Hiemstra, Marieke; Ringlever, Linda; Otten, Roy; van Schayck, Onno; Engels, Rutger C M E
Objective The aims of the study were to evaluate the long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program ‘Smoke-free Kids’ during preadolescence on smoking initiation during adolescence and to test the potential moderating role of parental smoking, socioeconomic status, and asthma. Method
Hiemstra, Marieke; Ringlever, Linda; Otten, Roy; van Schayck, Onno C P; Jackson, Christine; Engels, Rutger C M E
The aims of the study were to evaluate the long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids' during preadolescence on smoking initiation during adolescence and to test the potential moderating role of parental smoking, socioeconomic status, and asthma. In 2008, 1478 9-11year old children and their mothers were recruited from 418 elementary schools in the Netherlands. An independent statistician randomly allocated schools to one of the two conditions using a 1:1 ratio (single blind): 728 children in the intervention and 750 in the control condition. The intervention condition received five activity modules, including a communication sheet for mothers, by mail at four-week intervals and one booster module one year after baseline. The control condition received a fact-based intervention only. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed on 1398 non-smoking children at baseline. In the intervention 10.8% of the children started smoking compared to 12% in the control condition. This difference was non-significant (odds ratio=0.90, 95% confidence interval=0.63-1.27). No moderating effects were found. No effects on smoking initiation after 36months were found. Perhaps, the program was implemented with children that were too young. Programs closer to the age of smoking onset should be tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…
Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing
To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.
Objective: To identify predictors of smoking initiation among non smoking Tunisian school children; and to propose efficient antismoking strategies in order to prevent smoking initiation. Methods: It was a cohort study surveying prospectively for four years pupils attending schools in Sousse city in Tunisia. 441 non smoking ...
Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh
Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.
C-S. Hsieh (Chih-Sheng); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)
textabstractSocial interactions are widely recognized to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we hypothesize that individual with `stronger' personalities (i.e. emotionally stable, conscientious individuals) are better able to resist peer pressure in the
Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H; Bobo, J K
School health educators have devoted much attention to cigarette smoking. Recent years have seen the testing of interventions to prevent smoking. To date, controlled studies have not evaluated the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking. This article describes such an evaluation with sixth-grade students from two schools. Subjects were pretested and randomly assigned to receive conventional health education methods or to receive skills intervention. Both conditions included films, peer testimonials, discussions, and homework. Health education condition subjects additionally participated in oral quizzes, games, and debates. Skills condition subjects additionally learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. At postintervention, skills condition subjects, more than health education condition subjects, had better scores on measures of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. In addition, reported cigarette use, validated by biochemical data collection, was lower in the skills condition than in the health education condition at all postintervention measurements, including a 24-month follow-up. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention efforts in schools.
Jackson, C; Bee-Gates, D J; Henriksen, L
School-based social influence programs to prevent adolescent smoking are having limited success in the long term. Intervening earlier in the process of smoking onset, during the childhood years, may be required to prevent adolescent smoking. Child socialization variables, specifically parenting behaviors and child competencies, may be important to understanding the earliest phase of smoking onset. This study tested hypotheses of association between authoritative parenting behaviors, enhanced child competencies, and relatively low rates of initiation of cigarette smoking. Analyzing cross-sectional survey data from 937 students in Grades 3 to 8, we found general support for the study hypotheses: Authoritative parenting was positively associated with child competencies; children's competency levels were inversely related to their rates of smoking intention, initiation, and experimentation; authoritative parenting was inversely related to rates of child smoking intention and behaviors; and authoritative parenting and parent smoking status had independent associations with child initiation of cigarette smoking. These results indicate that child socialization variables merit further investigation for their potential role in the development of early intervention programs for smoking prevention.
Eun Sun So, PhD
Conclusions: Interventions targeting the prevention of smoking initiation among adolescents should include individual factors such as health status, body weight, perceived mental health status, health-risk behaviors, and academic characteristics as well as family factors that reinforce family cohesion and home smoking bans. Moreover, male adolescents aged 12–13 years and their parents should be the main target of these interventions.
Farrelly, Matthew C; Nonnemaker, James; Davis, Kevin C; Hussin, Altijani
States and national organizations spend millions annually on antismoking campaigns aimed at youth. Much of the evidence for their effectiveness is based on cross-sectional studies. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a prominent national youth smoking-prevention campaign in the U.S. known as truth that was launched in February 2000. A nationally representative cohort of 8904 adolescents aged 12-17 years who were interviewed annually from 1997 to 2004 was analyzed in 2008. A quasi-experimental design was used to relate changes in smoking initiation to variable levels of exposure to antismoking messages over time and across 210 media markets in the U.S. A discrete-time hazard model was used to quantify the influence of media market delivery of TV commercials on smoking initiation, controlling for confounding influences. Based on the results of the hazard model, the number of youth nationally who were prevented from smoking from 2000 through 2004 was estimated. Exposure to the truth campaign is associated with a decreased risk of smoking initiation (relative risk=0.80, p=0.001). Through 2004, approximately 450,000 adolescents were prevented from trying smoking nationwide. Factors negatively associated with initiation include African-American race (relative risk=0.44, pstrategy for preventing youth smoking.
Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E
Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doran, Neal; Schweizer, C. Amanda; Myers, Mark
Expectancies are important predictors of smoking behavior. Recent research suggests that expectancies are not stable, and vary across internal and external states and levels of cigarette consumption. Expectancies may also vary between individuals as a function of temperamental characteristics such as behavioral undercontrol (BU). While pre-initiation expectancies have been linked to subsequent smoking behaviors, no study has assessed the effect of smoking initiation on expectancies. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that both positive (PRE) and negative (NRE) reinforcement expectancies would increase following initiation, and that these changes would be moderated by BU. College students were interviewed 12–15 months apart. Those who initiated smoking between assessments (n = 69) were included in the present study. Linear mixed models showed a significant increase in PRE but not NRE from pre- to post-initiation. The relationship between NRE and time was moderated by BU, such that higher BU was associated with significantly larger post-initiation increases in NRE. Findings suggest that PRE and NRE change significantly following experience with smoking. Further, undercontrolled, impulsive individuals may be particularly vulnerable to smoking with the intention of alleviating aversive states. PMID:20822193
Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway
Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Kunst, Anton E.
Background and aim As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is targeted primarily at young adolescents (aged below 16 years). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have
Luh, Dih-Ling; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng
The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of home smoking restriction (HSR) and the modified effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation among adolescents. Prospective Cohort Study. Junior high school in Keelung City, Taiwan. This study collected and evaluated primary data from the Adolescent Smoking and Other Health-Related Behaviour Survey conducted in Keelung City, which aimed to investigate smoking and health-related behaviours in junior high school students (2008-2009). Data on students free of smoking in 2008 and following them until 2009 (n=901) to ascertain whether they had started smoking were analysed with logistic regression mode to examine the proposed postulates. The outcome variable was smoking initiation, which was defined as smoking status (yes/no) in the 2009 follow-up questionnaire. The main independent variable was HSR obtained from an adolescent self-reported questionnaire. Information on parental smoking was measured by adolescents self-reporting the smoking behaviour of their father and mother. The rate of HSR was 29.79% among 7th grade adolescents. The effect of HSR on smoking initiation in adolescents was statistically significantly modified by paternal smoking (p=0.04) but not by maternal smoking (p=0.54). The effect of HSR on smoking initiation was small for fathers with the habit of smoking (OR=0.89, 95% CI (0.42 to 1.88)), but the corresponding effect size was 3.2-fold (OR=2.84, 95% CI 1.19 to 6.81) for fathers without the habit of smoking. Paternal smoking behaviour may play an interactive role with HSR in preventing smoking initiation among Taiwanese adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Fakhfakh, R; Jaidane, I; Hsairi, M; Ben Hamida, A M
Since smoking is a major public health problem among Tunisian teenagers, it is important to identify the underlying risk and protective factors associated with initiation of this behavior. A cross-sectional, school-based survey of students was conducted by the Tunisian Ministry of Health among a nationally representative sample of 4172 adolescents aged between 12 and 20 years attending public, private, and professional secondary schools across Tunisia who participated in the Survey of the Health of Tunisian adolescents in 2000. For data analysis, we first calculated crude odds ratios (OR) followed by calculating adjusted OR after using multivariate logistic regression models. Almost one-third of respondents had already started smoking at an average age of 13 years, 6.4% among them smoked daily. Demographic vulnerabilities to smoking behavior were gender (boys more than girls), age and residence in urban areas and particularly in Greater Tunis and the North East. Familial and school factors were parental divorce, poor relationship with parents, poor integration into the peer group, and poor school investment. Psychological and behavioral factors were low self-esteem level and the occurrence of stressful life events, risk taking and alcohol consumption when there was no association with the depression, anxiety and body image. Protective factors against the experimental cigarettes were mainly sports and reading. There are many factors associated with smoking behavior among adolescents. All of these predictors need to be considered in smoking prevention among Tunisian teenagers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chan, Sophia; Lam, Tai Hing
To report the effectiveness of a health education intervention provided by nurses to prevent second-hand smoke exposure in sick children in Hong Kong. A clinical trial, international and national government reports, and research studies. Exposure to second-hand smoke is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nursing interventions to reduce exposure are critical and need further study. Nurses are in a vital position to carry out health education about the health risks associated with second-hand smoke exposure and to protect the child from such exposure.
Thompson, Azure B; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Messeri, Peter A
Smokers who initiate as adults are more likely to quit than those who initiate as adolescents. Black women are more likely than White women to initiate smoking in adulthood and are less likely to quit. There is a paucity of research examining whether the smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators applies to Black women. The study objective is to examine race differences in the effect of developmental stage of smoking initiation on number of years until cessation among Black and White women. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a national cohort of women between the ages of 49 and 61 years in 2003. The analytic sample comprised 1,008 White women and 271 Black women with a history of smoking. Survival analysis procedures were utilized to address the study objective. Racial disparities in smoking cessation were most evident among women who initiated smoking as adults. White young adult initiators had a 31% increased hazard of smoking cessation advantage (adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.65) over adolescent initiators, whereas Black young adult initiators had no smoking cessation advantage (adjusted HR: 0.85, CI: 95% 0.55-1.30) over adolescent initiators. Prior observations that smoking initiation in adulthood is associated with high rates of cessation do not apply to black women. To contribute to the reduction of disparities in women's cessation efforts to prevent initiation should target young adult women, particularly Black young adult women.
Nabors, Laura; Iobst, Emily A.; McGrady, Meghan E.
The majority of individuals who will become "smokers" begin smoking during their teenage years. Schools are optimal settings for relaying messages about health risks associated with smoking and for implementing smoking prevention programs. This article presents successful components of smoking prevention programs, describes the evaluation process,…
Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P
This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hasan; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Sadegh Tabrizi, Jafar
Smoking is the cause for many preventable deaths worldwide. The rate of smoking has not increased in Iran in the past two decades, but its increase among adolescents and young adults is a concern. This study investigates the risk factors of initiation and continuation of smoking in Iran using a qualitative approach. This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted on 12 smokers and 6 non-smokers in 4 selected cities in Iran. Data were collected with deep and semi-structured interviews, verbatim transcription and simultaneously coding. Then, they were analyzed through content analysis. Three themes and 16 subcategories emerged. The themes were personal inefficacy with 6 subgroups included inadequate information, low age, curiosity, consideration of smoking not as a major problem, wrong beliefs, and making reasons. Family inefficacy with 4 subgroups included poor authority, lack of reaction, existence of stressors, and history of smoking. Vulnerable social environment with 6 subgroups included poverty, social stressors, magnification of smoking, network of cigarette smoking, smoking as a norm and convenience of access. Recognition of smoking among children, modification of wrong beliefs about smoking, empowerment of the individuals against smoking from the very childhood, consideration of familial stress and crisis, and ultimately, paying attention to the role of social variables will play a major role in prevention of smoking and encouraging individuals to quit smoking.
Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael
Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some
Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Dalton, Madeline A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Longacre, Meghan R; Beach, Michael L
Previous studies showed an association between viewing of smoking in movies and initiation of smoking among adolescents. However, all studies except one were cross-sectional, and none updated movie smoking exposure prospectively or assessed its influence on children. We enrolled elementary school students, 9 to 12 years of age, in a longitudinal study to assess the influence of movie smoking exposure on smoking initiation among children. Movie smoking content was coded for the most popular movie releases; exposure was assessed by asking children which movies they had seen, on the basis of unique lists of 50 movies sampled randomly from top box office hits and video rentals. Data collection occurred in 3 waves (the baseline survey and 2 follow-up surveys), approximately 1 year apart. Movie lists were updated for each data collection wave, to reflect recent releases. Movie smoking exposure was analyzed in relation to smoking initiation by the end of the study period. Approximately 80% of the children's smoking exposure occurred through movies rated G, PG, or PG-13. Children's movie smoking exposure predicted smoking initiation significantly, after adjustment for multiple covariates including child and parent characteristics. The relative risks were 1.09, 1.09, and 1.07 for a 1-decile increase of movie smoking exposure measured at the baseline, second, and third data collection waves, respectively. The adjusted attributable risk of smoking initiation attributable to movie smoking exposure was 0.35. Our study, which is the first to enroll children in elementary school and to update movie smoking exposure longitudinally, indicates that early exposure has as much influence on smoking risk as does exposure nearer the outcome. Overall, movie smoking may be responsible for at least one third of smoking initiation for children in this age group.
Krasovsky Konstantin S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98, that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92, and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75. With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86, and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95. Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive
Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect
van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.
Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen
The widespread belief that peer influence is the primary cause of adolescent smoking initiation is examined and called into question. Correlational and longitudinal studies purporting to demonstrate peer influence are analyzed, and their limitations described. Qualitative interview studies of adolescent smoking initiation are presented as…
Freedman, Kit S; Nelson, Nanette M; Feldman, Laura L
Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the United States and Canada, and recent data indicate that they often initiate smoking as young adults. The objective of this study was to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation and effective prevention efforts among young adults. We searched 5 databases for research articles published in English between 1998 and 2010 on smoking initiation among young adults (aged 18-25) living in the United States or Canada. We extracted the following data from each study selected: the measure of initiation used, age range of initiation, age range of study population, data source, target population, sampling method, and sample size. We summarized the primary findings of each study according to 3 research questions and categories of data (eg, sociodemographic) that emerged during the data extraction process. Of 1,072 identified studies, we found 27 articles that met our search criteria, but several included a larger age range of initiation (eg, 18-30, 18-36) than we initially intended to include. Disparities in young adult smoking initiation existed according to sex, race, and educational attainment. The use of alcohol and illegal drugs was associated with smoking initiation. The risk of smoking initiation among young adults increased under the following circumstances: exposure to smoking, boredom or stress while serving in the military, attending tobacco-sponsored social events while in college, and exposure to social norms and perceptions that encourage smoking. Effective prevention efforts include exposure to counter-marketing, denormalization campaigns, taxation, and the presence of smoke-free policies. Much remains to be learned about young adult smoking initiation, particularly among young adults in the straight-to-work population. Dissimilar measures of smoking initiation limit our knowledge about smoking initiation among young adults. We recommend developing a standardized
Kremers, S P J; Mudde, A N; De Vries, H
Two lines of psychological research have attempted to spell out the stages of adolescent smoking initiation. The first has focused on behavioral stages of smoking initiation, while the second line emphasized motivational stages. A large international sample of European adolescents (N = 10,170, mean age = 13.3 years) was followed longitudinally. Self-reported motivational and behavioral stages of smoking initiation were integrated, leading to the development of the Model of Unplanned Smoking Initiation of Children and Adolescents (MUSICA). The MUSICA postulates that youngsters experiment with smoking while they are in an unmotivated state as regards their plans for smoking regularly in the future. More than 95% of the total population resided in one of the seven stages distinguished by MUSICA. The probability of starting to smoke regularly during the 12 months follow-up period increased with advanced stage assignment at baseline. Unique social cognitive predictors of stage progression from the various stages were identified, but effect sizes of predictors of transitions were small. The integration of motivational and behavioral dimensions improves our understanding of the process of smoking initiation. In contrast to current theories of smoking initiation, adolescent uptake of smoking behavior was found to be an unplanned action.
Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A
School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.
Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson
Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world's current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program x Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition x Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming.
Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Gibson, Jennifer J; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda T; Carusi, Charles P; Swain, Susan D; Heatherton, Todd F; Dalton, Madeline A
Regional studies have linked exposure to movie smoking with adolescent smoking. We examined this association in a representative US sample. We conducted a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Using previously validated methods, we estimated exposure to movie smoking, in 532 recent box-office hits, and examined its relation with adolescents having ever tried smoking a cigarette. The distributions of demographics and census region in the unweighted sample were almost identical to 2000 US Census estimates, confirming representativeness. Overall, 10% of the population had tried smoking. Quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of smoking initiation: 0.02 of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking; 0.06 in Q2; 0.11 in Q3; and 0.22 in Q4. This association did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity or census region. After controlling for sociodemographics, friend/sibling/parent smoking, school performance, personality characteristics, and parenting style, the adjusted odds ratio for having tried smoking were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 2.7) for Q2, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.9) for Q3, and 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.1) for Q4 compared with adolescents in Q1. The covariate-adjusted attributable fraction was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.56), suggesting that exposure to movie smoking is the primary independent risk factor for smoking initiation in US adolescents in this age group. Smoking in movies is a risk factor for smoking initiation among US adolescents. Limiting exposure of young adolescents to movie smoking could have important public health implications.
Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
We investigated whether established risk factors for initiating cigarette smoking during adolescence (parents, siblings, friends smoke; home smoking rules, smokers at home, exposure to smoking in cars, academic performance, susceptibility to smoking, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, school connectedness, use of other tobacco products) are associated with initiation in preadolescents, and whether the effects of these factors differ by gender. In spring 2005, baseline data were collected in self-report questionnaires from 1801 5th grade students including 1553 never-smokers (mean age=10.7years), in the longitudinal AdoQuest I Study in Montréal, Canada. Follow-up data were collected in the fall and spring of 6th grade (2005-2006). Poisson regression analyses with robust variance estimated the effects of each risk factor on initiation and additive interactions with gender were computed to assess the excess risk of each risk factor in girls compared to boys. 101 of 1399 participants in the analytic sample (6.7% of boys; 7.7% of girls) initiated smoking during follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender and maternal education, all risk factors except academic performance and school connectedness were statistically significantly associated with initiation. Paternal and sibling smoking were associated with initiation in girls only, and girls with lower self-esteem had a significant excess risk of initiating smoking in 6th grade. Risk factors for smoking initiation in preadolescents mirror those in adolescents; their effects do not differ markedly by gender. Preventive programs targeting children should focus on reducing smoking in the social environment and the dangers of poly-tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nuyts, Paulien A W; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Willemsen, Marc C; Kunst, Anton E
As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is targeted primarily at young adolescents (aged below 16 years). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have occurred. Repeated cross-sectional survey. The Netherlands. A total of 13 163 respondents born between 1980 and 1995. In the 2010-15 National Health Survey we measured retrospectively self-reported initiation rates per year of age by birth cohort (1980-83, 1984-87, 1988-91, 1992-95). Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess differences between cohorts, per sex and educational level. Of those who started smoking, 67.2% initiated smoking between 12 and 16 years of age. Contrary to our hypothesis, no shift in initiation towards higher ages was observed. The peak age of initiation was 16 years for all cohorts. Initiation at ages 17-21 was lower in younger birth cohorts than in older birth cohorts [e.g. cohort 1993-95 versus 1980-83: odds ratio (OR) for initiating at 19-21 years = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31-0.64]. Trends in age of initiation were similar for males and females. Initiation at ages 15-17 decreased across cohorts for respondents in higher education levels, but not for those in lower education levels. In the Netherlands, the peak age of smoking initiation did not shift throughour subsequent cohorts born between 1980 and 1995, suggesting that young adolescents remain the main target group for smoking initiation prevention policies. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander
Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Torchyan, Armen A; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A; Aleid, Yazeed S; Nagshbandi, Ahmed A; Almousa, Fahad; Papikyan, Satenik L; Gosadi, Ibrahim M
Our aim was to assess the potential relationships among happiness, physical activity, and smoking initiation among undergraduate medical students in Saudi Arabia. We performed a cross-sectional study of randomly selected first- to fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Smoking initiation was defined as "ever trying smoking a cigarette, waterpipe, cigar/cigarillo, or other type of tobacco, even one or 2 puffs." The short scale Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to assess each student's happiness. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Of the 406 students surveyed (208 boys, 198 girls), 86 (21.1%) had initiated smoking. We found an interaction between physical activity (PA) and happiness on smoking initiation (p-interaction = .012). Among boys with low levels of PA, lower levels of happiness were associated with a greater likelihood of smoking initiation (OR = 5.8, 95%CI = 1.9 - 17.5). Also, high levels of PA increased the chance of smoking initiation among male students with high levels of happiness (OR = 5.6, 95%CI = 2.1 - 14.5). Our results suggest that young men with low levels of happiness and low levels of PA, as well as high levels of PA and high levels of happiness, may be targeted as a priority population in tobacco control intervention programs.
Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.
School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…
Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ye, Cong; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; MacPherson, Laura; Kanamori, Mariano; Zhang, Guangyu; Chen, Lu; Fiedler, Robert
Identify demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with smoking initiation in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample of underage youth participating in the 2006 Maryland Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional, multistage, probability sample survey. Schools (308 middle and high schools) in Maryland. Subjects were 12- to 17-year-old adolescents participating in a school-based survey. New smokers and nonsmokers were included in the analysis (n = 57,072). Social and media influence, secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco product use, and demographic information including age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for clustering. Hispanic and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth were most likely and Asian and Black youth were least likely to be new smokers. Smoking initiation was positively associated with higher age, living with a current smoker, secondhand smoke exposure, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products, having more friends that smoke, tobacco products offered by friends, risk perceptions, and use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and cigars. Multivariate logistic regression results suggested that composite measures of peer influence, advertising exposure, and secondhand smoke exposure were independently associated with smoking initiation. Media, peer influence, and secondhand smoke exposure were the most important factors influencing smoking initiation and were common to all racial/ethnic groups in this study. Interventions combining targeted public awareness, education, and media campaigns directed at parents/guardians should be investigated.
Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M
Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.
Maes, Hermine H; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Hewitt, John K; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Legrand, Lisa; Samek, Diana R; Murrelle, E Lenn; Silberg, Judy L; Miles, Donna R; Schieken, Richard M; Beunen, Gaston P; Thomis, Martine; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; Lichtenstein, Paul; White, Victoria; Kaprio, Jaakko; Neale, Michael C
Introduction: Previous studies in adolescents were not adequately powered to accurately disentangle genetic and environmental influences on smoking initiation (SI) across adolescence. Methods: Mega-analysis of pooled genetically informative data on SI was performed, with structural equation
Vink, Jacqueline M; Smit, August B; de Geus, Eco J C
For the identification of genes associated with smoking initiation and current smoking, genome-wide association analyses were carried out in 3497 subjects. Significant genes that replicated in three independent samples (n = 405, 5810, and 1648) were visualized into a biologically meaningful network......) and cell-adhesion molecules (e.g., CDH23). We conclude that a network-based genome-wide association approach can identify genes influencing smoking behavior....
Kanekar, Shalini; Wen, Yang; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Choi, Won; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit; Henderson, Jeffrey A.
Objectives. To better understand patterns of initiation among American Indians we examined age-related patterns of smoking initiation during adolescence and young adulthood in 2 American Indian tribes. Methods. We used log-rank comparison and a Cox proportional hazard regression model to analyze data from a population-based study of Southwest and Northern Plains American Indians aged 18 to 95 years who initiated smoking by age 18 years or younger. Results. The cumulative incidence of smoking initiation was much higher among the Northern Plains Indians (47%) than among the Southwest Indians (28%; P < .01). In the Southwest, men were more likely than women to initiate smoking at a younger age (P < .01); there was no such difference in the Northern Plains sample. Northern Plains men and women in more recent birth cohorts initiated smoking at an earlier age than did those born in older birth cohorts. Southwest men and women differed in the pattern of smoking initiation across birth cohorts as evidenced by the significant test for interaction (P = .01). Conclusion. Our findings underscore the need to implement tobacco prevention and control measures within American Indian communities. PMID:19820215
Vidrine, Damon J; Frank, Summer G; Savin, Micah J; Waters, Andrew J; Li, Yisheng; Chen, Sixia; Fletcher, Faith E; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R
Tobacco use among persons living with HIV represents an important risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Thus, efforts designed to inform the development of appropriate smoking cessation programs for this population remains a public health priority. To address this need, a study was conducted to longitudinally assess the relationship between intention to quit smoking and cessation over the 12 month period following initiation of HIV care. Patients initiating HIV care at a large inner city safety net clinic were enrolled (n=378) in a 12-month prospective study. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post enrollment, and HIV-related clinical data were collected from participants' electronic medical records. Variables of interest included intention to quit smoking, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), and stage of HIV. Data were collected in Houston, Texas from 2009 to 2015. The sample was 75% male and 62% Black. Findings indicated that intention to quit smoking increased between baseline and 3 months, and subsequently trended downward from 3 to 12 months. Results from linear and generalized linear mixed models indicated that participants with advanced HIV disease (vs. not advanced) reported significantly (p<.05) higher intention to quit smoking at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post study enrollment. A similar though non-significant pattern was observed in the smoking abstinence outcome. HIV treatment initiation appears to be associated with increases in intention to quit smoking thus serves as a potential teachable moment for smoking cessation intervention. This study documents significant increases in intention to quit smoking in the 3-month period following HIV care initiation. Moreover, quit intention trended downward following the 3-month follow-up until the 12-month follow-up. In addition, a marked effect for HIV disease stage was observed, whereby
Sheer, Vivian C; Mao, Chang
To collect in-depth information regarding cigarette initiation interactions in the early smoking experimentation among male youth in China, twenty focus groups with male teenagers (N = 165) were conducted. Focus group discussions indicated a high prevalence of cigarette initiation among peers, and such initiation often translated into immediate smoking. Of the identified cigarette initiation appeals, "face" and normative pressure appeals were the most difficult to reject. Upon first initiation attempts, more teenagers accepted cigarettes than rejected them. The reasons behind both cigarette initiation and acceptance primarily related to facilitating social interaction. Upon being rejected, initiating teenagers (agents) who insisted on offering cigarettes often gained compliance. Profiles of peer agents were constructed in this study. Key practical implications suggest simultaneously prioritizing efforts to reduce cigarette initiation and encouraging cigarette refusal.
Bountress, Kaitlin; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Jackson, Corrie
Using participants from an 1-and-1/2-year longitudinal study of smoking socialization (N = 709), we examined peer smoking, and implicit and explicit attitudes on smoking initiation among initial nonsmoking adolescents. We also tested whether implicit and explicit attitudes mediated the effect of peer smoking on smoking initiation, and whether…
Full Text Available Studies among adolescents have shown that several important interpersonal, intrapersonal and environmental factors are associated with smoking behaviour. The current qualitative research project aimed to explore the determinants of smoking initiation and maintenance, from a youth perspective, among young people who smoked, living in a multi-ethnic Asian country. Focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with youths in Singapore in youth-friendly and accessible locations. Young people, from a variety of social contexts—varying on age, gender, ethnicity and educational level, were included in the study. All FGDs were conducted in English and participants were recruited using a mix of network and purposive sampling. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, allowing themes to emerge from the data with the goal of answering the research question. Ninety-one youth smokers (54 males, 37 females, aged between 14 to 29 years, participated in the study. The majority were males (59% and of Chinese ethnicity (52%. Participants identified multiple personal, social, and familial influences on young adults’ smoking behaviors. Peer and family influences, as well as risk minimization, played a key role in smoking initiation and maintenance. While young people were aware of policies that restricted smoking, these did not directly affect their decision to start smoking. The theory of triadic influence provided a promising theoretical framework to understand smoking initiation and maintenance in a sample of young adult smokers from a multi-ethnic Asian country. It also provides actionable information for initiatives to prevent smoking in young people, which includes their perspectives and emphasizes an inclusive approach without stigmatizing those who smoke.
Full Text Available Allergy prevention is an urgent pediatric issue. Food allergy spread among infants amounts to 6–8%. This review highlights the modern viewpoints on diet prevention of this pathology among children, including by means of the hypoallergic nutritional formulas.Key words: food allergy, prevention, allergies, prebiotics, children.
Killen, Joel D.
Discusses the need for smoking prevention programs that help adolescents resist social pressure and that use the results of current smoking prevention research. Theoretical foundations of current smoking prevention programs are also provided. (AS)
Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.
Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.
Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…
Hiemstra, Marieke; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Schayck, Onno C P; Otten, Roy
The home-based smoking prevention programme 'Smoke-free Kids' did not have an effect on primary outcome smoking initiation. A possible explanation may be that the programme has a delayed effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the development of important precursors of smoking: smoking-related cognitions. We used a cluster randomised controlled trial in 9- to 11-year-old children and their mothers. The intervention condition received five activity modules, including a communication sheet for mothers, by mail at four-week intervals. The control condition received a fact-based programme. Secondary outcomes were attitudes, self-efficacy and social norms. Latent growth curves analyses were used to calculate the development of cognitions over time. Subsequently, path modelling was used to estimate the programme effects on the initial level and growth of each cognition. Analyses were performed on 1398 never-smoking children at baseline. Results showed that for children in the intervention condition, perceived maternal norms increased less strongly as compared to the control condition (β = -.10, p = .03). No effects were found for the other cognitions. Based on the limited effects, we do not assume that the programme will have a delayed effect on smoking behaviour later during adolescence.
Hall, Sharon M.; And Others
Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…
McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.
The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…
Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik
Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.
Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Pereira, Sophie Tonnoir; Minot, Catherine; Osman, Joseph; Bougdal, Melika; Dautzenberg, Marie-Dominique
Information for patients undergoing elective surgery is often supported by factsheets. This information is required for ethical and legal reasons. Among the 11 million surgical procedures performed annually in France, three million concern smokers. Data of a 2005 French Expert's conference show that smoking doubles or triples the risk of postoperative complications and quitting smoking cancels this risk. By a query on www.google.fr, 100 factsheets were collected in 2009 (pilot study) and 500 in 2012. These factsheets were systematically analyzed on tobacco information. Issuers were contacted by mail, email and telephone to suggest improvements on these factsheets. A return to the websites where the 500 factsheets have been issued was performed 6 months later. In 2009, only 24.0% of factsheets mentioned tobacco. In 2012, 29.4% of factsheets evoked tobacco. When tobacco is mentioned, information's were rarely complete. Cosmetic surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and to a lesser extent orthopaedists are those who raise most often the tobacco issue. After contact with issuers, 41 factsheets were removed from the sites. Factsheets with tobacco information increased from 147/500 (29.4%) to 175/459 (38.1%) and the quality score of the information increased from 3.4 to 6.0. The message suggested by OFT was: "Smoking increases the risk of surgical complications of any surgery. Quitting smoking 6-8 weeks before surgery eliminates this additional risk. If you smoke, talk to your doctor, your surgeon and your anesthesiologist or call the French quitline TIS 3989 to help you to reduce the risk and put all the chances on your side". This sentence was included in 54 factsheets. There is still work to do to improve information's on smoking risk in perioperative factsheets. The aim is to reduce postoperative complications, costs and avoid court sentences against practitioner who do not inform properly on the risks of smoking on surgical procedures. Copyright © 2013. Published by
Objective: This report examines the prevalence and common correlates of early smoking initiation among male and female school children across seven African countries. Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples in seven African countries.
Luh, Dih-Ling; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng
Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of home smoking restriction (HSR) and the modified effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation among adolescents. Design Prospective Cohort Study. Setting Junior high school in Keelung City, Taiwan. Participants This study collected and evaluated primary data from the Adolescent Smoking and Other Health-Related Behaviour Survey conducted in Keelung City, which aimed to investigate smoking and health-related behaviours in ...
Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Ernstoff, Linda Titus; Gibson, Jennifer J; Tickle, Jennifer J; Heatherton, Todd F
To determine if young adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing R-rated movies have a lower risk of trying smoking in the future. Prospective observational study. Students from 15 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, randomly selected from all middle schools with >150 students, were surveyed in 1999. Baseline never-smokers were surveyed again by telephone 13 to 26 months later to determine smoking status. Trying smoking during the follow-up period. The majority of the 2596 students were white, with ages ranging from 10 to 14 years. Nineteen percent reported that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 29% were allowed once in a while, and 52% were allowed sometimes or all the time. Ten percent of students tried smoking during the follow-up period. Smoking-initiation rates increased as parental restriction of R-rated movies decreased (2.9% for adolescents reporting that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 7.0% for those allowed to view them once in a while, and 14.3% for those allowed to view them sometimes or all the time). There was a strong and statistically significant effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking even after controlling for sociodemographics, social influences (friend smoking, receptivity to tobacco promotions), parenting style (maternal support and control, parental disapproval of smoking), and characteristics of the adolescent (school performance, sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem). Compared with adolescents whose parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, the adjusted relative risk for trying smoking was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 3.1) for those allowed to watch them once in a while and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.6, 4.7) for those allowed to watch them sometimes or all the time. The effect was especially strong among adolescents not exposed to family (parent or sibling) smoking, among whom the adjusted relative risk for smoking was 4.3 (95% CI
Kreuter, M; Bauer, C M; Ehmann, M; Kappes, J; Drings, P; Herth, F J F
Since 2000 the Thoraxklinik Heidelberg offers the primary smoking prevention program "ohnekippe" for children aged 12-14 years. This program was scientifically evaluated to test its efficacy and sustainability. All pupils participating in this prevention program (n=1427) were asked to complete a written survey regarding their smoking behaviour at the time of intervention (baseline) and after one year. A control group (n=1412) without intervention from comparable schools and grades were questioned in parallel. Afterwards the program was modified with active involvement of schools and then data regarding smoking prevalence of young people were compared based on the microcensus 2005 and 2009. 187 (13,4 %) pupils in the intervention and 215 (15,4 %) pupils in the control group were smokers at baseline. One year after, the number of regular and occasional smokers had increased from 11.2 % to 21.2 % in both groups without significant differences. Besides age and initial smoking status the "peer group" had important influence on smoking behaviour of young people. After modifying the program the number of smoking young people in the catchment area of "ohnekippe" has decreased significantly (7.8 %). Overall smoking prevalence in this age group was much lower (11,8 %) than in the rest of Baden-Württemberg (16.0 %) and of Germany (17.5 %). Smoking prevention programs for young people can be effective if they are appropriately designed. Not only one prevention event, but intensive preparation and follow-up in schools as well as involvement of the "peer group" is essential for a successful intervention. After appropriate modification the smoking prevention program "ohnekippe" shows highly promising success. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Existing evidence has shown that most smoking uptake and escalation occurs while smokers are teenagers or young adults. Effective policies that reduce smoking uptake and escalation will play an important role in curbing cigarette smoking. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoke-free air (SFA) laws in bars on smoking initiation/relapse while controlling for other confounders. The national longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) from 1997-2009 was linked to state-level scores for the strength of SFA laws in order to carry out the analysis. We find that SFA laws in bars with exemptions significantly reduce (p ≤ 0.01) the probability of smoking initiation (one-puff, daily, and heavy smoking initiation). The 100% SFA law in bars without exemption significantly deters smoking relapse from abstinence into daily smoking (p ≤ 0.05) or relapse from abstinence into heavy smoking (p ≤ 0.01) among people age 21 or older. The reduction of one-puff and daily smoking initiation is larger among ages 20 or younger than ages 21 or older, while the reduction in relapse does not differ by whether respondents reach the drinking age. Results also indicate that higher cigarette taxes significantly reduce daily smoking initiation and relapse into nondaily and light smoking.
Full Text Available Background: Existing evidence has shown that most smoking uptake and escalation occurs while smokers are teenagers or young adults. Effective policies that reduce smoking uptake and escalation will play an important role in curbing cigarette smoking. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoke-free air (SFA laws in bars on smoking initiation/relapse while controlling for other confounders. Methods: The national longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97 from 1997–2009 was linked to state-level scores for the strength of SFA laws in order to carry out the analysis. Results and Conclusion: We find that SFA laws in bars with exemptions significantly reduce (p ≤ 0.01 the probability of smoking initiation (one-puff, daily, and heavy smoking initiation. The 100% SFA law in bars without exemption significantly deters smoking relapse from abstinence into daily smoking (p ≤ 0.05 or relapse from abstinence into heavy smoking (p ≤ 0.01 among people age 21 or older. The reduction of one-puff and daily smoking initiation is larger among ages 20 or younger than ages 21 or older, while the reduction in relapse does not differ by whether respondents reach the drinking age. Results also indicate that higher cigarette taxes significantly reduce daily smoking initiation and relapse into nondaily and light smoking.
Kohler, Stefan; Minkner, Philipp
Germany's 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens' or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman's ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04). The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.
Full Text Available Background: Germany’s 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. Methods: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. Results: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens’ or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman’s ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04. Conclusions: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.
Castañeda, G; Barnett, T E; Soule, E K; Young, M E
This study aims to examine current hookah users' perceptions, attitudes, and normative beliefs regarding hookah smoking to further elucidate the rise in hookah smoking prevalence among young adults (aged 18-24 years) and reveal why hookah smoking is perceived as less harmful than other forms of tobacco consumption. Qualitative. Data from six focus group interviews with hookah smokers aged between 18 and 24 years were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Focus groups were evenly split between frequent and infrequent hookah users, and were predominantly composed of college students, with two groups of hookah users consisting of 18-24 year olds of non-student status. Hookah users shared a much larger set of positive hookah smoking behavioral beliefs as opposed to negative behavioral beliefs. Generational traits served as the overarching commonality among the behavior performance initiation determinants observed. The most notable generational trends observed were within the cultural category, which included the following millennial characteristics: autonomy, personalization, novelty appeal, convenience, globally oriented, entertainment, collaboration, health conscious, and valuing their social network. Millennial hookah users revealed mindfulness regarding both potential negative and positive reasons stemming from continued hookah use; however, behavioral beliefs were primarily fixated on the perception that hookah smoking was a healthier alternative to cigarette smoking. Future implications for this study's findings include generating more positive ways to express these traits for young adults; policy implications include raising hookah bar age limits, implementing indoor smoking restrictions, and limiting the ease of accessibility for purchasing hookah supplies. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Afanador, Laura Del Pilar Cadena; Radi, Daniel Sebastián Salazar; Pinto, Luis Enrique Vásquez; Pinzón, Cristian Eduardo Pérez; Carreño, Manuel Felipe Castro
Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in high schools ranges from 23.5% to 41%, respectively. In Colombia, these figures are similar and students entering the University are exposed to initiate smoking. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants associated with the initiation of tobacco smoking among university students. A case-control paired by sex and age study design was used. The study population was the students of a private university of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The final sample consisted of 167 cases and 314 controls randomly select undergraduate university students. Data analysis was performed using a Logistic regression model adjusted by gender and age; using the initiation of tobacco smoking as the dependent variable, and as independent variables relationship with parents, history of parental smoking, university social environment, being away from hometown, steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smokes, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Francis Score. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT (ODDS RATIO [OR]: 32.70, 7.40-144.55), being away from hometown (OR: 3.06, 1.55-6.07), history of steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smoke (OR: 2.87, 1.43-5.76), a bad relationship with the father (OR: 8.01, 2.01-31.83), history of tobacco consumption of the mother (OR: 2.66, 1.37-5.17) and alcohol consumption (OR: 4.79, 1.91-12.00) appeared as determinants of initiation of tobacco smoking. As protector factors we found media advertisement (OR: 0.19, 0.05-0.71), light physical activity 2-3 times a week (OR: 0.33, 0.12-0.88), and a high result in Francis score (OR: 0.95, 0.919-0.99). University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.
O'Loughlin, J; Paradis, G; Renaud, L; Sanchez Gomez, L
To identify one-year predictors of smoking initiation among never-smokers, and of continued smoking among ever-smokers. Two sequential cohorts of grade 4 and 5 children. Data were collected as part of Coeur en sante St Louis du Parc, a non-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school-based heart health promotion programme. 24 inner-city elementary schools located in multiethnic, low-income neighbourhoods in Montreal. 1824 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years with baseline and one-year follow-up data. Changes in smoking behaviour over a year; the ability of baseline data to predict smoking initiation and continued smoking a year later was investigated in logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of ever-smoking was 21.1% at baseline and 30.2% at one-year follow up. One in six never-smokers initiated smoking; one in three ever-smokers continued smoking. Predictors of initiation included age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3 to 2.0), male gender (OR = 1.5 (95% CI = 1.1 to 2.0)), friends who smoke (OR = 2.3 (95% CI = 1.7 to 3.3)), sibling(s) who smoke (OR = 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2 to 3.1)), father/mother who smokes (OR = 2.2 (95% CI = 1.6 to 3.0)), and frequent high fat/"junk food" consumption (OR = 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1 to 2.1)). Age and friends who smoke were also independent predictors of continued smoking in both genders. In addition, in boys, current smokers at baseline were 2.6 times (95% CI = 1.4 to 5.0) more likely to continue smoking than past smokers. In girls, being overweight was associated with continued smoking (OR = 3.5 (95% CI = 1.6 to 7.6)). Smoking prevention programmes should address parental and sibling influences on smoking, in addition to refusal skills training. Among girls, weight-related issues may also be important.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls. The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1 "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2 "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3 "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.
Weiss, Jie W; Mouttapa, Michele; Cen, Steven; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer
The present study examined the associations between smoking initiation and, hostility, depressive symptoms, and bullying (bullies and bully-victims) among a culturally diverse sample of 1,771 adolescents who reported never having smoked at baseline. Data were obtained from a longitudinal school-based experimental trial of smoking prevention programs in Southern California. Annual survey was performed for students of the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. All students in the 24 participating schools were invited to participate in the study during the sixth grade. The risk of smoking initiation was significantly higher among students who scored higher on hostility and depressive symptoms, and were bully-victims. The findings suggest that tobacco prevention programs should include strategies for managing hostile feelings and negative effect as part of the curriculum. In addition, it might be helpful to identify youth who score high on these psychosocial factors and teach them skills to handle interpersonal conflict and negative feelings to prevent their involvement in substance use. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oh, Debora L
Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look
Oh, Debora L
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to
Lillard, Dean R.; Molloy, Eamon; Sfekas, Andrew
We show, with three longitudinal datasets, that cigarette taxes and prices affect smoking initiation decisions. Previous longitudinal studies have found somewhat mixed results, but generally have not found initiation to be sensitive to increases in price or tax. We show that the lack of statistical significance in previous studies may be at least partially attributed to a lack of policy variation in the time periods studied, truncated behavioral windows, or mis-assignment of price and tax rates in retrospective data (which occurs when one has no information about respondents’ prior state or region of residence in retrospective data). We show how each factor may affect the estimation of initiation models. Our findings suggest several problems that are applicable to initiation behavior generally, particularly those for which individuals’ responses to policy changes may be noisy or small in magnitude. PMID:23220458
Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille
into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...
Davis, Sean; Huebner, Angela; Piercy, Fred; Shettler, Lauren; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Matheson, Jennifer
The present researchers used a multi-wave Delphi methodology to determine what 14 knowledgeable substance abuse professionals believe are the most appropriate smoking prevention practices for female adolescents. While there was some agreement with the emerging literature, particularly on weight control issues and parental involvement, there was…
Lillard, Dean R; Molloy, Eamon; Sfekas, Andrew
We show, with three longitudinal datasets, that cigarette taxes and prices affect smoking initiation decisions. Evidence from longitudinal studies is mixed but generally find that initiation does not vary with price or tax. We show that the lack of statistical significance partly results because of limited policy variation in the time periods studied, truncated behavioral windows, or mis-assignment of price and tax rates in retrospective data (which occurs when one has no information about respondents' prior state or region of residence). Our findings highlight issues relevant to initiation behavior generally, particularly those for which individuals' responses to policy changes may be noisy or small in magnitude. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kolovelonis, Athanasios; Goudas, Marios; Theodorakis, Yannis
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the smoking prevention program "I do not smoke, I exercise" implemented with elementary and secondary school students. "I do not smoke, I exercise" is a theory-based smoking prevention program that promotes exercise as an alternative of smoking. The program consists of eight sessions implemented weekly. Participants were 338 Greek students (135 elementary and 203 secondary students) who were pre- and posttested in smoking, program, and exercise-related measures. The results showed that the program had significant effects on elementary students' attitudes toward smoking, intention to smoke, subjective norms, attitudes toward the application of the program, and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking. For secondary students, significant effects were found on students' perceived behavioral control and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, while very few students reported a smoking experience before and after the intervention. Therefore the program "I do not smoke, I exercise" may have positive effects on variables related with smoking behavior. Differences in the program's impact on elementary and secondary students were identified. All these are discussed with reference to the need of implementing smoking prevention programs in schools contexts. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Myers, MG; Doran, NM; Edland, SD; Amanda Schweizer, C; Wall, TL
Objective: Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking initiation and subsequent alcohol involvement. To address this question, the present study compared alcohol use between students who initiated smoking during college and a matched sample of never-smoking students. We hypothesized greater increases in alcohol involvement among smoking initiators, mediated by exposure to cigarette use situations. Method: Included in the present study were 104 Chinese American and Korean...
The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)
Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R
This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Willich, Stefan N.
Full Text Available Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to summarise the current literature on behavioural strategies for smoking prevention and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of smoking prevention programs. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the reliability of results in the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. In addition a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between August 2001 and August 2006 targeting youths up to 18 years old. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: Among 3,580 publications 37 medical studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality was satisfactory but only half the studies reported smoking uptake as an outcome, while the remaining studies reported alternative outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varied between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of prevention programs showed considerable heterogeneity, there was evidence for the long-term effectiveness of behavioural smoking prevention programs. However, the
Schwarz, Viktoria; Bachelier, Katrin; Schirmer, Stephan H; Werner, Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael
Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. We investigated whether red wine consumption counteracts the adverse vascular effects of cigarette smoking. Participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking a titrated volume of red wine. Clinical chemistry, blood counts, plasma cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunomagnetic separation of CD14 + monocytes for gene expression analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microparticles, and isolation of circulating mononuclear cells to measure telomerase activity were performed, and urine cotinine levels were quantified. Compared with baseline, leukocytosis (P = .019), neutrophilia (P <.001), lymphopenia (P <.001), and eosinopenia (P = .008) were observed after only smoking. Endothelial and platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles (P <.001 each) were elevated. In monocytes, messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (2.6- ± 0.57-fold), tumor necrosis factor alpha (2.2- ± 0.62-fold), and IL-1b (2.3- ± 0.44-fold) were upregulated, as was IL-6 (1.2 ± 0.12-fold) protein concentration in plasma. Smoking acutely inhibited mononuclear cell telomerase activity. Markers of endothelial damage, inflammation, and cellular aging were completely attenuated by red wine consumption. Cigarette smoke results in acute endothelial damage, vascular and systemic inflammation, and indicators of the cellular aging processes in otherwise healthy nonsmokers. Pretreatment with red wine was preventive. The findings underscore the magnitude of acute damage exerted by cigarette smoking in "occasional lifestyle smokers" and demonstrate the potential of red wine as a protective strategy to avert markers of vascular injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna
The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents.
Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R
Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18-45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ(2) tests ('to be cool', alcohol and cannabis). Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers. The SRAT may help tailor approaches to Indigenous smoking
Jackson, Christine; And Others
Study of 937 children, grades 3-8, showed that authoritative parenting (balancing responsiveness and control) increased child competence; low self-esteem, confidence, and achievement were associated with beginning and continuing smoking; authoritative parenting was inversely related to child smoking; and children were more likely to smoke if…
Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.
de Josselin de Jong, Sanne; Candel, Math; Segaar, Dewi; Cremers, Henricus-Paul; de Vries, Hein
Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents is crucial to reducing tobacco-caused death and disease. This study focuses on the effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention intervention aimed at adolescents. The intent of the study was to describe the intervention characteristics and to show the effectiveness and results of a randomized controlled trial. We hypothesized that the intervention would prevent smoking initiation among Dutch secondary school students aged 10-20 years and would have the largest smoking prevention effect among the age cohort of 14-16 years, as smoking uptake in that period is highest. The intervention consisted of a questionnaire and fully automated computer-tailored feedback on intention to start smoking and motivational determinants. A total of 89 secondary schools were recruited via postal mail and randomized into either the computer-tailored intervention condition or the control condition. Participants had to complete a Web-based questionnaire at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Data on smoking initiation were collected from 897 students from these schools. To identify intervention effects, multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted using multiple imputation. Smoking initiation among students aged 10-20 years was borderline significantly lower in the experimental condition as compared to the control condition 6 months after baseline (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.05-1.21, P=.09). Additional analyses of the data for the 14-16 year age group showed a significant effect, with 11.5% (24/209) of the students in the control condition reporting initiation compared to 5.7% (10/176) in the experimental condition (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-1.02, P=.05). No moderation effects were found regarding gender and educational level. The findings of this study suggest that computer-tailored smoking prevention programs are a promising way of preventing smoking initiation among adolescents for at least 6 months, in particular among the
Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.
Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…
Lanis, Lorenzo; Terrone, Rosangela; Gorini, Giuseppe
Movies influence fashion, lifestyles, and represent smoking as an acceptable behaviour. In fact the greatest tobacco companies built relationships with Hollywood's actors and producers, in order to show smoking and cigarette brands in films. All over the world laws have been developed, in order to restrict smoking and tobacco advertising. Films showing tobacco do not violate these laws, even in those states where tobacco advertising is restricted. Moreover, films are better than any other commercial advertisements because the audience is total unconscious of the sponsor's involvement. Stanton Glantz, Medicine Professor at San Francisco University, is the voice of the movement for smoke-free movies. A lot of studies show that cigarette smoking is more frequently in '90s movies than in 60's and 70's movies. The smoking actors seem to be attractive, strong, healthy and successful. Films showing smoking influence tomorrow's customers: adolescents. Teenagers watching "smoking films" are the most exposed to start smoking. Hence the need to educate Hollywood industry, in order to have smoke-free movies.
Sun, Jing; Prenzler, Tim; Buys, Nicholas; McMeniman, Marilyn
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions using situational crime prevention approaches to reduce the smoking rate in outdoor areas of a university campus. Design/methodology/approach: A prospective intervention design was designed for the study. Surveys and observations were used to measure the impacts…
Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D
To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103,172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company-sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12.
Funatogawa, Ikuko; Funatogawa, Takashi; Yano, Eiji
To show long-term trends of smoking initiation in Great Britain including unanalysed data and assess the impact of early smoking initiation on the lung cancer mortality in later ages focusing on birth cohorts. Reanalysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted 13 times during 1965-1987. Great Britain. Men and women aged 16 years and over in each survey. Smoking initiation for 1898-1969 birth cohorts and lung cancer mortality in 1950-2009. In men, 1900-1925 birth cohorts showed high smoking initiation (>32%, >50% and >80% at 15, 17 and 29 years old, respectively). Correspondingly, the lung cancer mortality in these cohorts exceeded 1 per 1000 at a young age (50-54 years old). In women, smoking initiation increased clearly from the 1898 cohort to the 1925 cohort (2% to 12%, 4% to 24%, and 13% to 54% at 15, 17 and 29 years old, respectively). Correspondingly, the age at which the mortality exceeded 1 per 1000 became younger (75-79 to 60-64 years old). In both men and women, short-term decreases in initiation were seen from the late-1920s cohorts. Correspondingly, lung cancer mortality decreased. In women, initiation increased again after the mid-1930s cohorts, and mortality increased after they became 60-64 years old. Clear relationships between smoking initiation and lung cancer mortality across birth cohorts were observed. Countries with rapid increases in initiation in teens should not underestimate the risk in the distant future. Because of the long time lags within cohorts compared with rapid changes in smoking habits across cohorts, age-specific measures focusing on birth cohorts should be monitored.
Mohammed, Mutaz; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; Alotaiby, Fahad F; de Vries, Nanne; de Vries, Hein
To examine the efficacy of a smoking prevention program which aimed to address smoking related cognitions and smoking behavior among Saudi adolescents age 13 to 15. A randomized controlled trial was used. Respondents in the experimental group (N=698) received five in-school sessions, while those in the control group (N=683) received no smoking prevention information (usual curriculum). Post-intervention data was collected six months after baseline. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess effects on smoking initiation, and linear regression analysis was applied to assess changes in beliefs and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess intervention effects. All analyses were adjusted for the nested structure of students within schools. At post-intervention respondents from the experimental group reported in comparison with those from the control group a significantly more negative attitude towards smoking, stronger social norms against smoking, higher self-efficacy towards non-smoking, more action planning to remain a non-smoker, and lower intentions to smoke in the future. Smoking initiation was 3.2% in the experimental group and 8.8% in the control group (pprevention program reinforced non-smoking cognitions and non-smoking behavior. Therefore it is recommended to implement the program at a national level in Saudi-Arabia. Future studies are recommended to assess long term program effects and the conditions favoring national implementation of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Shaohai; Beaudoin, Christopher E
The China Tobacco Control Media Campaign on Sina Weibo is novel in the context of smoking prevention and cessation in China and has not to date been evaluated. This study draws on health behavior theories and dialogic theory in public relations to analyze microblog campaign postings and their relationships with the outcome of online audience engagement. Microblog postings from May 2011 to January 2015 were content analyzed, showing that the most common persuasive content characteristic was perceived risk, followed by subjective norms and self-efficacy. Perceived risk and self-efficacy postings positively influenced online audience engagement, whereas subjective norm postings was a nonsignificant predictor. Postings were more likely to share information than aim to interact with audience members. However, both information sharing and audience interaction postings were positive predictors of online audience engagement. There was also evidence of main and interactive effects of message originality on online audience engagement. The current study has, to the best of our knowledge, broken new ground in 2 regards: (a) using health behavior theories as a basis for analyzing the content of an anti-smoking social media campaign and (b) examining the content of an anti-smoking media campaign of any type in China.
Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J
Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking
Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A
Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.
The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…
Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura
The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools…
Crone, M; Reijneveld, S; Willemsen, M; van Leerdam, F J M; Spruijt, R; Sing, R
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students.
Sun, Ruoyan; Mendez, David
We investigated the impact of peers' opinions on the smoking initiation process among adolescents. We applied the Continuous Opinions and Discrete Actions (CODA) model to study how social interactions change adolescents' opinions and behaviors about smoking. Through agent-based modeling (ABM), we simulated a population of 2500 adolescents and compared smoking prevalence to data from 9 cohorts of adolescents in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from year 2001 till 2014. Our model adjusts well for NSDUH data according to pseudo R2 values, which are at least 96%. Optimal parameter values indicate that adolescents exhibit imitator characteristics with regard to smoking opinions. The imitator characteristics suggests that teenagers tend to update their opinions consistently according to what others do, and these opinions later translate into smoking behaviors. As a result, peer influence from social networks plays a big role in the smoking initiation process and should be an important driver in policy formulation.
Full Text Available We investigated the impact of peers' opinions on the smoking initiation process among adolescents. We applied the Continuous Opinions and Discrete Actions (CODA model to study how social interactions change adolescents' opinions and behaviors about smoking. Through agent-based modeling (ABM, we simulated a population of 2500 adolescents and compared smoking prevalence to data from 9 cohorts of adolescents in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH from year 2001 till 2014. Our model adjusts well for NSDUH data according to pseudo R2 values, which are at least 96%. Optimal parameter values indicate that adolescents exhibit imitator characteristics with regard to smoking opinions. The imitator characteristics suggests that teenagers tend to update their opinions consistently according to what others do, and these opinions later translate into smoking behaviors. As a result, peer influence from social networks plays a big role in the smoking initiation process and should be an important driver in policy formulation.
Myers, Mark G; Doran, Neal M; Edland, Steven D; Schweizer, C Amanda; Wall, Tamaral L
Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking initiation and subsequent alcohol involvement. To address this question, the present study compared alcohol use between students who initiated smoking during college and a matched sample of never-smoking students. We hypothesized greater increases in alcohol involvement among smoking initiators, mediated by exposure to cigarette use situations. Included in the present study were 104 Chinese American and Korean American undergraduates who at baseline (freshman year) reported never having smoked a cigarette. Subjects were drawn from 433 participants in a naturalistic longitudinal study of tobacco use who were assessed annually each year in college. Cigarette smoking status was assessed annually as part of a structured interview. Initiators and never-smokers were matched on gender, ethnicity, baseline alcohol use, parental smoking status, and behavioral undercontrol. As predicted, participants who initiated smoking during college reported significantly greater increases in the number of past-30-day total drinks consumed (p involvement. Part of this risk is explained by environmental contextual factors, specifically exposure to situations involving other smokers that also may result in greater exposure to alcohol use.
Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Gibson Chambers, Jennifer J; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
Youth involvement in extracurricular activities may help prevent smoking and drinking initiation. However, the relative roles of types of extracurricular activity on these risks are unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between substance use and participation in team sports with a coach, other sports without a coach, music, school clubs, and other clubs in a nationally representative sample of U.S. tweens. We conducted telephone surveys with 6522 U.S. students (ages 10 to 14 years) in 2003. We asked participants if they had ever tried smoking or drinking, and we asked them about their participation in extracurricular activities. We used sample weighting to produce response estimates that were representative of the population of adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at the time of data collection. Logistic regression models that adjusted for appropriate sampling weights using jackknife variance estimation tested associations with trying smoking and drinking, controlling for sociodemographics, child and parent characteristics, friend/sibling/parent substance use, and media use. A little over half of the students reported participating in team sports with a coach (55.5%) and without a coach (55.4%) a few times per week or more. Most had minimal to no participation in school clubs (74.2%); however, most reported being involved in other clubs (85.8%). A little less than half participated in music, choir, dance, and/or band lessons. Over half of participants involved in religious activity did those activities a few times per week or more. In the multiple regression analysis, team sport participation with a coach was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying smoking (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49, 0.96) compared to none or minimal participation. Participating in other clubs was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying drinking (adjusted odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.32, 0
Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador
Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.
Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V
Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk
To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....
B. Federico; G. Costa (Giuseppe); A.E. Kunst (Anton)
textabstractObjectives. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in initiation and cessation rates of smoking and the resultant inequality in smoking prevalence among 3 consecutive Italian birth cohorts. Methods. We used data from the 1999-2000 Italian National Health Interview Survey, which included
Meer, G. de; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background. Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods. Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and
de Meer, G.; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and
Federico, Bruno; Costa, Giuseppe; Kunst, Anton E.
OBJECTIVES: We examined socioeconomic inequalities in initiation and cessation rates of smoking and the resultant inequality in smoking prevalence among 3 consecutive Italian birth cohorts. METHODS: We used data from the 1999-2000 Italian National Health Interview Survey, which included 28958 men
Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Honein, Margaret A; Devine, Owen; Grosse, Scott D; Reefhuis, Jennita
According to the 2014 Surgeon General's Report, smoking in early pregnancy can cause orofacial clefts. We sought to examine the implications of this causal link for the potential prevention of orofacial clefts in the United States. Using published data on the strength of the association between orofacial clefts and smoking in early pregnancy and the prevalence of smoking at the start of pregnancy, we estimated the attributable fraction for smoking as a cause of orofacial clefts. We then used the prevalence of orofacial clefts in the United States to estimate the number of orofacial clefts that could be prevented in the United States each year by eliminating exposure to smoking during early pregnancy. We also estimated the financial impact of preventing orofacial clefts caused by maternal smoking based on a published estimate of attributable healthcare costs through age 10 for orofacial clefts. The estimated attributable fraction of orofacial clefts caused by smoking in early pregnancy was 6.1% (95% uncertainty interval 4.4%, 7.7%). Complete elimination of smoking in early pregnancy could prevent orofacial clefts in approximately 430 infants per year in the United States, and could save an estimated $40.4 million in discounted healthcare costs through age 10 for each birth cohort. Understanding the magnitude of the preventable burden of orofacial clefts related to maternal smoking could help focus smoking cessation efforts on women who might become pregnant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Raines, Amanda M; Unruh, Amanda S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B
Cigarette smokers have increased rates of mood and anxiety-related conditions. Hoarding is another anxiety-related condition that has yet to be examined in relation to smoking behavior. The current investigation sought to examine smoking rates among a sample of individuals with hoarding disorder and individuals with non-hoarding obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additionally, we examined the relationship between hoarding symptoms and reasons for smoking. Participants in Study 1 consisted of 57 individuals with non-hoarding OCD or hoarding disorder. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 661 adult daily smokers. Results revealed that a significantly greater proportion of individuals diagnosed with hoarding were current smokers compared to the non-hoarding OCD group. Additionally, hoarding severity was associated with negative affect reduction expectancies. These results provide important information regarding smoking behaviors within hoarding disorder. Given the poor treatment outcomes and negative health risks associated with hoarding, this information could inform future research and treatment programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Pernille Envold; Siersma, Volkert; Ross, Lone
invalidated by negative local dependence. CONCLUSION: Of the five tested indexes, three (social influence-norms, social influence-pressure and attitude) showed acceptable criterion-related construct validity and may be considered unbiased representations of the theory-based factors if statistical analyses......BACKGROUND: Constructing indexes which measure factors that may predict smoking initiation is essential for planning prevention programs. Our aim was to examine the criterion-related construct validity of brief psychological indexes of attitude, social influence and self-efficacy to be used...... of the Rasch model that allows for differential item functioning and positive local dependence. RESULTS: The three indexes social influence-norms, social influence-pressure and attitude showed acceptable deviations from the Rasch model, while the two indexes self-efficacy and social influence-behavior were...
Nădăşan, Valentin; Foley, Kristie L; Pénzes, Melinda; Paulik, Edit; Mihăicuţă, Ștefan; Ábrám, Zoltán; Bálint, Jozsef; Csibi, Monika; Urbán, Robert
Although web-based, multimedia smoking prevention programs have been tested in several high-income countries, their efficacy in Central and Eastern Europe is unknown. The aim of this trial was to assess the short-term effects of ASPIRA, among Romanian and Hungarian speaking ninth graders in Tirgu Mures, Romania. ASPIRA is the Romanian acronym for the translated and adapted version of ASPIRE, "A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience," an evidence-based smoking prevention program originally developed to prevent tobacco use among high school students in the United States. Sixteen high schools in Tirgu Mures, Romania were randomized to receive five weekly sessions of the ASPIRA web-based, multimedia program or to a control condition. Socio-demographic data, psychosocial characteristics, and smoking behavior were collected from students at baseline and at 6 months. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the efficacy of the intervention on smoking initiation and current smoking among 1369 students. Never-smoker students in the intervention arm were 35% less likely to report smoking initiation 6 months after the baseline assessment (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.44-0.97). Reduced smoking initiation was observed most notably among students who were exposed to at least 75% of the ASPIRA program. There was no statistically significant effect of the intervention on current tobacco use (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.44-1.46). ASPIRA, an adapted version of the evidence-based, multimedia ASPIRE program that was originally developed and tested in the United States may decrease smoking initiation among multi-ethnic adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe. (1). Web-based, multimedia smoking prevention programs may be effective tools to prevent smoking initiation among multi-ethnic adolescent communities in Central and Eastern Europe. (2). The degree of exposure is critical, only high exposure to the multimedia smoking prevention program is associated with reduced
Parlove, Amy E.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Hoerauf, Sarah L.
Cigarette smoking has been identified as the most important source of preventable morbidity and premature mortality worldwide (American Lung Association, 2002). Statistics show that youth who do smoke report having their first cigarette while in middle school, thus this is a critical opportunity for prevention (Eissenburg & Balster, 2000). This…
de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math
The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…
Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru
Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…
Vries, H. de; Mudde, A.; Kremers, S.; Wetzels, J.; Uiters, E.; Ariza, C.; Duarte Vitoria, P.; Fielder, A.; Holm, K.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Lehtuvuori, R.; Candel, M.
The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able
Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein
This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.
Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.
Sargent, James D; Dalton, Madeline A; Heatherton, Todd; Beach, Mike
Most behavioral approaches to adolescent smoking address the behavior directly. We explore an indirect approach: modifying exposure to portrayals of smoking in movies. To describe adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies and to examine factors that could modify such exposure. Occurrences of smoking were counted in each of 601 popular movies. Four thousand nine hundred ten northern New England junior high school students were asked to report which movies they had seen from a randomly generated subsample of 50 films, and responses were used to estimate exposure to the entire sample. Analysis The outcome variable was exposure to movie smoking, defined as the number of smoking occurrences seen. Risk factors for exposure included access to movies (movie channels, videotape use, and movie theater); parenting (R [restricted]-rated movie restrictions, television restrictions, parenting style); and characteristics of the child (age, sex, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, rebelliousness, and self-esteem). We used multiple regression to assess the association between risk factors and exposure to movie smoking. Subjects had seen an average of 30% of the movie sample (interquartile range, 20%-44%), from which they were exposed to 1160 (interquartile range, 640-1970) occurrences of smoking. In a multivariate model, exposure to movie smoking increased (all P values Parent restriction on viewing R-rated movies resulted in a 50% reduction in exposure to movie smoking. There was no association between parenting style and exposure to movie smoking. Much of the protective effect of parent R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking was mediated through lower exposure to movie smoking. Adolescents see thousands of smoking depictions in movies, and this influences their attitudes and behavior. Exposure to movie smoking is reduced when parents limit movie access. Teaching parents to monitor and enforce movie access guidelines could reduce adolescent smoking in an
Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won
Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema.
Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke
Smoking prevalence rates among Dutch children increase rapidly after they transit to secondary school, in particular among children with a low socioeconomic status (SES). Web-based, computer-tailored programs supplemented with prompt messages may be able to empower children to prevent them from starting to smoke when they transit to secondary school. The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether computer-tailored feedback messages, with and without prompt messages, are effective in decreasing children's smoking intentions and smoking behavior after 12 and 25 months of follow-up. Data were gathered at baseline (T0), and after 12 months (T1) and 25 months (T2) of follow-up of a smoking prevention intervention program called Fun without Smokes. A total of 162 schools were randomly allocated to a no-intervention control group, an intervention prompt group, or an intervention no-prompt group. A total of 3213 children aged 10 to 12 years old participated in the study and completed a Web-based questionnaire assessing their smoking intention, smoking behavior, and sociocognitive factors, such as attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy, related to smoking. After completion, children in the intervention groups received computer-tailored feedback messages in their own email inbox and those messages could be accessed on the intervention website. Children in the prompt group received prompt messages, via email and short message service (SMS) text messaging, to stimulate them to reuse the intervention website with nonsmoking content. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed using multiple imputations to assess the program effects on smoking intention and smoking behavior at T1 and T2. A total of 3213 children participated in the Fun without Smokes study at T0. Between T0 and T1 a total of 1067 children out of the original 3213 (33.21%) dropped out of the study. Between T0 and T2 the number of children that did not participate in the final measurement was
Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, cognitive factors (sense of coherence and self-efficacy, coping resources (family and friend social support and demographic factors (gender and ethnicity on cigarette smoking behaviors (initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students. A total of 161 U.S. college students, aged 18–26, who enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires. The majority of the students had tried smoking (55%; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers. The majority (77% who had smoked a whole cigarette did so at age 16 years or younger. Students who reported lower levels of conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a greater likelihood to had tried cigarette smoking. Also, students who had lower levels of self-efficacy reported smoking more frequently and greater quantities of cigarettes than students with higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of smoking behaviors. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students.
Simons-Morton, Bruce G
The nature and relative importance of psychosocial influences on smoking initiation among early adolescents are topics of substantial research interest. Students (n = 1081) from four middle schools were surveyed at the beginning and end of the sixth grade. Baseline predictors were regressed on smoking initiation at end of sixth grade. In bivariate, logistic regression analyses association with problem behaving peers, perceived prevalence, and depression were positively associated and adjustment to school, perceived social competence, parent expectations, parental monitoring, and parental involvement were negatively associated with smoking initiation. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, race, and school, peer affiliation and perceived prevalence were positively associated, whereas social competence and parental monitoring were negatively associated with smoking initiation. A significant interaction between parental involvement and peer affiliation indicated that among teens with problem behaving friends only those with parents who were relatively uninvolved were are at increased risk for smoking initiation. This finding held for boys, girls, Whites, Blacks, and teens living in single parent families. These findings provide evidence that antecedent parenting behaviors may protect early adolescents against smoking even in the context of negative peer affiliation.
Gebhardt, R; Cassens, S; Liecke, F; Rohde, G; Gün, A K; Brücker, R; Pankow, W
Persons with migration background exhibit higher smoking rates in comparison to the general population.These smokers often cannot be reached by prevention measures at the family doctor's office. In summer 2011 the health campaign "Smoke-free by Ramadan" was launched in 11 German cities. Measures included the training of doctors on smoking cessation methods, general bilingual information flyers, and in some cases lectures on smoking, specifically for imams. A number of local events, especially for individuals with Turkish migration background were initiated. For these health events a specially equipped health bus of the BKK-vor-Ort was used, in which visitors were offered following elements: systematic data collection about age, sex and smoking behavior, a test to determine of the severity of nicotine dependence (Fagerström test, FTNA), as well as spirometric lung function test. Smokers were generally motivated to stop smoking. Data were anonymously collected and analysed in a documentation and communication sheet in Turkish language, and test results were handed over to participants on a printed information sheet. Data of 1012 people collected on 8 health days were analysed (70% men, mean age 46.5 years). The percentage of smokers was 41.5% (men) or 30% (women). Of 294 male smokers, according to FTNA 43.6% had low, 24.8% had moderate, and 31.6% strong nicotine dependence; in the 91 female smokers the corresponding rates were 54.9%, 30.8% and 14.3%. The distribution pattern of the dependency levels was statistically significantly different between genders (p = 0.006). Reduced lung function (FEV, smoking cessation was advised to all smokers.
Stevens, Stacey L; Colwell, Brian; Smith, Dennis W; Robinson, James; McMillan, Catherine
Negative affect is related to initiation and maintenance of smoking among youth and understanding its role is important when developing effective prevention and cessation programs. This study investigates the relationship between adolescent negative affect and smoking dependence, behaviors, attitudes, and self-efficacy in order to shed light on differences in adolescent smoking maintenance and cessation. 721 smoking youth participated in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program. Reasons for smoking were categorized (alpha = 0.87) and youth were placed into one of two groups based on presence or absence of negative affect. One-way repeated measures ANOVA determined if differences existed between the groups on smoking behaviors, attitudes, and self-efficacy. One-way ANOVA determined if differences existed on Fagerström Nicotine Tolerance Dependence (FTND) scores. Adolescents indicating negative affect for smoking were significantly more likely to have future smoking intentions and had significantly less self-efficacy to quit smoking than adolescent reporting other reasons. This study supports the need to address negative affect among adolescents participating in prevention and cessation programs. An examination of negative affect will provide program developers and facilitators with information to improve their interventions, assist with cessation, and provide an avenue to access other needed health services.
Villalbí, Joan R
The implementation in 2006 of the law 28/2006 for smoking prevention was a milestone for modern public health in Spain. This law regulated three aspects: it banned the direct and indirect tobacco publicity and sponsorship, it reduced points of sale, and it banned smoking in enclosed workplaces and public spaces, with exemptions concentrating in the restaurant and hospitality sector. As it was implemented, other changes with preventive capacity were adopted: taxes on cigarettes were raised, and there were more resources for prevention and treatment, besides information campaigns and an intensive social debate on smoking. To evaluate the isolated effect of the law is complex, but in this paper we make an attempt by reviewing all the available information, despite its heterogeneity. More than three years after its implementation there are elements suggesting a positive impact on smoking prevalence among teens, in the general consumption of cigarettes and in acute myocardial infarction morbidity. Public policies are important for smoking prevention and to improve population s health, as they create a context conducive to smoking cessation. To reach further progress in smoking prevention in Spain, the current exemption for bars and restaurants in the smoking ban should be removed, and the taxation of tobacco products should be increased.
Kendler Kenneth S
Full Text Available Abstract The gene encoding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 is reported to be associated with a range of substance dependence. Experiments in knockout mice indicate that the mu-opioid receptor may mediate reinforcing effects of nicotine. In humans, opioid antagonist naltrexone may reduce the reinforcing effects of tobacco smoking. Additionally, the OPRM1 gene is located in a region showing linkage to nicotine dependence. The OPRM1 is thus a plausible candidate gene for smoking behavior. To investigate whether OPRM1 contributes to the susceptibility of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence, we genotyped 11 SNPs in the gene for 688 Caucasian subjects of lifetime smokers and nonsmokers. Three SNPs showed nominal significance for smoking initiation and one reached significance for nicotine dependence. The global test for three-marker (rs9479757-rs2075572-rs10485057 haplotypes was significant for smoking initiation (p = 0.0022. The same three-marker haplotype test was marginal (p = 0.0514 for nicotine dependence. These results suggest that OPRM1 may be involved in smoking initiation and nicotine dependence.
Evans, W K; Truscott, R; Cameron, E; Peter, A; Reid, R; Selby, P; Smith, P; Hey, A
A large body of evidence clearly shows that cancer patients experience significant health benefits with smoking cessation. Cancer Care Ontario, the provincial agency responsible for the quality of cancer services in Ontario, has undertaken a province-wide smoking cessation initiative. The strategies used, the results achieved, and the lessons learned are the subject of the present article. Evidence related to the health benefits of smoking cessation in cancer patients was reviewed. A steering committee developed a vision statement for the initiative, created a framework for implementation, and made recommendations for the key elements of the initiative and for smoking cessation best practices. New ambulatory cancer patients are being screened for their smoking status in each of Ontario's 14 regional cancer centres. Current or recent smokers are advised of the benefits of cessation and are directed to smoking cessation resources as appropriate. Performance metrics are captured and used to drive improvement through quarterly performance reviews and provincial rankings of the regional cancer centres. Regional smoking cessation champions, commitment from Cancer Care Ontario senior leadership, a provincial secretariat, and guidance from smoking cessation experts have been important enablers of early success. Data capture has been difficult because of the variety of information systems in use and non-standardized administrative and clinical processes. Numerous challenges remain, including increasing physician engagement; obtaining funding for key program elements, including in-house resources to support smoking cessation; and overcoming financial barriers to access nicotine replacement therapy. Future efforts will focus on standardizing processes to the extent possible, while tailoring the approaches to the populations served and the resources available within the individual regional cancer programs.
Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI
Park, Eunhee; Drake, Emily
To review the characteristics and effects Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Systematic review of published articles in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years, focused on Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Twelve articles were selected based on the following criteria: studies reporting the outcomes of Internet-based smoking cessation or prevention intervention programs for adolescents who are younger than 24 years. The components of youth Internet-based smoking intervention programs are analyzed based on study features (i.e., sample, design, theoretical basis, analysis, outcome measures) and program characteristics (i.e., focus, setting, frequency, duration, intensity, and different components) that make the programs effective. The most common components of effective Internet-based programs are identified as the following: the use of multimedia, tailored approaches, personalized feedback, and interactive features. The characteristics and effects of the programs vary, but most programs show positive results in youth smoking prevention and cessation in spite of the studies' limitations. The evidence from this review provides useful information of recent efforts related to Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs, which can have significant clinical implications in developing future innovative youth smoking prevention and intervention programs. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Simmons, Vani Nath; Webb, Monica S; Brandon, Thomas H
This study was designed as an initial test of whether an experiential learning intervention, based on cognitive dissonance theory, would increase college-student smokers' intentions to quit smoking. One hundred forty-four college smokers were asked to prepare educational videos about (1) the risks of smoking or (2) the feasibility of quitting (in a 2 x 2 factorial design). Main effects for the experimental manipulations were not found. However, an interaction suggested that intentions to quit smoking were increased by either manipulation, but that the effects were not additive. In addition, risk perceptions were increased by the health-risk manipulation alone, but not when quitting feasibility was also targeted. As predicted, smoking history and smoking-related expectancies were both correlated with magnitude of dissonance. Moreover, dissonance magnitude was associated with the reported use of dissonance-reducing strategies, including intending to quit smoking and believing that tobacco use was out of their control due to nicotine addiction. The findings from this initial analogue study suggest that attitudes and intentions to quit smoking can be influenced by a brief experiential intervention.
Full Text Available Background : Globally researchers have long back noted that the trend of substance use was on the rise particularly in the student population. Objective : To find out the prevalence and determinants of smoking practices among undergraduate medical students. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical (MBBS students of a tertiary care medical college using a predesigned and pretested semi-structured self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Results : Among 182 participants, 55 (30% were smokers; 85.45% were regular smokers; majority in the age group 20-22 years (70%; mostly males (98%. No significant difference was observed among urban and rural students, and religion had no association. The practice of smoking for last 6 months to 1 year was in 43.6% and 40% smoked less than 6 months. Half of them (50.9% smoked 5-9 cigarettes per day. Peer pressure was significantly high in smokers (83.6%; 42% had other addictions. The effect of parental smoking on smoking habits of the participants was quite evident among smokers (82%, which was significantly higher than nonsmokers (χ2=63.49, P<0.05. Peer pressure was the most important risk factor (57.69% of initiation of smoking habit followed by parental influence (16.49%. Among morbidities of smokers, 60.6% were suffering from regular cough, 6% from bronchitis, and 2% had asthma. Conclusions : Our survey conducted on budding doctors surprisingly showed that undergraduate medical students smoke so much.
Nerín, I; Crucelaegui, A; Más, A; Villalba, J A; Guillén, D; Gracia, A
To assess a comprehensive smoking prevention and treatment program in an electrical appliances company with 1600 employees. The program included smoking restrictions with the designation of smoking areas and the offer of smoking cessation treatment for the smokers affected. Study variables were age, sex, nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test), carbon monoxide in expired air, adherence to therapy, and smoking abstinence at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6 months. Successful smoking abstinence was defined as continuous abstinence from the beginning of treatment. Smoking prevalence was 34.8% and 19.5% of smokers requested treatment (77.4% men and 22.6% women). Mean (SD) age was 41.3 (10.3) years. Mean score of nicotine dependence was 5.3 (2.6) and the mean quantity of carbon monoxide in expired air was 35.6 (23.7) ppm. Adherence to therapy was good in 80% of patients. Rate of abstinence was 57.5% at 6 months, signifying a 4% reduction in prevalence. Workplace smoking cessation programs reduce prevalence and facilitate the establishment of smoking restrictions at the worksite. Companies are convenient settings for the implementation of programs aimed at smoking prevention and treatment.
Crone, MR; Verlaan, M; Willemsen, MC; van Soelen, P; Reijneveld, SA; Sing, RAH; Paulussen, TGWA
This study assessed the antecedents of continued use of an education program to prevent passive smoking in infants. It consists of a booklet for parents and a manual for health professionals describing a five-step procedure for discussing passive smoking. A questionnaire was sent to 67 managers, 670
Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.
The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…
Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.; Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.
The present study examines collectivist influences in preventing smoking among Hispanic youths. Using a pretest/posttest design, sixth-graders received a collectivist or standard curriculum. Both curricula contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent perspective. Compared to the standard…
Crone, M.R.; Verlaan, M.; Willemsen, M.C.; Soelen, P. van; Reijneveld, S.A.; Sing, R.A.H.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.
This study assessed the antecedents of continued use of an education program to prevent passive smoking in infants. It consists of a booklet for parents and a manual for health professionals describing a five-step procedure for discussing passive smoking. Aquestionnairewas sent to 67 managers, 670
Kostova, Deliana; Husain, Muhammad J; Chaloupka, Frank J
China is the world's largest producer and consumer of cigarettes. The status of tobacco as both a contributor to China's economy and a liability for the health of its population may complicate the use of taxes for addressing smoking in the country. Understanding how cigarette prices affect transitions in smoking behaviour in China can increase understanding of how China's high smoking rates can be influenced by tax policy. In order to estimate the effect of cigarette prices on smoking initiation and cessation in China, we construct pseudo-longitudinal samples for duration analysis using data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey China 2010. We use the historical variation in prices representative of 4 China regions over a 20-year period to identify the average price effect on the hazards of initiation and cessation while controlling for unobserved fixed and time-varying region characteristics. We find that initiation rates fall in response to higher prices (with a price elasticity of initiation estimated at -0.95 for men and -1.07 overall). The effect of prices on smoking in China is likely to occur through averting initiation over time. At the population level, cessation behaviour may be less responsive to price increases as the wide range of cigarette prices in China may provide relatively high opportunity for switching to lower priced brands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine the association between time of smoking initiation and both the independent and joint effects of active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women. Methods Data from two large population-based case-control studies conducted among Ontario women aged 25–75 years were combined for analysis (n = 12,768. Results Women who had ever smoked and were exposed to passive smoke had a significant increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01–1.25. A significant increased risk was also observed among women who initiated smoking: at age 26 or older (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.03–1.55; more than five years from menarche (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.12–1.42; and, after their first live birth (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.02–1.52. Conclusion The results suggest that women who initiate smoking at an older age are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores
This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Bosi, Sandra; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tamelli, Marco; Monti, Claudia; Storani, Simone; Carreras, Giulia; Martini, Andrea; Allara, Elias; Angelini, Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio
Few school programs are effective in preventing adolescents' tobacco smoking initiation. The "Lega contro i Tumori - Luoghi di Prevenzione" is a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a school-based peer-led smoking prevention intervention with extracurricular activities for students aged 14-15 years. This paper presents the study design and the baseline characteristics of the study population. Twenty secondary schools located in the Reggio Emilia province took part in the study. Five schools were excluded because they already participated in smoking prevention interventions. The schools were randomized to control or intervention arms. The study population consisted of students attending the first grade. Components of the intervention included 1) the out-of-school "Smoking Prevention Tour" (SPT) at the "Luoghi di Prevenzione" Center, a 4-hour (4 sessions) extracurricular activity; 2) the "Smoke-free Schools" intervention, combining a life-skills-based peer-led intervention at school, an in-depth lesson on one of the SPT sessions, and enforcement surveillance of the school antismoking policy. Tobacco use was studied through a questionnaire administered before and 6 months after the intervention. Eleven high schools and 9 vocational secondary schools took part in the study for a total of 2,476 out of 3,050 eligible students (81.2%). The proportions of respondents in high schools and vocational secondary schools were 90.9% and 64.5%, respectively (P preventing smoking initiation.
Pabayo, Roman; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Barnett, Tracie A; Cohen, Joanna E; Gauvin, Lise
In addition to individual-level characteristics, the social and physical environment may influence the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. The objective of this paper is to describe the association between smoking intolerance in schools, and in restaurants and corner stores located near schools, and initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents. Data on cigarette smoking were collected in self-report questionnaires every 3 months from 1999 to 2005 in a sample of 1,293 Grade 7 students in 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada. Baseline never-smokers (n = 868) were retained for analysis. School administrators completed questionnaires on tobacco control policies and activities within schools. Data on access to tobacco products and smoking restrictions in restaurants and corner stores located in school neighborhoods were collected through direct observation. Schools, restaurants, and corner stores were classified as smoking tolerant or intolerant. Time to initiation of cigarette smoking was modeled as a function of smoking intolerance in schools, restaurants, and corner stores in survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards modeling). Students in smoking-intolerant schools were less likely to initiate smoking than students in smoking-tolerant schools (hazard ratio [HR; 95% CI] = 0.83 [0.68, 1.01]). Students attending schools located in neighborhoods with smoking-intolerant restaurants were less likely to initiate smoking (HR [95% CI] = 0.85 [0.68, 1.07]). There was no association between corner store smoking intolerance and initiation. Smoking intolerance in schools and restaurants may protect against initiation of cigarette smoking and could be useful targets for more intense tobacco control efforts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589
Mittal, Srabani; Das, Samiran
Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS), measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children's exposure to SHS at home. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7%) was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Women's initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.
Full Text Available Context: Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS, measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Aims: Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children′s exposure to SHS at home. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. Results: A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7% was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Conclusions: Women′s initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.
Assunta, M; Chapman, S
Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them.
Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan
Smoking remains prevalent among U.S. youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12–17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was analyzed. A 3-stage model was devised to estimate smoking behavior transitions using cross-sectional data and the Probabilistic Discrete Event System method. Cigarette smoking measures (prevalence rates and odds ratios) were compared between exposed and non-exposed youth. More than 95% of the sample was exposed to prevention programs. Exposure was negatively associated with lifetime smoking and past 30-day smoking with a dose-response relation. Reduction in smoking was related to increased quitting in 2000–02, to increased quitting and declined initiation in 2003–05, and to initiation, quitting and relapse in 2005–08. Findings of this analysis suggest that intervention programs in the United States can reduce cigarette smoking among youth. Quitting smoking was most responsive to program exposure and relapse was most sensitive to funding cuts since 2003. Health policy and decision makers should consider these factors in planning and revising tobacco control strategies. PMID:22410164
Pinilla, Jaime; Abásolo, Ignacio
In Spain, the Law 28/2005, which came into effect on January 2006, was a turning point in smoking regulation and prevention, serving as a guarantee for the progress of future strategies in the direction marked by international organizations. It is expected that this regulatory policy should benefit relatively more to lower socioeconomic groups, thus contributing to a reduction in socioeconomic health inequalities. This research analyzes the effect of tobacco regulation in Spain, under Law 28/2005, on the initiation and cessation of tobacco consumption, and whether this effect has been unequal across distinct socioeconomic levels. Micro-data from the National Health Survey in its 2006 and 2011 editions are used (study numbers: 4382 and 5389 respectively; inventory of statistical operations (ISO) code: 54009), with a sample size of approximately 24,000 households divided into 2,000 census areas. This allows individuals' tobacco consumption records to be reconstructed over five years before the initiation of each survey, as well as identifying those individuals that started or stopped smoking. The methodology is based on "time to event analysis". Cox's proportional hazard models are adapted to show the effects of a set of explanatory variables on the conditional probability of change in tobacco consumption: initiation as a daily smoker by young people or the cessation of daily smoking by adults. Initiation rates among young people went from 25% (95% confidence interval (CI), 23-27) to 19% (95% CI, 17-21) following the implementation of the Law, and the change in cessation rates among smokers was even greater, with rates increasing from 12% (95% CI, 11-13) to 20% (95% CI, 19-21). However, this effect has not been equal by socioeconomic groups as shown by relative risks. Before the regulation policy, social class was not a statistically significant factor in the initiation of daily smoking ( p > 0.05); however, following the implementation of the Law, young people
Wang, Li Yan; Michael, Shannon L
To estimate smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood and to estimate long-term health and medical cost impacts of preventing smoking in today's adolescents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we first estimated smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood. Then, using the predicted probabilities, we estimated the number of adolescents who were prevented from becoming adult daily smokers as a result of a hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in today's adolescents. We further estimated lifetime medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained as a result of preventing adolescents from becoming adult daily smokers. All costs were in 2010 dollars. Compared with never smokers, those who had tried smoking at baseline had higher probabilities of becoming current or former daily smokers at follow-up regardless of baseline grade or sex. A hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in 24.5 million students in 7th-12th grades today could prevent 35,962 individuals from becoming a former daily smoker and 44,318 individuals from becoming a current daily smoker at ages 24-32 years. As a result, lifetime medical care costs are estimated to decrease by $1.2 billion and lifetime QALYs is estimated to increase by 98,590. Effective smoking prevention programs for adolescents go beyond reducing smoking prevalence in adolescence; they also reduce daily smokers in young adulthood, increase QALYs, and reduce medical costs substantially in later life. This finding indicates the importance of continued investment in effective youth smoking prevention programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Krebs, Paul; Burkhalter, Jack; Lewis, Shireen; Hendrickson, Tinesha; Chiu, Ophelia; Fearn, Paul; Perchick, Wendy; Ostroff, Jamie
Many hospitalized smokers return to smoking after hospital discharge even though continued smoking can compromise treatment effectiveness, reduce survival, increase risk of disease recurrence, and impair quality of life. After leaving a smoke-free hospital, patients encounter smoking cues at home, such as family members who smoke or emotional triggers such as stress, which can elicit powerful urges to smoke and lead to smoking relapse. Enabling smokers to experience such urges in a controlled setting while providing the ability to practice coping skills may be a useful strategy for building quitting self-efficacy. We are developing a virtual reality coping skills (VRCS) game to help hospitalized smokers practice coping strategies to manage these triggers in preparation for returning home after hospitalization. Our multidisciplinary team developed a prototype VRCS game using Second Life, a platform that allowed rapid construction of a virtual reality environment. The prototype contains virtual home spaces (e.g., living room, kitchen) populated with common triggers to smoke and a “toolkit” with scripted actions that enable the avatar to rehearse various coping strategies. Since eliciting and managing urges to smoke is essential to the game’s utility as an intervention, we assessed the ability of the prototype virtual environment to engage former smokers in these scenarios. We recruited eight former smokers with a recent history of hospitalization and guided each through a VRCS scenario during which we asked the patient to evaluate the strength of smoking urges and usefulness of coping strategies. Initial data indicate that patients report high urges to smoke (mean = 8.8 on a 10 point scale) when their avatar confronted virtual triggers such as drinking coffee. Patients rated virtual practice of coping strategies, such as drinking water or watching TV, as very helpful (mean = 8.4 on a 10 point scale) in reducing these urges. With further development, this VRCS
Crone Matty R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and Childhood Behaviour Checklist (CBCL (N = 960. Relationships between smoking and tertiles of CBCL-scores were assessed. Results Smoking was reported by 5.9% of the children (7.1% boys and 5.0% girls, P > 0.100. Relationships between smoking and problem behaviour were present in girls, but ot in boys. Among girls, smoking was associated with attention problems, thought problems, and delinquent behaviour. For attention problems and delinquent behaviour the associations were limited to the CBCL-scores in the uppermost 16% which agrees with the subclinical cut-off value. Conclusion Pre-adolescent girls more frequently smoke if having attention problems, delinquent behaviour, or thought problems.
Ferreira, Helenice R; Rosa, Ecinele F; Antunes, José Leopoldo F; Duarte, Danilo A; Imparato, José Carlos P; Pannuti, Claudio M; Mendes, Fausto M
To investigate the association between prolonged pacifier use during childhood and smoking in adolescence and early adulthood. A historical cohort study including patients from a dental private office was designed. Dental records were used, which contained complete data about sucking habits from 314 children (2-10 years of age) who had attended a private dental office from 1988 to 1994 in Ibiá, Brazil. Then, we collected data about the smoking habits from 261 subjects who were successfully contacted again from 2004 to 2006. Our outcome variable was smoking, and subjects who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime were classified as smokers. Poisson regression analysis matched the association between oral habits and smoking. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. The level of significance was set at 5%. We observed a statistically significant association between prolonged pacifier use (more than 24 months) and smoking (IRR = 4.48; 95% CI 2.32-8.65). Breastfeeding, in contrast, was a protective factor (IRR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.42-0.96). Prolonged pacifier use during childhood is positively associated with smoking initiation in adolescence and early adulthood.
Miller, M P; Gillespie, J; Billian, A; Davel, S
This article examines the use of the Tar Wars curriculum with the public health problem of preteen smoking and outlines interventions with a middle school population by community health student nurses from a state university. Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death and disability. Three million people die worldwide each year as a result of smoking. Cigarette smoking has now been labeled a pediatric disease. Estimates are that 3,000 children will begin a lifelong addiction to cigarettes every day. They will face a life of poor quality based on the medical consequences of smoking cigarettes. Mortality from tobacco use is annually greater than that from drug abuse, AIDS, suicide, homicide, and motor vehicle accidents combined. Preteen and teenage smoking is now a public health problem, therefore implications for service learning, nursing advocacy, and interventions with this health problem are discussed.
Full Text Available In Europe, according to official statistics (ec.europa.eu the percentage of smokers is about 29% of the population, and smoking still remains the main reason underlying the deaths and illnesses that could have been prevented. In the past 12 months, 31% of EU smokers have tried to quit smoking. In this gloomy context, the European Commission already has a tradition in preventing and stopping smoking, in addition to the broader tobacco control: in recent years have been organized numerous campaigns that aim to inform the European public about the problems caused by consumption tobacco, increasing awareness of the dangers of smoking, thus contributing to the long-term objective proposed by the Commission as "Europe free from tobacco smoke."
Vartiainen, E; Paavola, M; McAlister, A; Puska, P
This study evaluated the long-term effects of a school- and community-based smoking prevention program in Finland. Four intervention schools from North Karelia and two control schools from another province were chosen for the evaluation. Students who received the intervention were taught to resist social pressures to smoke. The program began in 1978 with seventh-grade students and ran through 1980, with a 15-year follow-up. In North Karelia, a community-based smoking cessation program for adults was also carried out. Mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 22% lower among program subjects than among control subjects. Smoking and prevalence were lower up to the age of 21. Long-term smoking prevention effects can be achieved if a school-based program using a social influence model is combined with community and mass media interventions.
Zenic, Natasa; Ban, Djivo; Jurisic, Sanja; Cubela, Mladen; Rodek, Jelena; Ostojic, Ljerka; Jelicic, Mario; Bianco, Antonino; Sekulic, Damir
protective factor against initiating smoking in older adolescents. Results should be used in development of an anti-smoking preventive campaign in older adolescents.
as a significant protective factor against initiating smoking in older adolescents. Results should be used in development of an anti-smoking preventive campaign in older adolescents.
Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire
Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.
Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan
Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented.
Jackson, Christine; Hayes, Kim A; Dickinson, Denise M
Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For
Onezi, Hamidi Al; Khalifa, Mohamed; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa
Tobacco smoking remains a major preventable cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. People who attempt to quit smoking often experience episodes of relapse before finally quitting. Understanding the part that social networking sites and social media can play in smoking cessation and prevention of relapse is important to aid the development of novel techniques to curb the smoking epidemic. This study investigated the use of extra-treatment provided outside of the formal healthcare setting, bolstered by online social support in order to prevent smoking relapse in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 473 smokers taking part in smoking cessation intervention programs run by the Riyadh branch of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City and PURITY, a Saudi anti-smoking association. Only subjects who expressed an interest in quitting smoking, and those attempting to quit, were considered for inclusion. The sample was divided into three groups: subjects who subscribed to support groups on Twitter (n = 150), and WhatsApp (n = 150), and a control group of subjects who had not subscribed to any social media support groups (n = 173). A significant difference was found between the mean average numbers of people who quit smoking among the three groups, with social media support proving to be more effective than other traditional methods. Our findings imply that Twitter and WhatsApp users found it easier to quit smoking than those who did not take part in these social media groups. Social media provides a good platform to discuss smoking cessation treatment, and thus reduce smoking relapses. Our findings support the suggestion that more social media support groups should be developed to help people to effectively cease smoking after abstinence. Individuals who struggle to quit smoking should be encouraged to join support groups on their social media platform of choice to increase their likelihood of quitting. Future studies should assess the effectiveness
Silvia Balia; Andrew M. Jones
Duration models for lifespan and smoking, that focus on the socio-economic gradient in smoking durations and length of life, are estimated controlling for individual-specific unobservable heterogeneity by means of a latent factor model. The latent factor influences the risk of starting and quitting smoking as well as the hazard of mortality. Frailty could in°uence smoking behaviour through two mechanisms: the effect of life expectancy on initiation of smok- ing and the impact of adverse healt...
Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert
-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group...
Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted...
Singh, S K; Enzhong, L; Reidpath, D D; Allotey, P
To explore the initiating factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) among youth. The analytic framework for this scoping review was performed using the methodology outlined by Arksey and O'Malley, which includes identification of the research question, study selection, charting the data, collating, summarizing and reporting the results that were primarily guided by the research question; 'what is known about the initiation of shisha smoking among youth?' Electronic databases such as Cochrane, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were used to search for relevant articles. Articles included were all in English and published within the year of 2006 to 2015. Inclusion criteria; i) age range of 10 to 29 years; ii) examined the reasons why youth started or tried WTS; iii) in full text. Therefore, 26 articles were included in this scoping review. This review has identified and classified the initiating factors of WTS among youth in four subtopics: individual factors, interpersonal influences, cigarettes and alcohol use, and media influences. Individual factors and interpersonal influences played an important role in initiation factors of WTS among youth. This study concludes that public health professionals within the Southeast Asia region need to promote innovative preventive measures through peer-to-peer led interventions that are also easily assessable on social media platforms. The public health messages need to address the misconceptions of risk associated to WTS use. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Cervone, Daniel; Witkiewitz, Katie
Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n=103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD). In addition, participants were randomized to one of two standard self-efficacy manipulations in the form of bogus feedback about their chances of quitting smoking. Participants in the Average Chances of Quitting (ACQ) condition took a computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had the same chances of quitting as everyone else in the study. Participants in the High Chances of Quitting (HCQ) condition took the same computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had a greater chance of quitting compared to everyone else in the study. The main outcome was whether participants were able to quit for 24h on the TQD. Results revealed that HCQ participants had a significantly greater chance of quitting smoking compared to ACQ participants. However, these effects were not attributable to changes in self-efficacy brought about by the manipulation. An exploration of other potential mediators showed that the manipulation actually influenced smoking outcome expectancies, and changes in these outcome expectancies influenced initial smoking cessation. The results highlight the conceptual and empirical challenges with manipulating self-efficacy in the smoking literature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie
One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Wetzels, Joyce; Uiters, Ellen; Ariza, Carles; Vitória, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtuvuori, Riku; Candel, Math
The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able to include additional objectives. National diversities required country-specific methods. The most important common element was a school-based programme consisting of at least five lessons paying attention to social influence processes and training in refusal skills. During the first year, significantly more smoking prevention activities were realized in experimental schools compared with control schools. Not all countries had the same number of lessons on resisting peer pressures. Significant cognitive changes were observed in Spain, resulting in more negative attitudes, increased self-efficacy levels and a more negative intention towards smoking in the experimental group. Counter-productive cognitive effects were observed in the UK. Significantly less onset of weekly smoking in experimental groups was found in Finland (4.7%) and Spain (3.1%). Counter-productive effects were observed in Denmark and the UK. In conclusion, while having common objectives, the ESFA approach allowed for a great deal of diversity. Fundamental research using dismantling designs is needed to be able to detect the most effective elements of smoking prevention programmes for different age groups. Attention to parenting styles and practices is also needed.
Trinidad, Dennis R; Blanco, Lyzette; Emery, Sherry L; Fagan, Pebbles; White, Martha M; Reed, Mark B
The objective of this study was to examine changes in the annual number of cigarette advertisements in magazines with a predominantly African-American audience following the broadcast ban on tobacco, and whether fluctuations in cigarette print advertising targeting African Americans during the late-1970s until the mid-1980s were associated with declines in smoking initiation. We tabulated the annual number of cigarette advertisements from magazines with large African-American readerships (Ebony, Essence, and Jet) from 1960 to 1990. Advertisements were coded depending on whether they featured African-American models. We calculated the incidence rate of regular smoking initiation from 1975 to 1990 for African-American 14-25 years old using data from the 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey. We examined whether trends in smoking initiation coincided with trends in cigarette advertising practices among African Americans. The annual aggregated number of printed cigarette advertisements in Ebony, Essence, and Jet magazines increased at least five-fold starting in 1971, following the broadcast ban on cigarette advertising. A decrease in the percentage of ads by Brown & Williamson that showed African-American models was positively correlated (r = 0.30) with declines in the incidence rate of smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to the mid-1980s. The tobacco industry adapted quickly following the broadcast ban on cigarettes by increasing print advertising in African-American magazines. However, changes in print advertising practices by were associated with declines in smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to mid-1980s.
Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Gandarillas, Ana; Mata, Nelva; Cantero, Jose Luis; Durbán, María
We evaluated the impact of a smoking ban in schools and of school-based smoking prevention and control policies on adolescent smoking. Annual surveys carried out between 2001 and 2005 that were representative of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region, with 203 schools and 9127 students participating. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were: the periods before (years 2001-2002) and after the law; and through a survey of school management boards: compliance with the law, policy reflected in the school regulations, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed with two dependent variables: current smoking and the proportion giving up smoking. Smoking declined in 2003, the first year after the law came into force (Odds ratio: 0.80; CI 95%: 0.66-0.96), and this decline was maintained in 2005. By contrast, smoking increased in those schools that did not undertake educational programmes regarding smoking (Odds ratio: 1.34; CI 95%: 1.13-1.59), and in those that received complaints about smoking (Odds ratio: 1.12; CI 95%: 0.96-1.29). This association is partly due to the effect of the increase in giving up smoking. The inclusion of contextual variables into the model with the individual factors reduces the variability of smoking between schools by 32.6%. In summary, the coming into force of a law banning smoking in schools, and the implementing of educational policies for the prevention and control of smoking are related to a lower risk of adolescent smoking.
Pires, Stephen F.; Block, Steven; Belance, Ronald; Marteache, Nerea
Objective: The present study extends research on campus smoking bans by examining where smokers are violating the policy at a large university in the southeastern region of the United States. Participants: The data collection was conducted by one graduate student from the university in August of 2014. Methods: A global positioning system device…
Suriani ISMAIL; Muhamad Hanafiah JUNI; Kulanthayan KCMANI; Muhamad Suhainizam SALILUDDIN; Raja Ahmad ZAKWAN; Ling Rong TIONG
Background: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Malaysia 2011 reported that the prevalence of smoking was highest among Malays male i.e., 24.6% (CI:22.1,27.3). The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of a group of smokers towards various national anti-smoking initiatives as well as its association with age and education level.Methods: The study was conducted in a randomly selected pre-dominantly Malay settlement in Malaysia using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The n...
Talip, Tajidah; Murang, Zaidah; Kifli, Nurolaini; Naing, Lin
A recent WHO data report on mortality attributable to tobacco use including cigarette smoking indicated a very high burden of deaths in Asia and that people often initiate smoking as early as young adolescents. The objectives of this study were to systematically review peerreviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation among Asian adolescents and to develop a conceptual model of factors influencing smoking initiation by integrating all relevant factors based on existing data. Following a PRISMA guideline, a systematic review of articles published between 2005 and June 2015 was conducted using 5 databases on cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents (aged 1019 years) living in Asia. We summarized the main findings of each study according to our research questions and data that emerged during the data extraction process. Analysis and categorization were based on the TTI and TPB models and classification of factors extracted from the study, were as follows: personal factors, social factors, broader environmental factors, mediators, and intention to initiate smoking and smoking behavior. Of 1,227 identified studies, only 20 were included in this review. Our findings found that the mean age of cigarette smoking initiation ranged from 10 to 14 years and those who are more likely to initiate smoking are male, older adolescents, adolescents with low parental SES, individuals with low parental monitoring, low parental education level and having no discussion on smoking at home, those living in public housing and those exhibiting healthrisk behavior. Our study also revealed that the risk of smoking initiation increased when they are exposed to smokers, influenced by peers, exposed to tobacco advertisements, receive pocket money, have lack of knowledge about smoking, have poor school performance, have a family conflict and have psychological problems. The conceptual model developed demonstrated complex networks of factors influencing initiation. This systematic review
Flay Brian R
Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.
Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.
Frisch, Anne; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Sports injuries in young athletes are a public health issue which deserves special attention. Effective prevention can be achieved with training programmes originating from the field of physical therapy and medicine. A systematic literature search on injury prevention in youth sport was performed in the MEDLINE database. For prevention programmes to reduce sports injuries, critical factors must be considered, such as training content, duration and frequency, as well as athlete compliance. Home-based programmes could be inferior to supervised training, but are efficient if compliance is high. So far prevention programmes have focused on team sports and their efficiency in individual sports remains to be proven. Active prevention programmes focusing specifically on the upper extremity are scarce. Initiatives enhancing the awareness of trainers, athletes and therapists about risk factors and systematic prevention measures should be encouraged.
Lisa M. Wilson
Full Text Available Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012 and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment.
Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.
Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777
Sekulic, Damir; Sisic, Nedim; Terzic, Admir; Jasarevic, Indira; Ostojic, Ljerka; Pojskic, Haris; Zenic, Natasa
Sport and scholastic factors are known to be associated with cigarette smoking in adolescence, but little is known about the causality of this association. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationships of different sport and scholastic factors with smoking prevalence initiation in older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this 2-year prospective cohort study, there were 872 adolescent participants (16 years at baseline; 46% females). The study consisted of baseline tests at the beginning of the third year (September 2013) and follow-up at the end of the fourth year of high school (late May to early June 2015). The independent variables were scholastic and sport-related factors. The dependent variables were (1) smoking at baseline, (2) smoking at follow-up and (3) smoking initiation over the course of the study. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender and socioeconomic status were applied to define the relationships between independent and dependent variables. School absence at the baseline study was a significant predictor of smoking initiation during the course of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8). Those who reported quitting sports at baseline showed an increased risk of smoking at the end of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and of smoking initiation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0). Adolescents who reported lower competitive achievements in sport were at a higher risk of (1) smoking at baseline (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), (2) smoking at follow-up (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1) and (3) smoking initiation (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6). In developing accurate antismoking public health policies for older adolescents, the most vulnerable groups should be targeted. The results showed that most participants initiated smoking before 16 years of age. Therefore, further investigations should evaluate the predictors of smoking in younger ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already
Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille; Ringgard, Lene; Wohllebe, Louise; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Grønbæk, Morten; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Andersen, Anette
Implementation fidelity describes how well an intervention is implemented in the real-world setting. Assessing implementation fidelity is essential in the understanding of intervention results. In most studies, implementation fidelity is measured insufficiently, though, not taking into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking prevention trial-the X:IT study. A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school grounds, (2) smoke-free curriculum, and (3) parental involvement, contracts, and dialogues. Implementation fidelity was assessed by four domains: adherence, dose, quality of delivery, and participant responsiveness. These were combined into an overall school-wise implementation index. The association of implementation and smoking was examined by logistic regression analyses. One fourth of the schools was characterized as high implementers of the program (all three components) at both first (12 schools, 24.0 %) and second follow-up (11 schools, 28.2 %). Implementation fidelity was strongly associated with smoking at the first and second follow-up, e.g., the odds for smoking at schools with high implementation both years were OR = 0.44 (95 % CI 0.32 to 0.68). Using an overall
Winkler, Volker; Lan, Yong; Becher, Heiko
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was shown to effectively lower smoking prevalence in in high income countries, however knowledge for low and middle income settings is sparse. The objective of this study was to describe WHO MPOWER policy measures in thirteen West-African countries and to investigate their correlation with smoking prevalence. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data and policy measures were collected from various WHO reports. For analysis MPOWER measures from 2008 and 2010, were combined with prevalence data from 2009 and 2011. Multiple linear regression models were set up. In West-Africa mean smoking prevalence was approximately 20% among males and approximately 3% among females. Policy measures were mostly at a middle or low level. Regression analysis showed that tobacco cessation programs, health warnings on cigarettes, and higher price of cigarettes were negatively correlated with smoking prevalence. Significant effects were observed for only one policy measure (tobacco cessation programs) and only within the male population where smoking prevalence is generally higher. Tobacco control policies are enforced at relatively low levels in West-African countries. However, improving tobacco control policy implementation according to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should assist in the reduction of smoking prevalence in African countries, thereby counteracting pro-smoking initiatives set forth by the tobacco industry.
This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina. Created: 7/18/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 7/18/2013.
Dillon, Kristin A; Chase, Richard A
Little research exists on exposure to the health risks of secondhand smoke among women and children in African immigrant communities. This exploratory study aims to understand the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure; assess levels of awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke; and identify strategies for building increased awareness of these issues in African immigrant communities in Minnesota. Key informant interviews with ten African women community leaders, focus groups with 29 female African youth, and surveys of 223 African women were conducted between August 2008 and March 2009. The focus groups and key informant interviews were in English, and the surveys were in English, French, Oromo, and Somali. Over one quarter of African women reported daily exposure to cigarette smoke, and one in ten women reported daily exposure to smoke from shisha (fruit-flavored tobacco smoked in a hookah or waterpipe). Many respondents had general awareness of the health impacts of tobacco smoke, but some were unsure. The majority felt that increased awareness was badly needed in their communities. Awareness of the health impacts of shisha smoking was particularly low. Strategies for increasing awareness include: using media and visual images, attending large gatherings, and appealing to community members' priorities, including protecting their children. Exposure to secondhand smoke among women and children in African immigrant communities in Minnesota is substantial. Awareness about the health impacts of secondhand smoke exposure in these communities needs to be increased. Disseminating visual information at existing community gatherings or appealing to individual priorities may be the best approaches to increase awareness and motivate change. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meltzer, Lauren R.; Meade, Cathy D.; Diaz, Diana B.; Carrington, Monica S.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Haura, Eric B.; Simmons, Vani N.
We describe the series of iterative steps used to develop a smoking relapse-prevention intervention customized to the needs of cancer patients. Informed by relevant literature and a series of preliminary studies, an educational tool (DVD) was developed to target the unique smoking relapse risk factors among cancer patients. Learner verification interviews were conducted with 10 cancer patients who recently quit smoking to elicit feedback and inform the development of the DVD. The DVD was then refined using iterative processes and feedback from the learner verification interviews. Major changes focused on visual appeal, and the inclusion of additional testimonials and graphics to increase comprehension of key points and further emphasize the message that the patient is in control of their ability to maintain their smoking abstinence. Together, these steps resulted in the creation of a DVD titled Surviving Smokefree®, which represents the first smoking relapse-prevention intervention for cancer patients. If found effective, the Surviving Smokefree® DVD is an easily disseminable and low-cost portable intervention which can assist cancer patients in maintaining smoking abstinence. PMID:27476432
Meltzer, Lauren R; Meade, Cathy D; Diaz, Diana B; Carrington, Monica S; Brandon, Thomas H; Jacobsen, Paul B; McCaffrey, Judith C; Haura, Eric B; Simmons, Vani N
We describe the series of iterative steps used to develop a smoking relapse-prevention intervention customized to the needs of cancer patients. Informed by relevant literature and a series of preliminary studies, an educational tool (DVD) was developed to target the unique smoking relapse risk factors among cancer patients. Learner verification interviews were conducted with 10 cancer patients who recently quit smoking to elicit feedback and inform the development of the DVD. The DVD was then refined using iterative processes and feedback from the learner verification interviews. Major changes focused on visual appeal, and the inclusion of additional testimonials and graphics to increase comprehension of key points and further emphasize the message that the patient is in control of their ability to maintain their smoking abstinence. Together, these steps resulted in the creation of a DVD titled Surviving Smokefree®, which represents the first smoking relapse-prevention intervention for cancer patients. If found effective, the Surviving Smokefree® DVD is an easily disseminable and low-cost portable intervention which can assist cancer patients in maintaining smoking abstinence.
Ariza, Carles; Nebot, Manel; Tomás, Zoa; Giménez, Emmanuel; Valmayor, Sara; Tarilonte, Visitación; De Vries, Hein
To describe the effects of a Spanish smoking prevention programme in the context of an European project on regular smoking, in a sample of Barcelona adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was conducted. An experimental group (EG) (1080 pupils) was exposed to programme and compared with a control group (CG) (872 students). The intervention included a school-based programme (16 sessions in 3 years), reinforcement of a smoke-free school policy, smoking cessation for teachers, brochures for parents and other community-based activities involving youth clubs and tobacco sales. At 12 months, 4.5% of boys and 5.6% of girls were new smokers in the EG versus 6.7% and 11.7% in the CG (P < 0.001). At 36 months, 18.6% of boys and 31.2% of girls in the EG were regular smokers versus 21.6% of boys and 38.3% of girls in the CG (P < 0.001). The main factors associated with progression to regular smoking at 36 months were to be girl, to attend to a public school and to belong to the CG. These results endorse the effectiveness of multi-modal smoking prevention programmes, which include strategies with adults who influence adolescents.
Assunta, M; Chapman, S
To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation.
Prasad, D S; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, A K; Das, B C
The causal associations between cigarette smoking and human diseases are irrefutable. In this review, we focus on the epidemiological pattern of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular risk, the underlying mechanistic process of such a causal link, how to prevent premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality particularly through smoking cessation, and the health benefits of such cessation measures. Finally, we conclude our review summarizing a few of the proven evidence-based tobacco control strategies and policies from across the globe. We did not conduct a systematic review but followed a similar structure. We abstracted the most relevant published literature on the electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library applying specific search terms. We also searched gray literature and consulted experts in the field for cross-references. Smoking has been estimated to cause about 11% of all deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and sudden death through a variety of mechanisms, including the promotion of atherosclerosis, the triggering of coronary thrombosis, coronary artery spasm, and cardiac arrhythmias, and through reduced capacity of the blood to deliver oxygen. Smoking cessation also confers substantial benefits on people with serious heart disease. Smoking cessation should be viewed as therapeutic rather than preventive intervention, similar to treating asymptomatic hypertension. Smoking cessation is highly cost-effective relative to other frequently used medical and surgical interventions. Tobacco related illnesses are important public health issues worldwide. It has been estimated that there are 1.1 billion smokers worldwide and 250 million of them live in India.
Dodge, Kenneth A.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Epstein, Matthew; Spitz-Roth, Adele; O'Donnell, Karen; Kaufman, Martha; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Rosch, Joel; Christopoulos, Christina
This article describes the Durham Family Initiative (DFI), an innovative effort to bring together child welfare and juvenile justice systems to reach DFI's goal of reducing the child abuse rate in Durham, North Carolina, by 50% within the next 10 years. DFI will follow principles of a preventive system of care (PSoC), which focuses on nurturing…
We would be most grateful if you brought to the attention of the readers of African Health Sciences, the following information for IPIFA. The Injury Prevention Initiative for Africa (IPIFA) ratified its constitution at the fourth Annual General Meeting in February 2001. At that meeting, members from 8 African countries, and ...
Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul
This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…
Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Bosi, Sandra; Tamelli, Marco; Monti, Claudia; Storani, Simone; Martini, Andrea; Allara, Elias; Angelini, Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio
We assessed the effectiveness of the Luoghi di Prevenzione-Prevention Grounds school-based smoking prevention programme. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 989 students aged 14-15 years in 13 secondary schools located in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The intervention consisted of the "Smoking Prevention Tour" (SPT) out-of-school workshop, one in-depth lesson on one Smoking Prevention Tour topic, a life-skills peer-led intervention, and enforcement surveillance of school antismoking policy. Self-reported past 30-day smoking of ≥ 20 or 1-19 days of cigarette smoking (daily or frequent smoking, respectively) was recorded in 2 surveys administered immediately before and 18 months after the beginning of the programme. Analysis was by intention to treat. The effect of the intervention was evaluated using random effects logistic regression and propensity score-matching analyses. Past 30-day smoking and daily cigarette use at eighteen months follow-up were 31% and 46% lower, respectively, for intervention students compared to control students. Taking into account non-smokers at baseline only, daily smoking at eighteen months follow-up was 59% lower in intervention students than in controls. Past 30-day smoking in school areas was 62% lower in intervention students compared to controls. The Luoghi di Prevenzione-Prevention Grounds programme was effective in reducing daily smokers and in reducing smoking in school areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hajek, Peter; Tønnesen, Philip; Arteaga, Carmen
AIM: While older behavioural and pharmacological approaches to preventing relapse to smoking show little efficacy, a recent randomized trial of an extended course of varenicline reported positive results. In this secondary analysis, trial data were examined to see whether smokers who manage to ac...
Twentieth-century tobacco control programs and policies were responsible for preventing more than 795,000 lung cancer deaths in the United States from 1975 through 2000. If all cigarette smoking in this country had ceased following the release of the firs
Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy
School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…
Lotrean, L. M.; Dijk, F.; Mesters, I.; Ionut, C.; De Vries, H.
The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a school-based smoking prevention programme that used both a video and peer-led discussion groups among Romanian junior high school students aged 13-14 years. The programme embraced the social influence approach and concentrated on enhancing self-efficacy and the acquisition of cigarette refusal…
Tingle, Lynne R.; DeSimone, Marie; Covington, Benjamin
Conducted a meta-evaluation of 11 school-based smoking prevention programs. Criteria included: adequacy of research design; evidence of reliability and validity; appropriate statistical analyses and interpretations; reporting of effect sizes or practical significance; accounting for attrition; and tracking fidelity to the program. Criteria with…
Stevens, Victor J.; Hollis, Jack F.
Studied effectiveness of relapse prevention program in 744 smokers trained to use over 40 behavioral and cognitive smoking cessation techniques. At 1-week follow-up session, abstainers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 follow-up conditions: skills training, discussion, and no treatment. Survival analysis indicated higher abstinence rates for the…
Ausems, Marlein; Mesters, Ilse; van Breukelen, Gerard; De Vries, Hein
This paper evaluates a smoking prevention intervention aimed at vocational school students, consisting of an existing Dutch in-school program (three lessons each lasting 50 min) and a computer-based tailored out-of-school program (three tailored letters with smoking prevention messages mailed to students' homes). Nineteen schools that already…
Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Case, Kathleen R; Marti, C Nathan; Perry, Cheryl L
Recent data suggest that lower perceived risks of e-cigarettes are associated with e-cigarette use in young adults; however, the temporality of this relationship is not well-understood. We explore how perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness of e-cigarettes influence e-cigarette initiation, and specifically whether this association varies by cigarette smoking status, in a longitudinal study of tobacco use on college campuses. Data are from a 5-wave 24-college study in Texas. Only students who reported never using e-cigarettes at wave 1 were included (n = 2565). Multilevel discrete-time hazard models, accounting for school clustering, were used. The dependent variable, ever e-cigarette use, was assessed at each wave. Both time-varying (e-cigarette perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness, age, use of cigarettes, use of other tobacco products, and use of other substances) and time-invariant demographic covariates were included. Two-way interactions between each e-cigarette perception variable and current conventional cigarette use were tested to determine if the hypothesized relationship differed among smokers and non-smokers. 21% of all never e-cigarette users at baseline had initiated e-cigarette ever use by wave 5. Significant two-way interactions qualified the relationship between risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation. Specifically, perceptions of a lower degree of harmfulness (OR = 1.13, p = .047) and addictiveness (OR = 1.34, p risk of e-cigarettes contributes to subsequent e-cigarette initiation among non-smokers, but not among current smokers. have implications for prevention campaigns focusing on the potential harm of e-cigarettes for non-smoking college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Pin-Pin; Cui, Hong-Wei; Fu, Ying-Ying; Yang, Shun-Ying
To appraise the effectiveness of a school-based smoking control program and explore the effective smoking prevention and control intervention model in middle schools. Through two phase cluster sampling, students in grade 1 and grade 2 of two schools were assigned to intervention group and control group. Comprehensive smoking intervention was implemented in the intervention group for one year. The assessment was carried out through three phases: baseline, after intervention, and 6-month after intervention. After intervention, the proportion of attempt smoking rate in the recent one year decreased from 9.7% to 4.2% and the heavy passive smoking rate declined from 15.5% to 12.2%. In addition, some knowledge, attitudes and skills related to tobacco prevention among the students in the intervention group were significantly improved and most effects can be sustained at 6-month follow up survey. It is concluded that tobacco control in middle school was effective and feasible and it should be closely integrated with tobacco control in the community.
During the past several years, the authors have made considerable progress in modeling carcinogenesis in general, and in modeling radiation carcinogenesis, in particular. They present an overview of their progress in developing stochastic carcinogenesis models and applying them to experimental and epidemiologic data sets. Traditionally, cancer models have been used for the analysis of incidence (or prevalence) data in epidemiology and time to tumor data in experimental studies. The relevant quantities for the analysis of these data are the hazard function and the probability of tumor. The derivation of these quantities is briefly described here. More recently, the authors began to use these models for the analysis of data on intermediate lesions on the pathway to cancer. Such data are available in experimental carcinogenesis studies, in particular in initiation and promotion studies on the mouse skin and the rat liver. If however, quantitative information on intermediate lesions on the pathway to lung cancer were to be come available at some future date, the methods that they have developed for the analysis of initiation-promotion experiments could easily be applied to the analysis of these lesions. The mathematical derivations here are couched in terms of a particular two-mutation model of carcinogenesis. Extension to models postulating more than two mutations is not always straightforward
Merrill, Ray M; Madanat, Hala; Kelley, Alan T
This study assesses smoking prevalence, attitudes, and perceived patient counselling responsibilities among practicing nurses in Amman, Jordan. It also identifies whether their smoking status or training in counselling patients about smoking is associated with their smoking-related attitudes and counselling practices. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 266 (n = 266) nurses at four public and private hospitals in Amman. Smoking prevalence was 42% for male nurses and 13% for female nurses. Nurses strongly favoured enforcement of anti-smoking policy, but did not strongly agree that nurses should be involved in counselling patients about smoking. Approximately 41% of nurses indicated that they had received training on counselling patients about smoking. Nurse training with respect to counselling patients about smoking was positively associated with the nurses' belief that their counselling could help patients stop or never start smoking. In addition, nurses with counselling training about smoking felt significantly better prepared to assist patients to quit smoking. Nurses who smoked were significantly less likely to believe their counselling of patients about smoking could be effective. Finally, smoking status was not significantly associated with how well prepared the nurses felt to assist patients to quit smoking. These findings identify a need for more extensive and better-tailored training programmes for nurses on patient counselling about smoking. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
DeBon, M; Klesges, R C
To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.
Luinge Marjan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the most important cause for the development of COPD. Since not all smokers develop COPD, it is obvious that other factors must be involved in disease development. We hypothesize that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a protective enzyme against oxidative stress and inflammation, is insufficiently upregulated in COPD. The effects of HO-1 modulation on cigarette smoke induced inflammation and emphysema were tested in a smoking mouse model. Methods Mice were either exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke exposure for 20 weeks. Cobalt protoporphyrin or tin protoporphyrin was injected during this period to induce or inhibit HO-1 activity, respectively. Afterwards, emphysema development, levels of inflammatory cells and cytokines, and the presence of B-cell infiltrates in lung tissue were analyzed. Results Smoke exposure induced emphysema and increased the numbers of inflammatory cells and numbers of B-cell infiltrates, as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue. HO-1 modulation had no effects on smoke induced emphysema development, or the increases in neutrophils and macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, HO-1 induction prevented the development of smoke induced B-cell infiltrates and increased the levels of CD4+CD25+ T cells and Foxp3 positive cells in the lungs. Additionally, the CD4+CD25+ T cells correlated positively with the number of Foxp3 positive cells in lung tissue, indicating that these cells were regulatory T cells. Conclusion These results support the concept that HO-1 expression influences regulatory T cells and indicates that this mechanism is involved in the suppression of smoke induced B-cell infiltrates. The translation of this interaction to human COPD should now be pursued.
Gonzálvez, María Teresa; Espada, José Pedro; Orgilés, Mireia; Sussman, Steve
Project EX is a classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention program that has been well evaluated and designed for assessing the prevention and cessation effects among adolescents in Spain. However, its long-term efficacy is still unknown. This study deals with the outcomes of a 2-year follow-up evaluation of Project EX. The intervention was tested using a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 1,546 Spanish students from 3 program schools and 3 control schools. At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 722 subjects had completed the questionnaires (266 in the control condition and 456 in the program condition) administered to them. Compared to the control condition, the program condition revealed a greater reduction in nicotine dependence (p = 0.04), smoking intention (p = 0.02), and in the number of cigarettes smoked during the previous month (p = 0.03). The CO monitor repeated assessments revealed a significant decrease of ppm levels in the program group (p smoking prevention and cessation among adolescents in Spain. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Usami, Takeshi; Inaba, Akiho; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ikari, Akira; Tominaga, Suketami
This study examines the countermeasures taken by restaurants to prevent passive smoking and the impact of smoking prohibition on both the number of customers and sales volume in restaurants. An interview-based survey was administered to 8,558 restaurant managers in Aichi prefecture. The survey questions concerned the countermeasures taken against passive smoking within each restaurant and the effect of the prohibition of smoking on both the number of customers and sales volume between November 1, 2009, and February 26, 2010. Seven thousand and eighty managers responded to the survey (response rate 83%). The proportion of managers of restaurants with a complete smoking ban was 16.4%, of restaurants with a smoking and non-smoking room or section was 20.2%, and of restaurants where no countermeasures were taken was 63.4%. The results showed that among the restaurants with a complete smoking ban, the number of customers and sales volume increased in 1.5%, decreased in 3.9%, and did not change in 95%. Differences in countermeasures were seen according to the type of restaurant. A high proportion of restaurants with a complete ban were curry shops and fast food restaurants, while few such restaurants were bars or Izakaya (Japanese style bars) and Yakiniku (Korean style BBQ) restaurants. The results of this large-scale survey in Aichi prefecture suggest that the economic impact of smoking prohibition in restaurants, in terms of the number of customers and sales volume, is small.
Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Experiencing bullying as a victim is associated with negative health and health behavior outcomes, including substance use, among adolescents. However, understandings of protective factors – factors that enhance adolescents’ resilience to the negative consequences of bullying – remain limited. The current study investigates whether teacher involvement protects adolescent students from the association between being bullied due to race and smoking initiation. Students were recruited from 12 Kindergarten through 8th grade schools in an urban school district in the Northeast United States. The analytic sample included 769 students who responded to surveys in 5th or 6th grade (2009), and two years later in 7th or 8th grade (2011). Students primarily identified as Latino and/or Black, and 90% were eligible for free or reduced lunch. Fifty-four (7%) students initiated smoking between survey time points. Among students reporting lower teacher involvement, race-based bullying was associated with higher likelihood of smoking initiation (OR = 1.69, p = .03). In contrast, among students reporting higher teacher involvement, racebased bullying was not associated with higher likelihood of smoking initiation (OR = 0.95, p = .81). Results suggest that teacher involvement may protect students from the association between race-based bullying and smoking initiation. Enhancing teacher involvement among students experiencing race-based bullying in schools may limit smoking initiation. PMID:24955021
Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun
This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.
Brinker, Titus Josef; Owczarek, Andreas Dawid; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Brieske, Christian Martin; Jansen, Philipp; Klode, Joachim; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Izar, Benjamin; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Hofmann, Felix Johannes
]=68). Notable differences were observed between the groups for the female gender (4.2% to 9.5% for control vs 4.0% to 5.2% for intervention; NNT=24 for females vs NNT=207 for males), low educational background (7.3% to 12% for control vs 6.1% to 8.7% for intervention; NNT=30), and migrational background (students who claimed that at least one parent was not born in Germany) at the 12-month follow-up. The intervention appears to prevent smoking onset (NNT=63) but does not appear to initiate quitting. The intervention appears to prevent smoking, especially in females and students with a low educational background. ©Titus Josef Brinker, Andreas Dawid Owczarek, Werner Seeger, David Alexander Groneberg, Christian Martin Brieske, Philipp Jansen, Joachim Klode, Ingo Stoffels, Dirk Schadendorf, Benjamin Izar, Fabian Norbert Fries, Felix Johannes Hofmann. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.06.2017.
Agrawal, Tara; Hoffman, Jessica A; Ahl, Marilyn; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine; Carter, Sonia; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Griffin, Daphne; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen
This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated.
Menati, Walieh; Nazarzadeh, Milad; Bidel, Zeinab; Würtz, Morten; Menati, Rostam; Hemati, Rohollah; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Zareimanesh, Elham; Mohammadi, Mohammad Sabour; Akhlaghi Ardekani, Farzad; Tazval, Jafar; Delpisheh, Ali
Knowledge about social and psychological risk factors for initial cigarette smoking experience (ICSE) is sparse. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ICSE and to examine the psychological and social factors related to ICSE. In a cross-sectional survey, 1,511 male college students were recruited using multistage sampling techniques from four universities located within the city of Ilam, Iran. Self-administered multiple-choice questionnaires were distributed to students from March to June 2013. Risk factors for ICSE were evaluated using logistic regression models. Participants were 22.3 ± 2.4 years of age. ICSE prevalence was 30.6%. In multivariable adjusted analysis, risk taking behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-2.33), perceived peer smoking prevalence (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.03-5.97), positive thoughts about smoking (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02-1.10), high self-efficacy (OR = 0.95, 95% CI [0.93, 0.98]), presence in smokers' gathering (OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 2.88-6.81), comity of smokers (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.66, 3.92), very hard access to cigarettes (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.16-4.16), close friends' medium reaction toward smoking (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.02-1.88), and sporting activity (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.56-0.98) were significantly associated with ICSE. This study identified that a combination of psychological and social variables account for up to 78% of the probability of ICSE. The most important protective factor against ICSE was physical activity, whereas the most important risk factor for ICSE was frequent gathering in the presence of smokers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Mercken, Liesbeth; Crutzen, Rik; Willems, Paul; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke
Improving the use (eg, initial visit and revisits) of Internet-delivered interventions to promote healthy lifestyles such as non-smoking is one of the largest challenges in the field of eHealth. Prompts have shown to be effective in stimulating reuse of Internet-delivered interventions among adults and adolescents. However, evidence concerning effectiveness of prompts to promote reuse of a website among children is still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate (1) whether prompts are effective in promoting reuse of an intervention website containing information on smoking prevention for children, (2) whether the content of the prompt is associated with its effect in terms of reuse, and (3) whether there are differences between children who do or do not respond to prompts. The sample of this cluster-randomized study consisted of 1124 children (aged 10-11 years) from 108 Dutch primary schools, who were assigned to the experimental group of an Internet-delivered smoking prevention intervention study. All participants completed a Web-based questionnaire on factors related to (non-)smoking. Schools were randomized to a no-prompt group (n=50) or a prompt group (n=58). All children could revisit the intervention website, but only the children in the prompt group received email and SMS prompts to revisit the website. Those prompt messages functioned as a teaser to stimulate reuse of the intervention website. Reuse of the website was objectively tracked by means of a server registration system. Repeated measures analysis of variance and linear regression analysis were performed to assess the effects of prompts on website reuse and to identify individual characteristics of participants who reuse the intervention website. Children in the prompt group reused the intervention website significantly more often compared to children in the no-prompt group (B=1.56, Pchildren with a low socioeconomic status (SES) reused the intervention website more often (B=2.19, Pchildren
Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B
In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.
López González, M L; López, T; Comas Fuentes, A; Herrero Puente, P; González Blázquez, J; Cueto Espinar, A; Thomas, H; Douglas, J; Markham, W; Charlton, A; de Vries, H; Leijs, I; Mester, I; Ausems, M
The cigarette smoking habit continues to be prevalent to a greater degree than would be desirable among teenagers. Innovative prevention programs are needed. This descriptive cross-sectional study sets out the behavior variables related to the cigarette smoking habit and the extracurricular activities in which teenagers are most frequently involved which are useful for setting out extracurricular prevention programs. The data was collected by means of a questionnaire validated in a representative sample of school age youths (ages 10-11 and 13-14) from Asturias. The variables entailed in cigarette smoking were analyzed using the regression method. The starting smoker percentage is 14.5%-42.5%, regular smokers totaling 1.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Two models were constructed with the variables significantly related to smoking behavior, which are properly classified into smoker/non-smoker by 98.85% and 91.39% of the children, by ages. The environmental variables (availability of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages and regular visits to places entailing risk) are the major aspects comprising the model. The most common extracurricular activities are: watching TV, reading and listening to music and watching or playing sports. The findings provide keys to planning extracurricular activities tailored to fit in with the activities most popular among teens: TV commercials and ads on music media (CD's, tapes, etc.) and printed information mailed directly to teens at their homes, with messages conveyed by opinion-leaders among teens in the fields of sports, music and television.
Murphy, N T; Price, C J
Selected antecedents of smoking initiation among 1,513 eighth grade students in an urban tobacco producing county of North Carolina were studied using the Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Fifteen percent of students reported currently smoking, and 17.2% indicated an intention to smoke upon graduation from high school. Self-esteem and parental smoking behavior related significantly to adolescents' smoking behavior and future intention to smoke. Significantly more females intended to smoke and had lower self-esteem than males. Family involvement in the tobacco industry related significantly to adolescents' intention to smoke but not their smoking behavior. Overall, low self-esteem and parental smoking models may be important to developing the smoking habit among young adolescents. Prevention of smoking initiation should involve promotion of children's self-esteem and avoidance of parental smoking modeling prior to the eighth grade.
De Flora, Silvio; Izzotti, Alberto; D'Agostini, Francesco; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna T; Ceccaroli, Chiara; Steele, Vernon E; Balansky, Roumen
Tobacco smoke plays a dominant role in the epidemiology of lung cancer, cancer at other sites, and a variety of other chronic diseases. It is the leading cause of death in developed countries, and the global burden of cancer is escalating in less developed regions. For a rational implementation of strategies exploitable for the prevention smoking-related diseases, it is crucial to elucidate both the mechanisms of action of cigarette smoke and the protective mechanisms of the host organism. The imperative primary prevention goal is to avoid any type of exposure to smoke. Epidemiological studies have shown that a decrease in the consumption of cigarettes can be successful in attenuating the epidemic of lung cancer in several countries. Chemoprevention by means of dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy aimed at decreasing the risk of developing smoking-associated diseases in addicted current smokers, who are unable to quit smoking, and especially in involuntary smokers and ex-smokers. The availability of new animal models that are suitable to detect the carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms provides new tools for evaluating both safety and efficacy of putative chemopreventive agents.
Elsey, Helen; Owiredu, Elizabeth; Thomson, Heather; Mann, Gemma; Mehta, Rashesh; Siddiqi, Kamran
Social norms approaches (SNA) are based on the premise that we frequently overestimate risk behaviours among our peers. By conducting campaigns to reduce these misperceptions, SNAs aim to reduce risk behaviours. This study examines the extent to which 12 to 13year old pupils overestimate smoking among their peers and explores the appropriateness of using SNA in secondary schools to prevent smoking uptake. The extent of overestimation of smoking among peers was assessed through an on-line SNA questionnaire in five schools (n=595). Based on questionnaire results, pupils developed SNA campaigns in each school. Qualitative methods of focus groups (7), interviews (7) and observation were used to explore in-depth, from the perspective of staff and pupils, the appropriateness and feasibility of the SNA to prevent smoking uptake in secondary schools. A quarter of pupils, 25.9% (95% CI 25.6% to 26.1%) believed that most of their peers smoked, however, only 3% (95% CI 2.8% to 3.3%) reported that they actually did; a difference of 22.9% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Self-reported smoking was not significantly different between schools (X(2)=8.7 p=0.064), however, perceptions of year group smoking was significantly different across schools (X(2)=63.9 ppeers in secondary schools, thus supporting a key premise of social norms theory. Implementing SNAs and studying effects is feasible within secondary schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn
This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and a control group were designed as stimulus material in a repeated measure nonequivalent group experimental design. The 2 intervention workshops developed included: analysis + analysis (where participants discussed and analyzed cigarette and antismoking ads) and analysis + production (where participants discussed, analyzed, and then created their own antismoking ads). The analysis + production workshop was generally more successful than the analysis + analysis workshop and control group in changing participants' behavioral intention to smoke and attitude toward smoking but not subjective norms over time. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Spyratos Dionisios G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate epidemiological data about cigarette smoking in relation with risk and preventive factors among Greek adolescents. Methods We randomly selected 10% of the whole number of schools in Northern Greece (133 schools, 18,904 participants were included. Two anonymous questionnaires (smoker's and non-smoker's were both distributed to all students so they selected and filled in only one. A parental signed informed consent was obtained using an informative leaflet about adolescent smoking. Results The main findings of the study were: a 14.2% of the adolescents (mean age+/−SD: 15.3+/−1.7 years reported regular smoking (24.1% in the age group 16–18 years, b 84.2% of the current smokers reported daily use, c students who live in urban and semirural areas smoke more frequently than those in rural areas, d students in technically oriented schools smoke twice as frequent compared to those in general education, e risk factors for smoking: male gender, low educational level of parents, friends who smoke (OR: 10.01, 95%CI: 8.53-11.74, p Conclusions Even though prevalence of cigarette smoking is not too high among Greek adolescents, frequency of everyday cigarette use is alarming. We identified many social and lifestyle risk and preventive factors that should be incorporated in a national smoking prevention program among Greek adolescents.
Ingersoll, Karen S; Hettema, Jennifer E; Cropsey, Karen L; Jackson, Justin P
Effective preconception primary prevention strategies are needed for women who are at dual risk for alcohol and smoking exposed pregnancies. The current study seeks to identify risk factors that can be used to target intervention strategies at women who are at dual risk. During a 2-year period from January 2007 through December 2009, 109 women at dual risk for alcohol exposed pregnancy (AEP) and smoking exposed pregnancy (SEP) and 108 women at risk only for AEP were recruited from central Virginia cities. All participants completed a battery of instruments, including assessments of sexual, smoking, and alcohol history and current behavior in each area. Several factors differentiated women at dual risk for SEP/AEP vs. AEP alone, including lower educational level and employment, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, less use of contraception, and higher frequency of alcohol use and mental disorders. Several measurable factors differentiate SEP/AEP women, and these factors could be used to efficiently target primary prevention. The increased severity of women at dual risk of SEP/AEP on a variety of factors demonstrates the importance of preconception prevention efforts for these women.
Cummings, K M
The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST) is a collaborative effort of the National Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, state health departments, and other public and private organizations to develop comprehensive tobacco use control programs in 17 states. The two main goals of the project are to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 15% or less and to reduce the rates of smoking initiation among adolescents by 50% by the year 2000. There is strong consensus within the tobacco-control field of what needs to be done to accomplish these goals. The key elements of a comprehensive tobacco control effort include (1) an excise tax policy based on raising the real price of tobacco, (2) a ban on all forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, (3) product regulation to reduce the harmful constituents found in tobacco and enforce the use of strong and prominent package warnings, (4) the enactment of policies that protect nonsmokers from inhaling tobacco smoke, (5) comprehensive efforts to eliminate minors' access to tobacco products, (6) ongoing and adequately funded efforts to educate the public about the harmful effects of tobacco, (7) the availability of cessation assistance to persons interested in discontinuing the use of tobacco, and (8) the ending of all financial assistance to the tobacco-growing industry. Because older Americans represent a growing and political influential segment of our society, the enactment of effective tobacco control policies depends in part on generating support for such measures among older citizens. This article outlines several ways in which organizations such as American Association of Retired Persons and the American Cancer Society can work together to advocate meaningful tobacco control policies (e.g., higher excise taxes, clean indoor air laws, etc.).
Vandenbergh, David J; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Schink, Alisa E; Hair, Kerry L; Feinberg, Mark E; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve
Prevention intervention programs reduce substance use, including smoking, but not all individuals respond. We tested whether response to a substance use prevention/intervention program varies based upon a set of five markers (rs16969968, rs1948, rs578776, rs588765, and rs684513) within the cluster of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes (CHRNA5/A3/B4). Participants (N = 424) were randomly assigned to either control condition, or a family-based intervention in grade 6 and a school-based drug preventive intervention in grade 7. Smoking in the past month was assessed in grades 9-12 using a four-point scale (0 = never smoked, 1 = smoked but not in last month, 2 = one or a few times, 3 = about once a week or more). There was a main effect of both the intervention (b = -0.24, P smoking. Using dummy coding to allow for nonlinear effects, individuals with the A/A genotype smoked more often than those with G/G (b = 0.33, P smoking among those with A/A and G/A genotypes to levels similar to those with the G/G genotype (G/G vs. A/A: b = -0.67, P Preventive interventions can reduce the genetic risk for smoking from rs16969968. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Babbin, Steven F; Velicer, Wayne F; Paiva, Andrea L; Brick, Leslie Ann D; Redding, Colleen A
Substance abuse interventions tailored to the individual level have produced effective outcomes for a wide variety of behaviors. One approach to enhancing tailoring involves using cluster analysis to identify prevention subtypes that represent different attitudes about substance use. This study applied this approach to better understand tailored interventions for smoking and alcohol prevention. Analyses were performed on a sample of sixth graders from 20 New England middle schools involved in a 36-month tailored intervention study. Most adolescents reported being in the Acquisition Precontemplation (aPC) stage at baseline: not smoking or not drinking and not planning to start in the next six months. For smoking (N=4059) and alcohol (N=3973), each sample was randomly split into five subsamples. Cluster analysis was performed within each subsample based on three variables: Pros and Cons (from Decisional Balance Scales), and Situational Temptations. Across all subsamples for both smoking and alcohol, the following four clusters were identified: (1) Most Protected (MP; low Pros, high Cons, low Temptations); (2) Ambivalent (AM; high Pros, average Cons and Temptations); (3) Risk Denial (RD; average Pros, low Cons, average Temptations); and (4) High Risk (HR; high Pros, low Cons, and very high Temptations). Finding the same four clusters within aPC for both smoking and alcohol, replicating the results across the five subsamples, and demonstrating hypothesized relations among the clusters with additional external validity analyses provide strong evidence of the robustness of these results. These clusters demonstrate evidence of validity and can provide a basis for tailoring interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hozyasz, Kamil K
Humans are highly adapted to consuming probiotics. Trehalose ("mushroom" sugar) is probably an important reserve compound and stress-responsible metabolite (increases bile and gastric acid resistance) of probiotic bacteria's and trehalase activity, in contrast to lactase activity, is preserved in all human populations, even those not consuming mushrooms. Among traditional Melanesian horticulturists, of whom 4/5 are daily smokers, the diet is rich in pre- and probiotics and there is absence of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Indoor air pollution is an important cancer risk factor. Over thousands of years, the controlled use of fire for preparing meals has resulted in exposure to smoke pollution (biomass fuels produce up to 100 times more respirable particles compared to gas ovens). Simultaneously, up until the 20th century, the only commonly available and inexpensive way of preserving food was fermentation and drying. Probiotics may protect the detoxification function of the kidney and liver. Furthermore, it can be speculated that probiotics may help in adaptation to smoke pollution generated during cooking, heating but also tobacco smoking. Smoking is the most important lifestyle risk factor for bladder cancer and the consumption of probiotic foods reduces the risk of this cancer in humans. Probiotics may restore natural killer cell activity which is lowered in smokers. In one study it was observed that a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum could be also useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in smokers. There is no sufficient data from clinical trials to recommend the routine use of probiotics in prevention of smoking-related diseases. More research is needed to investigate the role of probiotics in this area.
Critchley, Julia A; Capewell, Simon
0.64 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.71). This 36% risk reduction appears substantial compared with other secondary preventive therapies such as cholesterol lowering which have received greater attention in recent years. The risk reduction associated with quitting smoking seems consistent regardless of differences between the studies in terms of index cardiac events, age, sex, country, and time period. However, relatively few studies have included large numbers of older people, women, or people of non-European descent, and most were carried out in Western countries.
Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine; Solomon, Alina; Mangialasche, Francesca; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Coley, Nicola; Fratiglioni, Laura; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Vellas, Bruno; van Gool, Willem A; Kivipelto, Miia
Recent epidemiological studies have indicated numerous associations between vascular and lifestyle related risk factors and incident dementia. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing effectiveness of interventions aimed at these risk factors in preventing or postponing dementia onset is still lacking. Three large RCTs on multi-component interventions to prevent dementia (preDIVA, FINGER, MAPT) have been initiated in Europe to address these issues. Irrespective of some methodological differences, all three studies target cardiovascular and lifestyle related risk factors. Collaboration within the newly founded 'European Dementia Prevention Initiative' (EDPI) will allow for a comprehensive exploration of optimal target population, intervention and outcome measures, which are currently unknown. Combining data of the ongoing studies and running simulation analyses will facilitate determining the optimal design including accurate sample-size calculations for future multi-national clinical trials on dementia prevention. Interventions aiming at dementia prevention should be pragmatic and easy to implement on a large scale in different health care systems, without generating high additional costs or burden on participants or physicians. As the optimal age for intervention precedes the optimal age for outcome assessment, traditional trial designs might lead to suboptimal timing of either of the two. Separation of intervention and outcome assessment in time is a potential solution, but requires studies with very long follow-up. International collaboration of research groups with experience in dementia prevention studies and well-organised logistics for these major projects is pivotal to success for future large-scale dementia prevention studies. Founding of EDPI is an important first step in this direction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abiola, Ao; Balogun, Os; Odukoya, Oo; Olatona, Fa; Odugbemi, To; Moronkola, Rk; Solanke, Aa; Akintunde, Oj; Fatoba, Oo
Cigarette smoking constitutes a major threat to the health and wellbeing of teenagers. While smoking has been on decline in the developed countries, the reverse is the case in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the age of initiation, determinants and prevalence of cigarette smoking among teenagers in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 475 teenagers selected by multistage sampling. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The study was carried out in November, 2014. Response rate was 84.6%. Mean age of the respondents was 16.4±1.65years. Range and mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking were 7 to 17 years and 12.0±3.32 years respectively. Teenagers who were above 15 years (OR:5.13, 95%CI: 0.87-30.26), males (OR:5.19, 95%CI: 1.57-17.18), married (OR:8.41, 95%CI: 1.04- 63.35), had ≤primary school education(OR:4.31, 95%CI: 1.07-17.33), influenced by friends(OR:308.84, 95%CI: 84.87-1123.81), and influenced by advertisements (OR:27.83, 95%CI: 3.92-197.64) were more likely to have initiated cigarette smoking. Furthermore, teenagers who were males (OR:12.77, 95%CI: 2.90-56.28), married (OR:19.24, 95%CI: 2.05-180.45), had ≤primary school education(OR:7.85, 95%CI: 2.37-26.01), influenced by friends(OR:28.56, 95%CI: 10.86-75.07), and influenced by advertisements (OR:5.95, 95%CI: 1.72-20.61) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. In addition, 24.9% had initiated cigarette smoking while 14.7% were current smokers of cigarette. Mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking was 12.0±3.32 years. Determinants of cigarette smoking were age, gender, marital status, educational background, friends and advertisements. Life time prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher than prevalence of current cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking reduction programs should take these factors into consideration.
Hiemstra, J.M.; Otten, R.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Refusal self-efficacy is assumed to be linked to adolescent smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine the changing role of self-efficacy in adolescent smoking over time while controlling for parental, sibling, and friends' smoking. Methods: This study used data from five
Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna A; Ussher, Michael; Garnham-Lee, Katy; Knowles, Zoe R; Foweather, Lawrence
SmokeFree Sports (SFS) was a multi-component sport-for-health intervention aiming at preventing smoking among nine to ten year old primary school children from North West England. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the process and implementation of SFS, examining intervention reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability and sustainability, in order to understand the feasibility and challenges of delivering such interventions and inform interpretations of intervention effectiveness. Process measures included: booking logs, 18 focus groups with children (n = 95), semi-structured interviews with teachers (n = 20) and SFS coaches (n = 7), intervention evaluation questionnaires (completed by children, n = 1097; teachers, n = 50), as well direct observations (by researchers, n = 50 observations) and self-evaluations (completed by teachers, n = 125) of intervention delivery (e.g. length of sessions, implementation of activities as intended, children's engagement and barriers). Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were applied to quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Overall, SFS reached 30.8% of eligible schools, with 1073 children participating in the intervention (across 32 schools). Thirty-one schools completed the intervention in full. Thirty-three teachers (55% female) and 11 SFS coaches (82% male) attended a bespoke SFS training workshop. Disparities in intervention duration (range = 126 to 201 days), uptake (only 25% of classes received optional intervention components in full), and the extent to which core (mean fidelity score of coaching sessions = 58%) and optional components (no adaptions made = 51% of sessions) were delivered as intended, were apparent. Barriers to intervention delivery included the school setting and children's behaviour and knowledge. SFS was viewed positively (85% and 82% of children and teachers, respectively, rated SFS five out of five) and recommendations to increase school engagement were provided. SFS was considered
Magzoub, Nagmeldien Ahmed Mohammed; Maarup, Norlela
Introduction Annually, especially in poor resourced countries, significant amount of money is spent to treat chronic diseases. The money instead could be saved by spending on health promotion programs for preventing chronic diseases. Aim To conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of various intervention modules in the “Smoking Cessation” program conducted in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). Materials and Methods This was an observational study design. Cost-effectiveness analysis was used to assess the costs and outcomes of the intervention. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records of all clients (n= 129) and then all the participants were followed-up for at least 6 months from the date of participation. Data were analysed descriptively using frequency (%) and mean (sd). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was carried out to test for normality. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used at alpha level of 0.05. All analyses were done using SPSS version 19. Results The findings of the study showed that the majority of participants were Malays (n= 108; 83.7%), males (n= 128; 99.2%), USM’s staff (n= 71; 55.0%) and within an age group of 23 years or less (n= 38; 29.5%). Among those who successfully quit were male (n= 30; 100%), Malays (n= 29; 96.7%), staff (n= 19; 63.3%), moreover, their age ranged from 35 to 56-year-old (n= 15; 50.0%). Further analysis of data showed that there were significant associations between success rate and modules of intervention, occupation, motivation factors, and frequency of counselling. Total cost of the Smoking Cessation Program was MYR 38,634.66 (during a period of 34.5 months), with a success rate equal to 29.1%. The most cost-effective module of intervention was counselling alone (CE ratio equal to MYR360.00 per 1% of success rate). The study found counselling with patch was ineffective during the study period. Conclusion Counselling alone module was the most cost-effective in Smoking Cessation program conducted in USM
Full Text Available Renata Tiscoski Nesi,1 Priscila Soares de Souza,1 Giulia Pedroso dos Santos,1 Anand Thirupathi,1 Bruno T Menegali,1 Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira,1 Luciano Acordi da Silva,1 Samuel Santos Valença,2 Ricardo Aurino Pinho11Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 2Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS exposure, and physical exercise (Ex is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30–35 g were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks. After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities. Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.Keywords: exercise
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, enacted on June 22, 2009, gives FDA jurisdiction to regulate tobacco products “as appropriate for the protection of the public health.” This is a major change to a regulatory scheme for tobacco that has historically excluded FDA. Among other things, the Act gives FDA authority to restrict the sale and marketing of tobacco products and to require changes in the design and characteristics of tobacco products. Many aspects of the Act are ...
Tiller, Kelly; Starnes, Jane H.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.
The “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” was signed into law on June 22, 2009. The bill grants the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco leaf is not subject to the regulation. As a result, it is not apparent what it does mean to tobacco growers. However, since the demand for tobacco is in large part determined by the demand for cigarettes, a change in demand for cigarettes due to the FDA ...
Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel
For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.
Natasa Zenic; Djivo Ban; Sanja Jurisic; Mladen Cubela; Jelena Rodek; Ljerka Ostojic; Mario Jelicic; Antonino Bianco; Damir Sekulic
The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational) achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females). Baseline t...
Chang, David C; Cornwell, Edward E; Sutton, Erica R H; Yonas, Michael A; Allen, Fred
In a previous report, enhanced resource commitment at a Level I trauma center was associated with improved outcomes for most major categories of injured patients, except those with gunshot wounds, which disproportionately affected the young (ages 15 to 24 years). We hypothesized that a primary violence-prevention initiative geared toward changing attitudes about interpersonal conflict among at-risk youths can be effective. Between May 2002 and November 2003, 97 youths (mean age 12.6 years) were recruited from one of two Police Athletic League centers in the catchment area of our Level I trauma center. Participant attitudes about interpersonal conflicts were surveyed with six previously validated scales before and after a hospital tour with a video and slide presentation graphically depicting the results of gun violence. Mean differences in scores between pre- and postintervention surveys were assessed. Of the 97 participants, 48 (49.4%) completed the intervention program with both the pre- and postintervention tests, with a mean of 25.8 days between tests. There was a statistically significant reduction in the Beliefs Supporting Aggression scale (mean -0.38 U; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.54; p < 0.01), and a trend toward reduced Likelihood of Violence (mean -0.17 U; 95% CI, 0.01 to -0.34; p = 0.06). A multidisciplinary violence-prevention outreach program can produce short-term improvement in beliefs supporting aggression among at-risk youth. Longterm impact of this attitude change needs to be examined in future studies.
Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.
Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981
Mitschke, Diane B; Loebl, Karen; Tatafu, Elitei; Matsunaga, Doris Segal; Cassel, Kevin
The use of drama as a preventive education measure has demonstrated success in various health promotion venues and offers promise in promoting positive youth attitudes and behavior change related to tobacco use. Especially important is a need to implement culturally relevant methods to reach youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a tobacco prevention drama for Asian and Pacific Islander youth. The resulting play, Crossroads, features a soap opera-style drama interspersed with humorous vignettes and multimedia effects and incorporates cultural cues, mannerisms, dress, and values consistent with Asian and Pacific Islander youth culture. Evaluation data indicate that the drama has an effect on audience knowledge, attitudes, and intended behavior, including a change in future intent to smoke cigarettes and the ability of audience members to develop connections with the characters in the play and apply concepts that are presented in the play to their own lives.
Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Souza, Priscila Soares; Dos Santos, Giulia Pedroso; Thirupathi, Anand; Menegali, Bruno T; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Valença, Samuel Santos; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30-35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with Psystem (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.
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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains one of the major killers in modern society. One strong risk factor of CVD is cigarette smoking that causes myocardial injury and leads to the genesis of pathological cardiovascular events. However, the exact toxic component(s of cigarette smoke (CS and its molecular and cellular mechanisms for causing myocardial injury leading to heart damage and its prevention are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a guinea pig model, here we show that chronic exposure to CS produces myocardial injury that is prevented by vitamin C. Male guinea pigs were fed either vitamin C-deficient (0.5 mg/day or vitamin C-sufficient (15 mg/day diet and subjected to CS exposure from 5 Kentucky Research cigarettes (3R4F/day (6 days/week in a smoke chamber up to 8 weeks. Pair-fed sham controls were subjected to air exposure instead of CS exposure under similar conditions. Myocardial injury was produced in CS-exposed marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs as evidenced by release of cardiac Troponin-T and I in the serum, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis and collagen deposition in the myocardium. Treatment of rat cardiomyocyte cells (H9c2 in vitro and guinea pigs in vivo with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ in amounts derived from CS revealed that p-BQ was a major factor responsible for CS-induced myocardial damage. A moderately large dose of vitamin C (15 mg/day prevented CS/p-BQ-induced myocardial injury. Population based studies indicated that plasma vitamin C levels of smokers without disease were significantly lower (p = 0,0000 than that of non-smokers. Vitamin C levels of CS-related cardiovascular patients were further lower (p = 0.0000 than that of smokers without disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that dietary supplementation of vitamin C may be a novel and simple therapy for the prevention of pathological cardiovascular events in habitual smokers.
Pierce, John P; Gilmer, Todd P; Lee, Lora; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; de Beyer, Joy; Messer, Karen
Real cigarette prices in the US increased from the early 1980s to early 1990s. Holding all else equal, adolescent initiation of regular smoking should have declined during this period. Using national population-based surveys (n = 336 343) conducted in the 1990s, we present trends (early 1960s to mid-1990s) in the initiation of regular smoking among 14-17-year-old adolescents and 18-21-year-old young adults. We also present trends in consumer-price-index-adjusted cigarette price and tobacco-industry expenditures for price-subsidizing promotions. We relate price and price-subsidizing tobacco industry expenditures to trends in initiation in the two age groups, using autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA). From the model results, we conclude that price-subsidizing promotions may provide the tobacco industry with an effective way to segment the market. That is, they effectively offer lower prices to population subgroups that are more price-sensitive (e.g. young smokers not yet addicted), countering the depressing effect of general price increases on smoking. Thus, we find that the relationship of cigarette price to smoking behavior is more complex than previously described. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael
To assess effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula keeping children never-smokers. Systematic review, meta-analysis. MEDLINE (1966+), EMBASE (1974+), Cinahl, PsycINFO (1967+), ERIC (1982+), Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings. pooled analyses, fixed-effects models, adjusted ORs. Risk of bias assessed with Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. 50 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of school-based smoking curricula. Never-smokers age 5-18 (n=143,495); follow-up ≥6 months; all countries; no date/language limitations. Information, social influences, social competence, combined social influences/competence and multimodal curricula. Remaining a never-smoker at follow-up. Pooling all curricula, trials with follow-up ≤1 year showed no statistically significant differences compared with controls (OR 0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)), though trials of combined social competence/social influences curricula had a significant effect on smoking prevention (7 trials, OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.85)). Pooling all trials with longest follow-up showed an overall significant effect in favour of the interventions (OR 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95)), as did the social competence (OR 0.65 (0.43 to 0.96)) and combined social competence/social influences curricula (OR 0.60 (0.43 to 0.83)). No effect for information, social influences or multimodal curricula. Principal findings were not sensitive to inclusion of booster sessions in curricula or to whether they were peer-led or adult-led. Differentiation into tobacco-only or multifocal curricula had a similar effect on the primary findings. Few trials assessed outcomes by gender: there were significant effects for females at both follow-up periods, but not for males. RCTs of baseline never-smokers at longest follow-up found an overall significant effect with average 12% reduction in starting smoking compared with controls, but no effect for all trials pooled at ≤1 year. However, combined social
Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.
To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…
Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to examine whether anticipated parental reactions to smoking were related to smoking onset and progression during adolescence. Methods Data were used from the six-wave, 5-year longitudinal “Family and Health” project, in which N = 428 adolescents
Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.
Slotkin, Theodore A.; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D.; Seidler, Frederic J.
Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) affects neurodifferentiation. In undifferentiated cells, TSE impaired DNA synthesis and cell numbers to a much greater extent than nicotine alone; TSE also impaired cell viability to a small extent. In differentiating cells, TSE enhanced cell growth at the expense of cell numbers and promoted emergence of the dopaminergic phenotype. Nicotinic receptor blockade with mecamylamine was ineffective in preventing the adverse effects of TSE and actually enhanced the effect of TSE on the dopamine phenotype. A mixture of antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, N-acetyl-L-cysteine) provided partial protection against cell loss but also promoted loss of the cholinergic phenotype in response to TSE. Notably, the antioxidants themselves altered neurodifferentiation, reducing cell numbers and promoting the cholinergic phenotype at the expense of the dopaminergic phenotype, an effect that was most prominent for N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with methyl donors (Vitamin B12, folic acid, choline) had no protectant effect and actually enhanced the cell loss evoked by TSE; they did have a minor, synergistic interaction with antioxidants protecting against TSE effects on growth. Thus, components of tobacco smoke perturb neurodifferentiation through mechanisms that cannot be attributed to the individual effects of nicotine, oxidative stress or interference with one-carbon metabolism. Consequently, attempted amelioration strategies may be partially effective at best, or, as seen here, can actually aggravate injury interfering with normal developmental signals and/or by sensitizing cells to TSE effects on neurodifferentiation. PMID:25891525
Phillips, R M; Merritt, T A; Goldstein, M R; Deming, D D; Slater, L E; Angeles, D M
Objective: Approximately 40% of women who smoke tobacco quit smoking during pregnancy, yet up to 85% relapse after delivery. Those who resume smoking often do so by 2 to 8 weeks postpartum. Smoking mothers are more than twice as likely to quit breastfeeding by 10 weeks postpartum. The hospitalization of a newborn, while stressful, is an opportunity to emphasize the importance of a smoke-free environment for babies. Supporting maternal-infant bonding may reduce maternal stress and motivate mot...
Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch; Backinger, Cathy L
A new law in the United States gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wide latitude to regulate tobacco products for the first time. Given the need for science to serve as a foundation for FDA actions, it is critical that a scientific review of the literature relevant to the proposed legislation be undertaken by experts in the field of nicotine and tobacco research in order to develop research priorities. This paper describes an initiative that was implemented to identify research opportunities under "The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act" and summarizes the conclusions and future directions derived from that initiative. Multiple research and surveillance needs were identified, such as characterization of biomarkers and increased analysis of risk perception. It was also recognized that science will play a critical role in policy determinations such as what constitutes "substantial equivalence" and that there will be considerable infrastructure needs (e.g., laboratories for product testing). Science must drive FDA's decision making regarding tobacco regulation. This article provides a summary of research opportunities identified through literature reviews related to various provisions of the new law. However, the science required by the law requires a transdisciplinary approach because of its complexity, so one of the challenges facing the FDA will be to connect the silos of research in recognition that the "system" of tobacco regulation is greater than the sum of its parts.
Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C
This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.
Bar, Rachel J; Cassin, Stephanie E; Dionne, Michelle M
A substantial amount of evidence suggests that collegiate and elite athletes involved in weight-sensitive sports are at greater risk of developing eating disorders (EDs) than the general population. With the limited effectiveness of treatment for EDs, prevention of EDs has been broadly considered in the literature. The present paper reviewed the existing literature on ED prevention programmes for athletes in order to determine the current status of prevention programmes and recommend future directions. The available literature suggests that selective, primary interventions with multiple targets and an interactive multimodal approach appear most effective. Current challenges in the field, including lack of longitudinal research, hesitation by the sport community to be involved in ED research and poor cross-field communication and collaboration, are also explored. The lack of dissemination of evidence-based prevention programmes and the simultaneous promotion of prevention programmes that have not yet been empirically examined are also discussed. Based on these observations future directions are recommended.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a widespread disease, with no curative therapies available. Recent findings suggest a key role of NO and sGC-cGMP signaling for the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous data suggest a downregulation/inactivation of the cGMP producing soluble guanylate cyclase, and sGC stimulation prevented cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH in mice. We thus aimed to investigate if the inhibition of the cGMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE5 has similar effects. Results were compared to the effects of a PDE 4 inhibitor (cAMP elevating and a combination of both.C57BL6/J mice were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and in parallel either treated with Tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor, Piclamilast (PDE4 inhibitor or both. Functional measurements (lung compliance, hemodynamics and structural investigations (alveolar and vascular morphometry as well as the heart ratio were determined after 6 months of tobacco smoke exposure. In addition, the number of alveolar macrophages in the respective lungs was counted.Preventive treatment with Tadalafil, Piclamilast or a combination of both almost completely prevented the development of emphysema, the increase in lung compliance, tidal volume, structural remodeling of the lung vasculature, right ventricular systolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Single, but not combination treatment prevented or reduced smoke-induced increase in alveolar macrophages.Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and PH could be prevented by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in mice.
Pichl, Alexandra; Bednorz, Mariola; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Weissmann, Norbert
Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a widespread disease, with no curative therapies available. Recent findings suggest a key role of NO and sGC-cGMP signaling for the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous data suggest a downregulation/inactivation of the cGMP producing soluble guanylate cyclase, and sGC stimulation prevented cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. We thus aimed to investigate if the inhibition of the cGMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 has similar effects. Results were compared to the effects of a PDE 4 inhibitor (cAMP elevating) and a combination of both. Methods C57BL6/J mice were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and in parallel either treated with Tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor), Piclamilast (PDE4 inhibitor) or both. Functional measurements (lung compliance, hemodynamics) and structural investigations (alveolar and vascular morphometry) as well as the heart ratio were determined after 6 months of tobacco smoke exposure. In addition, the number of alveolar macrophages in the respective lungs was counted. Results Preventive treatment with Tadalafil, Piclamilast or a combination of both almost completely prevented the development of emphysema, the increase in lung compliance, tidal volume, structural remodeling of the lung vasculature, right ventricular systolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Single, but not combination treatment prevented or reduced smoke-induced increase in alveolar macrophages. Conclusion Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and PH could be prevented by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in mice. PMID:26058042
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee
Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…
Pernille Tanggaard Andersen
Full Text Available This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP’s stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting...; and Expanding Information about Dementia and Co- occurring Chronic Conditions among Older Adults...
Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C; Lorenzetti, Diane L
groups of studies were considered separately.Most studies had a judgement of 'unclear' for at least one risk of bias criteria, so the quality of evidence was downgraded to moderate. Although there was heterogeneity between studies there was little evidence of statistical heterogeneity in the results. We were unable to extract data from all studies in a format that allowed inclusion in a meta-analysis.There was moderate quality evidence family-based interventions had a positive impact on preventing smoking when compared to a no intervention control. Nine studies (4810 participants) reporting smoking uptake amongst baseline non-smokers could be pooled, but eight studies with about 5000 participants could not be pooled because of insufficient data. The pooled estimate detected a significant reduction in smoking behaviour in the intervention arms (risk ratio [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 0.84). Most of these studies used intensive interventions. Estimates for the medium and low intensity subgroups were similar but confidence intervals were wide. Two studies in which some of the 4487 participants already had smoking experience at baseline did not detect evidence of effect (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17).Eight RCTs compared a combined family plus school intervention to a school intervention only. Of the three studies with data, two RCTS with outcomes for 2301 baseline never smokers detected evidence of an effect (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.96) and one study with data for 1096 participants not restricted to never users at baseline also detected a benefit (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.94). The other five studies with about 18,500 participants did not report data in a format allowing meta-analysis. One RCT also compared a family intervention to a school 'good behaviour' intervention and did not detect a difference between the two types of programme (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.38, n = 388).No studies identified any adverse effects of intervention. There is moderate
Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the preventative programme âSmoke-free Homesâ undertaken in 4th year children and their parents or guardians, aiming to reduce children's exposure to second hand smoke (SHS in the home. Material and methods: This was a pre-and post-test pre-experimental study, in students from 32 Braga district primary schools 2007/08. A self-administered and structured questionnaire was given out to 795 students in the classroom before and after the programme. In analysing data, we used the chi-squared test for the categorical variables. Results: The rate of children exposed to regular or occasional SHS due to living with at least one smoker dropped from 42.2% to 32.6% (pÂ =Â 0.001. The percentage of students, children of smokers who stated that their father smoked regularly or occasionally at home, dropped from 68.0% pre-test to 51.6% posttest (pÂ =Â 0.000. No significant reduction was seen in mothers. Conclusion: Based on the data, we can conclude that the âSmoke-free Homesâ programme was effective in preventing smoking in the home, and therefore reducing the rate of children exposed to SHS by about 10%. However, it appears that about a third of children are still exposed, which highlights the need for further measures in this area. Healthcare professionals, particularly those working in Paediatrics, should advise parents to quit smoking, especially in the home. Resumo: Objectivo: Avaliar a eficÃ¡cia de uma intervenÃ§Ã£o preventiva, dirigida a alunos do 4.Â° ano de escolaridade e aos seus pais/encarregados de educaÃ§Ã£o, com a finalidade de reduzir a exposiÃ§Ã£o das crianÃ§as ao fumo ambiental do tabaco (FAT no domicÃlio. Material e mÃ©todos: Trata-se de um estudo prÃ©-experimental, do tipo prÃ©-teste e pÃ³s-teste, com alunos pertencentes a 32 escolas do 1.Â° ciclo do ensino bÃ¡sico, de cinco agrupamentos de escolas do concelho de Braga, no ano lectivo 2007
Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A
Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML program based on health behavior theory and implemented using a two-group two-period crossover design. Students were randomly assigned by classroom to receive media literacy or control interventions in different sequences. They were assessed three times, at baseline (T0), an initial follow-up after the first intervention (T1) and a second follow-up after the second intervention (T2). Crossover analysis using analysis of variance demonstrated significant intervention coefficients, indicating that the SML condition was superior to control for the primary outcome of total SML (F = 11.99; P < 0.001) and for seven of the nine individual SML items. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses conducted using non-parametric methods. There were changes in some exploratory theory-based outcomes including attitudes and normative beliefs but not others. In conclusion, while strength of the design of this study supports and extends prior findings around effectiveness of SML programs, influences on theory-based mediators of smoking should be further explored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Timson, Karen; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin Gm; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J
Smoking and radon cause lung cancer, with smoking being the more significant risk factor. Although programmes to identify UK houses with raised radon levels and to encourage remedial action started in 1990, uptake has been limited and those most at risk, smokers and young families, are not being reached. The risks from smoking and radon are multiplicative. Public health campaigns have reduced smoking prevalence significantly. Since most radon-induced lung cancers occur in smokers, reducing the number of smokers will reduce the number of radon-induced lung cancers. This article considers the impact of reducing smoking prevalence on the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes, combining this with demographic trends and regional variations to assess implications for future public health. Results on cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation and radon remediation programmes were combined with government figures for smoking prevalence to estimate the number of cancers averted and the cost-effectiveness of such programmes, taking into account demographic changes, including increasing life expectancy. Regional variations in smoking prevalence and smoking cessation programmes were reviewed, comparing these to the geographic variation of radon. The continuing impact of smoking cessation programmes in reducing smoking prevalence will reduce the number of radon-induced lung cancers, but with a lag. Smoking cessation programmes are more cost-effective than radon remediation programmes, presenting an additional opportunity to reduce radon risk to smokers. Regional data show no correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels. Reduced smoking prevalence reduces the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes. This, coupled with limited uptake of radon remediation, suggests that radon remediation programmes should be targeted, and that an integrated public health policy for smoking and radon is appropriate. Lack of correlation between smoking prevalence and radon
McNaughton, Bonnie; Frohlich, Jiri; Graham, Amy; Young, Quincy-Robyn
There is a significant resumption of smoking following smoking cessation using varenicline. Both smoking cessation medications and counseling have been shown to increase smoking quit rates at one year. Thus, the combination of varenicline and interactive voice response (IVR) telephony followed by extended IVR may further improve smoking cessation rates at one and two years. 101 participants were recruited from the community via newspaper advertisement. They attended a group counseling session and were given smoking information booklets from the Canadian Cancer Society. After 12 weeks of varenicline and 9 IVR calls, all participants who had quit smoking were randomized into 2 groups matched by levels of motivation and addiction as per baseline questionnaire score. The intervention group continued to receive bi-weekly IVR support for weeks 13-52. The control group no longer received IVR. The primary end-point was self-reported abstinence and exhaled carbon monoxide levels of less than 10 ppm for weeks 12, 52 and 2 years. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Of the 101 participants, 44 (43%) had stopped smoking after 12 weeks of varenicline and 9 IVR calls. Of these, 23 (52%) were randomized to receive IVR calls from weeks 13 to 52.At 52 weeks, 26 (59%) participants remained smoke-free. Of the 23 with IVR, 12 (52.2%) stopped smoking compared to 14 of 21 (66.7%) without IVR. At 2 years, 40 of the 44 (90.9%) randomized participants were contacted and 24 of the 44 (54.5%) came in for testing. Fourteen (13% of the original cohort, 30% who were abstinent at 12 weeks and 53% who were abstinent at 52 weeks) remained smoke-free. Five of the 23 (21.7%) randomized to IVR and 9 of the 21 (42.9%) randomized to no IVR remained smoke-free at 2 years. In this pilot study of an apparently healthy population, extended IVR did not affect abstinence rates. There was no relapse prevention benefit in offering 9 months of continued IVR to subjects who had
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and Dates...
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research...
Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle
Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193
Hanewinkel, Reiner; Abhauer, Martin
The life-kills approach to smoking prevention was tested in this study. In total, 1024 pupils (mean age 11.4 years, SD = 0.90) from Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg and Germany were recruited as an experimental group, and a sample of 834 matched pupils served as a control group. While the pupils from the control group received no specific…
Hwang, Myunghee Song; Yeagley, Kathleen Lux; Petosa, Rick
Psychosocial smoking prevention studies have shown inconsistent results and theory-driven programs have been related to program success. This meta-analysis was used as a judgment tool for resolving these issues by estimating average program effects and investigating the relative efficacy of program types. The present study examined 65 adolescent…
This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko
We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50-69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985-1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases). Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495), risk ratio (RR) = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22). Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054), RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53), and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328), RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08). The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
Sleiman, Mohamad; Destaillats, Hugo; Smith, Jared D.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Gundel, Lara A.
We used controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the aerosol-forming potential of ozone reactions with nicotine and secondhand smoke. Special attention was devoted to real-time monitoring of the particle size distribution and chemical composition of SOA as they are believed to be key factors determining the toxicity of SOA. The experimental approach was based on using a vacuum ultraviolet photon ionization time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (VUV-AMS), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line thermal desorption coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for gas-phase byproducts analysis. Results showed that exposure of SHS to ozone induced the formation of ultrafine particles (smoke that is associated with the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) through oxidative aging of secondhand smoke. The significance of this chemistry for indoor exposure and health effects is highlighted.
Quaak, M; van Schayck, C P; Knaapen, A M; van Schooten, F J
Tobacco smoking continues to be the largest preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality throughout the world, including chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most smokers are highly motivated to quit and many smoking cessation therapies are available, cessation rates remain very low. Recent research strongly suggests that variation in genetic background is an important determinant of smoking behaviour and addiction. Since these genetic variants might also influence the response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, it is likely that assessment of genetic background could be a promising tool to guide selection of the most effective cessation treatment for an individual smoker. Recently, it has been shown that genetic variants in the dopaminergic system, opioid receptors, the bupropion-metabolising enzyme CYP2B6 and the nicotine-metabolising enzyme CYP2A6 may play an important role in predicting smoking cessation responses to nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion treatment. Despite the progress that has been made, several challenges will still have to be overcome before genetically tailored smoking cessation therapy can be implemented in standard clinical practice.
Weissmann, Norbert; Lobo, Borja; Pichl, Alexandra; Parajuli, Nirmal; Seimetz, Michael; Puig-Pey, Raquel; Ferrer, Elisabet; Peinado, Víctor I; Domínguez-Fandos, David; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Frey, Reiner; Schermuly, Ralph T; García-Lucio, Jéssica; Blanco, Isabel; Bednorz, Mariola; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Tadele, Elsa; Brandes, Ralf P; Grimminger, Jan; Klepetko, Walter; Jaksch, Peter; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Barberà, Joan A
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death worldwide. No therapy stopping progress of the disease is available. To investigate the role of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cGMP axis in development of lung emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to test whether the sGC-cGMP axis is a treatment target for these conditions. Investigations were performed in human lung tissue from patients with COPD, healthy donors, mice, and guinea pigs. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for up to 6 months and treated with BAY 63-2521. Guinea pigs were exposed to CS from six cigarettes per day for 3 months, 5 days per week and treated with BAY 41-2272. Both BAY compounds are sGC stimulators. Gene and protein expression analysis were performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Lung compliance, hemodynamics, right ventricular heart mass alterations, and alveolar and vascular morphometry were performed, as well as inflammatory cell infiltrate assessment. In vitro assays of cell adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis have been done. The functionally essential sGC β1-subunit was down-regulated in patients with COPD and in CS-exposed mice. sGC stimulators prevented the development of PH and emphysema in the two different CS-exposed animal models. sGC stimulation prevented peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis of alveolar and endothelial cells, reduced CS-induced inflammatory cell infiltrate in lung parenchyma, and inhibited adhesion of CS-stimulated neutrophils. The sGC-cGMP axis is perturbed by chronic exposure to CS. Treatment of COPD animal models with sGC stimulators can prevent CS-induced PH and emphysema.
... Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer Population--Based Prevention Activities SIP13-066, Panel A, initial... Colorectal Cancer Screening, SIP13-065; and Using Small Media to Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting...
Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher
This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural History and Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among Alaska Natives, Funding... initial review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Natural History and...
Song, Fujian; Holland, Richard; Barton, Garry R; Bachmann, Max; Blyth, Annie; Maskrey, Viv; Aveyard, Paul; Sutton, Stephen; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Brandon, Thomas H
Most people who stop smoking successfully for a few weeks will return to smoking again in the medium term. There are few effective interventions to prevent this relapse and none used routinely in clinical practice. A previous exploratory meta-analysis suggested that self-help booklets may be effective but requires confirmation. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a set of self-help educational materials to prevent smoking relapse in the National Health Service (NHS) Stop Smoking Service. This is an open, randomized controlled trial. The target population is carbon monoxide (CO) verified quitters at four weeks in the NHS stop smoking clinic (total sample size N = 1,400). The experimental intervention tested is a set of eight revised Forever Free booklets, including an introduction booklet and more extensive information on all important issues for relapse prevention. The control intervention is a leaflet that has no evidence to suggest it is effective but is currently given to some patients using NHS stop smoking services. Two follow-up telephone interviews will be conducted at three and 12 months after the quit date. The primary outcome will be prolonged abstinence from months four to 12 with no more than five lapses, confirmed by a CO test at the 12-month assessment. The secondary outcomes will be seven-day self-report point prevalence abstinence at three months and seven-day biochemically confirmed point prevalence abstinence at 12 months. To assess cost-effectiveness, costs will be estimated from a health service perspective and the EQ-5D will be used to estimate the QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year) gain associated with each intervention. The comparison of smoking abstinence rates (and any other binary outcomes) between the two trial arms will be carried out using odds ratio as the outcome statistic and other related statistical tests. Exploratory subgroup analyses, including logistic regression analyses with interaction terms
Chivers, Laura L.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Proskin, Rebecca W.; Thomas, Colleen S.
Fifty-eight smokers received abstinence-contingent monetary payments for 1 (n = 15) or 14 (n = 43) days. Those who received contingent payments for 14 days also received 0, 1, or 8 experimenter-delivered cigarette puffs on 5 evenings. The relative reinforcing effects of smoking were assessed in a 3-hr session on the final study day, when…
... al. Parental smoking, closeness to parents, and youth smoking. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2007;31:261. Guide to ... cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2015;314:700. ...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Framing to Increase Support for Evidence-based Tobacco Control, SIP12-060, Panel A, initial review. In... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date 11:00 a.m.-5:30 p...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Resident Knowledge and Practice in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C, initial...
Valente, Thomas W; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Cen, Steven Y; Anderson Johnson, C
Studies have shown that the effectiveness of programs or curricula may depend in part on who delivers the material. In adolescent health education programs, peer leaders are often recruited to implement programs because they are more persuasive to other adolescents than adults. Teachers also systematically vary how groups are constructed in school-based health education programs. This study compared the effects of three leader and group selection methods within the context of two tobacco prevention programs. Eight schools received a social influences program (Chips) and eight received a program with a multicultural emphasis (Flavor). Within these 16 schools 84 classrooms consisting of 1486 students were randomly assigned to one of three leader and group creation conditions: (i) leaders defined as those who received the most nominations by students and groups created randomly (random group), (ii) same as (i) but groups created by assigning students to the leaders they nominated (network), and (iii) leaders and groups created by teachers (teacher). One year follow-up data showed that main effects of the curriculum and network assignments were non-significant on smoking initiation when entered alone. Interaction terms of curriculum and assignment methods, however, were significant such that the network and teacher conditions were less effective than the random group condition with Chips, and more effective than random group condition with Flavor. These data show that school-based prevention programs should be evaluated in light of who implements the program. Even a peer-led program will be differentially effective based on how leaders are selected and how groups are formed, and this effect may be curriculum dependent.
Phillips, R M; Merritt, T A; Goldstein, M R; Deming, D D; Slater, L E; Angeles, D M
Approximately 40% of women who smoke tobacco quit smoking during pregnancy, yet up to 85% relapse after delivery. Those who resume smoking often do so by 2 to 8 weeks postpartum. Smoking mothers are more than twice as likely to quit breastfeeding by 10 weeks postpartum. The hospitalization of a newborn, while stressful, is an opportunity to emphasize the importance of a smoke-free environment for babies. Supporting maternal-infant bonding may reduce maternal stress and motivate mothers to remain smoke free and continue breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to reduce postpartum smoking relapse and prolong breastfeeding duration during the first 8 weeks postpartum in mothers who quit smoking just before or during pregnancy and have newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). This study was an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective randomized clinical trial. After informed consent, mothers of newborns admitted to the NICU were randomized to a control or intervention group. Both groups received weekly encouragement to remain smoke free and routine breastfeeding support. Mothers in the intervention group were also given enhanced support for maternal-infant bonding including information about newborn behaviors, and were encouraged to frequently hold their babies skin-to-skin. More mothers were smoke free (81 vs 46%, Pbreastfeeding (86 vs 21%, Pprolonged duration of breastfeeding during the first 8 weeks postpartum.
Cheadle, Allen; Cromp, DeAnn; Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine; McNees, Molly; Ross-Viles, Sarah; Kellogg, Ryan; Rahimian, Afsaneh; MacDougall, Erin
Initiatives that convene community stakeholders to implement policy, systems, environment, and infrastructure (PSEI) change have become a standard approach for promoting community health. To assess the PSEI changes brought about by the King County, Washington, Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative and describe how initiative structures and processes contributed to making changes. The impact evaluation used a logic model design, linking PSEI changes to longer-term behavioral impacts in healthy eating active living and tobacco use and exposure. Qualitative methods, including stakeholder interviews and surveys, were used to identify initiative success factors. Communities Putting Prevention to Work activities occurred throughout King County, with a focus on 7 low-income communities in South Seattle/King County. The focus communities had a combined population of 652 000, or 35% of the county total, with lower incomes and higher rates of physical inactivity, tobacco use, poor diet, and chronic disease. Twenty-four PSEI strategies were pursued by organizations in sectors including schools, local governments, and community organizations, supported by the public health department. There were 17 healthy eating active living strategies (eg, enhancements to school menus, city planning policies) and 7 tobacco strategies (eg, smoke-free policies in schools, housing, and hospitals). PSEI changes made and numbers of residents reached. Twenty-two of the 24 strategies achieved significant progress toward implementing PSEI changes. The most common success factor was a "dyad" consisting of a dedicated technical assistance provider-either an outside consultant or public health department staff-working closely with a champion from the participating organizations to bring about PSEI changes. An initiative structure that creates and supports external consultant/internal organizational champion dyads in key community sectors offers a promising approach that may be adopted by
Kuipers, Mirte A G; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E
This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as indicators of socioeconomic position. Linear multilevel regression analyses were applied to study the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and standardised scores of anti-smoking strategies. Analyses were controlled for age, sex and smoking by parents and adolescents. We found no consistent socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. There were no statistically significant differences in relation to parental educational level or when using adolescent reports on parenting practices. However, when using parental reports, a few strategies varied significantly according to adolescent educational track. Adolescents in higher educational tracks were more likely to have no-smoking rules in the home (standardised regression coefficient (β) = 0.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.03; 0.37, p = 0.022) and more likely to have a no-smoking agreement (β = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.00; 0.34, p = 0.048). However, they were less likely to frequently communicate about smoking with their parents (β = -0.25, 95 % CI: -0.41; -0.08, p = 0.004). In this specific population, there was no consistent support for the hypothesis that anti-smoking parenting strategies contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Parental factors that are more likely to contribute to these inequalities include parental smoking and parenting styles.
Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A
The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jenson, Desmond; Lester, Joelle; Berman, Micah L
Among other key objectives, the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act was designed to end an era of constant product manipulation by the tobacco industry that had led to more addictive and attractive products. The law requires new tobacco products to undergo premarket review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be sold. To assess FDA's implementation of its premarket review authorities, we reviewed FDA actions on new product applications, publicly available data on industry applications to market new products, and related FDA guidance documents and public statements. We conclude that FDA has not implemented the premarket review process in a manner that prioritises the protection of public health. In particular, FDA has (1) prioritised the review of premarket applications that allow for the introduction of new tobacco products over the review of potentially non-compliant products that are already on the market; (2) misallocated resources by accommodating the industry's repeated submissions of deficient premarket applications and (3) weakened the premarket review process by allowing the tobacco industry to market new and modified products that have not completed the required review process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Jackson, Shelly L; Bonnie, Richard J
In most states, smoking has been curtailed to some extent in public buildings, workplaces, and restaurants. The next frontier for smoke-free policies is the multiunit dwelling industry. However, the extent to which smoke-free housing currently is available is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure the market for smoke-free housing in Virginia and to identify barriers to adopting smoke-free policies. Telephone interviews were conducted with property managers of rental apartments, townhouses, senior housing, and public housing in four Virginia cities. Four cities in Virginia. Two hundred sixty-three property managers in four cities in Virginia (approximately 75 property managers per city). Property managers were administered a brief telephone survey. Only 33.8% of property managers reported some type of smoke-free policy, with only 15% of those policies prohibiting smoking in residential units. Most property managers without a smoke-free policy were not considering adopting such a policy for a variety of reasons. The availability of smoke-free multiunit dwellings is severely lacking. This study identified a number of science-based and legal misperceptions that may prevent the adoption of smoke-free policies. Correction of these misperceptions is warranted to increase the availability of smoke-free housing. Such policies will be useful in creating environments that support good health practices while simultaneously protecting tenants from exposure to secondhand smoke.
Sidani, Jaime E; Shensa, Ariel; Barnett, Tracey E; Cook, Robert L; Primack, Brian A
While cross-sectional studies have shown that hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an increasingly popular behavior among university students, little is known about factors associated with initiation. This study sought to determine associations between knowledge, attitudes, and normative beliefs and initiation of HTS among university students. Data were from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 569 randomly selected first- and second-year university students. Online questionnaires that were developed in accordance with our composite theoretical model were completed in September 2010 and April 2011. About one-seventh (13%) of participants initiated HTS by follow-up. Positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs were associated with increased adjusted odds of initiation (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.56, 6.59; and AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35, 2.99, respectively), while negative attitudes were associated with decreased adjusted odds (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.80). Correct knowledge regarding toxicants associated with HTS was not significantly associated with initiation. While positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs are associated with initiation of HTS in a cohort of never-users, increased knowledge about toxins is not associated with lower initiation. It may be particularly valuable for educational interventions to attempt to alter positive attitudes and normative beliefs related to HTS.
Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E.
This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking
Golub, Justin S; Samy, Ravi N
To discuss effects of smoking on otologic surgery in an era of electronic (e-) cigarettes and proposals for legalization of marijuana. Physiologic mechanisms and clinical outcomes are presented. Tobacco smoke can cause a variety of tissue effects that may adversely impact otologic surgery outcomes. Results in tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia are inferior in smokers compared with nonsmokers. More recent data show that in cartilage tympanoplasty, graft incorporation rates in smokers may approach those of nonsmokers. However, these results may not be as durable long-term in smokers. Evidence from nonotologic studies suggests that smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy may reduce perioperative morbidity. No data are available on electronic cigarettes and otologic outcomes; however, based on the pathophysiologic mechanisms of tobacco smoking, electronic cigarettes are likely a safer alternative. Marijuana smoke also needs to be considered as more states consider legalization. Cigarette smoking negatively influences otologic surgery results, mostly because of tobacco combustion byproducts. Counseling and, if needed, pharmacologic measures to reduce smoking are recommended. E-cigarettes that deliver nicotine in water vapor may be safer than tobacco smoking. Our review contributes to the discussion of how the trends of e-cigarette use and marijuana legalization will unfold in the future to affect our patients' outcomes.
Gracielle Vieira Ramos
Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of physical training on an antioxidant canonical pathway and metalloproteinases activity in diaphragm muscle in a model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods. Male mice were randomized into control, smoke, exercise, and exercise + smoke groups, which were maintained in trial period of 24 weeks. Gene expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2; and heme-oxygenase1 by polymerase chain reaction was performed. Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activities were analyzed by zymography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by treadmill exercise test before and after the protocol. Results. Aerobic training inhibited diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure. This inhibition was associated with improved aerobic capacity in those animals that were submitted to 24 weeks of aerobic training, when compared to the control and smoke groups, which were not submitted to training. The aerobic training also downregulated the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and upregulated antioxidant genes, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2 (NRF2 and heme-oxygenase1 (HMOX1, in exercise + smoke group compared to smoke group. Conclusions. Treadmill aerobic training protects diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure involving upregulation of antioxidant genes and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.
Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Willemsen, M.C.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Spruijt, R.D.; Hira Sing, R.A.
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and
The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.
Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L’Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric
Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of
Fletcher, Barbara J; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Lira, Maria Teresa; Meininger, Janet C; Pradhan, Sala Ray; Sikkema, Joanna
Policy changes are necessary to promote cardiovascular disease prevention. These will involve community-based and public health initiatives for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we discuss such interventions, community-based participatory research that has been conducted in this area, and implications for capacity building in genetics research. Finally, areas for future research in this area will be identified.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than one-half offer adjunct support to patients.
Carreras, G.; Bosi, S.; Angelini, P.; Gorini, G.
The aim of this study was to investigate factors mediating the effects of Luoghi di Prevenzione (LdP) smoking prevention intervention based on social competence and social influence approaches, and characterized by peer-led school-based interventions, out-of-school workshops, school lessons, and by enforcing the school anti-smoking policy.…
This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Developing... Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-4:00 p.m., June 18, 2013 (Closed...
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Youth Violence... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m...
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review. The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date...
The objective of this program was to determine the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of constructing three separate devices for the prevention of catastrophic roller bearing-initiated, railroad journal failure. 1. Construction of a low cos...
Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to collect baseline information on tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes of school personnel toward tobacco, to evaluate the existence and effectiveness of tobacco control policies in schools, and to assess training and materials requirements for implementing tobacco prevention and control interventions. All schools from Romania containing 6th, 7th, and 8th grade that contained 40 or more students were included in the sampling frame. 50 schools were sampled to participate in the study. All school personnel in the selected schools were eligible to participate in the survey. The survey procedure was designed to ensure confidentiality and voluntary participation. We found that more than two thirds of school personnel had ever smoked tobacco, with men significantly outnumbering women, and more than one thirds of them are current smokers. Also, it appears that school policies regarding tobacco use are not being translated into effective measures for implementation. Despite school policies, tobacco products could still be purchased either within school premises or close by. An important aspect brought out is the need to train teachers on these issues, and the importance of providing specific teaching and learning material on related topics. Only a small proportion of teachers had ever received such training. This is an area where is a need to build infrastructure as well as put capacity building measures in place. The study conducted with the methodology provided by CDC offers comparable data at international level and, also a national start point in the process of monitoring tobacco use among school personnel.
Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine; Solomon, Alina; Mangialasche, Francesca; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Coley, Nicola; Fratiglioni, Laura; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Vellas, Bruno; van Gool, Willem A.; Kivipelto, Miia
Recent epidemiological studies have indicated numerous associations between vascular and lifestyle related risk factors and incident dementia. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing effectiveness of interventions aimed at these risk factors in preventing or postponing
Otten, R.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Purpose: Most studies on adolescent smoking focus either on the probability of smoking onset or frequency of smoking. We assume the existence of two different qualitatively distinct processes in smoking acquisition. Therefore our objective was to test a two-part latent growth model, which assumes
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational...
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... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Birth Defects... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...
Liu, Ruiling; Bohac, David L; Gundel, Lara A; Hewett, Martha J; Apte, Michael G; Hammond, S Katharine
Despite efforts to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), only 5% of the world's population enjoy smoke-free restaurants and bars. Lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) death and asthma initiation among non-smoking restaurant and bar servers and patrons in Minnesota and the US were estimated using weighted field measurements of SHS constituents in Minnesota, existing data on tobacco use and multiple dose-response models. A continuous approach estimated a LER of lung cancer death (LCD) of 18 × 10(-6)(95% CI 13 to 23 × 10(-6)) for patrons visiting only designated non-smoking sections, 80 × 10(-6)(95% CI 66 to 95 × 10(-6)) for patrons visiting only smoking venues/sections and 802 × 10(-6)(95% CI 658 to 936 × 10(-6)) for servers in smoking-permitted venues. An attributable-risk (exposed/non-exposed) approach estimated a similar LER of LCD, a LER of IHD death about 10(-2) for non-smokers with average SHS exposure from all sources and a LER of asthma initiation about 5% for servers with SHS exposure at work only. These risks correspond to 214 LCDs and 3001 IHD deaths among the general non-smoking population and 1420 new asthma cases among non-smoking servers in the US each year due to SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone. Health risks for patrons and servers from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone are well above the acceptable level. Restaurants and bars should be a priority for governments' effort to create smoke-free environments and should not be exempt from smoking bans. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Choi, Sunhwa; Jung, Eunok; Lee, Seok-Min
In this paper, we developed a dynamic model of smoking-tuberculosis (TB) transmission in South Korea, and investigated the effects of control strategies on the number of incidence of TB using optimal control theory. Model parameters regarding TB and smoking are estimated through least-squares fitting to real data. We considered three TB controls (distancing, case-finding, and case-holding) and two smoking controls (distancing and quitting), in order to minimize the number of exposed and infectious individuals and the cost of control. Numerical simulations for the various control strategies highlight that implementing the smoking controls, not with TB controls, can effectively reduce the incidence of TB transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a threat to global health. The number of cigarettes smoked per person tends to increase each year, and the age of starting seems to be dropping. The research related to cigarette smoking conducted among young people generally studied high school or university students. However, studies have shown that students usually start smoking during the primary school period out of curiosity or imitation. The purpose of the present study was to find the prevalence of cigarette smoking among primary school students and the reasons for starting smoking, and to determine the characteristics of cigarette smoking of their parents. This study was conducted among 17 primary schools chosen according to their socioeconomic situations in different municipality districts in Turkey, with 9,408 students participating. Data were obtained by questionnaire. The mean age to start smoking was 11.7 ± 1.6; 82.9% of the students who took part in this study had never smoked before, 13.4% had tried smoking at least once, and 3.7% had been smoking regularly. The biggest reason for smoking was just curiosity or imitation. It was determined that a risk factor for students to start smoking was parents who smoke. The 17% smoking rate among primary school students was high in our opinion and prevention studies initiated. In addition, the effects of cigarette-smoking parents on students who start smoking should also be considered.
Full Text Available La Red Catalana de Hospitales Libres de Humo, promovida por el Instituto Catalán de Oncología (ICO y en funcionamiento desde el año 2000, cuenta en la actualidad (diciembre, 2003 con 45 de los 66 hospitales de utilización pública de Cataluña. El funcionamiento organizativo mediante una red favorece y refuerza el intercambio de experiencias en tiempo real, el apoyo mutuo respecto a instrumentos educativos, de formación y evaluación, y posibilita la realización de una formación continuada común. Iniciativas de este tipo, a partir de un trabajo consensuado y en red, facilitan el avance en el control del consumo de tabaco.The Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals was created by the Catalan Institute of Oncology in 2000. Currently (December 2003, 45 of the 66 hospitals of the Public Health System in Catalonia are members of this network. Organization through a network promotes and strengthens the exchange of experiences in real time. It provides mutual support in education, training and evaluation and enables common continuing training. Such an initiative, based on consensual work through a network, facilitates progress in tobacco control.
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting...-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057, Panel E, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of... Epilepsy Well (MEW) Collaborating Center for Epilepsy Self-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057...
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men and Young Transgender Persons of Color, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) PS11-1113, initial review. Correction: The notice...
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) PS11-1113, initial review. Correction: The notice was published in the Federal Register on February 22...
... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV-Infected Young Women of Reproductive Age and Effects of Contraception, SIP12-064, Panel G, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2...
Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.
Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…
Zhou, Ziyi; Li, Jianping; Yu, Yaren; Li, Youbao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Lishun; Song, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yu; Tang, Genfu; He, Mingli; Xu, Xiping; Cai, Yefeng; Dong, Qiang; Yin, Delu; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Wang, Xiaobin; Qin, Xianhui; Huo, Yong
We aimed to examine whether the efficacy of folic acid therapy in the primary prevention of stroke is jointly affected by smoking status and baseline folate levels in a male population in a post hoc analysis of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). Eligible participants of the CSPPT were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a combined enalapril 10-mg and folic acid 0.8-mg tablet or an enalapril 10-mg tablet alone. In total, 8384 male participants of the CSPPT were included in the current analyses. The primary outcome was first stroke. The median treatment duration was 4.5 years. In the enalapril-alone group, the first stroke risk varied by baseline folate levels and smoking status (never versus ever). Specifically, there was an inverse association between folate levels and first stroke in never smokers ( P for linear trend=0.043). However, no such association was found in ever smokers. A test for interaction between baseline folate levels and smoking status on first stroke was significant ( P =0.045). In the total sample, folic acid therapy significantly reduced the risk of first stroke in never smokers with folate deficiency (hazard risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.83) and in ever smokers with normal folate levels (hazard risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.99). Baseline folate levels and smoking status can interactively affect the risk of first stroke. Our data suggest that compared with never smokers, ever smokers may require a higher dosage of folic acid to achieve a greater beneficial effect on stroke. Our findings need to be confirmed by future randomized trials. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gellner, Candice Ann
Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Of those who smoke, 9 out of 10 report trying their first cigarette before the age of 18. Although most people who initiate tobacco use are teenagers, animal models for studying tobacco dependence have traditionally focused on how adult animals initiate, withdrawal from and relapse to cigarette smoking. Furthermore, cigarette smoke contains more than 7,000 constituents, including nicotine, yet pre-clinical resea...
Ståhl, Tomas; Van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi
Previous research has demonstrated that stereotype threat induces a prevention focus and impairs central executive functions. The present research examines how these 2 consequences of stereotype threat are related. The authors argue that the prevention focus is responsible for the effects of stereotype threat on executive functions and cognitive performance. However, because the prevention focus is adapted to deal with threatening situations, the authors propose that it also leads to some beneficial responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, because stereotype threat signals a high risk of failure, a prevention focus initiates immediate recruitment of cognitive control resources. The authors further argue that this response initially facilitates cognitive performance but that the additional cognitive demands associated with working under threat lead to cognitive depletion over time. Study 1 demonstrates that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates immediate cognitive control capacity during a stereotype-relevant task. Study 2 experimentally demonstrates the process by showing that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates cognitive control as a default, as well as when a prevention focus has been experimentally induced, but not when a promotion focus has been induced. Study 3 shows that stereotype threat facilitates initial math performance under a prevention focus, whereas no effect is found under a promotion focus. Consistent with previous research, however, stereotype threat impaired math performance over time under a prevention focus, but not under a promotion focus. 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B
Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Dee, Deborah L; Koumans, Emilia H
Seeking to reduce teen pregnancy and births in communities with rates above the national average, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program, developed a joint funding opportunity through which grantees worked to implement and test an approach involving community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. Once these projects had been in the field for 2.5 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff developed plans for a supplemental issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health to present findings from and lessons learned during implementation of the community-wide initiatives. When the articles included in the supplemental issue are considered together, common themes emerge, particularly those related to initiating, building, and maintaining strong partnerships. Themes seen across articles include the importance of (1) sharing local data with partners to advance initiative implementation, (2) defining partner roles from the beginning of the initiatives, (3) developing teams that include community partners to provide direction to the initiatives, and (4) addressing challenges to maintaining strong partnerships including partner staff turnover and delays in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Werb, Dan; Buxton, Jane; Shoveller, Jeannie; Richardson, Chris; Rowell, Greg; Wood, Evan
Injection drug use has been identified as a key source of morbidity and mortality, primarily from overdose and the transmission of blood-borne diseases such as HIV. Experts have therefore called for the prioritization of resources toward the prevention of injection drug use. However, these strategies have not been systematically assessed. PRISMA guidelines were used to systematically review and extract findings from the peer-reviewed literature evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to prevent injecting initiation. We searched 10 English language electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, TOXNET, AIDSLINE, AMED and ERIC), the Internet (Google, Google Scholar), and article reference lists, from database inception to June 1st, 2012. Overall, out of 384 studies identified in the initial search, eight met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated four different types of interventions: social marketing, peer-based behavior modification, treatment, and drug law enforcement. Four studies observed a significant effect of the intervention on reducing rates of injecting initiation. Peer-based behavior modification and addiction treatment interventions were found to be most effective. Two of three studies assessing the impact of drug law enforcement on patterns of injecting initiation found no impact on injecting initiation, while one study reported inconclusive results. There exists a limited scientific literature on strategies to prevent injecting initiation. Resources should be allocated toward increased research and development of effective interventions to prevent this phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hecht, Stephen S
This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed.
Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre
Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities
Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander
nodes, pretending to have a fake identity within the network. To prevent this attack we propose RAP, a challenge-response authentication protocol that is able to detect and prevent the beacon replay attack. The effectiveness of the protocol is formally verified using OFMC and ProVerif. Furthermore, we......In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...
Soneji, Samir; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Wills, Thomas A; Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Gibson, Laura A; Yang, JaeWon; Primack, Brian A; Andrews, Judy A; Miech, Richard A; Spindle, Tory R; Dick, Danielle M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Hornik, Robert C; Dang, Rui; Sargent, James D
The public health implications of e-cigarettes depend, in part, on whether e-cigarette use affects the risk of cigarette smoking. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that assessed initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the 2016 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 22nd Annual Meeting abstracts, the 2016 Society of Behavioral Medicine 37th Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions abstracts, and the 2016 National Institutes of Health Tobacco Regulatory Science Program Conference were searched between February 7 and February 17, 2017. The search included indexed terms and text words to capture concepts associated with e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes in articles published from database inception to the date of the search. Longitudinal studies reporting odds ratios for cigarette smoking initiation associated with ever use of e-cigarettes or past 30-day cigarette smoking associated with past 30-day e-cigarette use. Searches yielded 6959 unique studies, of which 9 met inclusion criteria (comprising 17 389 adolescents and young adults). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool, respectively. Data and estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Among baseline never cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation between baseline and follow-up. Among baseