in south eastern Washington and is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), used in mixtures with other organic compounds, was used to recover plutonium from aqueous streams at Z Plant located on the Hanford Site. The aqueous and organic liquid waste that remained at the end of this process was discharged to soil columns in waste cribs located near Z Plant. Included in this waste slurry along with CCl{sub 4} were tributyl phosphate, dibutyl butyl phosphate, and lard oil. (Truex et al., 2001). In the mid 1980's, CCl{sub 4} was found in the unconfined aquifer below the 200 West Area and subsequent ground water monitoring indicated that the plume was widespread and that the concentrations were increasing. It has been estimated that approximately 750,000 kg (826.7 tons) of CCl{sub 4} was discharged to the soil from 1955 to 1973. (Truex et al., 2001). With initial concentration readings of approximately 30,000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in one well field alone, soil vapor extraction began in 1992 in an effort to remove the CCl{sub 4} from the soil. (Rohay, 1999). Since 1992, approximately 78,607.6 kg (86.65 tons) of CCl{sub 4} have been extracted from the soil through the process of soil vapor extraction and 9,409.8 kg (10.37 tons) have been removed from the groundwater. (EPA, 2006). The success of this environmental cleanup process benefited not only the environment but also workers who were later involved in the retrieval of solid waste from trenches that were in or near the CCl{sub 4} plume. Solid waste was buried in trenches near Z Plant from 1967 to 1990. The solid waste, some of which was chemically and/or radioactively contaminated, was buried in trenches in steel or fiber drums, fiberboard boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood boxes, and steel, concrete, or wooden boxes. Much of this waste was buried with the intention of

  14. Nutritional interventions or exposures in infants and children aged up to 3 years and their effects on subsequent risk of overweight, obesity and body fat: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patro-Gołąb, B.; Zalewski, B. M.; Kołodziej, M.; Kouwenhoven, S.; Poston, L.; Godfrey, K. M.; Koletzko, B.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Szajewska, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (http://www.project-earlynutrition.eu), provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity,

  15. Climate change and occupational allergies: an overview on biological pollution, exposure and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, air pollution, temperature increase and other environmental variables are modifying air quality, contributing to the increase of prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergies are complex diseases characterized by multilevel interactions between individual susceptibility, response to immune modulation and environmental exposures to physical, chemical and biological agents. Occupational allergies introduce a further complexity to these relationships by adding occupational exposure to both the indoor and outdoor ones in the living environment. The aim of this paper is to overview climate-related allergy affecting environmental and occupational health, as literature data are scanty in this regard, and to suggest a management model of this risk based on a multidisciplinary approach, taking the case of biological pollution, with details on exposure and prevention. The management of climate-related occupational allergy should take into account preventive health strategies, environmental, public and occupational interventions, as well as to develop, implement, evaluate, and improve guidelines and standards protecting workers health under changing climatic conditions; new tools and strategies based on local conditions will have to be developed. Experimental studies and acquisition of environmental and personal data have to be matched to derive useful information for the scope of occupational health and safety.

  16. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Buys, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used...... are recommended. This exposure model could form a basis for the development of similar models assessing the impact of contaminated irrigation water and gene transfer in other microbial hazards, antimicrobial resistance types and fresh produce types....... for the quantitative exposure assessment and models were constructed in Ms. Excel spreadsheet with farm to consumption chain accounted for by primary production, processing, retail and consumer storage. Probability distributions were utilised to take into account the variability of the exposure estimates. Exposure...

  17. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure, awareness, and prevention among African-born women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristin A; Chase, Richard A

    2010-12-01

    Little research exists on exposure to the health risks of secondhand smoke among women and children in African immigrant communities. This exploratory study aims to understand the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure; assess levels of awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke; and identify strategies for building increased awareness of these issues in African immigrant communities in Minnesota. Key informant interviews with ten African women community leaders, focus groups with 29 female African youth, and surveys of 223 African women were conducted between August 2008 and March 2009. The focus groups and key informant interviews were in English, and the surveys were in English, French, Oromo, and Somali. Over one quarter of African women reported daily exposure to cigarette smoke, and one in ten women reported daily exposure to smoke from shisha (fruit-flavored tobacco smoked in a hookah or waterpipe). Many respondents had general awareness of the health impacts of tobacco smoke, but some were unsure. The majority felt that increased awareness was badly needed in their communities. Awareness of the health impacts of shisha smoking was particularly low. Strategies for increasing awareness include: using media and visual images, attending large gatherings, and appealing to community members' priorities, including protecting their children. Exposure to secondhand smoke among women and children in African immigrant communities in Minnesota is substantial. Awareness about the health impacts of secondhand smoke exposure in these communities needs to be increased. Disseminating visual information at existing community gatherings or appealing to individual priorities may be the best approaches to increase awareness and motivate change. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Stanley, Scott M; Fincham, Frank D; Hurt, Tera R; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or preadolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families program, a newly developed program targeting couple and cocaregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of 2 years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Hypnotically facilitated exposure response prevention therapy for an OIF veteran with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proescher, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    The highly stressful conditions of a war zone may exacerbate or trigger a wide variety of symptoms including Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) once a service member returns home. Service members and new veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars present to treatment with multiple psychosocial concerns and co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Evidence-based treatments including exposure based therapies are commonly recommended for use with returning veterans. Although studies support the efficacy of Exposure Response Prevention (ERP) therapy for treating OCD, eligibility for these studies limits participation to subjects who self-report a well-defined, circumscribed complaint. This approach is not typical of clinic clients who, more often than not, report multiple psychological issues. The following individual case study demonstrates how integrating hypnosis facilitated the cognitive-behavioral ERP therapy and treatment for a patient suffering from OCD.

  1. Caffeine in the milk prevents respiratory disorders caused by in utero caffeine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, Laurence; Saadani-Makki, Fadoua; Jullien, Hugues; Frugière, Alain

    2006-01-25

    Consequences of postnatal caffeine exposure by the milk on ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances observed following an in utero caffeine exposure were analysed. Ponto-medullary-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth display an increase in respiratory frequency and an exaggeration of the hypoxic respiratory depression compared to not treated preparations. These data suggest that tachypneic and apneic episodes encountered in human newborns whose mother consumed caffeine during pregnancy are due in large part to central effect of caffeine at the ponto-medullary level. Both baseline respiratory frequency increase and emphasis of hypoxic respiratory depression are not encountered if rat dams consumed caffeine during nursing. Our hypothesis is that newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth would be in withdrawal situation whereas, when caffeine is present in drinking fluid of lactating dams, it goes down the milk and is able to prevent ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances.

  2. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  3. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial results, it is important that issues related to delivery, implementation and further research are also discussed. As a part of the ongoing discussion, in June 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored a Planning for PrEP conference with stakeholders to review expected trial results, outline responsible educational approaches, and develop potential delivery and implementation strategies. The conference reinforced the need for continued and sustained dialogue to identify where PrEP implementation may fit best within an integrated HIV prevention package. This paper identifies the key action points that emerged from the Planning for PrEP meeting. PMID:20624303

  4. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  5. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  6. Pedophilia-Themed Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Assessment, Differential Diagnosis, and Treatment with Exposure and Response Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Simone Leavell; Ching, Terence H W; Williams, Monnica T

    2018-02-01

    Fears of sexually harming children are fairly common among clients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet these symptoms are largely unrecognized and frequently misdiagnosed by mental health professionals. Specifically, clients with pedophilia-themed OCD (P-OCD) experience excessive worries and distressing intrusive thoughts about being sexually attracted to, and sexually violating, children. Expressing these concerns may provoke misjudgments from uninformed mental health professionals that a client is presenting instead with pedophilic disorder. This misdiagnosis and subsequent improper interventions can then contribute to increased fear, anxiety, and in many cases, depression, in affected clients. Therefore, it is imperative that mental health professionals first possess a good understanding of this common manifestation of OCD. As such, in this article, we described obsessions and compulsions typical of P-OCD, in order to inform the reader of the distinctive differences between P-OCD and pedophilic disorder. Information about how to assess for P-OCD symptoms is then provided, followed by suggestions on how to tailor aspects of exposure and response prevention to treat this specific form of OCD.

  7. Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemasa Torii

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360–400 nm wavelength suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions. Next, we conducted clinical research retrospectively to compare the AL elongation among myopic children who wore eyeglasses (VL blocked and two types of contact lenses (partially VL blocked and VL transmitting. The data showed the VL transmitting contact lenses suppressed myopia progression most. These results suggest that VL is one of the important outdoor environmental factors for myopia control. Since VL is apt to be excluded from our modern society due to the excessive UV protection, VL exposure can be a preventive strategy against myopia progression.

  8. Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hidemasa; Kurihara, Toshihide; Seko, Yuko; Negishi, Kazuno; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Inaba, Takaaki; Kawashima, Motoko; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Kondo, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Maki; Miwa, Yukihiro; Katada, Yusaku; Mori, Kiwako; Kato, Keiichi; Tsubota, Kinya; Goto, Hiroshi; Oda, Mayumi; Hatori, Megumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-02-01

    Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360-400nm wavelength) suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL) elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions. Next, we conducted clinical research retrospectively to compare the AL elongation among myopic children who wore eyeglasses (VL blocked) and two types of contact lenses (partially VL blocked and VL transmitting). The data showed the VL transmitting contact lenses suppressed myopia progression most. These results suggest that VL is one of the important outdoor environmental factors for myopia control. Since VL is apt to be excluded from our modern society due to the excessive UV protection, VL exposure can be a preventive strategy against myopia progression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blue LED light exposure develops intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent cellular injuries in cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi-Ueda, T; Majima, H J; Watanabe, K; Ueda, T; Indo, H P; Suenaga, S; Hisamitsu, T; Ozawa, T; Yasuhara, H; Koide, R

    2013-10-01

    The effects of blue light emitter diode (LED) light exposure on retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) were examined to detect cellular damage or change and to clarify its mechanisms. The RPE cells were cultured and exposed by blue (470 nm) LED at 4.8 mW/cm(2). The cellular viability was determined by XTT assay and cellular injury was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase activity in medium. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by confocal laser microscope image analysis using dihydrorhodamine 123 and lipid peroxidation was determined by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein-adducts immunofluorescent staining (HNE). At 24 h after 50 J/cm(2) exposures, cellular viability was significantly decreased to 74% and cellular injury was significantly increased to 365% of control. Immediately after the light exposure, ROS generation was significantly increased to 154%, 177%, and 395% of control and HNE intensity was increased to 211%, 359%, and 746% of control by 1, 10, and 50 J/cm(2), respectively. These results suggest, at least in part, that oxidative stress is an early step leading to cellular damage by blue LED exposure and cellular oxidative damage would be caused by the blue light exposure at even lower dose (1, 10 J/cm(2)).

  10. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth’s Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “downward spirals” and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment. PMID:26456988

  11. Polarised press reporting about HIV prevention: Social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  12. Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge, and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD, but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10 during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of development of AD in 6-month-old children and also to examine how this association changes with residential green space. This study used prospective data from 659 participants of the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO2 and PM10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were 1.219 (1.023–1.452 per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and 1.353 (1.027–1.782 per 10 ppb increase in NO2. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993–0.999. The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM10 and NO2 exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify

  14. Applicability of the black slug Arion ater for monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their subsequent bioactivation into DNA binding metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Kalis, E.J.J.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Maas, L.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of terrestrial black slugs Arion ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda) was studied for biomonitoring environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In laboratory experiments, slugs were orally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a short term (3 days) or a long term (119

  15. Gun- and Non-Gun-Related Violence Exposure and Risk for Subsequent Gun Carrying Among Male Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Jordan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Allison, Paul; Infante, Arynn; Pardini, Dustin

    2018-04-01

    Although studies have found that youth exposed to violence are more likely to carry guns than non-exposed youth, this association could be due to common causal factors or other pre-existing differences between individuals. In this study, within-individual change models were used to determine whether juvenile offenders exhibit an increased propensity to carry a firearm after being exposed to gun violence and/or non-gun violence. The advantage of this approach is all time-invariant factors are eliminated as potential confounders. A sample of 1,170 racially/ethnically diverse male juvenile offenders was recruited in Arizona and Pennsylvania (14-19 years old at recruitment). Participants were interviewed every 6 months for 3 years followed by 4 annual assessments. The outcome was gun carrying and the primary predictors were exposure to gun violence and non-gun violence. Time-varying covariates included exposure to peers who carried guns, exposure to peers who engaged in other (non-gun) criminal acts, developmental changes in gun carrying, and changes in gun carrying from incarceration or institutionalization. Adolescent offenders were significantly more likely to carry a gun in recall periods after exposure to gun violence, but not after exposure to non-gun violence. Effect of gun violence on carrying was significant throughout adolescence and young adulthood and could not be accounted for by time-varying and time-invariant confounders. Interventions to decrease illegal gun carrying should target young men in medical and mental health settings who experience or witness gun violence and those living in communities with high rates of gun violence. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive hormetic response of pre-exposure of mouse brain with low-dose 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray on growth hormone (GH) and body weight induced by subsequent high-dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Xie, Yi; Zhou, Qingming; Liu, Bing; Li, Wenjian; Li, Xiaoda; Duan, Xin; Yuan, Zhigang; Zhou, Guangming; Min, Fengling

    2006-01-01

    The brain of the Kun-Ming strain mice were irradiated with 0.05 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray as the pre-exposure dose, and were then irradiated with 2 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray as challenging irradiation dose at 4 h after per-exposure. Body weight and serum growth hormone (GH) concentration were measured at 35th day after irradiation. The results showed that irradiation of mouse brain with 2 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray significantly diminished mouse body weight and level of serum GH. The relative biological effectiveness values of a 2 Gy dose of 12C 6+ ion calculated with respect to 60Co γ-ray were 1.47 and 1.34 for body weight and serum GH concentration, respectively. Pre-exposure with a low-dose (0.05 Gy) of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray significantly alleviated reductions of mouse body weight and level of serum GH induced by a subsequent high-dose (2 Gy) irradiation. The data suggested that low-dose ionizing irradiation can induce adaptive hormetic responses to the harmful effects of pituitary by subsequent high-dose exposure.

  17. Behavioural treatment of tics: habit reversal and exposure with response prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Griendt, J M T M; Verdellen, C W J; van Dijk, M K; Verbraak, M J P M

    2013-07-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER. In addition, treatment manuals for HR and ER are described. Despite the evidence and availability of treatment manuals, many patients do not receive a first-line psychological intervention for tics. Barriers to the acceptance and dissemination of behaviour therapy are discussed as are ways to overcome these barriers, such as the use of E-health and E-learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Previous extensive sun exposure and subsequent vitamin D production in patients with basal cell carcinoma of the skin, has no protective effect on internal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindelöf, Bernt; Krynitz, Britta; Ayoubi, Shiva; Martschin, Christoph; Wiegleb-Edström, Desiree; Wiklund, Kerstin

    2012-05-01

    It has been suggested that sunlight through production of vitamin D might have a protective effect on a number of internal cancers. Consequently, in spite of the well known skin cancer risks, some researchers advocate more exposure to ultraviolet radiation, supported by the solarium industry. We estimated the risk of internal cancer before the patient contracted a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, the most common cancer in white populations and strongly associated with extensive sun exposure. A nested case control study was undertaken in the whole Swedish population. 115,016 patients with BCC and 987,893 controls were linked to population based registers. The cases had an increased risk of getting another form of cancer before the BCC diagnosis: odds ratio (OR)=1.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81-1.86. This risk was mainly due to skin cancer: OR=4.95; 95% CI 4.81-5.09 but also non-skin cancer risk was elevated: OR=1.37; 95% CI 1.35-1.39. We adjusted the estimates for age, level of income, occupational status in national censuses, place of living and sex, where appropriate. Of the cancers specifically suggested to be related to vitamin D status: colon, prostate, breast, and ovary cancer, all had slightly increased ORs whilst for pancreatic and gastric cancer no increased OR was found. Patients with BCC, a proxy for extensive sun exposure, run an increased risk of other forms of cancer prior to the diagnosis of BCC. The findings in this study contradict that vitamin D production through extensive sun exposure has any protective effect on internal cancer but emphasise the increased risk for skin cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water in the National Birth Defects Prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Emch, Michael; Meyer, Robert E; Langlois, Peter; Weyer, Peter; Mosley, Bridget; Olshan, Andrew F; Band, Lawrence E; Luben, Thomas J

    2016-07-15

    Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals might increase the risk of hypospadias by interrupting normal urethral development. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we considered the role of maternal exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide and potential endocrine disruptor, via drinking water in the etiology of 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias. We used data on 343 hypospadias cases and 1,422 male controls in North Carolina, Arkansas, Iowa, and Texas from 1998-2005. Using catchment level stream and groundwater contaminant models from the US Geological Survey, we estimated atrazine concentrations in public water supplies and in private wells. We assigned case and control mothers to public water supplies based on geocoded maternal address during the critical window of exposure for hypospadias (i.e., gestational weeks 6-16). Using maternal questionnaire data about water consumption and drinking water, we estimated a surrogate for total maternal consumption of atrazine via drinking water. We then included additional maternal covariates, including age, race/ethnicity, parity, and plurality, in logistic regression analyses to consider an association between atrazine and hypospadias. When controlling for maternal characteristics, any association between hypospadias and daily maternal atrazine exposure during the critical window of genitourinary development was found to be weak or null (odds ratio for atrazine in drinking water = 1. 00, 95 % CI = 0.97 to 1.03 per 0.04 μg/day increase; odds ratio for maternal consumption = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.99 to 1.05; per 0.05 μg/day increase). While the association that we observed was weak, our results suggest that additional research into a possible association between atrazine and hypospadias occurrence, using a more sensitive exposure metric

  20. Experimental study of prevention effect of andrographolide against radiation exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Huiyun; Mu Xiang; Li Li; Ding Kuke; Yang Lijian; Li Jie; Dong Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of andrographolide (AP), extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Andrographlis paniculata (AP), on injury induced by radiation exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups and irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at the doses of 1, 2, and 4 Gy, respectively: low dose AP group(intragastrically administered with AP at the dose of 100 ms/kg daily for 10 d before irradiation), and high dose AP group (intragastrically administered with AP at the dose of 200 ms/kg daily for 10 d before irradiation), model group (administered with the same volume of normal saline instead of AP for 10 d before irradiation), and control group(irradiated only at 3 different doses). One day after irradiation all rats were killed with their livers being fixed to make paraffin section. The morphological feature was observed under light microscope after HE staining, and the cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technology. Results: Compared to the control and model groups, the pathological changes of liver were significantly gentler in the AP treatment groups. The apoptosis rates of the liver cells of all the AP sub-groups were significantly lower than those of the control and model subgroup (t=2.19-4.80, P<0.05). Conclusions: AP might have prevention effect against radiation exposure. (authors)

  1. Thyroxine administration prevents matrilineal intergenerational consequences of in utero ethanol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Harper, Kathryn M; Graf, Evan N; Redei, Eva E

    2016-06-01

    The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it. Sprague-Dawley (S) dams received control diets (ad libitum and nutritional control) or ethanol containing liquid diet with and without simultaneous T4 (0.3mg/L diet) administration. Their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naive Brown Norway (B) males and females generating the SB F2 and BS F2 progeny. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampal expression of the thyroid hormone-regulated type 3 deiodinase, (Dio3) and neurogranin (Nrgn) were assessed. SS F1 PE-exposed females and their SB F2 progeny exhibited fear memory deficits. T4 administration to the mothers of F1 females reversed these deficits. Although SS F1 PE-exposed males also experienced fear memory deficit, this was neither transmitted to their BS F2 offspring nor reversed by prenatal T4 treatment. Hippocampal Dio3 and Nrgn expression showed similar pattern of changes. Grandmaternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy affects fear memory of the matrilineal second-generation progeny. Low dose T4 supplementation prevents this process likely via altering allele-specific and total expression of Dio3 in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  3. Posttraumatic stress hyperarousal symptoms mediate the relationship between childhood exposure to violence and subsequent alcohol misuse in Mi'kmaq youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Simon B; Stevens, Doreen; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-10-01

    This study was part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Canadian Mi'kmaq community that examined the potential role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom clusters in mediating the relationship between childhood exposure to violence (EV) and alcohol misuse in a sample of Mi'kmaq adolescents (N = 166). The study employed a cross-sectional design and used several well-validated self-report questionnaires. Path analytic results showed that when each PTS symptom cluster was independently investigated for mediating effects while controlling for depressive symptoms, age, and gender, only the PTS hyperarousal symptom cluster fully mediated the EV-alcohol misuse relationship. Results are discussed within the context of previous theory and research on the topic of PTS as a mediator between EV and alcohol misuse. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Apocynin prevents vascular effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danize A Rizzetti

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mercury increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress and alters vascular reactivity. This metal elicits endothelial dysfunction causing decreased NO bioavailability via increased oxidative stress and contractile prostanoid production. NADPH oxidase is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the vasculature. Our aim was to investigate whether treatment with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevents the vascular effects caused by chronic intoxication with low concentrations of mercury. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with a intramuscular injections (i.m. of saline; b HgCl(2 (i.m. 1(st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses: 0.07 µg/kg/day; c Apocynin (1.5 mM in drinking water plus saline i.m.; and d Apocynin plus HgCl(2. The mercury treatment resulted in 1 an increased aortic vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine; 2 the increased involvement of ROS and vasoconstrictor prostanoids in response to phenylephrine, whereas the endothelial NO modulation of such responses was reduced; and 3 the reduced activity of aortic superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Treatment with apocynin partially prevented the increased phenylephrine responses and reduced the endothelial dysfunction elicited by mercury treatment. In addition, apocynin treatment increased the NO modulation of vasoconstrictor responses and aortic SOD activity and reduced plasma MDA levels without affecting the increased participation of vasoconstrictor prostanoids observed in aortic segments from mercury-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Mercury increases the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine by reducing NO bioavailability and increasing the involvement of ROS and constrictor prostanoids. Apocynin protects the vessel from the deleterious effects caused by NADPH oxidase, but not from those

  5. Prevention of and response to inadvertent exposure of embryo/fetus to ionizing radiation, due to medical exposure of the mother. The Greek regulatory authority initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economides, Sotirios; Boziari, Argiro; Vogiatzi, Stavroula; Hourdakis, Konstantinos J; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Embryo/fetus (E/F) irradiation as a result of medical exposure of the mother should be avoided, unless there are strong clinical indications. Medical practitioners are assigned the primary task and obligation of ensuring overall patient protection and safety in the prescription of and during the delivery of medical exposure. In cases of unintended exposure of embryo/fetus (E/F), the risk analysis and communication is conducted by or under the supervision of medical physicists at local level. National competent authorities can contribute to the prevention, risk analysis and communication of inadvertent E/F exposure to ionizing radiation by recording, analyzing and disseminating the relevant information. Since 2001, Greek Atomic Energy Commission has established a committee with the mandate to provide advice, to keep records, to analyze and disseminate the experience gained in cases of unintended E/F exposure. During the period 2001-2011, the committee was consulted by 269 pregnant women undergone medical exposures. The conclusions from the relevant data analysis, as well as the experience gained are herein presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peripubertal exposure to environmental enrichment prevents schizophrenia-like behaviors in the SHR strain animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Camila Mauricio; Peres, Fernanda Fiel; Diana, Mariana Cepollaro; Justi, Veronica; Suiama, Mayra Akimi; Santana, Marcela Gonçalves; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling mental disorder, in which genetics and environmental factors interact culminating in the disease. The treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits with antipsychotics is currently inefficient and is an important field of research. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been suggested to improve some cognitive deficits in animal models of various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a possible beneficial effect of early and long-term exposure to EE on an animal model of schizophrenia, the SHR strain. Young male Wistar rats (control strain) and SHRs (21 post-natal days) were housed for 6weeks in two different conditions: in large cages (10 animals per cage) containing objects of different textures, forms, colors and materials that were changed 3 times/week (EE condition) or in standard cages (5 animals per cage - Control condition). Behavioral evaluations - social interaction (SI), locomotion, prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) and spontaneous alternation (SA) - were performed 6weeks after the end of EE. SHRs presented deficits in PPI (a sensorimotor impairment), SI (mimicking the negative symptoms) and SA (a working memory deficit), and also hyperlocomotion (modeling the positive symptoms). EE was able to reduce locomotion and increase PPI in both strains, and to prevent the working memory deficit in SHRs. EE also increased the number of neurons in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. In conclusion, EE can be a potential nonpharmacological strategy to prevent some behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Justice and HIV Vaccine Research in the Age of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Treatment as Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Theodore C.; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials. PMID:24033297

  8. Co-ordinate variations in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, and the cobalamin cofactors in human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and the subsequent recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, B; Fiskerstrand, T; Refsum, H; Ueland, P M

    1999-07-01

    We investigated the co-ordinate variations of the two cobalamin (Cbl)-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase (MS) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM), and measured the levels of their respective cofactors, methylcobalamin (CH3Cbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) in cultured human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and during a subsequent recovery period of culture in a nitrous oxide-free atmosphere (air). In agreement with published data, MS as the primary target of nitrous oxide was inactivated rapidly (initial rate of 0.06 h(-1)), followed by reduction of CH3Cbl (to ordinate distribution of Cbl cofactors during depletion and repletion.

  9. Gloves, extra gloves or special types of gloves for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries in healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Saarto, Annika; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Pahwa, Manisha; Ijaz, Sharea

    2014-03-07

    Healthcare workers are at risk of acquiring viral diseases such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV through exposure to contaminated blood and body fluids at work. Most often infection occurs when a healthcare worker inadvertently punctures the skin of their hand with a sharp implement that has been used in the treatment of an infected patient, thus bringing the patient's blood into contact with their own. Such occurrences are commonly known as percutaneous exposure incidents. To determine the benefits and harms of extra gloves for preventing percutaneous exposure incidents among healthcare workers versus no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, NHSEED, Science Citation Index Expanded, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC, CISDOC, PsycINFO and LILACS until 26 June 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthcare workers as the majority of participants, extra gloves or special types of gloves as the intervention, and exposure to blood or bodily fluids as the outcome. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses for seven different comparisons. We found 34 RCTs that included 6890 person-operations as participating units and reported on 46 intervention-control group comparisons. We grouped interventions as follows: increased layers of standard gloves, gloves manufactured with special protective materials or thicker gloves, and gloves with puncture indicator systems. Indicator gloves show a coloured spot when they are perforated. Participants were surgeons in all studies and they used at least one pair of standard gloves as the control intervention. Twenty-seven studies also included other surgical staff (e.g. nurses). All but one study used perforations in gloves as an indication of exposure. The median control group rate was 18.5 perforations per 100 person-operations. Seven studies reported blood stains on the skin and two studies reported self reported

  10. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  11. The M1 Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist VU0255035 Delays the Development of Status Epilepticus after Organophosphate Exposure and Prevents Hyperexcitability in the Basolateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven L.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I.; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Apland, James P.; Krishnan, Jishnu K. S.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphorus toxins induces seizures that progress to status epilepticus (SE), which can cause brain damage or death. Seizures are generated by hyperstimulation of muscarinic receptors, subsequent to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase; this is followed by glutamatergic hyperactivity, which sustains and reinforces seizure activity. It has been unclear which muscarinic receptor subtypes are involved in seizure initiation and the development of SE in the early phases after exposure. Here, we show that pretreatment of rats with the selective M1 receptor antagonist, VU0255035 [N-(3-oxo-3-(4-(pyridine-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-4 sulfonamide], significantly suppressed seizure severity and prevented the development of SE for about 40 minutes after exposure to paraoxon or soman, suggesting an important role of the M1 receptor in the early phases of seizure generation. In addition, in in vitro brain slices of the basolateral amygdala (a brain region that plays a key role in seizure initiation after nerve agent exposure), VU0255035 blocked the effects produced by bath application of paraoxon—namely, a brief barrage of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents, followed by a significant increase in the ratio of the total charge transferred by spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents over that of the inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Furthermore, paraoxon enhanced the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih in basolateral amygdala principal cells, which could be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased glutamatergic activity, an effect that was also blocked in the presence of VU0255035. Thus, selective M1 antagonists may be an efficacious pretreatment in contexts in which there is risk for exposure to organophosphates, as these antagonists will delay the development of SE long enough for medical assistance to arrive. PMID:27799295

  12. Dust Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis Prevention Among Solar Power Farm Construction Workers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermeyer Cooksey, Gail L; Wilken, Jason A; McNary, Jennifer; Gilliss, Debra; Shusterman, Dennis; Materna, Barbara L; Vugia, Duc J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate if work activities, dust exposure, and protection measures were associated with a 2011 to 2014 coccidioidomycosis outbreak among workers constructing 2 solar farms in California. In 2013, we mailed self-administered questionnaires to employees who were onsite at the solar farms where the outbreak occurred to identify cases of clinical coccidioidomycosis and compare with asymptomatic workers by using multivariate logistic regression. When we compared 89 workers with clinical coccidioidomycosis to 325 asymptomatic workers, frequently being in a dust cloud or storm (odds ratio [OR] = 5.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18, 11.06) significantly increased the odds of clinical coccidioidomycosis, whereas frequently wetting soil before soil-disturbing activity (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.24, 0.75) was protective. When we controlled for being in a dust cloud or storm, frequent soil disturbance significantly increased the odds of clinical coccidioidomycosis only among those who reported wearing a respirator infrequently (OR = 2.31; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.21). Utilization of personal and employer-driven safety practices and increased coccidioidomycosis awareness among construction workers should be considered during the planning of any construction work in coccidioidomycosis-endemic regions to prevent occupational infections and outbreaks.

  13. Impact of a multi-level intervention to prevent secondhand smoke exposure in schoolchildren: a randomized cluster community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Carles; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Schiaffino, Anna; Rajmil, Luis; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Nebot, Manel

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a multi-level (individual, family, and school) school-based intervention to prevent the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a population of schoolchildren (12-14 years old). This was a community trial with cluster randomization of schools to an intervention and comparison group (ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier NCT01881607). The intervention targeted schoolchildren in Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed SHS exposure in different settings and tobacco consumption by means of a questionnaire before and one year after the intervention. We analyzed data from 1734 students with both baseline and follow-up data. The crude analysis showed that SHS exposure among students in the intervention group significantly decreased at school (-14.0%), at home (-19.9%), and on transportation (-21.8%). In the comparison group, SHS exposure significantly decreased only at home (-16.9%). After adjustment for potential confounders, the good accomplishment of the activities showed a possible trend towards a non-significant reduction in exposure at home, transportation, and leisure time. While this school-based multi-level intervention had no overall effect in SHS exposure, the improvement of the activities focused on preventing SHS would be needed in order to achieve a significant decrease in the proportion of children exposed to SHS. © 2013.

  14. Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla H; Chan, Doris S M; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; von Rüsten, Anne; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, José Ramón; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sánchez, María José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Masala, Giovanna; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; May, Anne M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Wirfält, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Skeie, Guri; Benjaminsen Borch, Kristin; Parr, Christine L; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% CI: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer.

  15. Measures for radiation prevention and remediation of islightly radioactive contaminated sites by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the loaded plant residues (PHYTOREST). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willscher, Sabine; Werner, Peter; Jablonski, Lukasz; Wittig, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    In the presented scientific research project, the radiation protection of soil surfaces impacted by former industrial utilization or mining was investigated. This radiation protection of the contaminated soil surfaces was carried out by bioremediation techniques. The soil surfaces include larger agricultural or forestry areas useful for the production of sustainable plant-based raw materials and renewable energies. The contaminated areas show a positive climatic water balance with a subsequent impact of SM/R contaminants onto the adjacent ground water. During this scientific research project, the introduction of sustainable, biosphere conserving methods for a long-term remediation of slightly to moderately HM/R- contaminated areas was investigated; these areas are characterized by a radiotoxic amplifying potential due to a continued occurrence of radionuclides and heavy metals/ metalloids. The insights into transfer processes from the soil substrate over the mediating soil water phase and by microbes into the plant roots, into the shoots and the leaves of the plants represent necessary requirements for the control of SM/R transfer into the plants and its optimization. In this research project, considerable investigations were carried out for the understanding of binding of HM/R in the different plant compartments, also depending on different soil additives. The obtained first scientific results and their practical applicability were transformed onto experimental soil areas under natural field conditions. The transfer processes could be optimized and finally bioremediation efficiency could be enhanced due to the accompanying modifications (different soil additives of the field experiments). This new remediation method, further developed to a field application, represents a new tool for the stabilization / and extraction of HM/R on the field site and improves the efficiency of bioremediation processes. A pacification of the large areas with slightly to medium

  16. Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; Cripps, Allan W; Nimmo, Graeme R; van Driel, Mieke L

    2015-09-09

    Control of rubella is desired because infection in early pregnancy can result in miscarriage, foetal death or congenital abnormality. Primary studies examining the effectiveness of immunoglobulins for post-exposure prophylaxis of rubella have small sample sizes and varying results. National public health recommendations suggest a degree of effectiveness. To assess the effectiveness of intramuscular injection or intravenous infusion of polyclonal immunoglobulins of human sera or plasma origin for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome when administered to exposed susceptible people before the onset of disease. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to August week 2, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to August 2014), CINAHL (1981 to August 2014), LILACS (1982 to August 2014) and Web of Science (1955 to August 2014). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry on 16 October 2014. We searched the reference lists of relevant retrieved reviews and studies and identified national public health guidelines. For the outcome 'preventing cases of rubella', we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. We found several studies addressing this outcome where the design was a controlled clinical trial (CCT) (with exposure to rubella virus controlled by the investigators) but the method of allocation of participants to groups was not reported. We found an alternative report of one of these studies that indicated participants were assigned to groups randomly. We therefore included such studies as meeting criteria for RCTs or quasi-RCTs and undertook sensitivity analyses. For the outcomes, 'congenital rubella infection' and 'congenital rubella syndrome', we included RCTs, quasi-RCTs and prospective controlled (cohort) studies. Participants were necessarily susceptible and exposed to rubella. Polyclonal immunoglobulins derived from human sera or plasma must have been administered intramuscularly or

  17. Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M

    2013-12-01

    Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk

  18. Devices for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries caused by needles in healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Viraj K; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Verbeek, Jos H; Pahwa, Manisha

    2017-11-14

    Percutaneous exposure injuries from devices used for blood collection or for injections expose healthcare workers to the risk of blood borne infections such as hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Safety features such as shields or retractable needles can possibly contribute to the prevention of these injuries and it is important to evaluate their effectiveness. To determine the benefits and harms of safety medical devices aiming to prevent percutaneous exposure injuries caused by needles in healthcare personnel versus no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, NHSEED, Science Citation Index Expanded, CINAHL, Nioshtic, CISdoc and PsycINFO (until 11 November 2016). We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before and after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) designs of the effect of safety engineered medical devices on percutaneous exposure injuries in healthcare staff. Two of the authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We synthesized study results with a fixed-effect or random-effects model meta-analysis where appropriate. We included six RCTs with 1838 participants, two cluster-RCTs with 795 participants and 73,454 patient days, five CBAs with approximately 22,000 participants and eleven ITS with an average of 13.8 data points. These studies evaluated safe modifications of blood collection systems, intravenous (IV) systems, injection systems, multiple devices, sharps containers and legislation on the implementation of safe devices. We estimated the needlestick injury (NSI) rate in the control groups to be about one to five NSIs per 1000 person-years. There were only two studies from low- or middle-income countries. The risk of bias was high in 20 of 24 studies. Safe blood collection systems:We found one RCT that found a safety engineered blood gas syringe having no considerable effect on NSIs (Relative Risk (RR) 0.2, 95

  19. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the primary prevention of HIV in at-risk women: empowerment and equity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Aaron; Adashi, Eli Y

    2014-01-01

    Women continue to bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic's impact. The last three years have witnessed the explosive emergence of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a viable, woman-initiated, and woman-controlled candidate for the primary prevention of HIV in women. These developments have proven particularly significant for at-risk women in environments where negotiation of safe sex is difficult. In this review, we trace the recent evolution of the pre-exposure prophylaxis vision for women, delineate the clinical trials that made it all possible, and discuss ongoing efforts required for its full actualization.

  20. Assessment of reporting quality of conference abstracts in sports injury prevention according to CONSORT and STROBE criteria and their subsequent publication rate as full papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The preliminary results of a study are usually presented as an abstract in conference meetings. The reporting quality of those abstracts and the relationship between their study designs and full paper publication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that randomized controlled trials are more likely to be published as full papers than observational studies. Methods 154 oral abstracts presented at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention 2005 Oslo and the corresponding full paper publication were identified and analysed. The main outcome measures were frequency of publication, time to publication, impact factor, CONSORT (for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) score, STROBE (for Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) score, and minor and major inconsistencies between the abstract and the full paper publication. Results Overall, 76 of the 154 (49%) presented abstracts were published as full papers in a peer-reviewed journal with an impact factor of 1.946 ± 0.812. No significant difference existed between the impact factor for randomized controlled trials (2.122 ± 1.015) and observational studies (1.913 ± 0.765, p = 0.469). The full papers for the randomized controlled trials were published after an average (SD) of 17 months (± 13 months); for observational studies, the average (SD) was 12 months (± 14 months) (p = 0.323). A trend was observed in this study that a higher percentage of randomized controlled trial abstracts were published as full papers (71% vs. 47%, p = 0.078) than observational trials. The reporting quality of abstracts, published as full papers, significantly increased compared to conference abstracts both in randomized control studies (CONSORT: 5.7 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.018, CI -2.7 to -0.32) and in observational studies (STROBE: 8.2 ± 1.3 to 8.6 ± 1.4; p = 0.007, CI -0.63 to -0.10). All of the published abstracts had at least one minor inconsistency (title, authors, research center

  1. Assessment of reporting quality of conference abstracts in sports injury prevention according to CONSORT and STROBE criteria and their subsequent publication rate as full papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Uzung

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preliminary results of a study are usually presented as an abstract in conference meetings. The reporting quality of those abstracts and the relationship between their study designs and full paper publication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that randomized controlled trials are more likely to be published as full papers than observational studies. Methods 154 oral abstracts presented at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention 2005 Oslo and the corresponding full paper publication were identified and analysed. The main outcome measures were frequency of publication, time to publication, impact factor, CONSORT (for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials score, STROBE (for Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology score, and minor and major inconsistencies between the abstract and the full paper publication. Results Overall, 76 of the 154 (49% presented abstracts were published as full papers in a peer-reviewed journal with an impact factor of 1.946 ± 0.812. No significant difference existed between the impact factor for randomized controlled trials (2.122 ± 1.015 and observational studies (1.913 ± 0.765, p = 0.469. The full papers for the randomized controlled trials were published after an average (SD of 17 months (± 13 months; for observational studies, the average (SD was 12 months (± 14 months (p = 0.323. A trend was observed in this study that a higher percentage of randomized controlled trial abstracts were published as full papers (71% vs. 47%, p = 0.078 than observational trials. The reporting quality of abstracts, published as full papers, significantly increased compared to conference abstracts both in randomized control studies (CONSORT: 5.7 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.018, CI -2.7 to -0.32 and in observational studies (STROBE: 8.2 ± 1.3 to 8.6 ± 1.4; p = 0.007, CI -0.63 to -0.10. All of the published abstracts had at least one minor inconsistency (title, authors

  2. Assessment of reporting quality of conference abstracts in sports injury prevention according to CONSORT and STROBE criteria and their subsequent publication rate as full papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Uzung; Knobloch, Karsten

    2012-04-11

    The preliminary results of a study are usually presented as an abstract in conference meetings. The reporting quality of those abstracts and the relationship between their study designs and full paper publication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that randomized controlled trials are more likely to be published as full papers than observational studies. 154 oral abstracts presented at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention 2005 Oslo and the corresponding full paper publication were identified and analysed. The main outcome measures were frequency of publication, time to publication, impact factor, CONSORT (for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) score, STROBE (for Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) score, and minor and major inconsistencies between the abstract and the full paper publication. Overall, 76 of the 154 (49%) presented abstracts were published as full papers in a peer-reviewed journal with an impact factor of 1.946 ± 0.812. No significant difference existed between the impact factor for randomized controlled trials (2.122 ± 1.015) and observational studies (1.913 ± 0.765, p = 0.469). The full papers for the randomized controlled trials were published after an average (SD) of 17 months (± 13 months); for observational studies, the average (SD) was 12 months (± 14 months) (p = 0.323). A trend was observed in this study that a higher percentage of randomized controlled trial abstracts were published as full papers (71% vs. 47%, p = 0.078) than observational trials. The reporting quality of abstracts, published as full papers, significantly increased compared to conference abstracts both in randomized control studies ( 5.7 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.018, CI -2.7 to -0.32) and in observational studies (STROBE: 8.2 ± 1.3 to 8.6 ± 1.4; p = 0.007, CI -0.63 to -0.10). All of the published abstracts had at least one minor inconsistency (title, authors, research center, outcome presentation, conclusion

  3. Modifying exposure to smoking depicted in movies: a novel approach to preventing adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Dalton, Madeline A; Heatherton, Todd; Beach, Mike

    2003-07-01

    Most behavioral approaches to adolescent smoking address the behavior directly. We explore an indirect approach: modifying exposure to portrayals of smoking in movies. To describe adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies and to examine factors that could modify such exposure. Occurrences of smoking were counted in each of 601 popular movies. Four thousand nine hundred ten northern New England junior high school students were asked to report which movies they had seen from a randomly generated subsample of 50 films, and responses were used to estimate exposure to the entire sample. Analysis The outcome variable was exposure to movie smoking, defined as the number of smoking occurrences seen. Risk factors for exposure included access to movies (movie channels, videotape use, and movie theater); parenting (R [restricted]-rated movie restrictions, television restrictions, parenting style); and characteristics of the child (age, sex, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, rebelliousness, and self-esteem). We used multiple regression to assess the association between risk factors and exposure to movie smoking. Subjects had seen an average of 30% of the movie sample (interquartile range, 20%-44%), from which they were exposed to 1160 (interquartile range, 640-1970) occurrences of smoking. In a multivariate model, exposure to movie smoking increased (all P values Parent restriction on viewing R-rated movies resulted in a 50% reduction in exposure to movie smoking. There was no association between parenting style and exposure to movie smoking. Much of the protective effect of parent R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking was mediated through lower exposure to movie smoking. Adolescents see thousands of smoking depictions in movies, and this influences their attitudes and behavior. Exposure to movie smoking is reduced when parents limit movie access. Teaching parents to monitor and enforce movie access guidelines could reduce adolescent smoking in an

  4. The craving stops before you feel it: neural correlates of chocolate craving during cue exposure with response prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2014-06-01

    Cue reactivity and craving can be influenced by cue exposure with response prevention (CERP). This study investigated the neural correlates of CERP using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants smelled chocolate (17 participants) or a control object (17 participants). CERP was interrupted by 7 scanning sequences measuring the brain response to neutral and chocolate pictures. Chocolate craving was hypothesized to be mirrored by activation in brain reward regions. As expected, control group craving remained similar throughout the session. A short exposure (30 min) increased chocolate craving in the experimental group, which was mirrored by significant group differences in activation in brain reward regions. Unexpectedly, a long exposure (60 min) did not lead to craving extinction in the experimental group, although craving started to decrease at this point. On a neural level, however, activation in regions of interest in the experimental group seemed to have extinguished after the long exposure, as activation levels returned to or fell below control group levels. These results indicate that brain reward activation during CERP is linked to craving, at least for a short exposure. Regarding a longer exposure, the decline in brain reward activation in the experimental group may be a precursor of a decrease in craving.

  5. Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

  6. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njage, P M K; Buys, E M

    2017-01-02

    The contribution of the fresh produce production environment to human exposure with bacteria bearing extended spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC β-lactamases (ESBL/AmpC) has not been reported. High prevalence of ESBLs/AmpC bearing E. coli as well as a high gene transfer efficiency of lettuce and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used for the quantitative exposure assessment and models were constructed in Ms. Excel spreadsheet with farm to consumption chain accounted for by primary production, processing, retail and consumer storage. Probability distributions were utilised to take into account the variability of the exposure estimates. Exposure resulting from ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli and gene transfer was taken into account. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out using @Risk software followed by sensitivity and scenario analysis to assess most effective single or combinations of mitigation strategies for the ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli events from farm to fork. Three percent of South African lettuce consumers are exposed to lettuce contaminated with about 10 6.4 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5.1 -10 7 ) cfu of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli per serving. The contribution of originally positive isolates and conjugative genetic transfer was 10 6 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5 -10 7 ) and 10 5.2 ±10 5.6 (95% CI: 10 3.9 -10 5.8 ) cfu per serving respectively. Proportion of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli (Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ)=0.85), conjugative gene transfer (ρ=0.05-0.14), washing in chlorine water (ρ=0.18), further rinsing (ρ=0.15), and prevalence of E. coli in irrigation water (ρ=0.16) had highest influence on consumer exposure. The most effective single methods in reducing consumer exposure were reduction in irrigation

  7. The relationship between occupational sun exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer: clinical basics, epidemiology, occupational disease evaluation, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Schmitt, Jochen; Drexler, Hans

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative effect of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for the worldwide increase in non-melanoma skin cancer, a category that includes squamous cell carcinoma and its precursors (the actinic keratoses) as well as basal-cell carcinoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in areas of the world with a light-skinned population. The occupational exposure to UV radiation is high in many outdoor occupations; recent studies suggest that persons working in such occupations are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer. On the basis of a selective review of the literature, we present the current state of knowledge about occupational and non-occupational UV exposure and the findings of meta-analyses on the association of outdoor activity with non-melanoma skin cancer. We also give an overview of the current recommendations for prevention and for medicolegal assessment. Recent meta-analyses have consistently documented a significantly higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin among persons who work outdoors (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-2.22, pmelanoma skin cancer in persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation should be reported as an occupational disease under § 9, paragraph 2 of the Seventh Book of the German Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch, SGB VII). Preventive measures are urgently needed for persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation.

  8. Exposure to a low pathogenic A/H7N2 virus in chickens protects against highly pathogenic A/H7N1 virus but not against subsequent infection with A/H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Vergara-Alert

    Full Text Available Recent evidences have demonstrated that the presence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV may play an important role in host ecology and transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV. While some authors have clearly demonstrated that LPAIV can mutate to render highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV, others have shown that their presence could provide the host with enough immunological memory to resist re-infections with HPAIV. In order to experimentally study the role of pre-existing host immunity, chickens previously infected with H7N2 LPAIV were subsequently challenged with H7N1 HPAIV. Pre-infection of chickens with H7N2 LAPIV conferred protection against the lethal challenge with H7N1 HPAIV, dramatically reducing the viral shedding, the clinical signs and the pathological outcome. Correlating with the protection afforded, sera from chickens primed with H7N2 LPAIV reacted with the H7-AIV subtype in hemagglutination inhibition assay and specifically with the N2-neuraminidase antigen. Conversely, subsequent exposure to H5N1 HPAIV resulted in a two days-delay on the onset of disease but all chickens died by 7 days post-challenge. Lack of protection correlated with the absence of H5-hemagglutining inhibitory antibodies prior to H5N1 HPAIV challenge. Our data suggest that in naturally occurring outbreaks of HPAIV, birds with pre-existing immunity to LPAIV could survive lethal infections with HA-homologous HPAIV but not subsequent re-infections with HA-heterologous HPAIV. These results could be useful to better understand the dynamics of AIV in chickens and might help in future vaccine formulations.

  9. Silica Exposures in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tanzania and Implications for Tuberculosis Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Andrew, Damian; Dalhoff, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gold miners exposed to crystalline silica are at risk of silicosis, lung cancer, and experience higher incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Although the hazards associated with mercury exposure in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) have been well documented, no published data was available on crystalline silica exposures in this population. Air sampling was conducted in the breathing zone of workers in five villages in Tanzania with battery-operated sampling pumps and bulk samples were collected to measure the type and concentration of crystalline silica in the ore. Samples were analyzed at an accredited laboratory with X-ray diffraction. Airborne crystalline silica exposures exceeded recommended limits for all tasks monitored with an average exposure of 16.85 mg/m(3) for underground drilling that was 337 fold greater than the recommended exposure limit (REL) published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and 0.19 mg/m(3) for aboveground operations or 4-fold greater than the REL. The exposures measured raise concern for possible acute and chronic silicosis and are known to significantly contribute to TB incidence rates in mining communities. The use of wet methods could greatly reduce exposures and the risk of TB and silicosis in ASGM. Ongoing efforts to address mercury and other hazards in ASGM should incorporate crystalline silica dust controls.

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. Early Intervention May Prevent the Development of PTSD: A Randomized Pilot Civilian Study with Modified Prolonged Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Kearns, Megan C.; Price, Matthew; Malcoun, Emily; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J.; Lang, Delia; Houry, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder is a major public health concern with long term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD prior to memory consolidation. Methods Patients (N=137) were randomly assigned to receive 3 sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department (ED) compared to an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. Results Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours post-trauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks post-injury, p rape victims at Week 4 (p=.004) and Week 12 (p=.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the ED is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms one and three months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately post-trauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR. PMID:22766415

  12. Early intervention may prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot civilian study with modified prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Kearns, Megan C; Price, Matthew; Malcoun, Emily; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J; Lang, Delia; Houry, Debra

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major public health concern with long-term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD before memory consolidation. Patients (n = 137) were randomly assigned to receive three sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department compared with an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks postinjury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours posttrauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks postinjury, p rape victims at week 4 (p = .004) and week 12 (p = .05). These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the emergency department is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms 1 and 3 months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately posttrauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Second hand smoke (SHS exposure in children. An evaluation of a preventative measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Precioso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the preventative programme “Smoke-free Homes” undertaken in 4th year children and their parents or guardians, aiming to reduce children's exposure to second hand smoke (SHS in the home. Material and methods: This was a pre-and post-test pre-experimental study, in students from 32 Braga district primary schools 2007/08. A self-administered and structured questionnaire was given out to 795 students in the classroom before and after the programme. In analysing data, we used the chi-squared test for the categorical variables. Results: The rate of children exposed to regular or occasional SHS due to living with at least one smoker dropped from 42.2% to 32.6% (p = 0.001. The percentage of students, children of smokers who stated that their father smoked regularly or occasionally at home, dropped from 68.0% pre-test to 51.6% posttest (p = 0.000. No significant reduction was seen in mothers. Conclusion: Based on the data, we can conclude that the “Smoke-free Homes” programme was effective in preventing smoking in the home, and therefore reducing the rate of children exposed to SHS by about 10%. However, it appears that about a third of children are still exposed, which highlights the need for further measures in this area. Healthcare professionals, particularly those working in Paediatrics, should advise parents to quit smoking, especially in the home. Resumo: Objectivo: Avaliar a eficácia de uma intervenção preventiva, dirigida a alunos do 4.° ano de escolaridade e aos seus pais/encarregados de educação, com a finalidade de reduzir a exposição das crianças ao fumo ambiental do tabaco (FAT no domicílio. Material e métodos: Trata-se de um estudo pré-experimental, do tipo pré-teste e pós-teste, com alunos pertencentes a 32 escolas do 1.° ciclo do ensino básico, de cinco agrupamentos de escolas do concelho de Braga, no ano lectivo 2007

  14. Systemic administration of antiretrovirals prior to exposure prevents rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Denton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for mucosal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission could reduce new infections among targeted high-risk populations including discordant couples, injection drug users, high-risk women and men who have sex with men. Targeted antiretroviral PrEP could be particularly effective at slowing the spread of HIV-1 if a single antiretroviral combination were found to be broadly protective across multiple routes of transmission. Therefore, we designed our in vivo preclinical study to systematically investigate whether rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission can be blocked by antiretrovirals administered systemically prior to HIV-1 exposure. We performed these studies using a highly relevant in vivo model of mucosal HIV-1 transmission, humanized Bone marrow/Liver/Thymus mice (BLT. BLT mice are susceptible to HIV-1 infection via three major physiological routes of viral transmission: vaginal, rectal and intravenous. Our results show that BLT mice given systemic antiretroviral PrEP are efficiently protected from HIV-1 infection regardless of the route of exposure. Specifically, systemic antiretroviral PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prevented both rectal (Chi square = 8.6, df = 1, p = 0.003 and intravenous (Chi square = 13, df = 1, p = 0.0003 HIV-1 transmission. Our results indicate that antiretroviral PrEP has the potential to be broadly effective at preventing new rectal or intravenous HIV transmissions in targeted high risk individuals. These in vivo preclinical findings provide strong experimental evidence supporting the potential clinical implementation of antiretroviral based pre-exposure prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  15. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and craniosynostosis among offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jacqueline L; Langlois, Peter H; Lawson, Christina C; Scheuerle, Angela; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Waters, Martha A; Symanski, Elaine; Romitti, Paul A; Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Evidence in animal models and humans suggests that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may lead to birth defects. To our knowledge, this relationship has not been evaluated for craniosynostosis, a birth defect characterized by the premature closure of sutures in the skull. We conducted a case-control study to examine associations between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. We used data from craniosynostosis cases and control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with estimated delivery dates from 1997 to 2002. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational data from the computer-assisted telephone interview and assigned a yes/no rating of probable occupational PAH exposure for each job from 1 month before conception through delivery. We used logistic regression to assess the association between occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. The prevalence of exposure was 5.3% in case mothers (16/300) and 3.7% in control mothers (107/2,886). We observed a positive association between exposure to PAHs during the 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy and craniosynostosis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.05) after adjusting for maternal age and maternal education. The number of cases for each craniosynostosis subtype limited subtype analyses to sagittal craniosynostosis; the odds ratio remained similar (OR = 1.76, 95% CI, 0.82-3.75), but was not significant. Our findings support a moderate association between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. Additional work is needed to better characterize susceptibility and the role PAHs may play on specific craniosynostosis subtypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Maternal Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Bell, Erin; Druschel, Charlotte; Correa, Adolfo; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. Pesticide exposure has been suggested as an etiologic factor for CHDs, but previous results were inconsistent. METHODS We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. Potential pesticide exposure from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy was assigned by an expert-guided task-exposure matrix and job history details self-reported by mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Maternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not associated with CHDs overall. In examining specific CHD subtypes compared with controls, some novel associations were observed with higher estimated pesticide exposure: insecticides only and secundum atrial septal defect (OR =1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.7, 40 exposed cases); both insecticides and herbicides and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (OR =5.1; 95% CI, 1.7–15.3, 4 exposed cases), as well as pulmonary valve stenosis (OR =3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.1, 5 exposed cases); and insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (OR =2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0, 13 exposed cases). CONCLUSION Broad pesticide exposure categories were not associated with CHDs overall, but examining specific CHD subtypes revealed some increased odds ratios. These results highlight the importance of examining specific CHDs separately. Because of multiple comparisons, additional work is needed to verify these associations. PMID:26033688

  17. Current Best Practices for Preventing Asbestos Exposure Among Brake and Clutch Repair Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covers concerns about asbestos exposure for mechanics, how to tell if asbestos brake or clutch components contain asbestos, work practices to follow, protecting yourself for home mechanics, disposal of waste that contains asbestos.

  18. Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Torii, Hidemasa; Kurihara, Toshihide; Seko, Yuko; Negishi, Kazuno; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Inaba, Takaaki; Kawashima, Motoko; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Kondo, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Maki; Miwa, Yukihiro; Katada, Yusaku; Mori, Kiwako; Kato, Keiichi; Tsubota, Kinya

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360?400?nm wavelength) suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL) elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chi...

  19. Post Chlorine gas exposure administration of nitrite prevents lung injury: effect of administration modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Andrey A.; Honavar, Jaideep; Brandon, Angela; Bradley, Kelley M.; Doran, Stephen; Liu, Yanping; Dunaway, Chad; Steele, Chad; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2012-01-01

    Cl2 gas toxicity is complex and occurs during, and post exposure leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and reactive airway syndrome (RAS). Moreover, Cl2 exposure can occur in diverse situations encompassing mass casualty scenarios underscoring the need for post-exposure therapies that are efficacious and amenable to rapid and easy administration. In this study, we compared the efficacy of a single dose, post (30min) Cl2 exposure administration of nitrite (1mg/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) or intramuscular (IM) injection in rats, to decrease ALI. Exposure of rats to Cl2 gas (400ppm, 30min) significantly increased ALI and caused RAS 6–24h post exposure as indexed by BAL sampling of lung surface protein, PMN and increased airway resistance and elastance prior to and post methacholine challenge. IP nitrite decreased Cl2 - dependent increases in BAL protein but not PMN. In contrast IM nitrite decreased BAL PMN levels without decreasing BAL protein in a xanthine oxidoreductase independent manner. Histological evaluation of airways 6h post exposure showed significant bronchial epithelium exfoliation and inflammatory injury in Cl2 exposed rats. Both IP and IM nitrite improved airway histology compared to Cl2 gas alone, but more coverage of the airway by cuboidal or columnar epithelium was observed with IM compared to IP nitrite. Airways were rendered more sensitive to methacholine induced resistance and elastance after Cl2 gas exposure. Interestingly, IM nitrite, but not IP nitrite, significantly decreased airway sensitivity to methacholine challenge. Further evaluation and comparison of IM and IP therapy showed a two-fold increase in circulating nitrite levels with the former, which was associated with reversal of post-Cl2 exposure dependent increases in circulating leukocytes. Halving the IM nitrite dose resulted in no effect in PMN accumulation but significant reduction of of BAL protein levels indicating distinct nitrite dose dependence for inhibition of Cl2 dependent

  20. Needlestick and Sharps Injuries in Dermatologic Surgery: A Review of Preventative Techniques and Post-exposure Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Christopher; Monroe, Holly; Orengo, Ida; Rosen, Theodore

    2016-10-01

    Background: Needlestickand sharps injuries are the leading causes of morbidity in the dermatologicfield. Among medical specialties, surgeons and dermatologists have the highest rates of needlestickand sharps injuries.The high rates of needlestickand sharps injuries in dermatology not only apply to physicians, but also to nurses, physician assistants, and technicians in the demnatologic field. Needlestickand sharps injuries are of great concern due to the monetary, opportunity, social, and emotional costs associated with their occurrence. Objective: A review of preventative techniques and post-exposure protocols for the majortypes of sharps injuries encountered in dermatologic practice. Design: The terms "needle-stick injuryT'sharps injuryTdermatologic surgery? "post-exposure prophylaxis,"and "health-care associated injury" were used in combinations to search the PubMed database. Relevant studies were reviewed for validity and included. Results The authors discuss the major types of sharps injuries that occur in the dermatologic surgery setting and summarize preventative techniques with respect to each type of sharps injury.The authors also summarize and discuss relevant post-exposure protocols in the event of a sharps injury. Conclusion: The adoption of the discussed methods, techniques, practices, and attire can result in the elimination of the vast majority of dermatologic sharps injuries.

  1. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The prevention of radiological accidents (how to avoid or minimize potential exposures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed analysis of 7 major accidents occurred in radiotherapy services in different countries is performed. Then a generic analysis of the causes is realized and finally the methodology used to prevent them effectively is described [es

  3. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational Hepatitis B Exposure: A Peek into Indian Dental Students’ Knowledge, Opinion, and Preventive Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient’s body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r=0.385, p value <0.0001. Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented.

  5. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  6. Effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing to prevent tick exposure in foresters in the central Appalachian region of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Richards, Stephanie; G Balanay, Jo Anne; W Harris, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk from mosquito and tick bites and the extent to which exposures are linked to vector-borne disease is not understood. This pilot study characterizes for ester exposure to mosquitoes and ticks, and assesses effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing for prevention of tick bites. Foresters (N = 34) from Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia were placed into treatment (permethrin-treated clothing) or control (untreated clothing) groups. Foresters completed questionnaires about work-related tick/mosquito exposure and 454 ticks were collected/identified from May to June 2013. A time-weighted analysis based on information submitted by foresters about time working outdoors showed that control participants received a lower rate of tick exposure (0.15 tick bites/hour; 13 bites/person) compared to treatment participants (0.27 bites/hour; 21 bites/person). However, more control participants (85 %) received at least one tick bite compared to treatment participants (52 %). Outdoor workers should be aware of available protective measures, such as permethrin-treated clothing, that may mitigate occupational risks.

  7. Maternal administration of melatonin prevents spatial learning and memory deficits induced by developmental ethanol and lead co-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elham; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is a radical scavenger with the ability to remove reactive oxidant species. There is report that co-exposure to lead and ethanol during developmental stages induces learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin, with strong antioxidant properties, on memory deficits induced by lead and ethanol co-exposure and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Pregnant rats in lead and ethanol co-exposure group received lead acetate of 0.2% in distilled drinking water and ethanol (4g/kg) by oral gavages once daily from the 5th day of gestation until weaning. Rats received 10mg/kg melatonin by oral gavages. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results demonstrated lead and ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency in probe trial test and had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment could improve memory deficits, antioxidants activity and reduced MDA levels in the hippocampus. We conclude, co-exposure to lead and ethanol impair memory and melatonin can prevent from it by oxidative stress modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PrEP Whores and HIV Prevention: The Queer Communication of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieldenner, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been introduced as another biomedical tool in HIV prevention. Whereas other such tools-including post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and interruption of perinatal transmission-have been embraced by those impacted by HIV, PrEP has been met with more conflict, especially within the gay community and HIV organizations. The "PrEP whore" has come to designate the social value and personal practices of those taking PrEP. This study examines the "PrEP whore" discourse by using queer theory and quare theory. Within these theoretical vantage points, the study explicates four discursive areas: slut shaming, dirty/clean binaries, mourning the loss of condoms, and reclaiming the inner whore. The study illuminates possible discursive strategies that lie outside of the domains of public health and within the individual and community.

  9. A randomized controlled Alzheimer's disease prevention trial's evolution into an exposure trial: the PREADViSE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, R J; Abner, E L; Schmitt, F A; Goodman, P J; Mendiondo, M; Caban-Holt, A; Dennis, B C; Mathews, M; Klein, E A; Crowley, J J

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the ongoing prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by vitamin E and selenium (PREADViSE) trial as an ancillary study to SELECT (a large prostate cancer prevention trial) and to present the blinded results of the first year as an exposure study. PREADViSE was designed as a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). SELECT terminated after median of 5.5 years of exposure to supplements due to a futility analysis. Both trials then converted into an exposure study. In the randomized component PREADViSE enrolled 7,547 men age 62 or older (60 if African American). Once the trial terminated 4,246 of these men volunteered for the exposure study. Demographics were similar for both groups with exposure volunteers having baseline mean age 67.3 ± 5.2 years, 15.3 ± 2.4 years of education, 9.8% African Americans, and 22.0% reporting a family history of dementia. In the RCT men were randomly assigned to either daily doses of 400 IU of vitamin E or placebo and 200 µg of selenium or placebo using a 2x2 factorial structure. In the RCT, participants completed the memory impairment screen (MIS), and if they failed, underwent a longer screening (based on an expanded Consortium to Establish a Registry in AD [CERAD] battery). CERAD failure resulted in visits to their clinician for medical examination with records of these examinations forwarded to the PREADViSE center for further review. In the exposure study, men are contacted by telephone and complete the telephone version of the memory impairment screen (MIS-T) screen. If they fail the MIS-T, a modified telephone interview of cognitive status (TICS-M) exam is given. A failed TICS-M exam also leads to a visit to their clinician for an in-depth examination and forwarding of records for a centralized consensus diagnosis by expert clinicians. A subgroup of the men who pass the MIS-T also take the TICS-M exam for validation purposes. While this ancillary trial was open to all 427 SELECT clinical sites, only 130 (30

  10. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. RESULTS: The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0...

  11. The benefit of preventing exposure keratopathy in icu patient: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of 55 year old man hospitalized in intensive care unit following a complication of his surgery for acoustic neuroma, for which he was intubated. During his hospitalization, he presented a bilateral exposure keratitis complicated by an abscess and corneal perforation. The ocular surface is protected by the ...

  12. The Effect of Earplugs in Preventing Hearing Loss From Recreational Noise Exposure : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Ramakers, Geerte G J; Grolman, Wilko

    Importance: The prevalence of hearing loss among children and adolescents is rising dramatically, caused mainly by increased exposure to recreational noise. Objective: To present a systematic overview of the effectiveness of wearing earplugs to music venues, such as nightclubs and concert halls, to

  13. Efficacy of a School-Based Primary Prevention Program for Coping with Exposure to Political Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm conceptualizing resilience as factors moderating between political violence exposure and psychological distress administered in a 7-year research project yielded a profile of factors promoting Israeli children's coping in conflict conditions. Three factors--social support mobilization, self-efficacy, and meaning attribution--were…

  14. Ethical Implications of Social Stigma Associated with the Promotion and Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Patrick D

    2016-04-01

    Identifying sources of and eliminating social stigma associated with the promotion and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of sexually acquired HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is both a moral imperative and necessary requirement to ensure that public health objectives of HIV prevention can be met. This article will examine and address ethical concerns and criticisms regarding the use of PrEP, barriers to its promotion, and use among MSM and examine the types of social stigma associated with PrEP. An ethical justification for both healthcare and LGBT communities to address and overcome social stigma regarding the use of PrEP among MSM is offered.

  15. Promoting Pre-exposure Prophylaxis to Prevent HIV Infections Among Sexual and Gender Minority Hispanics/Latinxs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kathleen R; Martinez, Omar; Nieves-Lugo, Karen; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Grieb, Suzanne Dolwick; Yamanis, Thespina J; Spear, Kaitlin; Davis, Wendy W

    2017-10-01

    Sexual and gender minority Hispanics/Latinxs (henceforth: Latinxs) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical prevention approach which holds significant promise for at risk and vulnerable populations. We discuss barriers and facilitators to uptake of PrEP among sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U.S. through an ecosocial lens that takes into account structural, community, and individual contexts. The impact of immigration status on PrEP uptake emerges as a major and recurrent theme that must be understood and addressed by HIV prevention programs aiming to promote an inclusive strategy for sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U.S.

  16. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  17. Sexual Behavior of Heterosexual Men and Women Receiving Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K.; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data are available to assess sexual behavior by persons using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by persons using effective HIV prevention strategies, like PrEP, could offset HIV prevention benefits. Methods The Partners PrEP Study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral PrEP among heterosexual HIV-uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant couples, publicly reported efficacy for HIV prevention in July 2011 and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex unprotected by a condom during the 12 months after compared to before July 2011 to assess whether knowledge of PrEP efficacy for HIV prevention resulted in increased sexual risk behavior. Results We analyzed 56, 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected subjects (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months pre- versus 53 post-unblinding, reflecting no immediate change or change over time after July 2011 (p=0·66 and 0·25, respectively). There was a statistically significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners over time after July 2011 but the effect was modest (average of 6.8 unprotected sex acts per year versus 6.2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had unblinding not occurred, p=0·04). Compared to pre-July 2011, there was no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July 2011. Interpretation The transition from a blinded, placebo-controlled efficacy trial to all participants aware they were receiving active, efficacious PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study provided a “natural experiment” to evaluate sexual risk compensation. PrEP, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, may not result in substantial changes in risk-taking sexual behavior for heterosexual couples. PMID:24139639

  18. Administration of nitrite after chlorine gas exposure prevents lung injury: effect of administration modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Andrey A; Honavar, Jaideep; Brandon, Angela; Bradley, Kelley M; Doran, Stephen; Liu, Yanping; Dunaway, Chad; Steele, Chad; Postlethwait, Edward M; Squadrito, Giuseppe L; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2012-10-01

    Cl(2) gas toxicity is complex and occurs during and after exposure, leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and reactive airway syndrome (RAS). Moreover, Cl(2) exposure can occur in diverse situations encompassing mass casualty scenarios, highlighting the need for postexposure therapies that are efficacious and amenable to rapid and easy administration. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a single dose of nitrite (1 mg/kg) to decrease ALI when administered to rats via intraperitoneal (ip) or intramuscular (im) injection 30 min after Cl(2) exposure. Exposure of rats to Cl(2) gas (400 ppm, 30 min) significantly increased ALI and caused RAS 6-24h postexposure as indexed by BAL sampling of lung surface protein and polymorphonucleocytes (PMNs) and increased airway resistance and elastance before and after methacholine challenge. Intraperitoneal nitrite decreased Cl(2)-dependent increases in BAL protein but not PMNs. In contrast im nitrite decreased BAL PMN levels without decreasing BAL protein in a xanthine oxidoreductase-dependent manner. Histological evaluation of airways 6h postexposure showed significant bronchial epithelium exfoliation and inflammatory injury in Cl(2)-exposed rats. Both ip and im nitrite improved airway histology compared to Cl(2) gas alone, but more coverage of the airway by cuboidal or columnar epithelium was observed with im compared to ip nitrite. Airways were rendered more sensitive to methacholine-induced resistance and elastance after Cl(2) gas exposure. Interestingly, im nitrite, but not ip nitrite, significantly decreased airway sensitivity to methacholine challenge. Further evaluation and comparison of im and ip therapy showed a twofold increase in circulating nitrite levels with the former, which was associated with reversal of post-Cl(2) exposure-dependent increases in circulating leukocytes. Halving the im nitrite dose resulted in no effect in PMN accumulation but significant reduction of BAL protein levels, indicating a distinct

  19. 78 FR 47320 - Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of UV Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Meg Watson, Epidemiologist, Epidemiology and Applied... approximately 8,500 deaths from melanoma. Melanoma, which causes more deaths than other types of skin cancer, is...

  20. Non-invasive therapy for the prevention of moist desquamation following β-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Wilcock, S.; Rezvani, M.; Hsia, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In an environment of potential nuclear mishap, effective therapies are lacking for radiation-induced skin burns. In this report we describe an effective, non-invasive therapy for post acute radiation exposure based on skin compression. A pig skin model of β-radiation-induced moist desquamation (MD) was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% MD in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs (n 18 per flank). The animals' left flank was placed under pressure from the weight of the pig's own body for 3 hours, immediately following radiation exposure. The right flank served as control, and was not subject to compression following irradiation. Percentage differences in MD were measured between sites on both flanks based on the the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. The incidence of MD was significantly higher on the uncompressed right flank as compared to the compressed left flank (p < 0.005). A 61% and 45% reduction of MD was observed in both total and severe MD, respectively, during the 8-week study period. Radiation-induced MD was significantly reduced by immediate, mild skin compression (approx. 1.5 psi) for 3 hours immediately following exposure. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be modulated non-invasively. Understanding the mechanism(s) at work and developing devices based on this non-invasive therapeutic principle may provide a novel treatment for consequent skin injury in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and derm abrasion procedures

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  2. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  3. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  4. Assisted Protection Headphone Proposal to Prevent Chronic Exposure to Percussion Instruments on Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Parra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic exposure to high sound pressure levels (SPLs are widely studied in the industry environment. However, the way that SPLs affect music students has not been thoroughly examined. In this paper, we study the SPL exposure of batucada students and we propose an assisted protection headphone as a part of e-health system. We measured the SPL reached during a regular percussion class. Pure-tone audiometries were performed to a set of percussion students. The gathered data were statistically analyzed. The assisted protection headphones and their operation are detailed and tested during a regular class. Our results show that 35% of the musicians present with a noise-induced hearing loss, considered as two frequencies with hearing loss of 25 dB or more or one frequency with a hearing loss of 30 dB or more. Our data also shows that those students that do not use any protection have a greater hearing loss. However, the students that use protection headphones are also suffering hearing loss. There might be a problem in the way that musicians are using the protection headphones. Our assisted protection headphones as a part of e-health measures can diminish the negative effects of percussion instruments for musicians.

  5. Omega-3 supplementation can restore glutathione levels and prevent oxidative damage caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Anna R; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes long-lasting deficits in brain structure and function. In this study, we have examined the effect of PNEE on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in the adult brain with particular focus on four brain regions known to be affected by ethanol: cerebellum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus subregions). We have utilized a liquid diet model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that is supplied to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. To examine the therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, a subset of animals were provided with an omega-3-enriched diet from birth until adulthood to examine whether these fatty acids could ameliorate any deficits in antioxidant capacity that occurred due to PNEE. Our results showed that PNEE caused a long-lasting decrease in glutathione levels in all four brain regions analyzed that was accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative damage. These results indicate that PNEE induces long-lasting changes in the antioxidant capacity of the brain, and this can lead to a state of oxidative stress. Postnatal omega-3 supplementation was able to increase glutathione levels and reduce lipid peroxidation in PNEE animals, partially reversing the effects of alcohol exposure, particularly in the dentate gyrus and the cerebellum. This is the first study where omega-3 supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect in PNEE, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does participating in a clinical trial affect subsequent nursing management? Post-trial care for participants recruited to the INTACT pressure ulcer prevention trial: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Bucknall, Tracey; Wallis, Marianne; McInnes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-06-01

    Participation in a clinical trial is believed to benefit patients but little is known about the post-trial effects on routine hospital-based care. To describe (1) hospital-based, pressure ulcer care-processes after patients were discharged from a pressure ulcer prevention, cluster randomised controlled trial; and (2) to investigate if the trial intervention had any impact on subsequent hospital-based care. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 133 trial participants who developed a pressure ulcer during the clinical trial. We compared outcomes and care processes between participants who received the pressure ulcer prevention intervention and those in the usual care, control group. We also compared care processes according to the pressure ulcer stage. A repositioning schedule was reported for 19 (14.3%) patients; 33 (24.8%) had a dressing applied to the pressure ulcer; 17 (12.8) patients were assessed by a wound care team; and 20 (15.0%) were seen by an occupational therapist. Patients in the trial's intervention group were more likely to have the presence of a pressure ulcer documented in their chart (odds ratio (OR) 8.18, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.64-18.36); to be referred to an occupational therapist OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.07; 0.54); to receive a pressure relieving device OR 0.31 (95% CI 0.14; 0.69); or a pressure relieving mattress OR 0.44 (95% CI 0.20; 0.96). Participants with Stage 2 or unstageable ulcers were more likely than others to have dressings applied to their wounds (p=pressure ulcer status and care is poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  8. Cost-effective post-exposure prevention of poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibich, A S; Yagan, M; Sharma, V; Herndon, B; Montgomery, C

    2000-07-01

    Poison ivy (toxicodendron) dermatitis is the most common allergic contact dermatitis in the USA. No studies have shown an effect of washing after a short period of time for the prevention of binding of urushiol to the skin. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of three different modes of postcontact prevention using a surfactant (Dial ultra dishwashing soap), an oil-removing compound (Goop), and chemical inactivation (a commercial product Tecnu). A consented, unsponsored, volunteer experimental study on medical students from the University of Missouri School of Medicine, Kansas City. Each subject served as his/her own control, comparing four 2.5-cm exposed squares on the inner aspect of the forearm, three of which were treated and one untreated. Comparisons between the different agents were nonsignificant with P > 0.05. Each treatment, however, was significantly improved over the untreated control. Our study showed 70%, 61.8%, and 56. 4% protection with Tecnu, Goop, and Dial, respectively, when compared to the positive control, or to the possible maximum response, with a cost per ounce (in a local drug and automotive store) of $1.25, $0.07, and $0.07, respectively, for a decrease in protection that is nonsignificant.

  9. Virtual reality cue exposure for the relapse prevention of tobacco consumption: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovancarli, Camille; Malbos, Eric; Baumstarck, Karine; Parola, Nathalie; Pélissier, Marie-Florence; Lançon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-02-19

    Successful interventions have been developed for smoking cessation, but the success of smoking relapse prevention interventions has been limited. In particular, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been hampered by a high relapse rate. Because relapses can be due to the presence of conditions associated with tobacco consumption (such as drinking in bars with friends), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) can generate synthetic environments that represent risk situations for the patient in the context of relapse prevention. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT coupled with VRET, in comparison to CBT alone, in the prevention of smoking relapse. The secondary objectives are to assess the impact of CBT coupled with VRET on anxiety, depression, quality of life, self-esteem and addictive comorbidities (such as alcohol, cannabis, and gambling). A third objective examines the feasibility and acceptability of VR use considering elements such as presence, cybersickness and number of patients who complete the VRET program. The present study is a 14-month (2 months of therapy followed by 12 months of follow-up), prospective, comparative, randomized and open clinical trial, involving two parallel groups (CBT coupled with VRET versus CBT alone). The primary outcome is the proportion of individuals with tobacco abstinence at 6 months after the end of the therapy. Abstinence is defined by the total absence of tobacco consumption assessed during a post-test interview and with an apparatus that measures the carbon monoxide levels expired. A total of 60 individuals per group will be included. This study is the first to examine the efficacy of CBT coupled with VRET in the prevention of smoking relapse. Because VRET is simple to use and has a low cost, this interactive therapeutic method might be easily implemented in clinical practice if the study confirms its efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02205060 (registered 25 July 2014).

  10. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  11. Assessing the cost effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Fred J

    2013-12-01

    About 50,000 people are infected with HIV in the US each year and this number has remained virtually the same for the past decade. Yet, in the last few years, evidence from several multinational randomized clinical trials has shown that the provision of antiretroviral drug to uninfected persons (i.e. pre-exposure prophylaxis) reduces the incidence of HIV by about 50 %. However, evidence from cost-effectiveness studies conducted in the US yield widely varying estimates of the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, and this variation reflects the substantial uncertainty surrounding the determinants of HIV transmission (e.g. adherence rates to prophylactic medications, the average number of sexual partners, the number and types of sexual acts, the viral load of infected partners, and the proportion of contacts where condoms are used), as well as different approaches to translating a reduction in HIV cases into an estimate of the increase in the number of QALYs.

  12. Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection in gay and bisexual men. Implications for the future of HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, S C

    1998-08-01

    To assess the psychological and behavioral characteristics of gay and bisexual men who intend to use antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent HIV infection. Gay and bisexual men who had not tested HIV seropositive and were not in long-term exclusive sexual relationships (n = 327) completed anonymous surveys consisting of demographic characteristics, gay community acculturation, experience with and attitudes toward PEP, substance use, and sexual behavior in the past 6 months. A large annual Gay Pride festival in Atlanta, Georgia. There were 8 (3%) men who had already used PEP and 85 (26%) who planned to use PEP to prevent themselves from becoming HIV infected. Compared to the 242 (74%) men who did not indicate plans to use PEP, those planning to use PEP were younger, less well educated, more likely to have used illicit substances in the past 6 months, and were more likely to have a history of injection drug use. Men intending to use PEP were also more likely to have practiced unprotected anal and oral intercourse as the receptive partner and were more likely to have multiple anal intercourse partners with whom they were receptive. Gay and bisexual men are generally supportive of the immediate use of PEP and a significant number of men are planning to use PEP, particularly less educated men who use multiple substances and practice the highest-risk sexual behaviors. Concurrent behavioral interventions must, therefore, be considered critical in the advancement of PEP.

  13. Executive summary: Pre-exposure prophylaxis for prevention of HIV infection in adults in Spain: July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Santiago; Antela, Antonio; García, Felipe; Del Amo, Julia; Boix, Vicente; Coll, Pep; Fortuny, Claudia; Sirvent, Juan L Gómez; Gutiérrez, Félix; Iribarren, José A; Llibre, Josep M; Quirós, Juan C López Bernaldo de; Losa, Juan Emilio; Lozano, Ana; Meulbroek, Michael; Olalla, Julián; Pujol, Ferran; Pulido, Federico; Crespo Casal, Manuel; García, Juan González; Aldeguer, José López; Molina, Jose A Pérez; Podzamczer Palter, Daniel; Román, Antonio Rivero

    Administration of antiretroviral drugs to individuals exposed to, but not infected by, HIV has been shown to reduce the risk of transmission. The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) makes it obligatory to include it in an integral program of prevention of HIV transmission, together with other measures, such as use of the condom, training, counseling, and appropriate treatment of infected individuals. In this document, the AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) provides its views on this important subject. The available evidence on the usefulness of PrEP in the prevention of transmission of HIV is presented, and the components that should make up a PrEP program and whose development and implementation are feasible in Spain are set out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. MRSA colonization and infection among persons with occupational livestock exposure in Europe: Prevalence, preventive options and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerge, Tobias; Lorenz, Marthe Barbara; van Alen, Sarah; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Becker, Karsten; Köck, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Colonization with livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (LA-MRSA) among persons occupationally exposed to pigs, cattle or poultry is very frequent. In Europe, LA-MRSA mostly belong to the clonal lineage CC398. Since colonized persons have an increased risk of developing MRSA infections, defining the burden of work-related infection caused by LA-MRSA CC398 is of interest to exposed personnel, insurance companies and infection control staff. This review summarizes data on the types of occupation-related infections caused by LA-MRSA CC398, the incidence of such infections as well as potential preventive strategies. We identified twelve case reports on infections among livestock-exposed persons. Overall, there is a lack of data describing the incidence of occupation-related infections due to MRSA CC398. Currently, no specific guidance towards the prevention of LA-MRSA CC398 colonization of persons with routine exposure exists. In vitro, MRSA CC398 strains are susceptible (>95%) to mupirocin. Single reports have described effective decolonization of persons carrying LA-MRSA CC398, but long-term success rates are low in case of continuous livestock contact. Overall, the occupational health risk due to LA-MRSA CC398 is not well understood. Currently, prevention of human LA-MRSA CC398 infection is mostly based on the recommendation to perform screening and decolonization therapies prior to elective medical interventions in order to avoid nosocomial infections, but there is no conclusive evidence to perform specific measures aiming to forestall community-acquired infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  16. Neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment and post exposure prevention of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2006-01-01

    and spread of the virus begin. Objective: The effectiveness of NI during treatment and post exposure prophylaxis (PEP of an influenza infection are analyzed from a medical and an economical perspective. The effectiveness of NI in seasonal prophylaxis is not investigated in this report. Safety aspects of the drugs are also discussed. Methods: The relevant literature was identified by a systematic, structured bibliographic data base review. In addition, a manual search of relevant journals was conducted. The structured electronic data base analysis was supported by DIMDI and comprised the bibliographic data bases MEDLINE, HealthStar, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, DA-RA, Cochrane Library, CancerLit, as well as Dissertation Abstracts for the period between 1999 and September 2004. Pre-defined key words were linked by AND/OR operators. A manual search of the Cochrane register was conducted for the time period before September 1999. Relevant medical journals were also hand-searched from January to November 2004. Quantitative reviews, randomized, double-blind clinical trials (RCT, and cost-benefit-analyses were considered as relevant if they fulfilled predefined inclusion criteria. Results: As compared to placebo, NI shortened the median duration of symptoms by approximately one day in meta-analyses, when the drug was taken within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. The symptom reduction for other subgroups (such as patients who are at-risk for complicated influenza courses was even greater. For children under twelve, however, this was not the case. However, the incidence of severe influenza courses which led to hospitalization or death was low in the controlled studies. Pooled analyses nevertheless showed a tendency of a possible benefit of NI with respect to the hospitalization rate. Regarding PEP in homes with one infected household member, the reviewed studies showed a prophylactic effect of inhaled Zanamivir and Oseltamivir if a person started

  17. Adherence to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in a Clinical Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline C Montgomery

    Full Text Available The HIV epidemic in the United States (US disproportionately affects gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP using co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF and emtricitabine (FTC has demonstrated high efficacy in reducing HIV incidence among MSM. However, low adherence was reported in major efficacy trials and may present a substantial barrier to successful PrEP implementation. Rates of adherence to PrEP in "real-world" clinical settings in the US remain largely unknown.We reviewed demographic and clinical data for the first 50 patients to enroll in a clinical PrEP program in Providence, Rhode Island. We analyzed self-reported drug adherence as well as drug concentrations in dried blood spots (DBS from patients who attended either a three- or six-month follow-up appointment. We further assessed drug concentrations and the resistance profile of a single patient who seroconverted while taking PrEP.Of the first 50 patients to be prescribed PrEP, 62% attended a follow-up appointment at three months and 38% at six months. Of those who attended an appointment at either time point (70%, n = 35, 92% and 95% reported taking ±4 doses/week at three and six months, respectively. Drug concentrations were performed on a random sample of 20 of the 35 patients who attended a follow-up appointment. TDF levels consistent with ±4 doses/week were found in 90% of these patients. There was a significant correlation between self-reported adherence and drug concentrations (r = 0.49, p = 0.02. One patient who had been prescribed PrEP seroconverted at his three-month follow-up visit. The patient's drug concentrations were consistent with daily dosing. Population sequencing and ultrasensitive allele-specific PCR detected the M184V mutation, but no other TDF- or FTC-associated mutations, including those present as minor variants.In this clinical PrEP program, adherence was high, and self-reported drug adherence

  18. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  19. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, Howard W.; Covington, Tina P.; Mielke, Paul W.; Wolman, Fredericka J.; Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m 2 (454 μg/ft 2 ) range 603-56650 μg/m 2 (56-5263 μg/ft 2 ) to a median of 398 μg/m 2 (37 μg/ft 2 ) range 86-980 μg/m 2 (8-91 μg/ft 2 ). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: → Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. → New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. → Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. → Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. → Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  20. Organ-Specific Exposure and Response to Sulforaphane, a Key Chemopreventive Ingredient in Broccoli: Implications for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Omkara L.; Bhattacharya, Arup; Marshall, James R.; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring sulforaphane (SF) has been extensively studied for cancer prevention. However, little is known as to which organs may be most affected by this agent, which impedes its further development. In the present study, SF was administered to rats orally either in a single dose or once daily for 7 days. Tissue distribution of SF was measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography-based method. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), two well-known cytoprotective Phase 2 enzymes, were measured using biochemical assays to assess tissue response to SF. SF was delivered to different organs in vastly different concentrations. Tissue uptake of SF was the greatest in the stomach, declining rapidly in the descending gastrointestinal tract. SF was rapidly eliminated through urinary excretion, and urinary concentrations of SF equivalents were 2–4 orders of magnitude higher than those of plasma. Indeed, tissue uptake level of SF in the bladder was second only to that in the stomach. Tissue levels of SF in colon, prostate and several other organs were very low, compared to those in the bladder and stomach. Moreover, induction levels of GST and NQO1 varied by 3 to 6 fold among the organs of SF-treated rats, though not strictly correlated with tissue exposure to SF. Thus, there is profound organ specificity in tissue exposure and response to dietary SF, suggesting that the potential chemopreventive benefit of dietary SF may differ significantly among organs. These findings may provide a basis for prioritizing organs for further chemopreventive study of SF. PMID:22464629

  1. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kershaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI, we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107 = 0.3, P = 0.735. However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522 = 6.0, P <0.001 in host tracts, while the indicator for “racialized” communities (“visible minority” was 16.1% greater (t(521 = 7.2, P <0.001 within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352 = 3.5, P = 0.001 than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  2. Exposure to School and Community Based Prevention Programs and Reductions in Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in the United States, 2000-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan

    2012-01-01

    Smoking remains prevalent among US youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12-17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use…

  3. Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment: DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Adam, Balazs; Albin, Maria; Banelli, Barbara; Baur, Xaver; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Bolognesi, Claudia; Broberg, Karin; Gustavsson, Per; Göen, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Jarosinska, Dorota; Manservisi, Fabiana; O'Kennedy, Richard; Øvrevik, Johan; Paunovic, Elizabet; Ritz, Beate; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Schwarze, Per E; Sheils, Orla; Sigsgaard, Torben; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2018-01-01

    The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and

  4. The role of early maladaptive schemas in predicting exposure and response prevention outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Vogel, Patrick A; Launes, Gunvor; Haaland, Vegard Øksendal; Hansen, Bjarne; Solem, Stian; Himle, Joseph A

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study that explores whether early maladaptive schemas are related to treatment outcome for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The sample consisted of 88 outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD who completed exposure and response prevention treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory and Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form were administered before and after treatment. Regression analyses using post-treatment Y-BOCS as the dependent variable indicated that higher scores on the abandonment schema at pre-treatment were related to poor outcome and explained 7% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Higher scores on the self-sacrifice schema at pre-treatment were related to good outcome and explained 6% of the variance in obsessive-compulsive symptoms at post-treatment. During treatment, only changes in the failure schema were significantly related to good outcome and explained 18% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing Firefighter Exposure Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Retardant Law Is about to Change,” I Read Labels for You ( blog ), November 6, 2013, https://ireadlabelsforyou.com/flame-retardant-law-is-about-to-change/. 29...my.firefighternation.com/profiles/ blogs /hackensack-tradegy-a-failure. 32 firefighters died after “they had exhausted all of their air supply and could not escape to...current SCBAs 68 “Major Firefighting Milestones and Engineering,” Company 23 FVFD Blog , July 6, 2014

  6. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  7. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalysha Closson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Methods Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS, prevalence of “ever” experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14–19 was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63. We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of ‘high PTE score’ (≥7 PTEs. Results Overall, 767/830 (92% participants were included (58% adolescent women. Nearly all (99.7% reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19. Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., “seen an act of violence in the community” whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., “family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS”. High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively. For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63; and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76. Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03, and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37. Conclusion Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with

  8. Prenatal exposure of testosterone prevents SDN-POA neurons of postnatal male rats from apoptosis through NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H K; Yang, R C; Shih, H C; Hsieh, Y L; Chen, U Y; Hsu, C

    2001-11-01

    The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in mediating the effect of testosterone exposure prenatally on neuronal apoptosis in the sexual dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of rats was studied. The endogenous testosterone was diminished by prenatal stress (PNS) or simulated by testosterone exposure (TE) to understand the effect of testosterone on NR(1) (a functional subunit protein of NMDA receptor) expression and neuronal apoptosis. To further study whether the testosterone, after being converted into estradiol, modulates NR(1) expression, 4-androstein-4-ol-3,17-dione (ATD; an aromatase inhibitor) was used to block the conversion of estradiol from testosterone. The expressions of the NR(1) mRNA and NR(1) subunit protein were quantified by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis, respectively. In addition, a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptor, MK-801, was used to find out whether blockage of NMDA receptor affects the naturally occurring apoptosis in SDN-POA. The results showed the following. 1) Expression of perinatal NR(1) subunit protein in the central part of the medial preoptic area of male rats was significantly higher than that of females, especially on postnatal days 1 and 3. 2) The testosterone level of male fetuses on embryonic day 18 was significantly higher than that of females, while the testosterone level of TE females or PNS males was similar to that of intact males or intact females, respectively. 3) The apoptotic incidence of intact male rats was significantly less than that of females, and the apoptosis was stimulated by PNS in male or inhibited by TE in female. 4) The expression of NR(1) subunit protein could be inhibited by PNS or ATD-treatment in male, while stimulated by TE in female. 5) NR(1) mRNA showed no significant difference among intact male, PNS male, ATD-treated male, TE female and intact female rats. 6) The low apoptotic incidence of male rats was significantly increased when NMDA receptor was blocked by MK

  9. Psychological and psychobiological responses to immediate early intervention in the emergency department: Case report of one-session exposure therapy for the prevention of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Loren M; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Stevens, Jennifer S; Reddy, Renuka; Maples, Jessica L; Morgan, Jessica R; Rothbaum, Alex O; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure therapy provided in the hours immediately following trauma exposure may prevent PTSD development. This case report presents data on an at-risk for PTSD participant involved in a motor-vehicle crash that caused her severe distress. She received one session of exposure therapy in the emergency department (ED) as part of an ongoing randomized controlled study examining the optimal dose of exposure therapy in the immediate aftermath of trauma. PTSD and depression measures were collected at pre-treatment assessment and one- and three-month follow-up. Potential PTSD biomarkers were also examined. Psychophysiological reactions were measured using skin conductance data measured on an iPad during the exposure therapy session and the follow-up assessments. A fear-potentiated startle paradigm and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) behavioral inhibition task were used at follow-up. The participant demonstrated subjective and psychophysiological extinction from pre- to post-imaginal exposure. At follow-up, she did not meet DSM-IV criteria for PTSD or demonstrate hyperarousal to trauma reminders and showed robust fear extinction and the ability to inhibit responses in an fMRI behavioral inhibition task. In line with previous early intervention for the prevention of PTSD studies, this case report supports the need for ongoing empirical research investigating the possibility that one session of exposure therapy in the ED may attenuate risk for PTSD. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate psychophysiological extinction serving as a prognostic indicator of treatment response for PTSD early intervention to be an exciting avenue to explore in future systematic research.

  10. Psychological and psychobiological responses to immediate early intervention in the emergency department: Case report of one-session exposure therapy for the prevention of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Loren M.; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Stevens, Jennifer S.; Reddy, Renuka; Maples, Jessica L.; Morgan, Jessica R.; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure therapy provided in the hours immediately following trauma exposure may prevent PTSD development. This case report presents data on an at-risk for PTSD participant involved in a motor-vehicle crash that caused her severe distress. She received one session of exposure therapy in the emergency department (ED) as part of an ongoing randomized controlled study examining the optimal dose of exposure therapy in the immediate aftermath of trauma. PTSD and depression measures were collected at pre-treatment assessment and one- and three-month follow-up. Potential PTSD biomarkers were also examined. Psychophysiological reactions were measured using skin conductance data measured on an iPad during the exposure therapy session and the follow-up assessments. A fear-potentiated startle paradigm and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) behavioral inhibition task were used at follow-up. The participant demonstrated subjective and psychophysiological extinction from pre- to post-imaginal exposure. At follow-up, she did not meet DSM-IV criteria for PTSD or demonstrate hyperarousal to trauma reminders and showed robust fear extinction and the ability to inhibit responses in an fMRI behavioral inhibition task. In line with previous early intervention for the prevention of PTSD studies, this case report supports the need for ongoing empirical research investigating the possibility that one session of exposure therapy in the ED may attenuate risk for PTSD. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate psychophysiological extinction serving as a prognostic indicator of treatment response for PTSD early intervention to be an exciting avenue to explore in future systematic research. PMID:28993816

  11. Cesarean delivery and subsequent pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Pihlstrøm, Hege; Irgens, Lorentz M

    2008-06-01

    To assess possible effects of a cesarean delivery on outcome in subsequent pregnancies. Using an historical cohort design, we analyzed 637,497 first and second births among women with two or more single births and 242,812 first, second, and third births among women with three or more single births registered in the population-based Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 1967 and 2003. Compared with a vaginal delivery at first birth, a cesarean delivery at first birth was followed, in a second pregnancy, by increased risks of preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.9 and corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-3.1), small for gestational age (OR 1.5; CI 1.4-1.5), placenta previa (OR 1.5; CI 1.3-1.8, placenta accreta (OR 1.9; CI 1.3-2.8), placental abruption (OR 2.0; CI 1.8-2.2), and uterine rupture (OR 37.4; CI 24.9-56.2). After excluding women with the actual complication at first birth, the corresponding ORs were, in general, lower: 1.7 (CI 1.6-1.8), 1.3 (CI 1.3-1.4), 1.4 (CI 1.2-1.7), 1.9 (CI 1.3-2.8), 1.7 (CI 1.6-1.9), and 37.2 (CI 24.7-55.9), respectively. Corresponding reduction in numbers of cesarean deliveries needed to prevent one case were 114, 56, 1,140, 3,706, 300, and 461. In third births, ORs after repeat cesarean delivery were similar to or lower than the ORs after one cesarean delivery; also here, the exclusion of women with the actual outcome in any of their previous pregnancies tended to reduce the ORs. Cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of complications in a subsequent pregnancy, but excess risks were reduced after excluding women with the actual complication in any of their previous births. To obtain less biased effects of cesarean delivery on subsequent pregnancies, it is important to account for obstetric history. II.

  12. Hombres Sanos: exposure and response to a social marketing HIV prevention campaign targeting heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sañudo, Fernando; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Ji, Ming

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the reach and impact of a social marketing intervention to reduce HIV risk among heterosexually identified (HI) Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Repeated cross-sectional intercept surveys were conducted in selected community venues during and after the campaign with 1,137 HI Latino men. Of them, 6% were classified as HI Latino MSMW. On average, 85.9% of the heterosexual respondents and 86.8% of the HI MSMW subsample reported exposure to the campaign. Responses to the campaign included having made an appointment for a male health exam that included HIV testing and using condoms. Campaign exposure was significantly associated with HIV testing behavior and intentions and with knowledge of where to get tested. The campaign reached its underserved target audience and stimulated preventive behaviors. Social marketing represents a promising approach for HIV prevention among HI Latinos, in general, and HI Latino MSMW, in particular.

  13. Cannabinoids prevent the differential long-term effects of exposure to severe stress on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Noa; Segev, Amir; Abush, Hila; Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Tomer; Akirav, Irit

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to excessive or uncontrolled stress is a major factor associated with various diseases including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The consequences of exposure to trauma are affected not only by aspects of the event itself, but also by the frequency and severity of trauma reminders. It was suggested that in PTSD, hippocampal-dependent memory is compromised while amygdala-dependent memory is strengthened. Several lines of evidence support the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a modulator of the stress response. In this study we aimed to examine cannabinoids modulation of the long-term effects (i.e., 1 month) of exposure to a traumatic event on memory and plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following exposure to the shock and reminders model of PTSD in an inhibitory avoidance light-dark apparatus rats demonstrated: (i) enhanced fear retrieval and impaired inhibitory extinction (Ext), (ii) no long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1, (iii) impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory in the object location task, (iv) enhanced LTP in the amygdala, and (v) enhanced amygdala-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory. The cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55-212,2 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), administered 2 hr after shock exposure prevented these opposing effects on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent processes. Moreover, the effects of WIN55-212,2 and URB597 on Ext and acoustic startle were prevented by co-administration of a low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting that the preventing effects of both drugs are mediated by CB1 receptors. Exposure to shock and reminders increased CB1 receptor levels in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala 1 month after shock exposure and this increase was also prevented by administering WIN55-212,2 or URB597. Taken together, these findings suggest the involvement of the eCB system, and specifically CB1

  14. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents cumulative damage from repeated exposure to sub-erythemal solar ultraviolet radiation representative of temperate latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Christiaens, F; Bredoux, C; Compan, D; Zucchi, H; Lombard, D; Fourtanier, A; Young, A R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown the detrimental effects of 19 sub-erythemal exposures to daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR, which mimics non-extreme exposure conditions), delivered over 4 weeks to volunteers. This source had UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (290-320 nm) irradiance ratio of 25, instead of that close to 10 that is typically the case with solar-simulated radiation (SSR) that represents summer global sunlight with a clear sky and quasi-zenith solar irradiance. Here, we report on an extension of this previous study, in which we evaluated the photoprotection afforded by a broad-spectrum daily-care product with a low-sun protection factor (SPF 8, UVA-PF 7 and 3* rated UVA protection). We assessed cellular and molecular markers of photodamage that are relevant to skin cancer and photoageing. This study shows that biological effects of repeated exposure to DUVR can be prevented by a broad-spectrum daily-care product and that the level of protection afforded varies with the studied endpoint. Efficient daily UVR protection, as provided by a broad-spectrum daily-care product, is necessary to prevent the 'silent' sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  15. Second-hand tobacco smoke in Oklahoma: a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality and means of reducing exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Robert N; Crutcher, James M

    2002-03-01

    Evidence has mounted in recent years establishing second-hand tobacco smoke exposure as a cause of morbidity and mortality in nonsmokers. The ratio of deaths is approximately one nonsmoker dying from illness caused by second-hand smoke exposure for every eight smokers who die from diseases caused by tobacco use. This is equivalent to about 750 nonsmoker deaths each year in Oklahoma caused by exposure to second-hand smoke. This article reviews the components of second-hand smoke, its health effects, its prevalence in Oklahoma, and the means of protecting children and nonsmoking adults from exposure. Oklahoma physicians are encouraged to advise their patients about the harmful effects of second-hand smoke and to actively support public policies that decrease exposure to second-hand smoke in public places and workplaces.

  16. Does Digital Ad Exposure Influence Information-Seeking Behavior Online? Evidence From the 2012 Tips From Former Smokers National Tobacco Prevention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; Alexander, Robert; Rowland, Amy; Mitchko, Jane

    2016-03-16

    Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when exposed but visit the promoted website or conduct campaign-related searches later. Online panels that unobtrusively collect panelists' Web behavior data and link ad exposure to website visits and searches can more reliably assess the impact of digital ad exposure. From March to June 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aired the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips 2012) media campaign designed to encourage current smokers to quit. Advertisements ran across media channels, and the digital ads directed users to the Tips 2012 campaign website. Our aim was to examine whether exposure to Tips 2012 digital ads influenced information-seeking behaviors online. ComScore mined its panelists' Web behavior data for unique codes that would indicate exposure to Tips 2012 ads, regardless of whether panelists clicked the ad or not. A total of 15,319 US adults were identified as having been exposed to a Tips 2012 campaign ad. An equal number of unexposed adults (N=15,319) were identified and matched on demographics and Internet use behavior to the exposed group. Panelists' Web behavior data were mined for up to 4 weeks after initial Tips 2012 ad exposure to determine whether they visited the Tips 2012 campaign website or other cessation-related websites (eg, nicotine replacement therapy site) or conducted searches for campaign-related topics (eg, quit smoking). The proportion of exposed adults visiting the Tips 2012 sites increased from 0.4% in Week 1 to 0.9% 4 weeks after ad exposure, and these rates were significantly higher than in the unexposed group (0.1% in Week 1 to 0.4% in Week 4, Pcampaign-related topics between

  17. Exposure to School and Community Based Prevention Programs and Reductions in Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in the United States, 2000–08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Smoking remains prevalent among U.S. youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12–17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was analyzed. A 3-stage model was devised to estimate smoking behavior transitions using cross-sectional data and the Probabilistic Discrete Event System method. Cigarette smoking measures (prevalence rates and odds ratios) were compared between exposed and non-exposed youth. More than 95% of the sample was exposed to prevention programs. Exposure was negatively associated with lifetime smoking and past 30-day smoking with a dose-response relation. Reduction in smoking was related to increased quitting in 2000–02, to increased quitting and declined initiation in 2003–05, and to initiation, quitting and relapse in 2005–08. Findings of this analysis suggest that intervention programs in the United States can reduce cigarette smoking among youth. Quitting smoking was most responsive to program exposure and relapse was most sensitive to funding cuts since 2003. Health policy and decision makers should consider these factors in planning and revising tobacco control strategies. PMID:22410164

  18. Pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxes and the combination HIV prevention methods (The Combine! Study): protocol for a pragmatic clinical trial at public healthcare clinics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Peres, Maria Fernanda; Luiz, Olinda; Zucchi, Eliana Miura; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Estevam, Denize Lotufo; Alencar, Rosa; Wolffenbüttel, Karina; Escuder, Maria Mercedes; Calazans, Gabriela; Ferraz, Dulce; Arruda, Érico; Corrêa, Maria da Gloria; Amaral, Fabiana Rezende; Santos, Juliane Cardoso Villela; Alvarez, Vivian Salles; Kietzmann, Tiago

    2015-08-25

    Few results from programmes based on combination prevention methods are available. We propose to analyse the degree of protection provided by postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for consensual sexual activity at healthcare clinics, its compensatory effects on sexual behaviour; and the effectiveness of combination prevention methods and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), compared with exclusively using traditional methods. A total of 3200 individuals aged 16 years or older presenting for PEP at 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV clinics in 3 regions of Brazil will be allocated to one of two groups: the PEP group-individuals who come to the clinic within 72 h after a sexual exposure and start PEP; and the non-PEP group-individuals who come after 72 h but within 30 days of exposure and do not start PEP. Clinical follow-up will be conducted initially for 6 months and comprise educational interventions based on information and counselling for using prevention methods, including PrEP. In the second study phase, individuals who remain HIV negative will be regrouped according to the reported use of prevention methods and observed for 18 months: only traditional methods; combined methods; and PrEP. Effectiveness will be analysed according to the incidence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C and protected sexual behaviour. A structured questionnaire will be administered to participants at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Qualitative methods will be employed to provide a comprehensive understanding of PEP-seeking behaviour, preventive choices and exposure to HIV. This study will be conducted in accordance with the resolution of the School of Medicine Research Ethics Commission of Universidade de São Paulo (protocol no. 251/14). The databases will be available for specific studies, after management committee approval. Findings will be presented to researchers, health managers and civil society members by means of newspapers, electronic media and scientific journals

  19. Community-Based Interventions to Decrease Obesity and Tobacco Exposure and Reduce Health Care Costs: Outcome Estimates From Communities Putting Prevention to Work for 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Robin; Orenstein, Diane; Honeycutt, Amanda; Bradley, Christina; Trogdon, Justin; Kent, Charlotte K; Wile, Kristina; Haddix, Anne; O'Neil, Dara; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2016-04-07

    In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), a $485 million program to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and exposure to secondhand smoke. CPPW awardees implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental changes to sustain reductions in chronic disease risk factors. This article describes short-term and potential long-term benefits of the CPPW investment. We used a mixed-methods approach to estimate population reach and to simulate the effects of completed CPPW interventions through 2020. Each awardee developed a community action plan. We linked plan objectives to a common set of interventions across awardees and estimated population reach as an early indicator of impact. We used the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM), a systems dynamics model of cardiovascular disease prevention, to simulate premature deaths, health care costs, and productivity losses averted from 2010 through 2020 attributable to CPPW. Awardees completed 73% of their planned objectives. Sustained CPPW improvements may avert 14,000 premature deaths, $2.4 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted direct medical costs, and $9.5 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted lifetime and annual productivity losses through 2020. PRISM results suggest that large investments in community preventive interventions, if sustained, could yield cost savings many times greater than the original investment over 10 to 20 years and avert 14,000 premature deaths.

  20. Skin exposure to isocyanates: reasons for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Dhimiter; Herrick, Christina A; Smith, Thomas J; Woskie, Susan R; Streicher, Robert P; Cullen, Mark R; Liu, Youcheng; Redlich, Carrie A

    2007-03-01

    Isocyanates (di- and poly-), important chemicals used worldwide to produce polyurethane products, are a leading cause of occupational asthma. Respiratory exposures have been reduced through improved hygiene controls and the use of less-volatile isocyanates. Yet isocyanate asthma continues to occur, not uncommonly in settings with minimal inhalation exposure but opportunity for skin exposure. In this review we evaluate the potential role of skin exposure in the development of isocyanate asthma. We reviewed the published animal and human literature on isocyanate skin-exposure methods, workplace skin exposure, skin absorption, and the role of skin exposure in isocyanate sensitization and asthma. We selected relevant articles from computerized searches on Medline, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and Google databases using the keywords "isocyanate," "asthma," "skin," "sensitization," and other synonymous terms, and our own extensive collection of isocyanate publications. Isocyanate production and use continues to increase as the polyurethane industry expands. There is substantial opportunity for isocyanate skin exposure in many work settings, but such exposure is challenging to quantify and continues to be underappreciated. Isocyanate skin exposure can occur at work, even with the use of personal protective equipment, and may also occur with consumer use of certain isocyanate products. In animals, isocyanate skin exposure is an efficient route to induce sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge resulting in asthma-like responses. Several lines of evidence support a similar role for human isocyanate skin exposure, namely, that such exposure occurs and can contribute to the development of isocyanate asthma in certain settings, presumably by inducing systemic sensitization. Integrated animal and human research is needed to better understand the role of skin

  1. Agglomeration of tungsten carbide nanoparticles in exposure medium does not prevent uptake and toxicity toward a rainbow trout gill cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Dana; Busch, Wibke; Meissner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Potthoff, Annegret; Richter, Volkmar; Gelinsky, Michael; Scholz, Stefan; Schirmer, Kristin

    2009-06-28

    dissolve from the WC-Co nanoparticles, with cells reacting much more sensitively toward cobalt ions in the absence of FBS. However, the toxicity observed by ionic cobalt alone did not explain the toxicity of the WC-Co nanoparticles, suggesting that the combination of metallic Co and WC is the cause of the increased particle toxicity of WC-Co. Taken together, our findings indicate that minimal exposure media can lead to rapid agglomeration of nanoparticles but that agglomeration does not prevent uptake into cells and the expression of toxicity.

  2. A meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of single-layer clothing in preventing exposure from pesticide handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelino, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes available information on the penetration of pesticides through single-layer clothing by pesticide handlers and introduces epidemiological and observational studies on pesticide exposure. The data for this report were taken from peer-reviewed articles, publicly available government reports, and publicly available government reviews of registrant-submitted data and information. The arithmetic mean of calculated clothing penetration was obtained for various parts of the body (upper arm, lower arm, chest/torso, back/torso, upper leg, and lower leg) that were exposed to pesticide. The range of pesticide penetration to the various parts of the body through single-layer clothing during mixing, loading, and application (MLA) activities was found to be 6.2% ± 5.7% to 21.4% ± 6.7%, which demonstrates a potential for increased and unintentional pesticide exposures. Based on this evaluation, some accepted default values for protection against pesticide exposure may be overestimated.

  3. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of microRNAs and their targets associated with fruit-bagging and subsequent sunlight re-exposure in the ‘Granny Smith’ apple exocarp using high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong eQu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bagged fruits of green apple cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ have been found to turn cardinal red after debagging during fruit-ripening in the Loess Plateau region of China. To understand such phenomenon at post-transcriptional level, we have investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs in response to debagging. Three small RNA libraries were primarily constructed from peels of ‘Granny Smith’ apples subjected to bagging followed by sunlight re-exposure treatments (0h, 6h, 1d (debagging, and from peels of apples without any bagging treatments (0h, 6h, 1d. 201 known miRNAs belonging to 43 miRNA families and 220 novel miRNAs were identified via high-throughput sequencing. Some miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after debagging, which indicated that miRNAs affected anthocyanin accumulation through their target genes in mature apple. To further explore the effect of debagging on miRNAs regulating the expression of anthocyanin regulatory genes, four miRNAs and their target genes regulating anthocyanin accumulation, miR156, miR828, miR858 and miR5072, were compared between green cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ and red cultivar ‘Starkrimson’. Results showed that mdm-miR828 and mdm-miR858 regulated anthocyanin contents in both apple cultivars, while mdm-miR156 only affected anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Granny Smith’, and miR5072 affected anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Starkrimson’. Additional analysis of gene ontology for the differentially expressed miRNAs after debagging treatments and their predicted target genes showed that they were involved in photo-protective response after debagging from 0h to 1d; they might play important roles in fruit development and adaptation to high light stress.

  5. Identification of MicroRNAs and Their Targets Associated with Fruit-Bagging and Subsequent Sunlight Re-exposure in the "Granny Smith" Apple Exocarp Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dong; Yan, Fei; Meng, Rui; Jiang, Xiaobing; Yang, Huijuan; Gao, Ziyi; Dong, Yonghui; Yang, Yazhou; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2016-01-01

    Bagged fruits of green apple cultivar "Granny Smith" have been found to turn cardinal red after debagging during fruit-ripening in the Loess Plateau region of China. To understand this phenomenon at post-transcriptional level, we have investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to debagging. Three small RNA libraries were primarily constructed from peels of "Granny Smith" apples subjected to bagging followed by sunlight re-exposure treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day) (debagging), and from peels of apples without any bagging treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day). 201 known miRNAs belonging to 43 miRNA families and 220 novel miRNAs were identified via high-throughput sequencing. Some miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after debagging, which indicated that miRNAs affected anthocyanin accumulation through their target genes in mature apple. To further explore the effect of debagging on miRNAs regulating the expression of anthocyanin regulatory genes, four miRNAs and their target genes regulating anthocyanin accumulation, miR156, miR828, miR858, and miR5072, were compared between green cultivar "Granny Smith" and red cultivar "Starkrimson." Results showed that mdm-miR828 and mdm-miR858 regulated anthocyanin contents in both apple cultivars, while mdm-miR156 only affected anthocyanin accumulation in "Granny Smith," and miR5072 affected anthocyanin accumulation in "Starkrimson." Additional analysis of gene ontology for the differentially expressed miRNAs after debagging treatments and their predicted target genes showed that they were involved in photo-protective response after debagging from 0 h to 1 day; they might play important roles in fruit development and adaptation to high light stress.

  6. DGT/ASN circular n. 04 of the 21. of April 2010 related to provisions for the prevention to ionizing ray exposure risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After an overview of the context of risk of exposure to ionizing radiation (potentially concerned activities, prevention policy based on radioprotection principles, regulation origin, radioprotection organization, specific inspection), this document presents the different regulatory provisions for the protection of workers against ionizing radiation hazards (scope of application, risk assessment, technical rules for workspace design, collective and individual protections, conditions for the follow-up of exposed workers, medical follow-up, work abnormal condition, radioprotection operating organisation, exposure to natural radioactivity). Then, a set of sheets is proposed, respectively containing regulatory information on employer obligations in terms of radioprotection, technical controls of radioprotection, individual protection equipment, worker information and education, radiological follow-up of classified workers, worker medical follow-up, work abnormal conditions, person with abilities in radioprotection, and a list of application decisions and orders

  7. Vitamin D treatment improves survival and infant lung structure after intra-amniotic endotoxin exposure in rats: potential role for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Erica; Seedorf, Gregory; Gien, Jason; Abman, Steven H

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D (vit D) has anti-inflammatory properties and modulates lung growth, but whether vit D can prevent lung injury after exposure to antenatal inflammation is unknown. We hypothesized that early and sustained vit D treatment could improve survival and preserve lung growth in an experimental model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia induced by antenatal exposure to endotoxin (ETX). Fetal rats (E20) were exposed to ETX (10 μg), ETX + Vit D (1 ng/ml), or saline (control) via intra-amniotic (IA) injections and delivered 2 days later. Newborn pups exposed to IA ETX received daily intraperitoneal injections of vit D (1 ng/g) or saline for 14 days. Vit D treatment improved oxygen saturations (78 vs. 87%; P effects on vascular and alveolar growth.

  8. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Early and Delayed-onset Ocular Injuries Due to Mustard Gas Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Safi, Sare; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Moghadam, Mohammadreza Sedighi; Jadidi, Khosrow; Babaei, Mahmoud; Shirvani, Armin; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Mohammad-Rabei, Hossein; Ziaei, Hossein; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Baher, Siamak Delfaza; Naderi, Mostafa; Panahi-Bazaz, Mahmoodreza; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Hanjani, Shahriar; Ghasemi, Hassan; Salouti, Ramin; Pakbin, Mojgan; Kheiri, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    To develop clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of ocular injuries caused by exposure to mustard gas. The clinical questions were designed by the guideline team. Websites and databases including National Guidelines Clearinghouse, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, Cochrane, and PubMed were searched to find related CPGs and explore possible answers to the clinical questions. Since there were no relevant CPGs in the literature, related articles in Persian and English languages were extracted. Each article along with its level of evidence was summarized. Additionally, hand search was performed by looking the reference list of each article. Consequently, recommendations were developed considering the clinical benefits and side effects of each therapeutic modality. The recommendations were re-evaluated in terms of customization criteria. All recommendations along with the related evidence were scored from 1 to 9 by experts from all medical universities of Iran. The level of agreement among the experts was evaluated by analyzing the given scores. The agreement was achieved for all recommendations. The experts suggested a number of minor modifications which were applied to the recommendations. Finally, CPGs were developed with 98 recommendations under three major domains including prevention of injury, diagnosis and management of the acute and delayed-onset mustard gas ocular injuries. Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  9. 3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one or N-acetylcysteine prevents hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and rectifies subsequent convulsive susceptibility in a rat model of kainic acid-induced seizure ceased by pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shohei; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Ryohei; Fukui, Miho; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2014-11-24

    There is accumulating evidence that reactive oxygen species are involved in the development of seizures under pathological conditions, and antioxidant treatments are a novel therapeutic approach for epilepsy. The kainic acid (KA) model of induced seizures has been widely used to study temporal lobe epilepsy. However, research on the use of free radical scavengers following KA-induced status epilepticus (SE) is limited. We examined whether antioxidants already used in humans could reduce hippocampal neuronal cell loss, mossy fiber sprouting and the acquisition of hyperexcitability when administered as a single dose after SE. The antioxidant 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone) (30mg/kg) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (30mg/kg) was administered after KA-induced SE ceased by pentobarbital. We evaluated neuronal cell viability 1 week after SE, determined the threshold for seizures induced by inhalation of flurothyl ether 12 weeks after SE, and examined the extent of mossy fiber sprouting 12 weeks after SE. We found that edaravone or NAC prevented neuronal cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting, and increased the threshold for seizures induced by flurothyl ether, even when administered after KA-induced SE. These results demonstrate that a single dose of edaravone or NAC can protect against neuronal cell loss and epileptogenesis when administered after SE ceased by pentobarbital. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Information sources, awareness and preventive health behaviors in a population at risk of Arsenic exposure: The role of gender and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Frédéric; Távora, Renata; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Castilhos, Zuleica Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As) exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 460 participants (294 women and 166 men) to collect data on respondent's socio-demographic characteristics, use of mass media and social communication networks as sources of information on As issues, the trustworthiness of these information sources, awareness of As health effects, and adoption of behaviors to reduce As exposure. For both men and women, interpersonal communication was used and trusted more frequently than mass media to obtain information on As. Discussion of As issues occurred preferentially among individuals of the same gender and was associated with awareness of As health risks. There are marked differences in variables correlated with the adoption of behaviors to reduce the risk of As exposure between men and women. Discussing As issues with women was associated with adoption of risk-reduction practices for both genders. In contrast, men who discuss As issues with other men were less likely to adopt As exposure prevention behaviors. Finally, adoption was associated with awareness of As health effects for women, but this was not the case for men. Policy implications for decision makers, practitioners and researchers are discussed, based on concrete examples of how gender-specific approaches can effectively guide the formulation and implementation of health promotion campaigns and

  11. Information sources, awareness and preventive health behaviors in a population at risk of Arsenic exposure: The role of gender and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mertens

    Full Text Available The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 460 participants (294 women and 166 men to collect data on respondent's socio-demographic characteristics, use of mass media and social communication networks as sources of information on As issues, the trustworthiness of these information sources, awareness of As health effects, and adoption of behaviors to reduce As exposure. For both men and women, interpersonal communication was used and trusted more frequently than mass media to obtain information on As. Discussion of As issues occurred preferentially among individuals of the same gender and was associated with awareness of As health risks. There are marked differences in variables correlated with the adoption of behaviors to reduce the risk of As exposure between men and women. Discussing As issues with women was associated with adoption of risk-reduction practices for both genders. In contrast, men who discuss As issues with other men were less likely to adopt As exposure prevention behaviors. Finally, adoption was associated with awareness of As health effects for women, but this was not the case for men. Policy implications for decision makers, practitioners and researchers are discussed, based on concrete examples of how gender-specific approaches can effectively guide the formulation and implementation of health promotion

  12. Prevention measures against radiation exposure to radon in well waters: analysis of the present situation in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Salonen, Laina

    2010-09-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive elements are found in all groundwaters, especially in bedrock waters. Exposure to these radioactive elements increases the risk of cancer. The most significant of these elements is radon which, as a gas, is mobile and dissolves in groundwater. In Finland, water supply plants are obliged to carry out statutory monitoring of the water quality, including radon. Monitoring of private wells, however, is often neglected. In this paper, we outline the problem by reviewing the outcomes of the studies conducted in Finland since the 1960s. We also summarise the development of legislation, regulations and political decisions made so far that have affected the amount of public exposure to radon in drinking water. A review of the studies on radon removal techniques is provided, together with newly obtained results. New data on the transfer of radon from water into indoor air are presented. The new assessments also take into account the expanding use of domestic radionuclide removal units by Finnish households.

  13. Exposure to a Mnemonic Interferes with Recall of Suicide Warning Signs in a Community-Based Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Steiner-Pappalardo, Nicole; Rudd, M. David

    2009-01-01

    The incremental impact of adding a mnemonic to remember suicide warning signs to the Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) community awareness briefing was investigated with a sample of young, junior-enlisted airmen. Participants in the standard briefing significantly increased their ability to list suicide warning signs and improved…

  14. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  15. Radiation-induced emesis in cats prevented by 24-hour prior exposure but not by ablation of the area postrema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, L.E.; Borison, H.L.; Douple, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    The acute emetic response induced by whole body exposure to cobalt radiation was quantified in cats at doses ranging from 1500 to 9000 rad (100 rad/min). Emesis occurred in a dose-related manner with a maximum incidence of 94% at 4500 rad (11 of 12 cats, mean latency of 98 min). At 6000 rad emesis occurred in 7 of 10 cats (mean latency of 69 min); however, a second exposure to this dose on the following day failed to induce vomiting in all of 5 cats (difference between groups significant at p = .01). After chronic ablation of the area postrema (chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting), 4 of 5 cats vomited in response to 4500 rad with a mean latency of 48 min. As was the case with the normal cats, all the postrema-ablated animals failed to vomit in response to a repeated dose of radiation delivered on the next day. The suppression of emesis observed on the second exposure was radiation-specific because 11 of 12 normal cats vomited appropriately in response to xylazine (0.6 mg/kg, im) during the period of refractoriness to radiation

  16. [Can prevention of hepatitis B following exposure to hepatitis virus be improved by immediate administration of HB immune serum?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcki, W H; Knoblauch, M; Uehlinger, M; Bansky, G; Giger, M; Grob, P J

    1983-06-11

    Sixty-five medical personnel thought to be exposed to hepatitis-B-surface antigen (HBs) positive material by accidental needle stick were treated with 4 ml hepatitis B-immunoglobulin (SRK, Swiss Red Cross). The prophylaxis was started as soon as possible, mostly within an hour or two. 56 patients were followed up with clinical and serological tests at monthly intervals for 9 months. In individuals exposed to HBs-antigen negative material, signs of HBV-infection could be detected only in one. In 36 cases potentially infectious material proved to be HBs-Ag positive. Six of the medical personnel (16.7%) had signs of hepatitis B-virus infection. One individual (2.8%) developed clinical hepatitis type B. Three (8.3%) converted to active hepatitis B markers (anti-HBs and/or anti-HBc) without clinical symptoms. Two of four who already had anti-HBs before exposure developed antibodies to HBc afresh at three- and six-month intervals. These serological conversions and the one case of clinical hepatitis developed despite the fact that HB-Ig was given in nearly all cases within one hour of exposure. The incubation period was 5-8 months. It is concluded that even rapid prophylaxis with HB-Ig after needle stick exposure does not afford 100% protection. It is urged that any passive prophylaxis with HB-Ig in exposed personnel should be complemented by active hepatitis B immunization.

  17. Male Partner Influence on Women's HIV Prevention Trial Participation and Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: the Importance of "Understanding".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Stadler, Jonathan; Hartmann, Miriam; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; Laborde, Nicole; Soto-Torres, Lydia

    2015-05-01

    There is widespread evidence that male partners influence women's ability and willingness to join HIV prevention trials and to use female-controlled prevention strategies such as microbicide gels. VOICE-C was an ancillary study to the Microbicide Trials Network's VOICE trial at the Johannesburg site that explored social and structural factors influencing women's use of study tablets and vaginal gel. Qualitative data were analyzed from 102 randomly-selected VOICE participants interviewed through in-depth interviews (IDI, n = 41); ethnographic interviews (n = 21) or focus group discussions (FGD, n = 40) and 22 male partners interviewed in 14 IDI and 2 FGD. Male partners' "understanding" pervaded as a central explanation for how male partners directly and indirectly influenced their female partners' trial participation and product use, irrespective of assignment to the gel or tablet study groups. The meaning behind "understanding" in this context was described by both men and women in two important and complementary ways: (1) "comprehension" of the study purpose including biological properties or effects of the products, and (2) "support/agreeability" for female partners being study participants or using products. During analysis a third dimension of "understanding" emerged as men's acceptance of larger shifts in gender roles and relationship power, and the potential implications of women's increased access to biomedical knowledge, services and prevention methods. Despite displays of some female agency to negotiate and use HIV prevention methods, male partners still have a critical influence on women's ability and willingness to do so. Efforts to increase their understanding of research goals, study design and products' mechanisms of action could ameliorate distrust, empower men to serve as product advocates, adherence buddies, and foster greater adherence support for women in situations where it is needed. Strategies to address gender norms and the broader

  18. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  19. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid and L-Carnitine prevent ATP loss in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joey Wee-Shan; Ho, Christabel Fung-Yih; Ng, Yee-Kong; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most commonly used nanomaterials, but thus far, little is known about ways to mitigate against potential toxic effects of exposure. In this study, we examined the potential effects of AgNPs on mitochondrial function and cellular ATP levels, and whether these could be prevented by treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and L-carnitine (LC). Acute exposure of AgNPs for 1 h to SH-SY5Y cells resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased ATP and ADP levels, indicating mitochondrial damage and reduced production of ATP. Incubation of cells with DHA partially reduced, while treatment with LC and DHA completely abolished the AgNP induced decreases in ATP and ADP levels. This could be due to a LC-facilitated entry of DHA to mitochondria, for repair of damaged phospholipids. It is postulated that DHA and LC may be useful for treatment of accidental environmental exposure to AgNPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Benchmarking of Percutaneous Injuries at the Ministry of Health Hospitals of Saudi Arabia in Comparison with the United States Hospitals Participating in Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZA Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to blood-borne pathogens from needle-stick and sharp injuries continues to pose a significant risk to health care workers. These events are of concern because of the risk to transmit blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and the human immunodeficiency virus. Objective: To benchmark different risk factors associated with needle-stick incidents among health care workers in the Ministry of Health hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia compared to the US hospitals participating in Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet ™. Methods: Prospective surveillance of needle-stick and sharp incidents carried out during the year 2012 using EPINet™ ver 1.5 that provides uniform needle stick and sharp injury report form. Results: The annual percutaneous incidents (PIs rate per 100 occupied beds was 3.2 at the studied MOH hospitals. Nurses were the most affected job category by PIs (59.4%. Most PIs happened in patients' wards in the Ministry of Health hospitals (34.6%. Disposable syringes were the most common cause of PIs (47.20%. Most PIs occurred during use of the syringes (36.4%. Conclusion: Among health care workers, nurses and physicians appear especially at risk of exposure to PIs. Important risk factors of injuries include working in patient room, using disposable syringes, devices without safety features. Preventive strategies such as continuous training of health care workers with special emphasis on nurses and physicians, encouragement of reporting of such incidents, observation of sharp handling, their use and implementation of safety devices are warranted.

  2. N-acetyl cysteine supplementation prevents impairment of spatial working memory functions in rats following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, K; Singh, S B; Kalpana, B; Sairam, M; Muthuraju, S; Ilavazhagan, G

    2007-11-23

    Exposure to high altitude (HA), especially extreme altitude, is associated with impairment of cognitive functions including memory and increased oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanisms involved are not well understood. It is hypothesized that HA induced oxidative stress may be one of the factors underlying hypoxia induced memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) on spatial working and reference memory functions, oxidative stress markers in rats and effect of supplementation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as normoxic (n=6), Group II served as hypoxic (n=6), Group III as hypoxia group treated with NAC (n=6) and Group IV served as normoxic group treated with NAC (n=6). Group II & III were exposed to HH for 3 days equivalent to 6100 m and received oral NAC supplementation (750 mg/kg) daily. Rats from all the groups were trained in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task for 8 consecutive days. Spatial working and reference memory were tested immediately after the termination of HH and then the rats were sacrificed for estimation of oxidative stress markers in hippocampus. Rats displayed significant deficits in spatial working memory, and increased oxidative stress along with decrease in antioxidant status on hypoxic exposure. Supplementation with NAC in hypoxia-exposed group improved spatial memory performance, and decreased oxidative stress. These findings indicate that hypoxic exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress, which may have caused memory deficit in rats exposed to simulated HA.

  3. Evaluation of the role of risk perception in stakeholder engagement to prevent lead exposure in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harclerode, Melissa A; Lal, Pankaj; Vedwan, Neeraj; Wolde, Bernabas; Miller, Michael E

    2016-12-15

    Stakeholder engagement is a vital sustainable remediation practice for obtaining useful feedback and identifying societal needs. Evaluating and integrating risk perception of stakeholders into remediation and outreach efforts allows for greater insight, increases the likelihood of success and ultimately, benefits the community by protecting its members from environmental hazards. In this study, we identified risk perception factors that influenced residents' level of concern for mitigating their exposure to elevated concentrations of lead in household paint and historic fill material. Risk perception factors were assessed by an in-person survey conducted in public green spaces. The analysis of survey participants' responses indicated that their perception of risk to exposed lead was mostly influenced by the presence of hazardous materials in close proximity to their residence, the ability to address pollution, and awareness, interest, and individual accountability in mitigating environmental risks. Responses also revealed that residents considered risk of lead and soil pollution as less menacing than the presence of more immediate and perceptible risks posed by factors such as air and water pollution. In addition, the community seemed to exhibit "optimism bias" and did not identify itself at high risk to susceptible and immediate hazards, including lead exposure. This lack of concern over lead exposure created a significant obstacle to community participation in state-led education and outreach programs. By integrating risk perception analysis and increasing stakeholder engagement, we can bring more attention to this issue, educate the public about the threat of lead pollution, and efficiently use financial resources to implement a more sustainable solution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus is unlikely to prevent future bat handling among adults in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D

    2018-02-01

    Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  6. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  7. The potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men and transwomen in Lima, Peru: a mathematical modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B Gomez

    Full Text Available HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, the use of antiretroviral drugs by uninfected individuals to prevent HIV infection, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing acquisition in a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM. Consequently, there is a need to understand if and how PrEP can be used cost-effectively to prevent HIV infection in such populations.We developed a mathematical model representing the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen (male-to-female transgender individuals in Lima, Peru, as a test case. PrEP effectiveness in the model is assumed to result from the combination of a "conditional efficacy" parameter and an adherence parameter. Annual operating costs from a health provider perspective were based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention interim guidelines for PrEP use. The model was used to investigate the population-level impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of PrEP under a range of implementation scenarios. The epidemiological impact of PrEP is largely driven by programme characteristics. For a modest PrEP coverage of 5%, over 8% of infections could be averted in a programme prioritising those at higher risk and attaining the adherence levels of the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative study. Across all scenarios, the highest estimated cost per disability-adjusted life year averted (uniform strategy for a coverage level of 20%, US$1,036-US$4,254 is below the World Health Organization recommended threshold for cost-effective interventions, while only certain optimistic scenarios (low coverage of 5% and some or high prioritisation are likely to be cost-effective using the World Bank threshold. The impact of PrEP is reduced if those on PrEP decrease condom use, but only extreme behaviour changes among non-adherers (over 80% reduction in condom use and a low PrEP conditional efficacy (40% would adversely impact the epidemic. However, PrEP will not arrest HIV transmission in isolation because of its

  8. The Potential Impact of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transwomen in Lima, Peru: A Mathematical Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Carlos F.; Segura, Eddy R.; Grant, Robert M.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of antiretroviral drugs by uninfected individuals to prevent HIV infection, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing acquisition in a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM). Consequently, there is a need to understand if and how PrEP can be used cost-effectively to prevent HIV infection in such populations. Methods and Findings We developed a mathematical model representing the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen (male-to-female transgender individuals) in Lima, Peru, as a test case. PrEP effectiveness in the model is assumed to result from the combination of a “conditional efficacy” parameter and an adherence parameter. Annual operating costs from a health provider perspective were based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention interim guidelines for PrEP use. The model was used to investigate the population-level impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of PrEP under a range of implementation scenarios. The epidemiological impact of PrEP is largely driven by programme characteristics. For a modest PrEP coverage of 5%, over 8% of infections could be averted in a programme prioritising those at higher risk and attaining the adherence levels of the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative study. Across all scenarios, the highest estimated cost per disability-adjusted life year averted (uniform strategy for a coverage level of 20%, US$1,036–US$4,254) is below the World Health Organization recommended threshold for cost-effective interventions, while only certain optimistic scenarios (low coverage of 5% and some or high prioritisation) are likely to be cost-effective using the World Bank threshold. The impact of PrEP is reduced if those on PrEP decrease condom use, but only extreme behaviour changes among non-adherers (over 80% reduction in condom use) and a low PrEP conditional efficacy (40%) would adversely impact the epidemic. However, PrEP will not arrest HIV transmission in

  9. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Cultural Adaptations of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Treatment and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnica T. Williams

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a highly disabling disorder, afflicting African Americans at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. When receiving treatment, African Americans may feel differently towards a European American clinician due to cultural mistrust. Furthermore, racism and discrimination experienced before or during the traumatic event may compound posttrauma reactions, impacting the severity of symptoms. Failure to adapt treatment approaches to encompass cultural differences and racism-related traumas may decrease treatment success for African American clients. Cognitive behavioral treatment approaches are highly effective, and Prolonged Exposure (PE in particular has the most empirical support for the treatment of PTSD. This article discusses culturally-informed adaptations of PE that incorporates race-related trauma themes specific to the Black experience. These include adding more sessions at the front end to better establish rapport, asking directly about race-related themes during the assessment process, and deliberately bringing to the forefront race-related experiences and discrimination during treatment when indicated. Guidelines for assessment and the development of appropriate exposures are provided. Case examples are presented demonstrating adaptation of PE for a survivor of race-related trauma and for a woman who developed internalized racism following a sexual assault. Both individuals experienced improvement in their posttrauma reactions using culturally-informed adaptations to PE.

  11. Inhibition of the Rho/ROCK pathway prevents neuronal degeneration in vitro and in vivo following methylmercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Masatake; Usuki, Fusako; Kawamura, Miwako; Izumo, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental neurotoxicant which induces neuropathological changes in both the central nervous and peripheral sensory nervous systems. Our recent study demonstrated that down-regulation of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which is known to promote neuritic extension, preceded MeHg-induced damage in cultured cortical neurons, suggesting that MeHg-mediated axonal degeneration is due to the disturbance of neuritic extension. Therefore we hypothesized that MeHg-induced axonal degeneration might be caused by neuritic extension/retraction incoordination. This idea brought our attention to the Ras homolog gene (Rho)/Rho-associated coiled coil-forming protein kinase (ROCK) pathway because it has been known to be associated with the development of axon and apoptotic neuronal cell death. Here we show that inhibition of the Rho/ROCK pathway prevents MeHg-intoxication both in vitro and in vivo. A Rho inhibitor, C3 toxin, and 2 ROCK inhibitors, Fasudil and Y-27632, significantly protected against MeHg-induced axonal degeneration and apoptotic neuronal cell death in cultured cortical neuronal cells exposed to 100 nM MeHg for 3 days. Furthermore, Fasudil partially prevented the loss of large pale neurons in dorsal root ganglia, axonal degeneration in dorsal spinal root nerves, and vacuolar degeneration in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord in MeHg-intoxicated model rats (20 ppm MeHg in drinking water for 28 days). Hind limb crossing sign, a characteristic MeHg-intoxicated sign, was significantly suppressed in this model. The results suggest that inhibition of the Rho/ROCK pathway rescues MeHg-mediated neuritic extension/retraction incoordination and is effective for the prevention of MeHg-induced axonal degeneration and apoptotic neuronal cell death.

  12. Maternal exposure to GOS/inulin mixture prevents food allergies and promotes tolerance in offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, G; Castan, L; Chesné, J; Braza, F; Aubert, P; Neunlist, M; Magnan, A; Bodinier, M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies affect 4-8% of children and are constantly on the rise, thus making allergies a timely issue. Most importantly, prevention strategies are nonexistent, and current therapeutic strategies have limited efficacy and need to be improved. One alternative to prevent or reduce allergies, particularly during infancy, could consist of modulating maternal immunity and microbiota using nondigestible food ingredients, such as prebiotics. For this purpose, we studied the preventive effects of prebiotics in Balb/c mothers during pregnancy and breastfeeding on food allergy development in offspring mice. After weaning, the offspring from mothers that were exposed to GOS/inulin mixture or fed a control diet were intraperitoneally sensitized to wheat proteins to induce a systemic allergic response and orally exposed to the same allergen. Immunological, physiological, and microbial parameters were analyzed. GOS/inulin mixture diet modified the microbiota of mothers and their offspring. Offspring from mothers that received GOS/inulin prebiotics were protected against food allergies and displayed lower clinical scores, specifically of IgE and histamine levels, compared to offspring from mothers fed a control diet. Moreover, GOS/inulin supplementation for the mother resulted in stronger intestinal permeability in the offspring. Enhancement of the regulatory response to allergic inflammation and changes in the Th2/Th1 balance toward a dampened Th2 response were observed in mice from GOS/inulin mixture-exposed mothers. The treatment of pregnant and lactating mice with nondigestible GOS/inulin prebiotics promotes a long-term protective effect against food allergies in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Perspectives on HIV prevention among urban black women: a potential role for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flash, Charlene A; Stone, Valerie E; Mitty, Jennifer A; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Hall, Kathryn T; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2014-12-01

    Limited data exist regarding attitudes and acceptability of topical and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among US black women. This investigation explored interest in HIV chemoprophylaxis and modes of use. Five focus groups enrolled 26 black women recruited from an inner-city community health center and affiliated HIV testing sites. Thematic analysis utilized Atlas.ti. Most women expressed interest in PrEP, as many reported condom failure concerns. Most women preferred a pill formulation to intravaginal gel because of greater perceived privacy and concerns about vaginal side effects and gel leakage. Women who had taken pills previously advocated daily dosing and indicated adherence concerns about episodic or post-coital PrEP. Many women desired prophylactic strategies that included partner testing. Urban black women are interested in utilizing PrEP; however, misgivings exist about gel inconvenience and potential side effects for themselves and their partners. Most women preferred oral PrEP, dosed daily.

  14. Sleep benefits subsequent hippocampal functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Y.D.; Altena, E.; Schoonheim, M.M.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Vis, J.C.; de Rijke, W.; van Someren, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep before learning benefits memory encoding through unknown mechanisms. We found that even a mild sleep disruption that suppressed slow-wave activity and induced shallow sleep, but did not reduce total sleep time, was sufficient to affect subsequent successful encoding-related hippocampal

  15. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liput, Daniel J; Pauly, James R; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Nixon, Kimberly

    2017-11-29

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [³H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB) staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up "target engagement" study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  16. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  17. Occupational exposure to benzene: a prevention program for employees and contractors; PPEOB - Programa de Prevencao a Exposicao Ocupacional ao Benzeno para Empregados Proprios e Contratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Paulo Sergio de; Silva, Edson Ferreira da; Patto, Claudio Monteiro [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals has 500 regular employees and 5.064 out sourced workers in its Southeast Division. The out sourced employees work through 125 contracts involving a wide range of activities such as maintenance, operational, pipeline launching , engineering, administrative and auxiliary services. Among these workers, 200 people are subjected to benzene occupational exposure, which might be present in the products we transport in our pipelines. Benzene is recognized as a carcinogen according to ACGIH and Brazilian Ministry of Labour regulation NR- 15. Exposure to benzene in an uncontrolled way, be it chronic or sharp, may affect the worker's health such as: hematological alterations, neoplasys, neurobehavior alterations. Our program PPEOB (acronym in Portuguese for benzene occupational exposure prevention program) involved the work force and fosters health by anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of the situations that may result in injuries. Further actions include the acquisition of equipment for benzene detection in the air or diluted in liquids and the introduction of new technologies for process control. The priority is the acquisition of equipment for collective protection not forgetting the individual protection equipment (IPE) and the required training. Implementation of this program counted with the effective participation of managers, contract supervisors and HSE professionals whose main task was to advise all involved parts. Furthermore, an auto-evaluation was released in order to assess the adherence of the PPEOB related to the facility reality. Since a suitable level of adherence is reached, the PPEOB can be used as a standard in the whole TRANSPETRO. (author)

  18. Exposure to chronic mild stress prevents kappa opioid-mediated reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ream eAl-Hasani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress increases the risk of drug abuse, causes relapse to drug seeking, and potentiates the rewarding properties of both nicotine and cocaine. Understanding the mechanisms by which stress regulates the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse provides valuable insight into potential treatments for drug abuse. Prior reports have demonstrated that stress causes dynorphin release, activating kappa-opioid receptors (KOR in monoamine circuits resulting in both potentiation and reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine conditioned place preference. Here we report that kappa-opioid dependent reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference is reduced when the mice are exposed to a randomized chronic mild stress regime prior to training in a conditioned place preference-reinstatement paradigm. The chronic mild stress schedule involves seven different stressors (removal of nesting for 24hr, 5min forced swim stress at 15°C, 8hr food and water deprivation, damp bedding overnight, white noise, cage tilt and disrupted home cage lighting rotated over a three-week period. This response is KOR-selective, because chronic mild stress does not protect against cocaine or nicotine drug-primed reinstatement. This protection from reinstatement is also observed following sub-chronic social defeat stress, where each mouse is placed in an aggressor mouse home cage for a period of 20 min over five days. In contrast, a single acute stressor resulted in a potentiation of KOR-induced reinstatement, similarly to previously reported. Prior studies have shown that stress alters sensitivity to opioids and prior stress can influence the pharmacodynamics of the opioid receptor system. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to different forms of stress may cause a dysregulation of kappa opioid circuitry and that changes resulting from mild stress can have protective and adaptive effects against drug relapse.

  19. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  20. Effects of Exposure to the Communities That Care Prevention System on Youth Problem Behaviors in a Community-Randomized Trial: Employing an Inverse Probability Weighting Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Coffman, Donna; Hawkins, J David

    2018-01-01

    Earlier intention-to-treat (ITT) findings from a community-randomized trial demonstrated effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on reducing problem behaviors among youth. In ITT analyses, youth were analyzed according to their original study community's randomized condition even if they moved away from the community over the course of follow-up and received little to no exposure to intervention activities. Using inverse probability weights (IPWs), this study estimated effects of CTC in the same randomized trial among youth who remained in their original study communities throughout follow-up. Data were from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized trial of 24 small towns in the United States. A cohort of 4,407 youth was followed from fifth grade (prior to CTC implementation) to eighth grade. IPWs for one's own moving status were calculated using fifth- and sixth-grade covariates. Results from inverse probability weighted multilevel models indicated larger effects for youth who remained in their study community for the first 2 years of CTC intervention implementation compared to ITT estimates. These effects included reduced likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, smokeless tobacco use, and delinquent behavior. These findings strengthen support for CTC as an efficacious system for preventing youth problem behaviors.

  1. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women who inject drugs in NYC: the importance of networks and syringe exchange programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2017-06-29

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used. Bivariable analyses, using chi-squared statistics, were conducted to examine correlates of awareness of PrEP with socio-demographic, behavioral, and health care variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted associations and determine differences in awareness of PrEP. The analysis consisted of 118 WWID. Awareness of PrEP was relatively low (31%), and risk factors were high. In the last 12 months, almost two thirds (65%) reported condomless sex, approximately one third (31%) reported transactional sex, and one third (32%) reported sharing injection equipment. In multivariable logistic regression, increased PrEP awareness was associated with reported transactional sex (AOR 3.32, 95% CI 1.22-9.00) and having a conversation about HIV prevention at a syringe exchange program (SEP) (AOR 7.61, 95% CI 2.65-21.84). We did not find race, education, household income, age, binge drinking, or sexual identity to be significantly associated with PrEP awareness. Large proportions of WWID were unaware of PrEP. These findings suggest that social networks (specifically sex work and SEP networks) are an efficient means for disseminating messaging about prevention materials such as PrEP. We recommend that SEP access increase, SEP processes be adopted in other health care settings, and WWID networks be utilized to increase PrEP awareness.

  3. S-adenosyl methionine prevents ASD like behaviors triggered by early postnatal valproic acid exposure in very young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi

    2018-01-16

    A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Occupational exposure prevention program to oil and gas industry; Antecipacao, reconhecimento, avaliacao e controle dos riscos ambientais em uma planta de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Paulo Sergio de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Palierini, Renato Martins [TWA Brasil, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals have 500 regular employees and 5.064 out sourced workers in its Southeast Division. The out sourced employees work under 125 contracts involving a wide range of activities such as maintenance, pipeline operation, pipeline launching, engineering, administrative and auxiliary services. Among these workers, 1.200 peoples are subjected to occupational exposure, which may be present in the industrial process or in the products transported in our pipelines, e.g. industrial noise, sulfidric gas, toluene, xylene and benzene (recognized as a carcinogen according to ACGIH and Brazilian Ministry of Labour). Our PPRA (acronym in Portuguese for Occupational Exposure Prevention Program) involves the workforce and fosters health by anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of the situations that may result in injuries. Further actions include the procurement of equipment for detection of these agents not only in the air but also diluted in liquids and the introduction of state-of the- art technologies for a better process control. The priority is the acquisition of equipment for collective protection not forgetting the individual protection equipment (IPE) and the required training. Implementation of this program counted on the effective involvement of the managers, contract supervisors and HSE professionals whose main task was to advise all involved parts on the use the Risk Analysis Methods tailored for Occupational Hygiene. Furthermore, these information will be used in a info system called SD-2000 that will gather and compare Health, Hygiene e Human Resources data in order to support the professional in the management and decision making process. (author)

  5. Appearance and Reality: Does a Recognition Test Really Improve Subsequent Recall and Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, George; Rabinowitz, Jan C.

    1981-01-01

    That additional exposure to memorial material improves subsequent retrieval probabilities was explored. The effect of a recognition test on subsequent recall and recognition of categorized lists was studied. Prior recognition tests increased recall of original items, but also increased intrusions. Similarly, prior exposure increased hit rates and…

  6. Community member perspectives from transgender women and men who have sex with men on pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: implications for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Gabriel R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An international randomized clinical trial (RCT on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP as an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-prevention intervention found that taken on a daily basis, PrEP was safe and effective among men who have sex with men (MSM and male-to-female transgender women. Within the context of the HIV epidemic in the United States (US, MSM and transgender women are the most appropriate groups to target for PrEP implementation at the population level; however, their perspectives on evidenced-based biomedical research and the results of this large trial remain virtually unknown. In this study, we examined the acceptability of individual daily use of PrEP and assessed potential barriers to community uptake. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with an ethnoracially diverse sample of thirty HIV-negative and unknown status MSM (n = 24 and transgender women (n = 6 in three California metropolitan areas. Given the burden of disease among ethnoracial minorities in the US, we purposefully oversampled for these groups. Thematic coding and analysis of data was conducted utilizing an approach rooted in grounded theory. Results While participants expressed general interest in PrEP availability, results demonstrate: a lack of community awareness and confusion about PrEP; reservations about PrEP utilization, even when informed of efficacious RCT results; and concerns regarding equity and the manner in which a PrEP intervention could be packaged and marketed in their communities. Conclusions In order to effectively reduce HIV health disparities at the population level, PrEP implementation must take into account the uptake concerns of those groups who would actually access and use this biomedical intervention as a prevention strategy. Recommendations addressing these concerns are provided.

  7. AG490 prevents cell death after exposure of rat astrocytes to hydrogen peroxide or proinflammatory cytokines: involvement of the Jak2/STAT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Roser; Petegnief, Valérie; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2005-02-01

    Janus kinases/STAT pathway mediates cellular responses to certain oxidative stress stimuli and cytokines. Here we examine the activation of Stat1 and Stat3 in rat astrocyte cultures and its involvement in cell death. H(2)O(2), interferon (INF)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-6 but not IL-10 caused cell death. Stat1 was phosphorylated on tyrosine (Tyr)-701 after exposure to H(2)O(2), INF-gamma or IL-6 but not IL-10. Tyr-705 pStat3 was observed after H(2)O(2), IL-6 and IL-10. Also, H(2)O(2) induced serine (Ser)-727 phosphorylation of Stat1 but not Stat3. The degree of Tyr-701 pStat1 by the different treatments positively correlated with the corresponding reduction of cell viability. AG490, a Jak2 inhibitor, prevented Tyr-701 but not Ser-727, Stat1 phosphorylation. Also, AG490 inhibited Tyr-705 Stat3 phosphorylation induced by H(2)O(2) and IL-6 but did not prevent that induced by IL-10. Furthermore, AG490 conferred strong protection against cell death induced by INF-gamma, IL-6 and H(2)O(2). These results suggest that Jak2/Stat1 activation mediates cell death induced by proinflammatory cytokines and peroxides. However, we found evidence suggesting that AG490 reduces oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2), which further shows that H(2)O(2) and/or derived reactive oxygen species directly activate Jak2/Stat1, but masks the actual involvement of this pathway in H(2)O(2)-induced cell death.

  8. Antioxidant activity of inulin and its role in the prevention of human colonic muscle cell impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide mucosal exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pasqualetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. METHODS: The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4 and inulin (Frutafit IQ, and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant. Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. RESULTS: Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, P<0.005 and this effect was completely prevented by pre-incubation of LPS with Inulin (35±5%. CONCLUSIONS: Inulin protects

  9. High HIV incidence in men who have sex with men following an early syphilis diagnosis: is there room for pre-exposure prophylaxis as a prevention strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Nicolò; Gutierrez, Angela; Nwokolo, Nneka; McOwan, Alan; Whitlock, Gary

    2017-08-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is becoming a pivotal strategy for HIV prevention. Understanding the impact of risk factors for HIV transmission to identify those at highest risk would favour the implementation of PrEP, currently limited by costs. In this service evaluation, we estimated the incidence of bacterial STIs in men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with early syphilis attending a London sexual health clinic according to their HIV status. In addition, we estimated the incidence of HIV infection in HIV-negative MSM, following a diagnosis of early syphilis. We undertook a retrospective case note review of all MSM patients diagnosed with early syphilis between January and June 2014. A number of sexual health screens and diagnoses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and HIV were prospectively analysed following the syphilis diagnosis. 206 MSM were diagnosed with early syphilis. 110 (53%) were HIV-negative at baseline, 96 (47%) were HIV-positive. Only age (37 vs 32 years, p=0.0005) was significantly different according to HIV status of MSM at baseline. In HIV-negative versus HIV-positive MSM, incidence of rectal chlamydia infection at follow-up was 27 cases vs 50/100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) (p=0.0039), 33 vs 66/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for rectal gonorrhoea and 10 vs 26/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for syphilis reinfection, respectively. Total follow-up for 110 HIV-negative MSM was 144 person-years. HIV incidence was 8.3/100 PYFU (CI 4.2 to 14). A diagnosis of early syphilis carries a high risk of consequent HIV seroconversion and should warrant prioritised access to prevention measures such as PrEP and regular STI screening to prevent HIV transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Exposure to the 'SIDA dans la Cité' AIDS prevention television series in Côte' d'Ivoire, sexual risk behaviour and condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D; Meekers, D; Tambashe, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assesses factors associated with viewing of 'SIDA dans la Cite', a weekly television soap opera on AIDS in Côte d'Ivoire, and the relationship between 'SIDA dans la Cite' viewing, sexual risk behaviour and condom use. The study uses across-sectional survey of 2150 respondents aged 15-49 in three regions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of'SIDA dans la Cite' exposure on condom use. The results show that 65% of the sample had seen at least one 'SIDA dans la Cite' episode. Among viewers, 27% of males and 41% of females had seen ten or more episodes. Persons who had risky sexual partners were particularly likely to watch the programme. Women who had seen ten or more episodes were 1.4 times more likely than non-viewers to have used a condom in last sex. Men who had seen ten or more episodes were 2. 7 times more likely to have used a condom. We conclude that television soap operas on AIDS, such as 'SIDA dans la Cite',can be an important tool for promoting condom use. The programme was most appealing to viewers who engaged in risky behaviour, who are the core transmitters of the virus. HIV prevention programmes that provide continuous information, through multiple media channels or through series of broadcasts, are likely to have the greatest impact on condom use.

  11. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  12. Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    2008-05-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections.

  13. Study on preventive and therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts on rat with bone marrow injury induced by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Chen Baotian; Meng Hua; Liu Wenchao; Xie Wei; Sheng Rong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts, Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong), Huangqi (Radix astragali), and Danshen (Radix salviae miltiorrhizae) on rats with bone marrow injury induced with whole-body gamma-ray exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into three groups, control group, model group (irradiation only with no administration of the extracts), and drug treatment group (irradiation and administration of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts). Rats were irradiated with 6 Gy cobolt-60 gamma rays after administration of the extracts for two weeks. The number of marrow nucleate cells was counted, and VEGF and PDGF expression were measured with Western blot method on the 7th day since the irradiation. Results: Bone marrow nucleate cells and VEGF and PDGF expression in bone marrow cells in the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), and these values in the drug treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The extracts of Chuanxiong, Danggui, Huangqi, and Danshen can be used to prevent from ration bone marrow injury in rats. (authors)

  14. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  15. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brief fear preexposure facilitates subsequent fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs following an unexpected exposure to a severe psychological event. A history of a brief trauma is reported to affect a risk for future PTSD development; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which a previous trauma exposure drives the sensitivity to a late-coming trauma. Using a mouse PTSD model, we found that a prior foot shock enhances contextual fear conditioning. This shock-induced facilitation of fear conditioning (i.e., priming effect) persisted for 7 days and was prevented by MK801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Other types of trauma, such as forced swimming or tail pinch, did not induce a priming effect on fear conditioning. Thus, a trauma is unlikely generalized to modify the sensitivity to other traumatic experiences. The behavioral procedure employed in this study may be a useful tool to elucidate the etiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Episiotomy and increase in the risk of obstetric laceration in a subsequent vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Marianna; Krohn, Marijane A; Parviainen, Kristiina

    2008-06-01

    To examine whether episiotomy at first vaginal delivery increases the risk of spontaneous obstetric laceration in the subsequent delivery. A review was conducted of women with consecutive vaginal deliveries at Magee-Womens Hospital between 1995 and 2005, using the Magee Obstetrical Maternal and Infant database. The primary exposure of interest was episiotomy at first vaginal delivery. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression modeling of potential risk factors was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for obstetric laceration in the second vaginal delivery. A total of 6,052 patients were included, of whom 47.8% had episiotomy at first delivery. Spontaneous second-degree lacerations at the time of second delivery occurred in 51.3% of women with history of episiotomy at first delivery compared with 26.7% without history of episiotomy (Phistory of episiotomy at first delivery compared with 1.7% without history of episiotomy (Pdelivery after controlling for confounders. Based on these findings, for every four episiotomies not performed one second-degree laceration would be prevented. To prevent one severe laceration, performing 32 fewer episiotomies is required. Episiotomy at first vaginal delivery increases the risk of spontaneous obstetric laceration in the subsequent delivery. This finding should encourage obstetric providers to further restrict the use of episiotomy. II.

  18. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ian; Mejia, Carlos; Melendez, Johanna; Chan, Philip A; Nunn, Amy C; Powderly, William; Goodenberger, Katherine; Liu, Jingxia; Mayer, Kenneth H; Patel, Rupa R

    2017-01-01

    HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87%) of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%), risk compensation (90%), and cost (64%). Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors for

  19. The cost and impact of scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness modelling studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B Gomez

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness studies inform resource allocation, strategy, and policy development. However, due to their complexity, dependence on assumptions made, and inherent uncertainty, synthesising, and generalising the results can be difficult. We assess cost-effectiveness models evaluating expected health gains and costs of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP interventions.We conducted a systematic review comparing epidemiological and economic assumptions of cost-effectiveness studies using various modelling approaches. The following databases were searched (until January 2013: PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, EconLIT, and region-specific databases. We included modelling studies reporting both cost and expected impact of a PrEP roll-out. We explored five issues: prioritisation strategies, adherence, behaviour change, toxicity, and resistance. Of 961 studies retrieved, 13 were included. Studies modelled populations (heterosexual couples, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs in generalised and concentrated epidemics from Southern Africa (including South Africa, Ukraine, USA, and Peru. PrEP was found to have the potential to be a cost-effective addition to HIV prevention programmes in specific settings. The extent of the impact of PrEP depended upon assumptions made concerning cost, epidemic context, programme coverage, prioritisation strategies, and individual-level adherence. Delivery of PrEP to key populations at highest risk of HIV exposure appears the most cost-effective strategy. Limitations of this review include the partial geographical coverage, our inability to perform a meta-analysis, and the paucity of information available exploring trade-offs between early treatment and PrEP.Our review identifies the main considerations to address in assessing cost-effectiveness analyses of a PrEP intervention--cost, epidemic context, individual adherence level, PrEP programme coverage

  20. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ross

    Full Text Available HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700 in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP.Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87% of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM, sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%, risk compensation (90%, and cost (64%. Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors

  1. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  2. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in Malaysia: Findings from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sin How; Mburu, Gitau; Bourne, Adam; Pang, Joselyn; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wei, Clayton Koh Thuan; Yee, Ilias Adam; Wang, Bangyuan; Cassolato, Matteo; Azwa, Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    We examined willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia. An online survey of 990 MSM was conducted between March and April 2016. Eligibility criteria included being biological male, Malaysian citizen, 18 years of age or above, identifying as MSM, and being HIV negative or unknown status. Participants' demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, attitudes towards PrEP, and preferences regarding future access to PrEP were collected. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with willingness to use PrEP. Fewer than half of participants (44%) knew about PrEP before completing the survey. Overall, 39% of the sample were willing to take PrEP. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that Malay men (AOR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.12, 2.70), having 2 or more male anal sex partners in the past 6 months (AOR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.05), previous knowledge of PrEP (AOR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.86), lack of confidence in practising safer sex (AOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.81), and having ever paid for sex with a male partner (AOR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.91) were independently associated with greater willingness to use PrEP, while men who identified as heterosexual were less willing to use PrEP (AOR, 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.97). Majority of participants preferred to access PrEP at affordable cost below 100 Malaysian Ringgit (USD25) per month from community based organisations followed by private or government hospitals. Overall, MSM in Malaysia reported a relatively low level of willingness to use PrEP, although willingness was higher among those previously aware of PrEP. There is a need to provide PrEP at affordable cost, increase demand and awareness of PrEP, and to provide access to this preventative medication via diverse, integrated and tailored sexual health services.

  3. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  4. Prevention of SIV rectal transmission and priming of T cell responses in macaques after local pre-exposure application of tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cranage

    2008-08-01

    modified virus outcomes (n = 2, while all untreated macaques and three of four macaques given placebo gel were infected, as were two of three animals receiving tenofovir gel after challenge. Moreover, analysis of lymphoid tissues post mortem failed to reveal sequestration of SIV in the protected animals. We found a strong positive association between the concentration of tenofovir in the plasma 15 min after rectal application of gel and the degree of protection in the six animals challenged with virus at this time point. Moreover, colorectal explants from non-SIV challenged tenofovir-treated macaques were resistant to infection ex vivo, whereas no inhibition was seen in explants from the small intestine. Tissue-specific inhibition of infection was associated with the intracellular detection of tenofovir. Intriguingly, in the absence of seroconversion, Gag-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma-secreting T cells were detected in the blood of four of seven protected animals tested, with frequencies ranging from 144 spot forming cells (SFC/10(6 PBMC to 261 spot forming cells (SFC/10(6 PBMC.These results indicate that colorectal pretreatment with ARV drugs, such as tenofovir, has potential as a clinically relevant strategy for the prevention of HIV transmission. We conclude that plasma tenofovir concentration measured 15 min after rectal administration may serve as a surrogate indicator of protective efficacy. This may prove to be useful in the design of clinical studies. Furthermore, in vitro intestinal explants served as a model for drug distribution in vivo and susceptibility to virus infection. The finding of T cell priming following exposure to virus in the absence of overt infection is provocative. Further studies would reveal if a combined modality microbicide and vaccination strategy is feasible by determining the full extent of local immune responses induced and their protective potential.

  5. The preventive effect of vitamin C on the cellular and functional integrity of kidney cells in rats following repeated exposure to paraquat

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    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide that is applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the cellular integrity of kidney function in rats following repeated exposure to PQ. Ninety-six male rats, grouped twelve rats per subgroup (A, Avit.c, B, Bvit.c, C, Cvit.c, D and Dvit.c were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0, 2, 2, 4, 4, 6 and 6 mg/kg body weight of PQ respectively on biweekly (14 days intervals over a period of three months (84 days. Subsequently, the subgrouped animals (Avit.c, Bvit.c, Cvit.c and Dvit.c were maintained orally with 1 g/L vitamin C, while the other subgrouped animals (A, B, C and D received drinking water with negligible vitamin content throughout the study period. At the end of each monthly (28 days treatment, four animals per subgroup were selected. Urine samples were collected from each of the selected rats, after which each of the animals were anaesthetized with gaseous isoflurane and 5 mL of blood samples were collected using cardiac puncture procedure. The animals were later decapitated and their kidneys harvested. The samples collected were analyzed for urine [specific gravity (SG, pH, protein and glucose], blood (urea, creatinine, total protein and glucose, and the histological studies on kidney slides. The dose and exposure- time dependent PQ toxicity resulted in the reduction in urinary pH, elevation in urinary SG, and the detectable presence of protein and glucose in urine. It also caused marked elevation in serum urea and creatinine levels with reduction in serum protein and glucose levels and alterations in the cellular integrity of the renal architecture, especially the glomeruli and tubular tissues. Treatments on the PQ insulted animals with vitamin

  6. Hemodynamic changes induced by preventive exposure to terahertz radiation at a frequency range corresponding to molecular emission and absorption spectrum of nitric oxide in animals under conditions of acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuck, V F; Velikanova, T S; Ivanov, A N

    2011-06-01

    We studied the influence of preventive irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves at frequencies corresponding to nitric oxide emission and absorption molecular spectrum (150,176-150,664 GHz) on hemodynamic parameters in arteries of albino rats upon acute immobilization stress. We showed that exposure to the specified frequencies can produce adaptogenic effect manifesting in the absence of post-stress changes in the linear, systolic, and diastolic blood flow velocities and pressure gradient in various blood vessels of experimental animals.

  7. Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention.

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    Andrew Mujugira

    Full Text Available Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, in which the HIV-1 infected partner did not meet national guidelines for initiation of antiretroviral therapy, were enrolled at 9 research sites in Kenya and Uganda. The HIV-1 susceptible partner was randomized to daily oral tenofovir, emtricitabine-tenofovir, or matching placebo with monthly follow-up for 24-36 months.From July 2008 to November 2010, 7920 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples were screened and 4758 enrolled. For 62% (2966/4758 of enrolled couples, the HIV-1 susceptible partner was male. Median age was 33 years for HIV-1 susceptible and HIV-1 infected partners [IQR (28-40 and (26-39 respectively]. Most couples (98% were married, with a median duration of partnership of 7.0 years (IQR 3.0-14.0 and recent knowledge of their serodiscordant status [median 0.4 years (IQR 0.1-2.0]. During the month prior to enrollment, couples reported a median of 4 sex acts (IQR 2-8; 27% reported unprotected sex and 14% of male and 1% of female HIV-1 susceptible partners reported sex with outside partners. Among HIV-1 infected partners, the median plasma HIV-1 level was 3.94 log(10 copies/mL (IQR 3.31-4.53 and median CD4 count was 496 cells/µL (IQR 375-662; the majority (64% had WHO stage 1 HIV-1 disease.Couples at high risk of HIV-1 transmission were rapidly recruited into the Partners PrEP Study, the largest efficacy trial of oral PrEP. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00557245.

  8. Transmission of chimeric HIV by mating in conventional mice: prevention by pre-exposure antiretroviral therapy and reduced susceptibility during estrus

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    Eran Hadas

    2013-09-01

    Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases worldwide. The current approach to investigate HIV heterosexual transmission in animals involves application of virus stock to the vaginal surface, a method that does not reproduce the physiological conditions of vaginal intercourse that influence the rate of transmission. We have previously described efficient infection of conventional mice using EcoHIV/NL4-3 and EcoHIV/NDK, chimeric HIV molecular clones constructed to express all HIV structural and regulatory genes except envelope, which is replaced by a rodent-tropic envelope gene. Here we investigated whether EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice transmit virus to females during coitus, and the sensitivity of this transmission to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the estrus state. Our general approach was to allow mating between EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice and uninfected females for 1–7 nights. At 1–6 weeks after mating, mice were euthanized and virus burdens were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR amplification of HIV RNA or DNA in peritoneal macrophages, inguinal lymph node cells, spleen cells or vas deferens, or by ELISA for antibodies to HIV Gag. We found that 70–100% of female mice mated to EcoHIV/NDK-infected males acquired infection. Pericoital treatment of females with either 2′,3′-dideoxcytidine (ddC or tenofovir largely prevented their EcoHIV/NDK infection by mating (P<0.05 and P<0.003, respectively. In males, T cells were dispensable for virus transmission. The rate of EcoHIV/NDK sexual transmission to females in estrus declined sharply (P=0.003 but their infection by injection was unaffected, indicating that the local environment in the female reproductive tract influences susceptibility to HIV. We conclude that this system of EcoHIV/NDK transmission during mouse mating reproduces key features of heterosexual transmission of HIV in humans and can be used to investigate its biology and control.

  9. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Adam; Cassolato, Matteo; Thuan Wei, Clayton Koh; Wang, Bangyuan; Pang, Joselyn; Lim, Sin How; Azwa, Iskandar; Yee, Ilias; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-08-02

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Malaysia. Recent success has been observed within demonstration projects examining the efficacy of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an antiretroviral -based medication taken by HIV-negative men to prevent sero-conversion. In order for such promising findings to be translated in real-world settings, it is important to understand the acceptability of PrEP, including perceived barriers to access or uptake. As part of a larger mixed-methods study exploring acceptability and willingness to use PrEP among MSM in Malaysia, 19 men took part in audio-recorded focus group discussions hosted by a community-based HIV organization and facilitated by a trained researcher. Discussions focussed on awareness and potential information management, general perceptions of PrEP and potential motivations or barriers to the use of PrEP, including those at the personal, social, health system or structural level. Data were transcribed verbatim and underwent a detailed thematic analysis. Rather than perceiving PrEP as a replacement for condoms in terms of having safer sex, many participants viewed it as an additional layer protection, serving as a crucial barrier to infection on occasions where condom use was intended, but did not occur. It was also perceived as more valuable to "at-risk" men, such as those in HIV sero-discordant relationships or those with a higher number of sexual partners. Elements of discussion tended to suggest that some men taking PrEP may be subject to stigma from others, on the assumption they may be promiscuous or engage in high-risk sexual behaviours. This qualitative study indicates that, broadly speaking, PrEP may be acceptable to MSM in Malaysia. However, in order for its potential to be realized, and uptake achieved, educative interventions are required to inform the target population as to the efficacy and potential, positive impact of PrEP. Given concerns for how those

  10. Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagot, Nicolas; Kankasa, Chipepo; Meda, Nicolas; Hofmeyr, Justus; Nikodem, Cheryl; Tumwine, James K; Karamagi, Charles; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Neveu, Dorine; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2012-10-06

    Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age. The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms.HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants.The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and growth) until 50

  11. Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagot Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age. Methods The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms. HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants. The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance

  12. A critique of the exposure assessment in the epidemiologic study of benzene-exposed workers in China conducted by the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, O

    1999-12-01

    As reviewed in some detail in the present paper, workers employed in a wide variety of industries were included in the Chinese benzene study, and were exposed to not only benzene but also a wide range of other industrial chemicals. To attribute any or all health effects observed in the exposed cohort to benzene without examining other concomitant exposures is not appropriate. Although it was stated that one of the major objectives of the expanded study was to examine the effects of other risk factors, no such examination was made in any of the analyses in the expanded CAPM-NCI study. The CAPM-NCI study suffered from a number of limitations. One of the most serious limitations of the study involved the exposure estimates developed by the US NCI team. Comparing the assumptions used in the development of estimates and the exposure estimates themselves to actual data reported previously by the Chinese investigators revealed numerous inconsistencies and, in many cases, large discrepancies. It appeared that the exposure estimates were consistently lower than the actual exposure data. The so-called indirect validation conducted by the NCI team served no useful purpose, since by definition it could not validate the absolute values of the estimates. NCI was fully aware of some of the inadequacies of its exposure estimates. Although in a 1994 paper, the NCI team recognized that little confidence could be attached to the estimated (e.g., only 2% of the estimates for the time interval 1949-1959 and only 6% of the estimates prior to 1975 were rated in the high confidence category), the inadequacy of the estimates was never mentioned or discussed in any subsequent analyses or in the latest report (Hayes et al., 1998). Instead, the exposure of the workers was hailed as "well characterized" (Hayes et al., 1998). In conclusion both CAPM and NCI have made substantial efforts in studying the relationship between benzene exposure and various malignancies. Unfortunately, there were

  13. Clinical practice guidelines for prevention, diagnosis and management of early and delayed-onset ocular injuries due to mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  14. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  15. Relating calls to US poison centers for potential exposures to medications to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting of influenza-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; McKeown, Nathanael J; Rodriguez, Sergio; Spyker, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) monitors influenza like illness (ILI) and the National Poison Data System (NPDS) warehouses call data uploaded by US poison centers regarding reported exposures to medication. We examined the relationship between calls to poison centers regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI and weekly reports of ILI. The CDC reports ILI, by age group, for each of 10 Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. We examined NPDS summary data from calls reported to poison centers regarding reported exposures to acetaminophen, cough/cold medications, and promethazine, for the same weeks, age groups, and HHS regions for influenza seasons 2000-2013. ILI and NPDS exposures were examined using graphical plots, descriptive statistics, stepwise regression analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). About 5,101,841 influenza-like illness cases were reported to the CDC, and 2,122,940 calls regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI, were reported by poison centers to the NPDS over the 13 flu seasons. Analysis of stepwise models of the linear untransformed data involving 24 NPDS data groups and for 60 ILI measures, over the 13 influenza seasons, demonstrated that reported exposures to medications used to treat ILI correlated with reported cases of ILI with a median R(2 )=( )0.489 (min R(2 )=( )0.248, max R(2 )=( )0.717), with mean ± SD of R(2 )=( )0.494 ± 0.121. Median number of parameters used (degrees of freedom - 1) was 7. NPDS data regarding poison center calls for selected ILI medication exposures were highly correlated with CDC ILI data. Since NPDS data are available in real time, it provides complimentary ILI monitoring. This approach may provide public health value in predicting other illnesses which are not currently as thoroughly monitored.

  16. Exposure to an enriched environment facilitates motor recovery and prevents short-term memory impairment and reduction of striatal BDNF in a progressive pharmacological model of parkinsonism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campêlo, Clarissa L C; Santos, José R; Silva, Anatildes F; Dierschnabel, Aline L; Pontes, André; Cavalcante, Jeferson S; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Silva, Regina H

    2017-06-15

    Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced parkinsonism. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice. Male mice were repeatedly treated with vehicle or 0.1mg/kg of RES (s.c) and kept under two housing conditions: standard environment (SE) and EE. In animals kept in SE, the treatment with RES induced deficits in motor function (catalepsy test, open field and oral movements), in novel object recognition (NOR) and plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. The environmental stimulation facilitated the recovery of motor deficits assessed by the catalepsy test after the end of treatment. Additionally, exposure to EE prevented the memory deficit in the NOR task. Treatment with RES induced a reduction in the number of TH positive cells in SNpc and VTA, which recovered 30days after the end of treatment. Finally, RES reduced the levels of BDNF in the striatum and the exposure to the EE prevented this effect. These results suggest that plastic brain changes induced by EE promote beneficial effects on the progression of neuronal impairment related to PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influences of multisensory experience on subsequent unisensory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan eShams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory perception has been the focus of intense research in recent years. It is now well established that crossmodal interactions are ubiquitous in perceptual processing and endow the system with improved precision, accuracy, processing speed, etc. While these findings have shed much light on principles and mechanisms of perception, ultimately it is not very surprising that multiple sources of information provide benefits in performance compared to a single source of information.Here, we argue that the more surprising recent findings are those showing that multisensory experience also influences the subsequent unisensory processing. For example, exposure to auditory-visual stimuli, can change the way auditory or visual stimuli are processed subsequently even in isolation. We review three sets of findings that represent three different types of learning ranging from perceptual learning, to sensory recalibration, to associative learning. In all these cases exposure to multisensory stimuli profoundly influences the subsequent unisensory processing. This diversity of phenomena may suggest that continuous modification of unisensory representations by multisensory relationships may be a general learning strategy used by the brain.

  18. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  19. TSPY4 is a novel sperm-specific biomarker of semen exposure in human cervicovaginal fluids; potential use in HIV prevention and contraception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, Terry A; Zalenskaya, Irina; Mauck, Christine; Archer, David F; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-09-01

    Developing an objective, reliable method to determine semen exposure in cervicovaginal fluids is important for accurately studying the efficacy of vaginal microbicides and contraceptives. Y-chromosome biomarkers offer better stability, sensitivity, and specificity than protein biomarkers. TSPY4 belongs to the TSPY (testis-specific protein Y-encoded) family of homologous genes on the Y-chromosome. Using a multiplex PCR amplifying TSPY4, amelogenin, and Sex-determining region in the Y chromosome (SRY), our objective was to determine whether a gene in the TSPY family was a more sensitive marker of semen exposure in cervicovaginal fluids than SRY. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed using sperm and vaginal epithelial (female) DNA. Diluted sperm DNA and mixed male/female DNA was used to determine the sensitivity of the multiplex PCR. Potential interference of TSPY4 amplification by components in cervicovaginal and seminal fluids was determined. TSPY4 and SRY amplification was also investigated in women participating in a separate IRB-approved clinical study in which cervicovaginal swab DNA was collected before semen exposure and at various time points after exposure. TSPY4, SRY, and amelogenin were amplified in sperm DNA, but only amelogenin in female DNA. The limit of sperm DNA from which TSPY4 could be amplified was lower than SRY (4 pg vs 80 pg). TSPY4 could also be amplified from mixed male/female DNA. Amplification was not affected by cervicovaginal and seminal components. Using cervicovaginal swab DNA from three women before and after semen exposure, TSPY4 was detected up to 72 h post exposure while SRY detection was observed up to 24-48 h. TSPY4 was detected up to 7 days post exposure in one out of three women. We have demonstrated that TSPY4 is a new sensitive, and sperm-specific biomarker. The multiplex PCR incorporating this new biomarker has potential to be an objective measure for determining semen exposure in clinical trials of

  20. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  1. A review of subsequence time series clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  2. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy R Rees

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight.The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer.Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk.Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71] than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46] compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking. After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]. An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11 and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51 was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46.Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  3. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R; Zens, M Scot; Gui, Jiang; Celaya, Maria O; Riddle, Bruce L; Karagas, Margaret R

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC) was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71]) than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46]) compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking). After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]). An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11) and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51) was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46). Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  4. Non Melanoma Skin Cancer and Subsequent Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Gui, Jiang; Celaya, Maria O.; Riddle, Bruce L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. Methods Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. Results Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC) was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71]) than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46]) compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking). After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]). An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11) and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51) was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46). Conclusions Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors. PMID:24937304

  5. 78 FR 76600 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... of computer science, including but not limited to survey, monitor, control, and protection systems; H... International Security, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed Subsequent Arrangement. SUMMARY: The Department... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Katie Strangis, Office of Nonproliferation and International Security, National...

  6. Serial Cervicovaginal exposures with Replication-deficient SIVsm induce higher Dendritic Cell (pDC) and CD4+ T-Cell Infiltrates not associated with prevention but a More Severe SIVmac251 Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULHAQQ, Shaheed A.; MARTINEZ, Melween I.; KANG, Guobin; FOULKES, Andrea S.; RODRIGUEZ, Idia V.; NICHOLS, Stephanie M.; HUNTER, Meredith; SARIOL, Carlos A.; RUIZ, Lynnette A.; ROSS, Brian N.; YIN, Xiangfan; SPEICHER, David W.; HAASE, Ashley T.; MARX, Preston A.; LI, Qinsheng; KRAISELBURD, Edmundo N.; MONTANER, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intravaginal exposure to SIV acutely recruits IFN-α producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte targets to the endocervix of nonhuman primates. We tested the impact of repeated cervicovaginal exposures to noninfectious, defective SIV particles over 72 hrs on a subsequent cervicovaginal challenge with replication-competent SIV. Methods 34 Female Indian Rhesus macaques were given a three-day, twice-daily vaginal exposures to either SIVsmB7, a replication-deficient derivative of SIVsmH3 produced by a CEMX174 cell clone (n=16), or to CEM supernatant controls (n=18). On the fourth day, animals were either euthanized to assess cervicovaginal immune cell infiltration or intravaginally challenged with SIVmac251. Challenged animals were tracked for plasma viral load and CD4 counts and euthanized at 42 days post infection. Results At the time of challenge, macaques exposed to SIVsmB7, had higher levels of cervical CD123 pDCs (p=0.032) and CD4+ T-Cells (p=0.036) than those exposed to CEM control. Vaginal tissues showed a significant increase in CD4+ T-Cell infiltrates (p=0.048), and a trend towards increased CD68+ cellular infiltrates. After challenge, 12 SIVsmB7-treated macaques showed 2.5-fold greater daily rate of CD4 decline (p=0.0408), and viral load rise (p=0.0036) as compared to 12 control animals. Conclusions Repeated non-productive exposure to viral particles within a short daily timeframe did not protect against infection in spite of pDC recruitment, resulting instead in an accelerated CD4+ T-Cell loss with an increased rate of viral replication PMID:24226059

  7. Attentional Modulation of the Mere Exposure Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The "mere exposure effect" refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants' subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green…

  8. Towards Personal Exposures: How Technology Is Changing Air Pollution and Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, A; Hystad, P

    2017-12-01

    We present a review of emerging technologies and how these can transform personal air pollution exposure assessment and subsequent health research. Estimating personal air pollution exposures is currently split broadly into methods for modeling exposures for large populations versus measuring exposures for small populations. Air pollution sensors, smartphones, and air pollution models capitalizing on big/new data sources offer tremendous opportunity for unifying these approaches and improving long-term personal exposure prediction at scales needed for population-based research. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to combine these technologies to not only estimate personal exposures for epidemiological research but also determine drivers of these exposures and new prevention opportunities. While available technologies can revolutionize air pollution exposure research, ethical, privacy, logistical, and data science challenges must be met before widespread implementations occur. Available technologies and related advances in data science can improve long-term personal air pollution exposure estimates at scales needed for population-based research. This will advance our ability to evaluate the impacts of air pollution on human health and develop effective prevention strategies.

  9. Motivators, concerns, and barriers to adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV serodiscordant male relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews conducted with a multiracial/-ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV-serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, CA. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to id...

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Inulin and Its Role in the Prevention of Human Colonic Muscle Cell Impairment Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Mucosal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Locato, Vittoria; Cocca, Silvia; Cimini, Sara; Palma, Rossella; Alloni, Rossana; De Gara, Laura; Cicala, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI) function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC) impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. Methods The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4) and inulin (Frutafit IQ), and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant) or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant) or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant). Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach)-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, PInulin (35±5%). Conclusions Inulin protects the human colon mucosa from LPS-induced damage and this effect appears to be related to the

  11. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  12. [Electrical field exposure and human health. Risk assessment and problems relative to bureaucratic procedures and to the role of instituitional organizations in control and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappasonni, I; Petrelli, F; Pellegrini, M G; Nacciarriti, L; Bernardini, C; Cocchioni, M

    2000-01-01

    After closely analyzing the phenomenon regarding the immense increase and diffusion of equipment which generates low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, the AA emphasize both the methodological and interpretive difficulties of assessing the effects produced on public health. They maintain the need to exercise caution in determining the tolerable limits of exposure, and in particular long-term ones. Finally, after analyzing the bureaucratic procedure which led to the formulation of Decree No. 381 of 1998, they express the hope that the various Regions will set themselves high-quality objectives when promulgating the necessary legislation, so as to minimize the risk factor.

  13. Age at First Concussion Influences the Number of Subsequent Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julianne D; Rizzone, Katherine; Hoffman, Nicole L; Weber, Michelle L; Jones, Courtney; Bazarian, Jeff; Broglio, Steven P; McCrea, Michael; McAllister, Thomas W

    2018-01-31

    Individuals who sustain their first concussion during childhood may be at greater risk of sustaining multiple concussions throughout their lifetime because of a longer window of vulnerability. This article aims to estimate the association between age at first concussion and number of subsequent concussions. A total of 23,582 collegiate athletes from 26 universities and military cadets from three military academies completed a concussion history questionnaire (65% males, age 19.9 ± 1.4 years). Participants self-reported concussions and age at time of each injury. Participants with a history of concussion (n = 3,647, 15.5%) were categorized as having sustained their first concussion during childhood (less than ten years old) or adolescence (≥10 and ≤18 years old). Poisson regression was used to model age group (childhood, adolescence) predicting the number of subsequent concussions (0, 1, 2+). A second Poisson regression was developed to determine whether age at first concussion predicted the number of subsequent concussions. Participants self-reporting their first concussion during childhood had an increased risk of subsequent concussions (rate ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval: 1.82, 2.64) compared with participants self-reporting their first concussion during adolescence. For every one-year increase in age at first concussion, we observed a 16% reduction in the risk of subsequent concussion (rate ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.86). Individuals self-reporting a concussion at a young age sustained a higher number of concussions before age 18. Concussion prevention, recognition, and reporting strategies are of particular need at the youth level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of fluoride toothpaste in preventing demineralization of smooth dentin surfaces and narrow grooves in situ under frequent exposures to sucrose or bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, E; van Loveren, C; ten Cate, J M

    2005-01-01

    The use of models simulating fissures allows studying demineralization at sites that are most prone to caries in vivo. In practice, most in situ models use flat surfaces. Our objectives were: (1) to compare the demineralizing potential of sucrose solution with that of bananas and (2) to study the effect of fluoride toothpaste on demineralization in situ in an easily accessible site and a plaque stagnation site. Four volunteers wore bovine dentin specimens with narrow grooves and a smooth surface for two 1-week in situ periods, with eight 1-min sugar exposures daily: either by a rinse with 10% sucrose, or by consumption of a piece of banana. Twice daily, the appliance was dipped in toothpaste slurry of a control (fluoride-free) toothpaste at one side and a fluoride toothpaste at the contralateral side. Demineralization was assessed by transversal microradiography. We found no difference in dentin demineralization after frequent exposure to either sucrose solution or bananas. Fluoride toothpaste effectively protected dentin only at the smooth surface. In the grooves, fluoride affected the demineralization pattern; it drove lesions towards the bottom of the groove. We conclude that assessing only smooth surfaces in intraoral tests might lead to underestimated food cariogenicity and to overestimated efficacy of fluoride-containing toothpaste. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  16. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do s...... subsequent cancers validated continued follow-up to prevent death from cancer. The interactive website http://lscarisk.org was expanded to calculate the risks by gender, genetic variant and age for subsequent cancer for any patient with LS with previous cancer....

  17. Subsequent Reproductive Performance in Survivors of Complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To study the subsequent reproductive performance of women who had undergone complicated abortions. Materials and Methods Attempts were made to trace 299 survivors of complicated abortions from an earlier study. Their contact telephone numbers and addresses had been recorded at the time of initial ...

  18. 75 FR 12738 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Department is providing notice of a proposed subsequent arrangement under the Agreement for Cooperation... Energy and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the United States... uranium, from Cameco in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada to Urenco in Capenhurst Works, Chester, United...

  19. 75 FR 4545 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Department is providing notice of a proposed subsequent arrangement under the Agreement for Cooperation... Energy and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy between the United States..., from Cameco in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada to Urenco in Capenhurst Works, Chester, United Kingdom...

  20. 75 FR 62121 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nyk ping, Sweden, to the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-Mura, Japan. The... Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States and the European Atomic Energy... Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 573 g of U.S...

  1. 75 FR 346 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 28,409 kg of U.S.-origin... Fuels in Kanakawa-ken, Japan. The material, which is currently located at Cameco, Port Hope, Ontario, will be transferred to Global Nuclear Fuel, Kanakawa-ken, Japan to be fabricated into fuel pellets and...

  2. 78 FR 72072 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... g of U.S.-origin atomized low-enriched uranium-7wt. % molybdenum powder, containing 365.638 g in the..., which is located at and was prepared by KAERI, will be used for the irradiation test of full-size fuel... subsequent arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be...

  3. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... INFORMATION: This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 302,188 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium..., Saskatchewan, Canada, to Springfields Fuels Ltd. in Lancashire, United Kingdom. The material, which is... arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be inimical to the...

  4. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  5. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  6. HEPA filter fire (and subsequent unfiltered release)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.B.

    1996-01-01

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: HEPA Filter Failure - Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within

  7. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Tea Intake Prevents Learning/Memory Defects and Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardaki, Zacharoula I; Lamari, Fotini N; Margarity, Marigoula

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential neurotoxic effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and the preventive effects of saffron. Male Balb-c mice received AFB 1 (0.6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 4 days), saffron infusion (90 mg styles/200 mL, ad libitum access for 2 weeks) or saffron infusion plus AFB 1 (saffron treatment as previously plus 0.6 mg AFB 1 /kg/day intraperitoneally for the last 4 days). Control mice were intraperitoneally injected with DMSO:saline (1:1, v/v) during AFB 1 treatment. Learning/memory was assessed by passive avoidance task. The activity of acetylcholinesterase [AChE, salt-(SS)/detergent-soluble(DS) isoforms], butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, SS/DS isoforms), monoamine oxidase (MAO-A, MAO-B), the levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), were determined in whole brain (minus cerebellum) and cerebellum. We demonstrate for the first time that AFB 1 administration impaired the memory of adult mice and decreased significantly whole brain AChE and BuChE activity, cerebellar AChE activity and cerebral GSH content. Moreover, MAO isoforms activity in whole brain, MAO-B activity in cerebellum and MDA levels of both tissues were significantly higher after AFB 1 treatment. Pre-treatment with saffron prevented memory decline, activation of MAO-A and MAO-B in whole brain and cerebellum, respectively, and lipid peroxidation triggered by AFB 1 . Interestingly, the activity of AChE isoforms in whole brain, DS-AChE in cerebellum and GSH levels of both tissues were further significantly decreased in saffron +AFB 1 -treated mice compared with AFB 1 group. Our findings support the neuroprotective efficacy of saffron against AFB 1 in adult mice.

  8. Are Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines for Preexposure Prophylaxis Specific Enough? Formulation of a Personalized HIV Risk Score for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beymer, Matthew R; Weiss, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Bourque, Linda B; Gee, Gilbert C; Morisky, Donald E; Shu, Suzanne B; Javanbakht, Marjan; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-01-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention tool for populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for identifying PrEP candidates may not be specific enough to identify gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) at the highest risk for HIV infection. We created an HIV risk score for HIV-negative MSM based on Syndemics Theory to develop a more targeted criterion for assessing PrEP candidacy. Behavioral risk assessment and HIV testing data were analyzed for HIV-negative MSM attending the Los Angeles LGBT Center between January 2009 and June 2014 (n = 9481). Syndemics Theory informed the selection of variables for a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated coefficients were summed to create an HIV risk score, and model fit was compared between our model and CDC guidelines using the Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion. Approximately 51% of MSM were above a cutpoint that we chose as an illustrative risk score to qualify for PrEP, identifying 75% of all seroconverting MSM. Our model demonstrated a better overall fit when compared with the CDC guidelines (Akaike Information Criterion Difference = 68) in addition to identifying a greater proportion of HIV infections. Current CDC PrEP guidelines should be expanded to incorporate substance use, partner-level, and other Syndemic variables that have been shown to contribute to HIV acquisition. Deployment of such personalized algorithms may better hone PrEP criteria and allow providers and their patients to make a more informed decision prior to PrEP use.

  9. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease: a nested case-control study in the PREDIMED (PREvention with MEDiterranean Diet) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Mary K; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Gea, Alfredo; Stampfer, Meir; Warnberg, Julia; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Bullo, Monica; Sorli, Jose V; Muñoz, Miguel A; García-Rodriguez, Antonio; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique

    2017-01-05

    Substantial evidence suggests that consuming 1-2 servings of fish per week, particularly oily fish (e.g., salmon, herring, sardines) is beneficial for cardiovascular health due to its high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. However, there is some concern that the mercury content in fish may increase cardiovascular disease risk, but this relationship remains unclear. The PREDIMED trial included 7477 participants who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease at baseline. In this study, we evaluated associations between mercury exposure, fish consumption and cardiovascular disease. We randomly selected 147 of the 288 cases diagnosed with cardiovascular disease during follow-up and matched them on age and sex to 267 controls. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to assess toenail mercury concentration. In-person interviews, medical record reviews and validated questionnaires were used to assess fish consumption and other covariates. Information was collected at baseline and updated yearly during follow-up. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations in the total nested case-control study, and unconditional logistic regression for population subsets. Mean (±SD) toenail mercury concentrations (μg per gram) did not significantly differ between cases (0.63 (±0.53)) and controls (0.67 (±0.49)). Mercury concentration was not associated with cardiovascular disease in any analysis, and neither was fish consumption or n-3 fatty acids. The fully-adjusted relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of mercury concentration were 0.71 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.34, 1.14; p trend  = 0.37) for the nested case-control study, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.32, 1.76; p trend  = 0.43) within the Mediterranean diet intervention group, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.13, 1.96; p trend  = 0.41) within the control arm of the trial. Associations remained null when mercury was jointly assessed with fish consumption at baseline and during follow

  10. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  11. Vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Gejl, Michael; Borghammer, Per

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vagal signaling is involved in gastric emptying and the secretion and effect of a number of hormones regulating gluco-metabolic processes and, thus, crucial for metabolic homeostasis. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that vagotomy would increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and exam......BACKGROUND: Vagal signaling is involved in gastric emptying and the secretion and effect of a number of hormones regulating gluco-metabolic processes and, thus, crucial for metabolic homeostasis. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that vagotomy would increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes...... and examined the association between vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted with information on cases and controls from the Danish National Patient Registry. Cases included individuals with a diabetes diagnosis subsequent (>12months) to the first...... registration of vagotomy and/or upper gastrointestinal disease in the period 1977-2011. Controls had no subsequent diagnosis of diabetes and were matched by incidence density sampling, age and gender. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: 501,724 diabetes patients and 1,375,567 matched controls...

  12. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  13. [Prevention of child and adolescent vitamin D deficiency. II. Validation of a decision-making abacus based on sun exposure and vitamin D intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabédian, M; Menn, S; Walrant-Debray, O; Teinturier, C; Delaveyne, R; Roden, A

    2005-04-01

    Rickets can still be observed among children and adolescents living in Europe, and a significant proportion of healthy children and adolescents presents serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) values below the threshold indicating an insufficient vitamin D status. We have previously proposed detecting at risk individuals with a decision-making abacus based on questionnaires assessing calcium and vitamin D intakes and vitamin D production via sun exposure. We tested the validity of this detection by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, using, as the main outcome measure, the serum 25-(OH)D values measured at the time of questionnaires presentation. In addition, the original questionnaires have been simplified by limiting the items to those significantly associated with 25-(OH)D values. The study group included 116 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, seen at the end of the winter, and randomized in 2 groups: "test", for the development of the tool (n =75), and "validation" (n =41). The present analysis shows that the proposed decision-making abacus has a sufficient ability to detect children at risk of vitamin D deficiency (with 25-(OH)D values below 10 ng/ml): area under the curve 0.748/0.895, sensibility 0.71/0.83, and specificity 0.62/0.80, in the test and validation groups, respectively. These questionnaire and abacus may offer a substantial help to detect children and adolescents at risk of vitamin D deficiency in both a private office or hospital environment.

  14. Analysis of functional damages of membrane receptor by radiation exposure and development of the damage preventive method by modifying the membrane lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Fumio; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Asano, Toshihiko; Ogura, Atsuro; Suzuki, Osamu; Matsuda, Junichiro [National Inst. of Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The influences of radiation exposure on the body were evaluated with ligand-binding ability of a receptor on biomembrane, which is a highly sensitive and essential indicator for human body. The present study aimed to establish a model system for ligand-receptor binding reactions and analyze the effects of {gamma}-ray radiation on the systems. When a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was exposed to {gamma}-ray, active oxygen (O{sub 2}{sup -}) producing capacity was significantly increased when compared to non-exposed cells at a dose ranging 1.3-2.6 Gy but decreased at 5.3 Gy or more, whereas the producing ability of nitrogen monoxide radical was not affected by the radiation. Then, radiation effects on cell surface receptor was examined using a monocyte cell line, U937. The distributions of CD14 and CD4 were not changed by radiation, but the TNF{alpha} receptor was increased dose-dependently. When the membrane lipids were modified by using bovine serum albumin bound eicosapentaenoic acid (BSA-EPA), the increase of TNF{alpha} expression caused by radiation did not occur, while the expression was decreased when modified with BSA bound arachidonic acid (BSA-AA). (M.N.)

  15. Pre-exposure of neuroblastoma cell line to pulsed electromagnetic field prevents H2 O2 -induced ROS production by increasing MnSOD activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osera, Cecilia; Amadio, Marialaura; Falone, Stefano; Fassina, Lorenzo; Magenes, Giovanni; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Govoni, Stefano; Pascale, Alessia

    2015-04-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been linked to increased risk of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases; however, EMFs can also elicit positive effects on biological systems, and redox status seems crucially involved in EMF biological effects. This study aimed to assess whether a short and repeated pulsed EMF (PEMF) could trigger adaptive responses against an oxidative insult in a neuronal cellular model. We found that a 40 min overall (four times a week, 10 min each) pre-exposure to PEMF did not affect major physiological parameters and led to a significant increase of Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase activity in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. In addition, we found PEMF-pre-exposed cells exhibited decreased reactive oxygen species production following a 30 min H2 O2 challenge, with respect to non pre-exposed cells. Our findings might provide new insights on the role played by short and repeated PEMF stimulations in the enhancement of cellular defenses against oxidative insults. Although studies in normal neuronal cells would be useful to further confirm our hypothesis, we suggest that specific PEMF treatments may have potential biological repercussions in diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  17. Improved awareness and appropriate use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for HIV prevention following a multi-modal communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Byron; Laing, Sue; Jordan, Helen; Mak, Donna B

    2012-10-25

    In May 2005, the Western Australian Department of Health (WA Health) developed a communication strategy to improve the awareness and appropriate use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) in WA. The communication strategy included the development of an nPEP information pamphlet, the establishment of a 24 hour nPEP phone line and the distribution of the WA Health nPEP guidelines to health professionals. The communication strategy was aimed at gay men, people in sero-discordant relationships, people living with HIV, injecting drug users and health care providers with patients from these populations. This evaluation aimed to assess the awareness and appropriate use of nPEP in WA before and after the commencement of the nPEP communication strategy. A program logic method was used to identify the immediate (short-term) and ultimate (long-term) outcomes of the communication strategy. The achievement of these outcomes was evaluated using data from website statistics, a survey of 'sexuality sensitive' doctors, statistics published in Perth Gay Community Periodic Surveys (PGCPS) and data from the WA nPEP database. A χ(2) test for trend was conducted to identify any significant changes in the ultimate outcome indicators pre- and post-strategy. nPEP awareness among gay men in the PGCPS initially increased from 17.2% in 2002 to 54.9% in 2008, then decreased to 39.9% in 2010. After the commencement of the communication strategy, the proportion of nPEP prescriptions meeting the eligibility criteria for nPEP significantly increased (61.2% in 2002-2005 to 90.0% in 2008-2010 (p gay men.

  18. Sensitivity of thermally treated Bacillus subtilis spores to subsequent irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, S.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    B. subtilis spores exposed to thermal treatment at 70 or 80 0 C for 1 hr were more sensitive to subsequent radiation exposure than non-heated spores. Deactivation of previously heated spores by increasing dose of 0-radiation followed an exponential function while, for non-heated spores a shoulder followed by exponential deactivation was noticed. Combined heat-radiation treatment exhibited a synergistic effect on spore deactivation at low irradiation doses, while at high irradiation doses, the effect was more or less additive. Added values of spore injury was higher for B. subtilis spores that received heat and radiation separately than the observed injury for spores that received combined treatment (heat followed by radiation). Results of spore deactivation and injury due to heat followed by radiation treatment are discussed in comparison to those of spores that received radiation-heat sequence

  19. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Arnold

    Full Text Available A recent clinical trial demonstrated that a daily dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabrine (TDF-FTC can reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG women by 44%, and up to 90% if taken daily. We explored how medical and service providers understand research results and plan to develop clinical protocols to prescribe, support and monitor adherence for patients on PrEP in the United States.Using referrals from our community collaborators and snowball sampling, we recruited 22 healthcare providers in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles for in-depth interviews from May-December 2011. The providers included primary care physicians seeing high numbers of MSM and TG women, HIV specialists, community health clinic providers, and public health officials. We analyzed interviews thematically to produce recommendations for setting policy around implementing PrEP. Interview topics included: assessing clinician impressions of PrEP and CDC guidance, considerations of cost, office capacity, dosing schedules, and following patients over time.Little or no demand for PrEP from patients was reported at the time of the interviews. Providers did not agree on the most appropriate patients for PrEP and believed that current models of care, which do not involve routine frequent office visits, were not well suited for prescribing PrEP. Providers detailed the need to build capacity and were concerned about monitoring side effects and adherence. PrEP was seen as potentially having impact on the epidemic but providers also noted that community education campaigns needed to be tailored to effectively reach specific vulnerable populations.While PrEP may be a novel and clinically compelling prevention intervention for MSM and TG women, it raises a number of important implementation challenges that would need to be addressed. Nonetheless, most providers expressed optimism that they eventually could prescribe and monitor Pr

  20. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log ...... a new data structure that allows us to efficiently find the next occurrence of a given character after a given position in a compressed string. This data structure in turn is based on a new data structure for the tree color problem, where the node colors are packed in bit strings....

  1. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Christiansen, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk...... conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease....

  2. Standard deviation of the longest common subsequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lember, Jüri; Matzinger, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    Let Ln be the length of the longest common subsequence of two independent i.i.d. sequences of Bernoulli variables of length n. We prove that the order of the standard deviation of Ln is $\\sqrt{n}$ , provided the parameter of the Bernoulli variables is small enough. This validates Waterman’s conjecture in this situation [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 344 (1994) 383–390]. The order conjectured by Chvatal and Sankoff [J. Appl. Probab. 12 (1975) 306–315], however, is different.

  3. Prevalence of actual uptake and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixin Wang

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the prevalence of actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, willingness to use daily oral PrEP under two cost scenarios, and potential issues related to PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM with HIV negative/unknown sero-status in Hong Kong, China. Factors associated with the two measures of willingness were also investigated.403 eligible MSM completed the anonymous venue-based face-to-face interview/telephone interview.Only 1% had ever used PrEP. After being briefed about some facts of PrEP, the prevalence of willingness to use daily oral PrEP was 7.7% if they could purchase PrEP at private hospitals/clinics at HK$8,000 (US$1,032/month (market rate and 45.2% if free PrEP was provided by public hospitals/clinics in Hong Kong (free PrEP. After adjusted for significant background variables, significant factors of these two measures of willingness included: (1 number of correct responses to knowledge on PrEP, (2 perceived risk of HIV infection in the next six months, and (3 constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior: positive and negative attitudes toward PrEP, perceived their significant others would support them take PrEP (perceived subjective norm, perceived number of local MSM who were willing to take PrEP (perceived descriptive norm, and confidence in using PrEP under the two scenarios (perceived behavioral control. Among all participants, 9.7% and 25.1% would start and discontinue using PrEP without consulting doctors; 26.0% would not take PrEP daily if it was provided for free, and 42.4% would not take up HIV testing every 3 months after using PrEP.Different strategies should be considered for promoting PrEP at market rate and if free PrEP is made available. Future promotion should increase their knowledge about PrEP, modify their perceptions related to HIV and PrEP, and address some potential issues related to PrEP use.

  4. Improved awareness and appropriate use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP for HIV prevention following a multi-modal communication strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Byron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2005, the Western Australian Department of Health (WA Health developed a communication strategy to improve the awareness and appropriate use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP in WA. The communication strategy included the development of an nPEP information pamphlet, the establishment of a 24 hour nPEP phone line and the distribution of the WA Health nPEP guidelines to health professionals. The communication strategy was aimed at gay men, people in sero-discordant relationships, people living with HIV, injecting drug users and health care providers with patients from these populations. This evaluation aimed to assess the awareness and appropriate use of nPEP in WA before and after the commencement of the nPEP communication strategy. Methods A program logic method was used to identify the immediate (short-term and ultimate (long-term outcomes of the communication strategy. The achievement of these outcomes was evaluated using data from website statistics, a survey of ‘sexuality sensitive’ doctors, statistics published in Perth Gay Community Periodic Surveys (PGCPS and data from the WA nPEP database. A χ2 test for trend was conducted to identify any significant changes in the ultimate outcome indicators pre- and post-strategy. Results nPEP awareness among gay men in the PGCPS initially increased from 17.2% in 2002 to 54.9% in 2008, then decreased to 39.9% in 2010. After the commencement of the communication strategy, the proportion of nPEP prescriptions meeting the eligibility criteria for nPEP significantly increased (61.2% in 2002-2005 to 90.0% in 2008-2010 (p  Conclusions Since the introduction of the nPEP communication strategy, the delivery and appropriate use of nPEP have significantly improved in WA. In the 2008-2010 period, an improvement in HIV testing of nPEP recipients at three month follow-up was reported for the first time in WA. However, there is a need for ongoing activities to

  5. The initial and subsequent inflammatory events during calcium oxalate lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W M; Gohel, Mayur-Danny I; Poon, Ngork-Wah; Shum, Daisy K Y; Tam, Po-Chor; Au, Doris W T

    2010-08-05

    Crystallization is believed to be the initiation step of urolithiasis, even though it is unknown where inside the nephron the first crystal nucleation occurs. Direct nucleation of calcium oxalate and subsequent events including crystal retention, cellular damage, endocytosis, and hyaluronan (HA) expression, were tested in a two-compartment culture system with intact human proximal tubular HK-2 cell monolayer. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was nucleated and bound onto the apical surface of the HK-2 cells under hypercalciuric and hyperoxaluric conditions. These cells displayed mild cellular damage and internalized some of the adhered crystals within 18h post-COD-exposure, as revealed by electron microscopy. Prolonged incubation in complete medium caused significant damage to disrupt the monolayer integrity. Furthermore, hyaluronan disaccharides were detected in the harvested media, and were associated with HAS-3 mRNA expression. Human proximal cells were able to internalize COD crystals which nucleated directly onto the apical surface, subsequently triggering cellular damage and HAS-3 specific hyaluronan synthesis as an inflammatory response. The proximal tubule cells here demonstrate that it plays an important role in facilitating urolithiasis via endocytosis and creating an inflammatory environment whereby free hyaluronan in tubular fluid can act as crystal-binding molecule at the later segments of distal and collecting tubules. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brief Report: Cesarean Delivery and Subsequent Fecundability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Rose G; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Rothman, Kenneth J; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Sorensen, Henrik T; Riis, Anders H; Kuohung, Wendy; Wise, Lauren A

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that cesarean delivery is associated with fewer subsequent births relative to vaginal delivery, but it is unclear whether confounding by pregnancy intention or indication for surgery explained these results. We evaluated the association between cesarean delivery and subsequent fecundability among 910 primiparous women after singleton live birth. In a cohort of Danish women planning pregnancy (2007-2012), obstetrical history was obtained via registry linkage; time-to-pregnancy and covariate data were collected via questionnaire. Fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for potential confounders. Relative to spontaneous vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean delivery with cephalic presentation showed little association with fecundability (FR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.83, 1.3), but cesarean delivery with breech presentation (FR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.97) and planned cesarean delivery with cephalic presentation (FR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.25, 1.0) were associated with reduced fecundability. The cesarean-fecundability association varied by previous fetal presentation and emergency status.

  7. Synergistic role of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy to prevent bone loss in rats following exposure to simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Prakash

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available D Prakash, J BehariSchool of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to use capacitive coupling of pulsed electromagnetic field (CC-PEMF and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp as a countermeasure to prevent osteoporosis induced by simulated microgravity. We used the hind-limb suspension (HLS rat model to simulate microgravity-induced bone losses for 45 days. In order to compare the resulting changes, mineralogical (bone mineral density [BMD], calcium [Ca], and phosphorus [P], biochemical (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and type I collagen, and histological (scanning electron microscopy parameters were adopted. As a countermeasure to the above, the effect of PEMF and HAp application were examined. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (n = 8, HLS (n = 8, HLS with PEMF (n = 8, HLS with HAp nanoparticles (n = 8, and HLS with HAp and PEMF (n = 8. We observed: 1 significant decrease (p < 0.01 in BMD, Ca, P, type I collagen, and ALP activity in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin in HLS rats as compared with the ground control. 2 Nonsignificant increase in BMD (p < 0.1, Ca (p < 0.1, P (p < 0.5, type I collagen (p < 0.1, and ALP activity (p < 0.5 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin (p < 0.5 in HLS + PEMF rats compared with HLS rats. 3 Significant increase in BMD (p < 0.02, Ca (p < 0.05, P (p < 0.05, type I collagen (p < 0.02, and ALP activity (p > 0.02 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone with a nonsignificant increase in serum osteocalcin (p > 0.1 in HLS + HAp rats compared to HLS rats. 4 Significant increase in BMD (p > 0.01. Ca (p > 0.01. P (p > 0.01. type I collagen (p > 0.01. and ALP activity (p > 0.01 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin (p > 0.02 were also observed. Results suggest that a combination of low level PEMF and Hap nanoparticles has potential to control

  8. Diagnostic Medical Imaging in Pediatric Patients and Subsequent Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, David J; Jhawar, Sachin; Kostis, John B; Goyal, Sharad

    2017-11-01

    The use of diagnostic medical imaging is becoming increasingly more commonplace in the pediatric setting. However, many medical imaging modalities expose pediatric patients to ionizing radiation, which has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development in later life. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the available data regarding the risk of cancer development following exposure to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical imaging. Attention is paid to modalities such as computed tomography scans and fluoroscopic procedures that can expose children to radiation doses orders of magnitude higher than standard diagnostic x-rays. Ongoing studies that seek to more precisely determine the relationship of diagnostic medical radiation in children and subsequent cancer development are discussed, as well as modern strategies to better quantify this risk. Finally, as cardiovascular imaging and intervention contribute substantially to medical radiation exposure, we discuss strategies to enhance radiation safety in these areas. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  10. In-vivo efficacy of toltrazuril on experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in lambs: a novel strategy for prevention of human exposure to meat-borne toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Oguz; Yildiz, Kader; Ocal, Naci; Freyre, Alvaro; Deniz, Abdulkerim; Karahan, Siyami; Atmaca, Hasan Tarik; Gokpinar, Sami; Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Uzunalioğlu, Tuba; Terzi, Osman Safa

    2013-04-01

    the total number of cysts, the positive control lambs had higher number of cysts compared to both toltrazuril treated lambs (T20 and T40) (X(2)=5.629; p=0.018 and X(2)=5.629; p=0.018, respectively) while there were no differences between Group T20 and Group T40 (X(2)=0.000; p=1.000). According to PCR results, the brain and M. semitendinosus were positive in all 7 control lambs while 12 out of 18 lambs were positive in toltrazuril treated lambs. In conclusion, the results are promising as the toltrazuril treated lambs had markedly less parasite counts compared to those of untreated lambs. Further research should be conducted to reveal if toltrazuril treatment in sheep could be used as a strategy to minimize the cyst exposure of humans through consumption of raw or undercooked mutton. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  12. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  13. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  14. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 121-128 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 121-128

  15. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ... Personal Stories Photos PLWHA People Living with HIV/AIDS Podcasts PrEP Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prevention PWID People Who Inject Drugs Research Research Agenda Ryan White Ryan White HIV/AIDS ...

  16. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    confirmed by subsequent trials. As the RCT participants were overwhelmingly male (94%), gender differences could not be systematically assessed. Authors’ conclusions Although an inverse association between selenium exposure and the risk of some types of cancer was found in some observational studies, this cannot be taken as evidence of a causal relation, and these results should be interpreted with caution. These studies have many limitations, including issues with assessment of exposure to selenium and to its various chemical forms, heterogeneity, confounding and other biases. Conflicting results including inverse, null and direct associations have been reported for some cancer types. RCTs assessing the effects of selenium supplementation on cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results, although the most recent studies, characterised by a low risk of bias, found no beneficial effect on cancer risk, more specifically on risk of prostate cancer, as well as little evidence of any influence of baseline selenium status. Rather, some trials suggest harmful effects of selenium exposure. To date, no convincing evidence suggests that selenium supplements can prevent cancer in humans. PMID:24683040

  17. Effectiveness of In Virtuo Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment Using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Study Based on a Single-Case Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, Mylène; Bouchard, Stéphane; Bossé, Jessie; Mesly, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of distressing, recurrent and intrusive thoughts, impulses, or doubts as well as behavioral or mental rituals. OCD has various subtypes, including the fear of contamination in which individuals fear bacteria, germs, disease, or bodily secretions, and engage in clinically significant cleaning and avoidance rituals. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for OCD and involves, among other therapeutic strategies, exposing patients to feared stimuli while preventing them to engage in compulsive behaviors. In recent years, virtual reality (VR) has shown the potential of in virtuo exposure with people suffering from anxiety disorders and OCD. The objective of this pilot study is to examine the effectiveness of a CBT program where exposure in conducted in virtuo. Three adults suffering from OCD with a dominant subtype of contamination were enrolled in a single-case design with multiple baselines across participants. The presence and intensity of obsessions and compulsions were assessed daily during baselines of 3-, 4-, or 5-week, and a 12-session treatment. Follow-up information was gathered after 4 and 8 months. Treatment outcome is assessed with visual inspection of the graphs and ARMA time-series analyses. Clinical information, self-reports, and details of the treatment are provided for each patient. Statistical analyses for the time-series data revealed a statistically significant improvement in all three participants, but global improvement is considered positive for only two. This study innovates in proving preliminary support for the usefulness of VR in the CBT of OCD with contamination features.

  18. Long-acting rilpivirine as potential pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention (the MWRI-01 study): an open-label, phase 1, compartmental, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ian; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Siegel, Aaron; Engstrom, Jarret; Nikiforov, Alexiy; Duffill, Kathryn; Shetler, Cory; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Abebe, Kaleab; Back, David; Else, Laura; Egan, Deidre; Khoo, Saye; Egan, James E; Stall, Ronald; Williams, Peter E; Rehman, Khaleel K; Adler, Amy; Brand, Rhonda M; Chen, Beatrice; Achilles, Sharon; Cranston, Ross D

    2016-12-01

    Long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents are being developed for HIV-1 prevention. The MWRI-01 study was done to characterise the safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of long-acting rilpivirine. We did a phase 1 open-label study at the University of Pittsburgh. We enrolled healthy individuals (aged 18-45 years) who were seronegative for HIV-1. Participants were assigned alternately one intramuscular dose of either 1200 mg or 600 mg long-acting rilpivirine, beginning with the 1200 mg dose. We obtained plasma specimens, genital and rectal fluids, and tissue samples (rectal, cervical, and vaginal) before and after exposure to long-acting rilpivirine for assessment of pharmacokinetics and ex-vivo biopsy challenge with HIV-1. Our primary objective was to characterise product safety, and the analysis included all enrolled participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01656018. 36 participants were enrolled into the study, of whom 24 were women and 12 men. 12 women and six men received each dose. 204 adverse events were reported among the 36 participants, of which 200 (98%) were grade 1-2. The most common adverse event was injection site reaction. All grade 3 and 4 adverse events were deemed not related to rilpivirine. Geometric mean (90% CI) concentrations in plasma of rilpivirine at day 28 post dose were 53 ng/mL (38-67) in women and 43 ng/mL (23-63) in men for the 1200 mg dose and 28 ng/mL (19-37) in women and 17 ng/mL (9-24) in men for the 600 mg dose. The tissue-to-plasma ratio for rilpivirine in rectal tissue was about two-fold higher than in vaginal and cervical tissue (1·10-1·53 vs 0·61-0·72 and 0·50-0·71, respectively). Exposure to long-acting rilpivirine suppressed viral replication significantly in rectal tissue (p<0·0001), and this suppression persisted for up to 4 months. By contrast, no viral suppression was seen in cervical or vaginal tissue. Ongoing research will characterise longer

  19. Mode of delivery and subsequent fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, E C; McDermott, K C; Blomquist, J L; Handa, V L

    2014-11-01

    When compared with vaginal delivery, is Cesarean delivery associated with reduced childbearing, a prolonged inter-birth interval or infertility? Women whose first delivery was by Cesarean section were not significantly different from those who delivered vaginally with respect to subsequent deliveries, inter-birth interval or infertility after delivery. Some studies have suggested that delivery by Cesarean section reduces subsequent fertility, while others have reported no association. This was a planned secondary analysis of the Mothers' Outcomes After Delivery study, a longitudinal cohort study. This analysis included 956 women with 1835 deliveries, who completed a study questionnaire at 6-11 years (median [interquartile range]: 8.1 [7.1, 9.8]) after their first delivery. Exclusion criteria regarding the first birth were: maternal age 50 years, delivery at delivery was by Cesarean section for 534 women and by vaginal birth for 422 women. Infertility was self-reported. To compare maternal characteristics by mode of first delivery, P-values were calculated using Fisher's exact test or Pearson's χ(2) test for categorical variables and a Kruskall-Wallis test for continuous variables. We also considered whether, across all deliveries to date, a prior Cesarean is associated with decreased fertility. In this analysis, self-reported infertility after each delivery (across all participants) was considered as a function of one or more prior Cesarean births, using generalized estimating equations to control for within-woman correlation. No differences were observed between the Cesarean and vaginal groups (for first delivery) with respect to infertility after their most recent delivery (7 versus 6%, P = 0.597), the interval between their first and second births (30.8 versus 30.6 months, P = 0.872), or multiparity (75 versus 76%, P = 0.650). Across all births, a history of Cesarean delivery was not significantly associated with infertility (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95

  20. A Multi-US City Assessment of Awareness and Uptake of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Black Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Matthews, Derrick D; Driffin, Daniel D; Bukowski, Leigh; Wilson, Patrick A; Stall, Ron D

    2017-07-01

    The HIV epidemic among Black men and transgender women who have sex with men (BMTW) demands an urgent public health response. HIV point prevalence among this population ranges from 25 to 43%-a rate far exceeding any other group. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a very promising prevention tool; however, its full potential to slow the epidemic has yet to be realized. For the current study, random time-location sampling at Black Gay Pride Events was used to collect data from N = 1274 BMTW, from five US cities, reporting HIV-negative/unknown status. In-field HIV testing was also provided to participants. Participants were assessed on awareness and use of PrEP, health care factors, HIV testing history, psychosocial variables, and sex behaviors. About one third of participants were aware of PrEP (39%), and a small percentage of participants were users of PrEP (4.6%). In multivariable analyses, being in a relationship, testing for HIV in the past 6 months, and others being aware of one's sexuality were positively associated with PrEP awareness. Higher levels of internalized homophobia and greater numbers of female sex partners were positively associated with PrEP use, while education and condom use were negatively associated. Based on study findings, messaging and uptake of PrEP needs greater expansion and requires novel approaches for scale-up. Improving linkage to HIV testing services is likely critical for engaging BMTW with PrEP. The potential for PrEP to slow the HIV epidemic is high; however, we must strengthen efforts to ensure universal availability and uptake.

  1. Preconception Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation of Adult Male Mice with a History of Developmental TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) Exposure Prevents Preterm Birth in Unexposed Female Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaha, Melinda E.; Ding, Tianbing; Lucas, John A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that adult male C57BL/6 mice exposed in utero to the environmental toxicant TCDD confer an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) to unexposed females. Risk of PTB was coincident with decreased placental progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA expression and increased toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) mRNA expression, suggesting toxicant exposure induced a heightened inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface. Since omega-3 fatty acids exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, herein, we provided TCDD-exposed males a fish oil-enriched diet prior to mating. Although PTB was common in control females mated to TCDD-exposed males on the standard diet, fish oil supplementation of TCDD-exposed males eliminated PTB in unexposed partners. We also determined the influence of preconception, paternal fish oil supplementation on the placental inflammatory response in late pregnancy (E18.5) by examining expression of PR and TLR-4 mRNA as well as expression of 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). PGDH catabolizes the inflammatory PGE2 to an inactive form; thus, reduced expression of this enzyme would promote tissue inflammation. Compared to control pregnancies, examination of E18.5 placentas arising from TCDD-exposed males on the standard diet revealed a significant increase in TLR-4 mRNA expression corresponding to a reduction in PR mRNA and PGDH protein expression. In contrast, fish oil supplementation of toxicant-exposed males led to normalization of placental expression of both PR and TLR-4 mRNA and a marked increase in PGDH expression. These studies suggest that a paternal preconception diet which includes omega-3 fatty acids prevents the toxicant-associated increase in the placental inflammatory response at late gestation, preventing PTB. PMID:21653731

  2. Measures for radiation prevention and remediation of islightly radioactive contaminated sites by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the loaded plant residues (PHYTOREST). Final report; Massnahmen zur Strahlenschutzvorsorge radioaktiv belasteter Grossflaechen durch Sanierung mittels Phytoremediation und anschliessende Verwertung der belasteten Pflanzenreststoffe (PHYTOREST). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, Sabine; Werner, Peter [TU Dresden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Jablonski, Lukasz; Wittig, Juliane

    2013-12-30

    In the presented scientific research project, the radiation protection of soil surfaces impacted by former industrial utilization or mining was investigated. This radiation protection of the contaminated soil surfaces was carried out by bioremediation techniques. The soil surfaces include larger agricultural or forestry areas useful for the production of sustainable plant-based raw materials and renewable energies. The contaminated areas show a positive climatic water balance with a subsequent impact of SM/R contaminants onto the adjacent ground water. During this scientific research project, the introduction of sustainable, biosphere conserving methods for a long-term remediation of slightly to moderately HM/R- contaminated areas was investigated; these areas are characterized by a radiotoxic amplifying potential due to a continued occurrence of radionuclides and heavy metals/ metalloids. The insights into transfer processes from the soil substrate over the mediating soil water phase and by microbes into the plant roots, into the shoots and the leaves of the plants represent necessary requirements for the control of SM/R transfer into the plants and its optimization. In this research project, considerable investigations were carried out for the understanding of binding of HM/R in the different plant compartments, also depending on different soil additives. The obtained first scientific results and their practical applicability were transformed onto experimental soil areas under natural field conditions. The transfer processes could be optimized and finally bioremediation efficiency could be enhanced due to the accompanying modifications (different soil additives of the field experiments). This new remediation method, further developed to a field application, represents a new tool for the stabilization / and extraction of HM/R on the field site and improves the efficiency of bioremediation processes. A pacification of the large areas with slightly to medium

  3. Diagnostic medical exposures. Advice on exposure to ionising radiation during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C.; Shrimpton, J.; Bury, R

    1998-07-01

    The main objective of NRPB advice concerning in utero exposures to ionising radiations is 'to prevent unnecessary exposure of the fetus when medical diagnostic procedures involving ionising radiations are indicated during pregnancy'. In addition, advice is meant to help to avoid unnecessary concern or action if an exposure does occur. NRPB issued ASP8 (Exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant women: advice on the diagnostic exposure of women who are, or who may be, pregnant) in 1985. This advice suggested that there would be no risks to the concepts following irradiation during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle and that subsequent risks in the remainder of the first 4 week period would be likely to be so small that no special limitation on exposure was required - sometimes known as 'the 28-day rule'. In 1993, NRPB published further advice to replace ASP8 in the Documents of the NRPB series, in Volume 4, No 4 - henceforth referred to as Doc NRPB 4(4){sup 2} - which drew upon data published since 1985. The more recent data suggest that risks in the interval between 10 days and the date at which the next menstrual period is due, although still small for most diagnostic procedures, may be significant for higher dose procedures. Consequently, it is considered there is a need to operate a modified policy for such higher dose procedures. This pocket publication has been produced to present in a concise and user-friendly format the basis of the most recent NRPB advice and to provide a guide for the implementation of that advice in the everyday practice of diagnostic radiology. The opportunity has also been taken to provide the most up to date data on doses in the UK. This publication is split into three parts: an introduction to the terms used in the document, a practical guide to implementation of the advice, and the scientific background to the advice.

  4. Diagnostic medical exposures. Advice on exposure to ionising radiation during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, C.; Shrimpton, J.; Bury, R.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of NRPB advice concerning in utero exposures to ionising radiations is 'to prevent unnecessary exposure of the fetus when medical diagnostic procedures involving ionising radiations are indicated during pregnancy'. In addition, advice is meant to help to avoid unnecessary concern or action if an exposure does occur. NRPB issued ASP8 (Exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant women: advice on the diagnostic exposure of women who are, or who may be, pregnant) in 1985. This advice suggested that there would be no risks to the concepts following irradiation during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle and that subsequent risks in the remainder of the first 4 week period would be likely to be so small that no special limitation on exposure was required - sometimes known as 'the 28-day rule'. In 1993, NRPB published further advice to replace ASP8 in the Documents of the NRPB series, in Volume 4, No 4 - henceforth referred to as Doc NRPB 4(4) 2 - which drew upon data published since 1985. The more recent data suggest that risks in the interval between 10 days and the date at which the next menstrual period is due, although still small for most diagnostic procedures, may be significant for higher dose procedures. Consequently, it is considered there is a need to operate a modified policy for such higher dose procedures. This pocket publication has been produced to present in a concise and user-friendly format the basis of the most recent NRPB advice and to provide a guide for the implementation of that advice in the everyday practice of diagnostic radiology. The opportunity has also been taken to provide the most up to date data on doses in the UK. This publication is split into three parts: an introduction to the terms used in the document, a practical guide to implementation of the advice, and the scientific background to the advice

  5. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Hyperparathyroidism subsequent to neck irradiation. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.; Fjaelling, M.H.; Hansson, G.; Lindberg, S.; Lundberg, L.M.; Oden, A.

    1985-01-01

    A follow-up examination of 444 persons treated with x-rays for tuberculous cervical adenitis was performed to determine if the risk for hyperparathyroidism (HPT) following radiation exposure can be related to the age at treatment, the dose of x-rays, or the sex of the patient. The overall incidence of HPT was 14%. There was no definite age-dependent difference in susceptibility to the induction of HPT. The doses of radiation among the 63 subjects who developed HPT ranged from 0.6 to 45.7 Gy (60-4570 rad). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the dose of radiation and the probability of developing HPT. After doses of 14 Gy (1400 rad) or more 29% of the subjects had developed HPT. After neck irradiation women had twice the relative risk of men of developing HPT. This sex ratio was lower than in the series of nonirradiated HPT patients treated at the same institution during the time of the follow-up study

  7. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic difficulties and subsequent disability retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Mauramo, Elina; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether economic difficulties are associated with subsequent disability retirement while controlling for covariates. Survey data among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002 were linked with the Finnish Centre for Pensions register data on all-cause disability retirement among women (n=4816) and men (n=1354) until the end of 2010. Additionally, disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders (ICD-10) was examined among women. Frequency in difficulties paying pills and buying food and clothes, and covariates (occupational class, income, housing tenure, and work- and health-related covariates) were self-reported at baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Frequent economic difficulties were associated with all-cause disability retirement after adjusting for age among both women (HR=2.11; 95% CI 1.63-2.73) and men (HR=2.69; 95% CI 1.65-4.41). Adjustment for covariates somewhat attenuated the associations, but they remained. Economic difficulties were also associated with disability retirement due to both mental disorders (HR=3.29; 95% CI 1.98-5.46) and musculoskeletal diseases (HR=1.85; 95% CI 1.24-2.75) among women. Adjustments made a minor contribution to the risk of disability retirement due to mental disorders, whereas the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases reduced after considering socioeconomic circumstances. Conclusions: economic difficulties are independently associated with disability retirement. Thus, they should be considered in attempts to tackle early exit from the labour market due to disability. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Cough During Infancy and Subsequent Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Halonen, Marilyn; Wright, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. METHODS Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2–9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. RESULTS 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. PMID:26011047

  10. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, James A.; Lumsden, John C.; Kilburn, Kaye H.; Germino, Victor H.; Hamilton, John D.; Lynn, William S.; Byrd, H.; Baucom, D.

    1973-01-01

    Merchant, J. A., Lumsden, J. C., Kilburn, K. H., Germino, V. H., Hamilton, J. D., Lynn, W. S., Byrd, H., and Baucom, D. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 237-247. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis. A fundamental approach of cleaning or deactivating cotton prior to manufacturing has long been advocated to prevent byssinosis, but no trial had been conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach. In the study described, it was possible to be directed by both biological observations and the results of manufacturing trials. An exposure chamber was built in a cotton textile mill which had been previously studied as part of a large cross-sectional survey. The chamber was provided with an independent air conditioning system and a carding machine which served as a dust generator. Sixteen subjects, who had shown reductions in expiratory flow rate with exposure to cotton dust, were chosen to form a panel for exposure to raw cottons and cottons which had been preprocessed by heating, washing, and steaming. Indicators of effects were symptoms of chest tightness and/or dyspnoea, change in FEV1·0, and fine dust levels over 6 hours of exposure. Exposure of the panel to no cotton dust resulted in no change in FEV1·0 and served as the control for subsequent trials. Exposure to strict middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 22%, a significant decrement in FEV1·0 of 2·9%, and a fine dust level of 0·26 mg/m3. Exposure to strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 79%, a decrement in FEV1·0 of 8·5%, and a fine dust level of 0·89 mg/m3. Oven heating strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 56% and a relatively greater drop in FEV1·0 of 8·3% for 0·48 mg/m3 of fine dust. Washing the strict low grade cotton eliminated detectable biological effects with a symptom prevalence of 8%, an increase of 1·4% in FEV1·, and a dust level of 0·16 mg/m3, but the cotton

  11. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets ... PoisoningAcute Bronchitis Home Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Occupational Health Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care ...

  12. Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, understanding of the health and sa...

  13. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis ad...... an impact on the development of COPD ought to be transformed to preventive efforts to eliminate occupational COPD and improve public health.......Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...

  14. Epidemiological Patterns of Initial and Subsequent Injuries in Collegiate Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob Z; Singichetti, Bhavna; Li, Hongmei; Xiang, Henry; Klingele, Kevin E; Yang, Jingzhen

    2017-04-01

    A body of epidemiological studies has examined football injuries and associated risk factors among collegiate athletes. However, few existing studies specifically analyzed injury risk in terms of initial or subsequent injuries. To determine athlete-exposures (AEs) and rates of initial and subsequent injury among collegiate football athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury and exposure data collected from collegiate football players from two Division I universities (2007-2011) were analyzed. Rate of initial injury was calculated as the number of initial injuries divided by the total number of AEs for initial injuries, while the rate for subsequent injury was calculated as the number of subsequent injuries divided by the total number of AEs for subsequent injury. Poisson regression was used to determine injury rate ratio (subsequent vs initial injury), with adjustment for other covariates. The total AEs during the study period were 67,564, resulting in an overall injury rate of 35.2 per 10,000 AEs. Rates for initial and subsequent injuries were 31.7 and 45.3 per 10,000 AEs, respectively, with a rate ratio (RR) of 1.4 for rate of subsequent injury vs rate of initial injury (95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Rate of injury appeared to increase with each successive injury. RR during games was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0). The rate of subsequent injuries to the head, neck, and face was 10.9 per 10,000 AEs, nearly double the rate of initial injuries to the same sites (RR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). For wide receivers, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.2 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.3-3.8), and for defensive linemen, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.1 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.1-3.9). The method used in this study allows for a more accurate determination of injury risk among football players who have already been injured at least once. Further research is warranted to better identify which specific factors contribute to this increased risk

  15. The influence of media coverage of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T A; Hawton, Keith; Chen, Tony H H; Yen, Amy M F; Chen, Chung-Ying; Chen, Lin-Chen; Teng, Po-Ren

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the impact of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts. A Poisson time series autoregression analysis was conducted to examine whether there was a significant increase in suicide attempts during the 3-week period after the start of extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. The reporting began on May 2, 2005, and lasted about 17 days. To investigate the influence of media reporting on suicide attempts, a structured interview was conducted with 124 suicide attempters identified from 2 counties in Mid Taiwan who had exposure to the media reporting. After controlling for seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, and humidity, there was a marked increase in the number of suicide attempts during the 3-week period after media reporting began (adjusted relative risk = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.91). Among 124 suicide attempters exposed to the media reports, 23.4% reported an influence from them. There was no relationship between the attempters' ages and the age of the celebrity or the method, but male attempters had a significantly higher risk for such influence. A considerably higher risk for such influence was found among subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s) in the previous year (odds ratio = 52.3, 95% CI = 5.96 to 459.1). The extensive media reporting of the suicide of a celebrity was followed by an increase in suicide attempts. The effect was particularly marked in individuals with a recent history of a suicide attempt. The results provide further support for the need for more restrained reporting of suicides as part of suicide prevention strategies and for special vigilance for contagious effects of such reporting on people who have carried out recent suicidal acts.

  16. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  17. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  18. Patterns of community violence exposure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sharon F; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2010-12-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of community violence exposure and malleable predictors of these exposure patterns among a community sample of 543 urban African American early adolescents (45.3% female; mean age: 11.76). In each of grades 6, 7, and 8, latent class analyses revealed two patterns of community violence exposure: high exposure and low exposure. For the majority of participants, experiences with community violence were similar at each grade. Impulsive behavior and depressive symptoms distinguished adolescents in the high and low exposure classes in grade 6. Implications for interventions to prevent community violence exposure are discussed.

  19. The cytotoxic macrolide FD-891 induces caspase-8-dependent mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and subsequent apoptosis in human leukemia Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Susumu; Eguchi, Tadashi; Motegi, Atsushi; Mizoue, Kazutoshi; Usui, Takeo; Nagai, Kazuo; Kataoka, Takao

    2009-09-01

    The 16-membered macrolide FD-891 exerts cytotoxicity toward several cancer cell lines. In this study, we showed that FD-891 induces apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines. Human leukemia Jurkat cells were highly sensitive to FD-891, exhibiting caspase activation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c into the cytosol at early time points after exposure to FD-891. By contrast, Jurkat cells deficient in caspase-8 were resistant to FD-891-induced apoptosis and manifested little induction of cytochrome c release as well as caspase-9 processing. Consistent with these results, the overexpression of the Bcl-2 family member Bcl-x(L) or the caspase-8 modulator c-FLIP(L) markedly prevented FD-891-induced apoptosis. These results clearly demonstrate that FD-891 triggers caspase-8-dependent mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and subsequent apoptosis in Jurkat cells.

  20. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  1. Dietary total antioxidant capacity in early school age and subsequent allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, A; Rautiainen, S; Gruzieva, O; Håkansson, N; Kull, I; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Wolk, A; Melén, E; Bergström, A

    2017-06-01

    Dietary antioxidant intake has been hypothesized to influence the development of allergic diseases; however, few prospective studies have investigated this association. Our aim was to study the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet at age 8 years and the subsequent development of asthma, rhinitis and sensitization to inhalant allergens between 8 and 16 years, and to assess potential effect modification by known risk factors. A total of 2359 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were included. Dietary TAC at age 8 years was estimated by combining information on the child's diet the past 12 months from a food frequency questionnaire with a database of common foods analysed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Classification of asthma and rhinitis was based on questionnaires, and serum IgE antibodies were measured at 8 and 16 years. A statistically significant inverse association was observed between TAC of the diet and incident sensitization to inhalant allergens (adjusted odds ratio: 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.55-0.97 for the third compared to the first tertile, P-value for trend = 0.031). Effect modification by traffic-related air pollution exposure was observed, with a stronger association between dietary TAC and sensitization among children with low traffic-related air pollution exposure (P-value for interaction = 0.029). There was no evidence for effect modification by GSTP1 or TNF genotypes, although these results should be interpreted with caution. No clear associations were observed between TAC and development of rhinitis or asthma, although a significant inverse association was observed for allergic asthma (OR adj 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.94). Higher TAC of the diet in early school age may decrease the risk of developing sensitization to inhalant allergens from childhood to adolescence. These findings indicate that implementing an antioxidant-rich diet in childhood may contribute to the prevention of allergic

  2. Effects of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection on Sexual Risk Behavior in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Michael W; Schroeder, Sophia E; Wright, Edwina J; Hellard, Margaret E; Cornelisse, Vincent J; Doyle, Joseph S; Stoové, Mark A

    2018-03-02

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in reducing HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). However concerns remain that risk compensation in PrEP users may lead to decreased condom use and increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the impact of PrEP on sexual risk outcomes in MSM. We conducted a systematic review of open-label trials and observational studies published to August 2017 reporting sexual risk outcomes (STI diagnoses, condom use, number of sexual partners) in the context of daily oral PrEP use in HIV-negative MSM and transgender women. Pooled effect estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis and a qualitative review and risk of bias assessment were performed. Sixteen observational studies and one open-label trial met selection criteria. Eight studies with 4388 participants reported STI prevalence and 13 studies with 5008 participants reported change in condom use. PrEP use was associated with a significant increase in rectal chlamydia (odds ratio [OR]=1.59; 95%CI 1.19-2.13; p=0.002; heterogeneity I 2=23%) and an increase in any STI diagnosis (OR=1.24; 95%CI 0.99-1.54; p=0.059; I 2=50%). The association of PrEP use with STI diagnoses was stronger in later studies. Most studies showed evidence of an increase in condomless sex among PrEP users. Findings highlight the importance of efforts to minimize STIs among PrEP users and their sexual partners. Monitoring of risk compensation among MSM in the context of PrEP scale-up is needed to assess the impact of PrEP on the sexual health of MSM and to inform preventive strategies.

  3. Does the therapy manual or the therapist matter most in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder? A randomized controlled trial of exposure with response or ritual prevention in 118 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Patricia; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Smit, Johannes H; Schuurmans, Josien; van Dyck, Richard; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2010-09-01

    The importance of the therapist's education and experience for the successful behavior treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been investigated. Data on the relative effectiveness of self-controlled versus therapist-controlled in vivo exposure with response or ritual prevention (ERP) have yielded conflicting results. The present study compared the effectiveness of 4 different modes of delivery of ERP in a referred sample of OCD patients. Of the 146 eligible OCD outpatients, 118 patients enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to (1) therapist-controlled ERP performed by experienced behavior therapists; (2) therapist-controlled ERP performed by master's students of clinical psychology; (3) self-controlled ERP performed by experienced behavior therapists; and (4) self-controlled ERP performed by master's students of clinical psychology. This trial was performed from January 1999 to January 2005. Our analyses revealed no significant differences in clinical outcome between any of the different modes of delivery of ERP at posttreatment. The different ERP modes of delivery were associated with significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvement on all measurements, with large effect sizes on the primary outcome measure, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Our results indicate that clinically inexperienced master's students with no postgraduate training can be as capable as experienced and certified behavior therapists in treating OCD patients, as long as therapists adhere to a standardized treatment manual and adequate training and supervision is provided. In contrast to other studies, we did not find a supposed benefit of therapist-controlled ERP versus self-controlled ERP in patients with OCD. www.trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR1444. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Reduced ultraviolet irradiation delays subsequent squamous cell carcinomas in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Poulsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and UV prophylaxis is essential to prevent skin cancer. It is unclear whether patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) may benefit from reduced UV exposures in terms of delaying the development of new...

  5. Pre-adult famine exposure and subsequent colorectal cancer risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Morris P; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Elias, Sjoerd G

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutritional deprivation during growth and development may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in later life. METHODS: We studied 7906 women who were aged 0-21 years during the 1944-45 Dutch famine, who enrolled in the Prospect-EPIC study between 1993 and 1997. We used Cox

  6. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/ or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential ...

  7. Influences of tobacco advertising exposure and conduct problems on smoking behaviors among adolescent males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.

  8. Pilot study assessing the effectiveness of factory-treated, long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites during occupational tick exposure in highly infested military training areas, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Rutenfranz, Martin; Keth, Alexander; Hepke, Jürgen; Rogge, Mareike; Görner, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    tick bites. Nevertheless, all apparel worn over PTBDUs should also be impregnated with permethrin in order to prevent tick infestation and subsequent bites.

  9. Exposure of the hands to wet work in nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, F.H.W.; Lensen, G.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Coenraads, P.J.

    Prevention of hand dermatitis among nurses can be achieved by reduction of wet-work exposure. A preventive programme should be based on knowledge of exposure levels. An accurate method to assess such exposure levels is needed. Duration and frequency of wet-work activities were assessed by a

  10. Subsequence Generation for the Airline Crew Pairing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David

    , the extremely large number of possible columns naturally has an impact on the solution time. In the solution method of this work we severely limit the number of allowed subsequent ights, i.e. the subsequences, thereby significantly decreasing the number of possible columns. Set partitioning problems...... with limited subsequence counts are known to be easier to solve, re- sulting in a decrease in solution time. The problem though, is that a small number of deep subsequences might be needed for an optimal or near-optimal solution and these might not have been included by the subsequence limitation. Therefore......, we try to identify or generate such subsequences that potentially can improve the solution value. We benchmark the subsequence generation approach against a classical column generation approach on real-life test instances. We consider the LP relaxation and compare the quality and the integrality...

  11. A missed primary care appointment correlates with a subsequent emergency department visit among children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Colleen Marie; Redmond, Margaret; Arcoleo, Kimberly; Stukus, David R

    2017-11-01

    Since the Affordable Care Act's implementation, emergency department (ED) visits have increased. Poor asthma control increases the risk of acute exacerbations and preventable ED visits. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services support the reduction of preventable ED visits to reduce healthcare spending. Implementation of interventions to avoid preventable ED visits has become a priority for many healthcare systems yet little data exist examining children's missed asthma management primary care (PC) appointments and subsequent ED visits. Longitudinal, retrospective review at a children's hospital was conducted for children with diagnosed asthma (ICD-9 493.xx), ages 2-18 years, scheduled for a PC visit between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 (N = 3895). Records were cross-referenced with all asthma-related ED visits from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012. Logistic regression with maximum likelihood estimation was conducted. None of the children who completed a PC appointment experienced an ED visit in the subsequent 6 months whereas 2.7% of those with missed PC appointments had an ED visit (χ 2 = 64.28, p asthma as one mechanism for preventing ED visits was demonstrated. Interventions targeting missed visits could decrease asthma-related morbidity, preventable ED visits, and healthcare costs.

  12. PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A

    2018-02-01

    Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago. The aims of this study are twofold. Aim 1 is to estimate the effectiveness of a peer change agent intervention for (1) increasing the number of referrals made to a PrEP information line, (2) increasing the rate of PrEP adoption among non-participant peers, and (3) increasing PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and intentions among participants. Aim 2 is to determine the individual and network variables that explain peer change agent effectiveness. PrEP Chicago is a social network intervention that utilizes the influence of peer change agents to link young Black men who have sex with men in Chicago to PrEP. Young Black men who have sex with men were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Once screened for eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment sequences: (1) intervention treatment in Year 1 followed by a minimal contact attention control in Year 2 or (2) the minimal contact attention control in Year 1 followed by treatment in Year 2. The treatment consists of a PrEP/peer change agent training workshop followed by booster calls for 12 months. The attention control consists of a sex diary activity designed to help participants assess sexual risk. Psychosocial, sexual health, and network data are collected from all participants at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. In total, 423 participants aged 18-35 have

  13. Radiography exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter, the reader will introduce with basic knowledge on radiography exposure. All the code and standard must give a specification on density or their range that can accepted. So the result outside the specification usually will be unacceptable and this can effected the time, cost and energy of the radiographer. So, for radiographer, they must work carefully to produce a good result and one way to solve this problem is through good exposure. The more the exposure can make a film darker while the less exposure can make the radiograph not enough density. So, through this chapter, the reader can know detailed how to manage this problem. As mention earlier, this technique is a combination between theories and practical, so, here theory is a main part to make the practical successful.

  14. Military Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  15. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. The Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP): A conceptual framework for advancing exposure science research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, risk assessment has relied upon toxicological data to obtain hazard-based reference levels, which are subsequently compared to exposure estimates to determine whether an unacceptable risk to public health may exist. Recent advances in analytical methods, biomarker ...

  17. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  18. 78 FR 2996 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    .... Matters to be discussed: Matters to be discussed: promoting health equity, improving oral health, cancer prevention and control-- preventing skin cancer, cardiovascular disease prevention and control, reducing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure, and diabetes prevention and control. Meeting Accessibility...

  19. Exposure to Alcohol Content in Movies and Initiation of Early Drinking Milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Janssen, Tim; Barnett, Nancy P; Rogers, Michelle L; Hayes, Kerri L; Sargent, James

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED). Data were taken from a sample of 882 middle school youth (52% female; 24% non-White) enrolled in an ongoing study on alcohol initiation and progression. Exposure to alcohol content in films was measured using a method that combines content analysis and random assignment of movie titles to youth surveys. The hazard of initiating alcohol use (sip, full drink, HED) as a function of exposure was estimated using survival analysis. Associations were adjusted for demographic, personality, and social influence factors known to be associated with both movie exposure and alcohol use. Exposure to alcohol content was common. Hours of exposure prospectively predicted earlier onset of alcohol involvement across all outcomes. Viewing movies with friends appeared to augment the media exposure effect, in contrast to viewing movies with parents, which was not a significant predictor of initiation. Exposure to alcohol in films is involved in the entry into early stages of alcohol involvement. Findings support further investigation into the role of the media in underage drinking, especially in the context of consuming media with friends and peers. Limiting media exposure and/or stronger Federal Trade Commission oversight of movie ratings should be a priority for preventing underage drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Development of a software based automatic exposure control system for use in image guided radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel R.

    Modern image guided radiation therapy involves the use of an isocentrically mounted imaging system to take radiographs of a patient's position before the start of each treatment. Image guidance helps to minimize errors associated with a patients setup, but the radiation dose received by patients from imaging must be managed to ensure no additional risks. The Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) does not have an automatic exposure control system and therefore requires exposure factors to be manually selected. Without patient specific exposure factors, images may become saturated and require multiple unnecessary exposures. A software based automatic exposure control system has been developed to predict optimal, patient specific exposure factors. The OBI system was modelled in terms of the x-ray tube output and detector response in order to calculate the level of detector saturation for any exposure situation. Digitally reconstructed radiographs are produced via ray-tracing through the patients' volumetric datasets that are acquired for treatment planning. The ray-trace determines the attenuation of the patient and subsequent x-ray spectra incident on the imaging detector. The resulting spectra are used in the detector response model to determine the exposure levels required to minimize detector saturation. Images calculated for various phantoms showed good agreement with the images that were acquired on the OBI. Overall, regions of detector saturation were accurately predicted and the detector response for non-saturated regions in images of an anthropomorphic phantom were calculated to generally be within 5 to 10 % of the measured values. Calculations were performed on patient data and found similar results as the phantom images, with the calculated images being able to determine detector saturation with close agreement to images that were acquired during treatment. Overall, it was shown that the system model and calculation

  1. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation of diagnostic test kits Prevention Prevention in animals Prevention in people Rabies in the U.S. and around the World ... United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs ...

  2. Mesenteric panniculitis: systematic review of cross-sectional imaging findings and risk of subsequent malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Steve; Plumb, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart [University College London UCL, Centre for Medical Imaging, 3rd Floor East, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Systematic review to determine any association between imaging features of idiopathic mesenteric panniculitis (MP) and subsequent malignancy. Two researchers searched primary literature independently for imaging studies of MP. They extracted data focusing on methodology for unbiased patient accrual and capability to determine a link between MP and subsequent malignancy. They noted imaging features of MP. Data were accrued and meta-analysis intended. Fourteen of 675 articles were eligible; 1,226 patients. Only three (21 %) accrued patients prospectively. Twelve (86 %) studies described CT features. Follow-up varied widely; 1 month to 8 years. Prevalence of MP was influenced by accrual: 0.2 % for keyword search versus 1.7 % for consecutive series. Accrual bias affected nine (64 %) studies. 458 (38 %) of 1,209 patients had malignancy at accrual but varied widely (8-89 %), preventing meta-analysis. Sixty (6.4 %) of 933 patients developed new malignancy subsequently, also varying widely (0-11 %). Of just four studies that determined the proportion of unselected, consecutive patients with MP developing subsequent malignancy, three were retrospective and the fourth excluded patients with lymphadenopathy, likely excluding patients with MP. Studies were heterogeneous, with biased accrual. No available study can determine an association between MP and subsequent malignancy with certainty. (orig.)

  3. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets......Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...

  4. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...

  5. Associations between Lifetime Traumatic Events and Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions : A Cross-National, Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Kate M.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Iwata, Noboru; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Murphy, Sam; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Associations between lifetime traumatic event (LTE) exposures and subsequent physical ill-health are well established but it has remained unclear whether these are explained by PTSD or other mental disorders. This study examined this question and investigated whether associations varied

  6. 42 CFR 408.62 - Initial and subsequent billings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial and subsequent billings. 408.62 Section 408... MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Individual Payment § 408.62 Initial and subsequent billings. (a) Monthly billing. (1) The first premium bill is for the period...

  7. Morbidity and risk of subsequent diagnosis of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Lohse, Nicolai; Østergaard, Lars Skjølstrup

    2012-01-01

    Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis.......Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis....

  8. Impact of Selection Bias on Estimation of Subsequent Event Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yi Juan; Schmidt, Amand F.; Dudbridge, Frank; Holmes, Michael V; Brophy, James M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Li, Ziyi; Liao, Peizhou; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; McCubrey, Raymond O.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Hingorani, Aroon D; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Patel, Riyaz S.; Long, Qi; Åkerblom, Axel; Algra, Ale; Allayee, Hooman; Almgren, Peter; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Andreassi, Maria G.; Anselmi, Chiara V.; Ardissino, Diego; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Baranova, Ekaterina V.; Behloui, Hassan; Bergmeijer, Thomas O; Bezzina, Connie R; Bjornsson, Eythor; Body, Simon C.; Boeckx, Bram; Boersma, Eric H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bogaty, Peter; Braund, Peter S; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Briguori, Carlo; Brugts, Jasper J.; Burkhardt, Ralph; Cameron, Vicky A.; Carlquist, John F.; Carpeggiani, Clara; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Casu, Gavino; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Cresci, Sharon; Danchin, Nicolas; de Faire, Ulf; Deanfield, John; Delgado, Graciela; Deloukas, Panos; Direk, Kenan; Doughty, Robert N.; Drexel, Heinz; Duarte, Nubia E.; Dubé, Marie Pierre; Dufresne, Line; Engert, James C; Eriksson, Niclas; Fitzpatrick, Natalie; Foco, Luisa; Ford, Ian; Fox, Keith A; Gigante, Bruna; Gijsberts, Crystel M.; Girelli, Domenico; Gong, Yan; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Hagström, Emil; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L.; Held, Claes; Helgadottir, Anna; Hemingway, Harry; Heydarpour, Mahyar; Hoefer, Imo E.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; James, Stefan; Johnson, Julie A; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaczor, Marcin P.; Kaminski, Karol A.; Kettner, Jiri; Kiliszek, Marek; Kleber, Marcus; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kofink, Daniel; Kohonen, Mika; Kotti, Salma; Kuukasjärvi, Pekka; Lagerqvist, Bo; Lambrechts, Diether; Lang, Chim C; Laurikka, Jari O.; Leander, Karin; Lee, Vei Vei; Lehtimäki, Terho; Leiherer, Andreas; Lenzini, Petra A.; Levin, Daniel; Lindholm, Daniel; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mahmoodi, B. Khan; Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anke H.; Martinelli, Nicola; März, Winfried; Marziliano, Nicola; McPherson, Ruth; Melander, Olle; Mons, Ute; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.; Nelson, Cristopher P.; Cheh, Chris Newton; Olivieri, Oliviero; Opolski, Grzegorz; Palmer, Colin Na; Pare, Guillaume; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pepine, Carl J; Pepinski, Witold; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Pilbrow, Anna P.; Pilote, Louise; Pitha, Jan; Ploski, Rafal; Richards, A. Mark; Saely, Christoph H.; Samani, Nilesh J; Samman-Tahhan, Ayman; Sanak, Marek; Sandesara, Pratik B.; Sattar, Naveed; Scholz, Markus; Siegbahn, Agneta; Simon, Tabassome; Sinisalo, Juha; Smith, J. Gustav; Spertus, John A.; Stefansson, Kari; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Stott, David J.; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Szpakowicz, Anna; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Tang, Wilson H.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Ten Berg, Jur M.; Teren, Andrej; Thanassoulis, George; Thiery, Joachim; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Timmis, Adam; Trompet, Stella; Van de Werf, Frans; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Van Der Haarst, Pim; van der Laan, Sander W; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O.; Virani, Salim S.; Visseren, Frank L J; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Wallentin, Lars; Waltenberger, Johannes; Wauters, Els; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2017-01-01

    Background - Studies of recurrent or subsequent disease events may be susceptible to bias caused by selection of subjects who both experience and survive the primary indexing event. Currently, the magnitude of any selection bias, particularly for subsequent time-to-event analysis in genetic

  9. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total amounts...

  10. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examinations subsequent to unit tests. 1919.30 Section 1919... Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.30 Examinations subsequent to unit tests. (a) After satisfactory completion of the unit proof load tests required by §§ 1919.27 and 1919.28, the cargo gear and all component...

  11. Elaboration of a quantitative job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to airborne exposures in the Polish rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Sobala, W; Peplonska, B; Wilczynska, U; Gromiec, J; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Kromhout, H

    2008-11-01

    A job-exposure matrix (JEM) for inhalable aerosols, aromatic amines, and cyclohexane soluble matter (CSM) was elaborated based on measurements collected routinely between 1981 and 1996. The data were grouped based on similarities in exposure levels and time trends in different departments, and were analyzed using smoothing splines and mixed effects models. Although higher than in western European countries, inhalable aerosol exposure decreased after changes in production volume and implementation of exposure reduction measures in mid-1980s. Aromatic amines concentrations first increased following the factory's production volume, but subsequently decreased in more recent years. CSM concentrations were uniformly distributed between departments. This JEM provides an overview of historical exposure levels in a large Polish rubber factory and will enable estimation of lifetime exposure for individual workers in a Polish rubber workers cohort and further investigation of the associations between specific exposures and cancer risk. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  15. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    health care workers who report exposure to HIV at work whether given PEP or not ... breast milk, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid ... or skin lesions [1]. Other body fluid like sweat, tears, saliva, urine and stool do not contain significant quantities of HIV unless there is blood mixed with them[1,2]. HIV is not ...

  16. Health significance of metal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    public access databases that are relevant to public health and prevention More streamlined coverage of chemical exposures and diseases overall Essentials of the public health service delivery infrastructure Review quote "This is an excellent, comprehensive overview of the field of public health for use...

  17. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  18. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers.

  19. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  20. Predicting subsequent infection in patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori M; Warner, Lee; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify characteristics associated with subsequent infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Records were retrospectively reviewed for patients from public STD clinics in 4 cities for 12 months after their initial visit to assess subsequent infection with gonorrhea, chlamydia, mucopurulent cervicitis, nongonococcal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, primary or secondary syphilis, or trichomoniasis. Among 64,463 patients, 33.9% had an initial STD and 7.0% had a subsequent STD. Patients with an initial STD had significantly higher probability of a subsequent STD than patients without (12.0% vs. 4.4%). A subsequent STD was significantly more likely for both sexes for those with an initial STD, who were symptomatic at initial visit, reporting exchange of sex, or under age 20 as well as for men reporting sex with men. Patients with an initial STD were more likely to return with a subsequent STD. Routinely collected information such as initial diagnosis or age can help identify patients at increased risk of a subsequent STD.

  1. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  2. Hot topics in research: Preventive neuroradiology in brain aging and cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Raji; H. Eyre; S.H. Wei; D.E. Bredesen; S. Moylan (Steven); M. Law; G. Small; P.M. Thompson (Paul); R.M. Friedlander; D.H. Silverman; B.T. Baune; T.A. Hoang; N. Salamon; A.W. Toga (Arthur); M.W. Vernooij (Meike)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPreventive neuroradiology is a new concept supported by growing literature. The main rationale of preventive neuroradiology is the application of multimodal brain imaging toward early and subclinical detection of brain disease and subsequent preventive actions through identification of

  3. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  4. Effect of household pet ownership on infant immune response and subsequent sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Angela

    2010-08-30

    Sensitization to pets is a major risk factor for asthma. There are many reports on the relationship between household pets, sensitization to the pet, and sensitization to other allergens, often with conflicting results. Pet ownership is not random, and household pets are associated with exposures other than pet allergens. We will review some of the evidence regarding the effects of household pets on infant immune responses, focusing on data from birth cohort studies. It remains unclear precisely why some children develop specific sensitizations to pets whilst others do not in the face of equivalent exposures, but it is likely to be due to gene-environment interactions. Further long-term follow-up of children in whom neonatal and infant immune responses have been measured is necessary to understand how these events occur and how they relate to subsequent disease.

  5. RIGHT OF SUBSEQUENT DISPOSAL IN CARGO TRANSPORTATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena Belu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sender has the right, by subsequent written disposition, to withdraw the property that was to be transported, before its departure, to stop it during transportation, to postpone its handing to the recipient or to order its return to the place of departure, to change the recipient person or place of destination or to dispose other modification to the transportation conditions. The sender who gave a subsequent disposal is required to pay to the carrier, as appropriate, the price for the part of transportation already performed, the due fees and expenses caused by executing the subsequent disposal, and to compensate him for any suffered loss. The sender cannot give a subsequent disposal leading to the splitting of the transport, unless otherwise provided by law.

  6. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension

  7. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  8. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  9. Prenatal malnutrition and subsequent foetal loss risk: Evidence from the 1959-1961 Chinese famine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shige Song

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientists disagree on whether prenatal malnutrition has long-term influences on women's reproductive function, and empirical evidence of such long-term effects remains limited and inconsistent. Methods: Using the retrospective pregnancy history of 12,567 Chinese women collected in a nationally representative sample survey in 2001, this study conducted difference-in-differences analyses to investigate the relationship between prenatal exposure to the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward Famine in China and the subsequent risk of involuntary foetal loss, including miscarriage and stillbirth, and how this relationship changes between the rural and urban populations. Results: Prenatal exposure to the Great Leap Forward Famine had no long-term effect on women's risk of miscarriage. Such an exposure increased the risk of stillbirth among urban women but not among rural women. Conclusions: The results support the foetal origins hypothesis. The significant urban-rural difference in the effect of prenatal famine exposure on stillbirth suggests the presence of a long-term negative foetal origins effect and a strong selection effect caused by famine-induced population attrition.

  10. Cesarean Delivery and Risk for Subsequent Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Zachary S; Smith, Ken R; Silver, Robert M

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to examine the risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in women with prior cesarean delivery. Women with a history of at least one cesarean delivery in the state of Utah during 1996 to 2011 were identified and compared with women with vaginal delivery only. The primary outcome was subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and stratified by first, second, or third live births. Model covariates included maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, gravidity, and prior ectopic pregnancy. Overall, 260,249 women with at least one live birth were identified. After exclusions, 255,082, 154,930, and 70,228 women had at least one, two, and three prior live births that lead to 531, 199, and 62 subsequent ectopic pregnancies, respectively. Women who had one prior cesarean delivery were not at increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in relation to women with no prior cesarean delivery. However, women with two of two, two of three, or three of three prior cesareans had increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.54 (1.06-2.22), 3.50 (1.49-8.24), and 1.99 (1.00-3.98), respectively. History of two or three cesarean deliveries is associated with increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Effects of Zinc and N-Acetylcysteine in Damage Caused by Lead Exposure in Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Taíse F; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Fonseca, Mariana M; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Maria Ester

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of rats exposed to lead acetate (AcPb) during the second phase of brain development (8-12 days postnatal) in hematological and cerebral parameters. Moreover, the preventive effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was investigated. Pups were injected subcutaneously with saline (0.9% NaCl solution), ZnCl 2 (27 mg/kg/day), NAC (5 mg/kg/day) or ZnCl 2 plus NAC for 5 days (3rd-7th postnatal days), and with saline (0.9% NaCl solution) or AcPb (7 mg/kg/day) in the five subsequent days (8th-12th postnatal days). Animals were sacrificed 21 days after the last AcPb exposure. Pups exposed to AcPb presented inhibition of blood porphobilinogen-synthase (PBG-synthase) activity without changes in hemoglobin content. ZnCl 2 pre-exposure partially prevented PBG-synthase inhibition. Regarding neurotoxicity biomarkers, animals exposed to AcPb presented a decrease in cerebrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and an increase in Pb accumulation in blood and cerebrum. These changes were prevented by pre-treatment with ZnCl 2 , NAC, and ZnCl 2 plus NAC. AcPb exposure caused no alteration in behavioral tasks. In short, results show that AcPb inhibited the activity of two important enzymatic biomarkers up to 21 days after the end of the exposure. Moreover, ZnCl 2 and NAC prevented the alterations induced by AcPb.

  12. GIS, Pollution Prevention and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  15. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  1. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  2. [Prevention of HIV transmission (vertical, occupational and non-occupational)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Harkaitz; Ibarguren, Maialen; Camino, Xabier; Iribarren, José Antonio

    2011-10-01

    In these almost thirty years since the epidemic of HIV infection strategies have been developed to decrease the transmission risk when a non-infected person comes into contact with HIV. One of the key landmarks was the use zidovudine was shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection by vertical transmission from 25% to 8% when given from the second trimester of pregnancy, during partum and for several weeks in the newborn. These strategies have been subsequently perfected until achieving vertical transmission rates less than 1%. Almost at the same time, strategies have been developed in an attempt to reduce the risk of transmission of infection after occupational accidents and, in the last few years prophylaxis after non-occupational exposure has been a field of particular concern. Even in this past year several experiments on pre-exposure prophylaxis have been published, which are generating an intense debate on is applicability. In this article, we analyse the state of the art in the prevention of vertical transmission and occupational and non-occupational prophylaxis, from a perspective of applying this in the developed world. We also review the published data on pre-exposure prophylaxis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Depressive symptomatology at age 75 and subsequent use of health and social services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Käte; Schroll, Marianne; Avlund, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    (CES-D Scale). Use of health and social services was measured by asking the participants whether they had been hospitalized or used home help during the year before follow-up. Among women, depressive symptoms at age 75 were associated with subsequent use of home help at age 80 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.......5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-5.0) and marginally associated with subsequent hospitalization (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.96-3.5). None of these results were seen in men. Preventive services should take into account depressive symptoms among elderly women.......It is well documented that elderly persons are the largest consumers of many health and social services. Consequently it is of interest to identify characteristics of users of those services. The purpose of this study is to examine whether depressive symptoms among men and women at age 75...

  4. Smoke exposure as a risk factor for asthma in childhood: a review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Antona, Roberta; Malizia, Velia; Montalbano, Laura; Corsello, Giovanni; La Grutta, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic multifactorial disease that affects >300 million people worldwide. Outdoor and indoor pollution exposure has been associated with respiratory health effects in adults and children. Smoking still represents a huge public health problem and millions of children suffer the detrimental effects of passive smoke exposure. This study was designed to review the current evidences on exposure to passive smoke as a risk factor for asthma onset in childhood. A review of the most recent studies on this topic was undertaken to provide evidence about the magnitude of the effect of passive smoking on the risk of incidence of asthma in children. The effects of passive smoking are different depending on individual and environmental factors. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important indoor air pollutants and can interact with other air pollutants in eliciting respiratory outcomes during childhood. The increased risk of respiratory outcomes in children exposed to prenatal and early postnatal passive smoke might be caused by an adverse effect on both the immune system and the structural and functional development of the lung; this may explain the subsequent increased risk of incident asthma. The magnitude of the exposure is quite difficult to precisely quantify because it is significantly influenced by the child's daily activities. Because exposure to ETS is a likely cause for asthma onset in childhood, there is a strong need to prevent infants and children from breathing air contaminated with tobacco smoke.

  5. The preventive effect of linalool on acute and chronic UVB-mediated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-07-06

    In this study, we evaluated the role of linalool in acute ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm) radiation-induced inflammation and chronic UVB-mediated photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. Acute UVB-irradiation (180 mJ cm(-2)) causes hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant depletion, and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in mouse skin. Topical or intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of linalool prevented acute UVB-induced hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant depletion in mouse skin. Further, linalool treatment prevented UVB-induced overexpression of COX-2 and ODC in mouse skin. In the chronic study, mice were subjected to UVB-exposure thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Chronic UVB-exposure induced tumor incidence and expression of proliferative markers such as NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, VEGF, TGF-β1, Bcl-2 and mutated p53 in mouse skin. Treatment with linalool before each UVB-exposure significantly prevented the expression of these proliferative markers and subsequently decreased the tumor incidence in mice skin. Histopathological studies confirmed the development of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the chronic UVB-exposed mouse skin; and this was prevented by both topical and i.p. linalool treatment. Therefore, linalool may be considered as a photochemopreventive agent against UVB radiation induced skin carcinogenesis.

  6. An Updated Subsequent Injury Categorisation Model (SIC-2.0): Data-Driven Categorisation of Subsequent Injuries in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Liam A; Drew, Michael K; Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F; Cook, Jill L

    2018-03-03

    Accounting for subsequent injuries is critical for sports injury epidemiology. The subsequent injury categorisation (SIC-1.0) model was developed to create a framework for accurate categorisation of subsequent injuries but its operationalisation has been challenging. The objective of this study was to update the subsequent injury categorisation (SIC-1.0 to SIC-2.0) model to improve its utility and application to sports injury datasets, and to test its applicability to a sports injury dataset. The SIC-1.0 model was expanded to include two levels of categorisation describing how previous injuries relate to subsequent events. A data-driven classification level was established containing eight discrete injury categories identifiable without clinical input. A sequential classification level that sub-categorised the data-driven categories according to their level of clinical relatedness has 16 distinct subsequent injury types. Manual and automated SIC-2.0 model categorisation were applied to a prospective injury dataset collected for elite rugby sevens players over a 2-year period. Absolute agreement between the two coding methods was assessed. An automated script for automatic data-driven categorisation and a flowchart for manual coding were developed for the SIC-2.0 model. The SIC-2.0 model was applied to 246 injuries sustained by 55 players (median four injuries, range 1-12), 46 (83.6%) of whom experienced more than one injury. The majority of subsequent injuries (78.7%) were sustained to a different site and were of a different nature. Absolute agreement between the manual coding and automated statistical script category allocation was 100%. The updated SIC-2.0 model provides a simple flowchart and automated electronic script to allow both an accurate and efficient method of categorising subsequent injury data in sport.

  7. Prenatal exposure to air pollution, maternal psychological distress, and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia; Zhou, Hui; Stigter, Laura; Camann, David; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Mroz, Elzbieta; Majewska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants generated by combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material. Both prenatal PAH exposure and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy have each been associated with neurodevelopmental problems in children. The goal was to evaluate potential interactions between prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy on subsequent behavioral problems in children. In a longitudinal birth cohort study, 248 children of nonsmoking white women in the coal-burning region of Krakow, Poland, were followed from in utero until age 9. Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, maternal demoralization during pregnancy by the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Instrument-Demoralization, and child behavior by the Child Behavior Checklist. Significant interactions between maternal demoralization and PAH exposure (high versus low) were identified for symptoms of anxious/depressed, withdrawn/depressed, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. The effects of demoralization on syndromes of anxious/depressed, withdrawn/depressed, rule-breaking, aggressive behavior, and the composite internalizing and externalizing scores were seen only in conjunction with high PAH exposure. Fewer significant effects with weaker effect sizes were observed in the low-PAH-exposure group. Maternal demoralization during pregnancy appears to have a greater effect on child neurobehavioral development among children who experienced high prenatal PAH exposure. The results provide the first evidence of an interaction between prenatal exposure to maternal demoralization and air pollution on child neurobehavioral development, indicating the need for a multifaceted approach to the prevention of developmental problems in children.

  8. Endometriosis and the subsequent risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsun Chang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Taiwanese women with endometriosis really had a risk of newly developed EOC, especially those who had a surgical diagnosis, and this three-fold increase of risk was neither influenced by exposure time nor biased by surveillance.

  9. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  10. Global Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford Scott; Emmett, Susan D; Robler, Samantha Kleindienst; Tucci, Debara L

    2018-03-07

    Hearing loss is the fourth leading contributor to years lived with a disability worldwide. Most recent estimates indicate that one-half of a billion people suffer from disabling hearing loss worldwide. The social and economic burden is significant. When attributing monetary value to years lived with disability owing to hearing loss, there is greater than $US750 billion lost each year globally. There are numerous contributors to hearing loss, including congenital, infectious, noise exposure, age-related, traumatic, and immune-mediated causes. Understanding the pathophysiology of these factors allows for the development of preventative and treatment strategies specific to the underlying cause. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O’Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remains unclear. Further, there is little data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys (comprising 19 countries, and 52,095 adults) were used. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of common mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension, with and without psychiatric comorbidity adjustment. Variations in the strength of associations by gender and by life course stage of onset of both the mental disorder and hypertension were investigated. Results After psychiatric comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of hypertension (with ORs ranging from 1.1 to 1.6). Number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with subsequent hypertension in a dose-response fashion. For social phobia and alcohol abuse, associations with hypertension were stronger for males than females. For panic disorder, the association with hypertension was particularly apparent in earlier onset hypertension. Conclusions Depression, anxiety, impulsive eating disorders, and substance use disorders disorders were significantly associated with the subsequent diagnosis of hypertension. These data underscore the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and of physical health monitoring in people with these conditions.. PMID:24342112

  12. Subsequent pregnancies in women with previous gestational syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebmuller, Marjorie Garlow; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Lago, Eleonor Gastal

    2015-09-01

    This study included data on syphilis-positive pregnant women seen for delivery or miscarriage, between 1997 and 2004, in Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, RS. Their subsequent obstetric outcomes were studied, until December 2011, to see if the disease recurred. From 450 pregnant women with positive syphilis serology, seen from 1997 to 2004, 166 had at least one more obstetric attendance until December 2011, with 266 new obstetric outcomes. Congenital syphilis (CS) was demonstrated in 81.9% of the initial pregnancies and in 68.4% of the subsequent ones. The main causes of CS in subsequent pregnancies were a negative VDRL that turned positive at delivery, and undocumented treatment. VDRL titers were higher than 1:4 in 50.4% of the initial and 13.3% of the subsequent pregnancies (p syphilis in a preceding pregnancy. No or inadequate prenatal care was the main risk factor for CS, both in initial and in subsequent pregnancies. These data suggest that non-infected neonates could have been defined as CS cases because of insufficient information about the mother's history.

  13. An effective suicide prevention program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Tatsa-Laur, L; Derazne, E; Mann, J J; Fruchter, E

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006. Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study. Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992-2005, n=766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006-2012, n=405,252) the launching of the intervention program. The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs. Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program. Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI=0.34-0.56, Psuicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program's prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term effects of traumatic stress on subsequent contextual fear conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoke, Rie; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2014-04-22

    Exposure to stressful events affects subsequent sensitivity to fear. We investigated the long-term effects of a traumatic experience on subsequent contextual fear conditioning and anxiety-like behaviors in rats (Experiment 1). In addition, we tested whether the administration of the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (MET) attenuated the sensitization of fear induced by traumatic stress (Experiment 2). Male rats were subjected to a multiple stress (MS) session, which consisted of 4 foot shocks (1mA, 1s) and forced swimming for 20min, followed by exposure to a situational reminder 7days after the MS session. MET (25 or 100mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered 30min before MS. The contextual fear conditioning was performed 14days after MS. MS enhanced the conditioned fear response for at least 14days after the conditioning, and pretreatment with MET did not affect the enhancement of conditioned fear. These results suggest that glucocorticoid secretion triggered by MS is not involved in regulating the long-term stress-induced sensitization of fear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety lock for radiography exposure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    A safety lock for securing a radiation source in a radiography exposure device is disclosed. The safety lock prevents the inadvertent extension of the radiation source from the exposure device. The exposure devices are used extensively in industry for nondestructive testing of metal materials for defect. Unnecessary exposure of the radiographer or operator occurs not infrequently due to operator's error in believing that the radiation source is secured in the exposure device when, in fact, it is not. The present invention solves this problem of unnecessary exposure by releasingly trapping the radiation source in the shield of the radiography exposure device each time the source is retracted therein so that it is not inadvertently extended therefrom without the operator resetting the safety lock, thereby releasing the radiation source. Further, the safety lock includes an indicator which indicates when the source is trapped in the exposure device and also when it is untrapped. The safety lock is so designed that it does not prevent the return of the source to the trapped, shielded position in the exposure device. Further the safety lock includes a key means for locking the radiation source in the trapped position. The key means cannot be actuated until said radiation source is in said trapped position to further insure the safety lock cannot be inadvertently locked with the source untrapped and thus still extendable from the exposure device

  16. Faster Algorithms for Computing Longest Common Increasing Subsequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutz, Martin; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Kaligosi, Kanela

    2011-01-01

    of the alphabet, and Sort is the time to sort each input sequence. For k⩾3 length-n sequences we present an algorithm which improves the previous best bound by more than a factor k for many inputs. In both cases, our algorithms are conceptually quite simple but rely on existing sophisticated data structures......We present algorithms for finding a longest common increasing subsequence of two or more input sequences. For two sequences of lengths n and m, where m⩾n, we present an algorithm with an output-dependent expected running time of and O(m) space, where ℓ is the length of an LCIS, σ is the size....... Finally, we introduce the problem of longest common weakly-increasing (or non-decreasing) subsequences (LCWIS), for which we present an -time algorithm for the 3-letter alphabet case. For the extensively studied longest common subsequence problem, comparable speedups have not been achieved for small...

  17. Aircrew and Handheld Laser Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kevin C

    2017-11-01

    Laser devices are ubiquitous in everyday operations. These devices pose a hazard to the eye and numerous injuries have been documented. However, there lies a misunderstanding in the propensity to damage aircrews' eyes during an exposure. Patient encounters and article review is presented in hopes to raise awareness that aircrew laser exposure at altitude, outside of critical phases of flight, is a distraction and not a threat. Also, to propose a change to Air Force policy regarding such exposures and further educating flight surgeons. An electronic medical record (EMR) search at a deployed clinic was performed from July 2016 through Jan 2017. The "reason for visit" column was perused for any reference to the eye and laser exposure. Subsequently, the patient encounters were scrutinized specifically for eye injury, optometry visit, color of laser, and suspension of flight duties. All members were military aircrew spanning loadmasters, boom operators, and pilots. No protective lenses or other forms of optics were employed at time of exposure. There were 21 encounters reviewed; 1 patient was seen twice due to 2 separate instances. Of the encounters, 14 were green lasers, 6 did not comment, and 1 indicated white. Zero acute injuries were discovered. Patients were needlessly sent for further examination and prohibited from performing their duties. Following military patient encounters and civilian literature regarding laser injury, the evidence highly supports the hypothesis that hand-held laser exposure in flight from a ground base does not engender eye injury. More emphasis should be placed on recognizing the laser threat as a distraction or disruption to critical phases of flight, and a policy change may be in order for the USAF laser exposure guide.Dietrich KC. Aircrew and handheld laser exposure. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(11):1040-1042.

  18. The effects of free recall testing on subsequent source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Marsh, Richard L; Meeks, Joseph T; Clark-Foos, Arlo; Hicks, Jason L

    2010-05-01

    The testing effect is the finding that prior retrieval of information from memory will result in better subsequent memory for that material. One explanation for these effects is that initial free recall testing increases the recollective details for tested information, which then becomes more available during a subsequent test phase. In three experiments we explored this hypothesis using a source-monitoring test phase after the initial free recall tests. We discovered that memory is differentially enhanced for certain recollective details depending on the nature of the free recall task. Thus further research needs to be conducted to specify how different kinds of memorial details are enhanced by free recall testing.

  19. A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Subsequence Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc. combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed algorithm is easy to be implemented, can get good encryption effect, has a wide secret key's space, strong sensitivity to secret key, and has the abilities of resisting exhaustive attack and statistic attack.

  20. Development of IAEA description of passive safety and subsequent thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The description of passive components and systems published by the IAEA in its TECDOC-626 was developed in the course of a Technical Committee Meeting held in Sweden and two subsequent Consultants Meetings held in Vienna. This description is reviewed and discussed in terms of the philosophies behind it, alternatives considered, problems encountered, and conclusions drawn. Also discussed is an Appendix to the TECDOC, which illustrates the spectrum of possibilities from passive to active by describing four typical categories of passivity. Subsequent thoughts on passive safety include a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages, concluding with a summary of current views and problems with it. (author). 8 refs

  1. Do fertility intentions predict subsequent behavior? Evidence from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P C; Tey, N P

    1994-01-01

    Data from the 1984 Malaysian Population and Family Survey were matched with birth registration records for 1985-87 to determine the accuracy of statements regarding desired family size that were reported in a household survey in predicting subsequent reproductive behavior. The findings of this study were that stated fertility intention provides fairly accurate forecasts of fertility behavior in the subsequent period. In other words, whether a woman has another child is predicted closely by whether she wanted an additional child. Informational, educational, and motivational activities of family planning programs would, therefore, have greater success in reducing family size if fertility intentions were taken into account.

  2. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  3. Human exposure to nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. Preventive efforts should mainly be directed towards adequate control of these exposure sources.

  4. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: → This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. → Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. → Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. → Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  5. Investigating the Effects of Mass Media Exposure on the Uptake of Preventive Measures by Hong Kong Residents during the 2015 MERS Outbreak: The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Communication and the Perception of Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Ramona; Schulz, Peter J; Chen, Ling

    2018-01-01

    In 2015, South Korea experienced the largest outbreak to date of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) outside the Middle East. Fears related to a potential spread of the disease led to an increased alert level as well as heightened media coverage in the neighboring Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey (N = 533) among residents of Hong Kong was conducted to assess the relationships between the effects of outbreak-related mass media coverage, interpersonal communication, the perceived level of concern in one's close environment, and the uptake of preventive measures. A serial multiple mediator model finds that interpersonal communication and higher perceived concern indirectly influence the effects of media coverage on the engagement in preventive actions. These results expand previous research on the mediating role of interpersonal communication and support assumptions about a modified two-step flow of communication in the context of a public health emergency.

  6. Using poison center data for national public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposure and associated illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of infant nutrition in the prevention of future disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron eShaoul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that nutrition is part of the environmental factors affecting the incidence of various diseases. The effect starts in the prenatal life and affects fetal growth and continues in early life and throughout childhood. The effect has been shown on various disease states such as allergic diseases, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome and immunologic diseases such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus. It seems that the recommendations of exclusive breastfeeding until the age of 4 months and subsequently exposure to various solid foods has beneficial effect in terms of allergic, immune and cardiovascular diseases prevention. Will these recommendations change the natural course of these diseases is unknown yet, but there is an accumulating evidence that indeed this is the case. In this review we review the evidence of early nutritional intervention and future disease prevention.

  8. Patients' and providers' perceptions of the preventability of hospital readmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Galen, Louise S; Brabrand, Mikkel; Cooksley, Tim

    2017-01-01

    and preventability of the readmission. Cohen's Kappa measured pairwise agreement of considering readmission as predictable/preventable by patients, carers and professionals. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regressionidentified factors associated with predictability/preventability. SETTING: 15 hospitals in four...... European countries PARTICIPANTS: 1398 medical patients readmitted unscheduled within 30 days MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: (1) Agreement between the interviewed groups on considering readmissions likely predictable or preventable;(2) Factors distinguishing predictable from non-predictable and preventable...

  9. Feedback on Measured Dust Concentrations Reduces Exposure Levels among Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; B??nl??kke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Nils Testrup; Omland, ??yvind; Kromhout, Hans; Schl??nssen, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The high burden of exposure to organic dust among livestock farmers warrants the establishment of effective preventive and exposure control strategies for these workers. The number of intervention studies exploring the effectiveness of exposure reduction strategies through the use of

  10. 12 CFR 226.20 - Subsequent disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creditor need only disclose: (1) The unpaid balance of the obligation assumed. (2) The total charges imposed by the creditor in connection with the assumption. (3) The information required to be disclosed... creditor expressly agrees in writing with a subsequent consumer to accept that consumer as a primary...

  11. The Differential Effect of Attentional Condition on Subsequent Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Halah Abdulelah; Majid, Norazman Abdul; Abdullah, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the potential methodological issues effect of attentional condition on subsequent vocabulary development from a different perspective, which addressed several potential methodological issues of previous research that have been based on psycholinguistic notion of second language learner as a limited capacity processor. The…

  12. Fitness Change and Subsequent Academic Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Taun, Chih-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between fitness change and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese schoolchildren from 7th grade to 9th grade. Methods: The 7th graders from 1 junior high school district participated in this study (N=669). Academic performance was

  13. Beliefs about Child Support Modification Following Remarriage and Subsequent Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Framed by equity theory, fairness beliefs regarding child support modification to account for the financial impact of remarriage and subsequent childbirth were assessed. Based on a random sample of 407 Kentucky residents using a multiple segment factorial vignette approach, modification was supported by 57% of respondents following remarriage, but…

  14. Risks associated with subsequent pregnancy after one caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risks associated with subsequent pregnancy after one caesarean section: A prospective cohort study in a Nigerian obstetric population. ... Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was performed with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for windows (IBM Incorporated, Armonk, NY, USA) using descriptive and inferential ...

  15. Initial and subsequent location choices of immigrants to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    The initial settlement behaviour and the subsequent mobility of immigrants who arrived in the Netherlands in 1999 are examined using rich administrative individual data. The study considers the settlement patterns of immigrants from various countries of origin who entered the country as labour,

  16. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum grains suffer from severe infection and colonization by several toxigenic fungi and subsequent production of mycotoxins, posing a threat to human and animal health. Among all the mycotoxins, aflatoxins represent one of the most important toxicants considered as important constraint of grain quality and sorghum ...

  17. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse repair subsequent to hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair in women following radical hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry, we collected data on all radical...

  18. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Subsequent Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a rising prevalence worldwide, there is limited data on pregnancy outcome among African women with prepregnancy or early pregnancy obesity. This was a case-control study to determine the prevalence of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and compare the subsequent pregnancy outcome between 201 women ...

  19. Gypsy moth egg-mass density and subsequent defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell

    1966-01-01

    The relationship between insect density and subsequent defoliation is usually important among the many factors involved in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth. Unfortunately, the proportion of the foliage that will be removed by a defoliator in any given place and year depends not only upon the number of...

  20. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttke, C.S.; Ekman, M.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lange, F.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we

  1. Outcome of Subsequent Labour After Primary Caesarean Section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Teenage mothers are at risk of numerous problems among which is cephalopeelvic disproportion or obstructed labour because of small and immature pelvis. This leads to a tendency to allowing trial of scar in subsequent pregnancies because the teenage pelvis might not have reached full capacity as at the time of ...

  2. What Employees Look for in First and Subsequent Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewayo, Edward D.

    1986-01-01

    A questionnaire was distributed to 1,060 employees of 33 companies. It asked about motivations for choosing first-time and subsequent employers. Results showed that employees generally choose their first full-time job for advancement opportunities, benefits, and skills usage, while salary is a chief consideration for job changers. (CH)

  3. Chronic genital ulcer disease with subsequent development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the ...

  4. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the. Highland Sourveld of Natal. A. van Niekerk* and R. Kernick. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science, University of Natal, P.O. ...

  5. Remembering Reactions and Facts: The Influence of Subsequent Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Paula T.

    1982-01-01

    Memory for reactions and judgments about a biographical passage was examined following presentation of subsequent information relevant to the passage. The different ways that memories are influenced by various types of later information were discussed in terms of the loci of reaction and fact generation (internal and external). (Author/RD)

  6. Relationship between egg weight, hatch weight and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) Fulani Ecotype (FE) chicken eggs collected from free ranged Fulani Ecotype chicken were used to study the effect of egg weight on hatch weight and subsequent body weight. Eggs were grouped into two according to their weight (small and medium) and incubated. Body weight of the chicks was ...

  7. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  9. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  10. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus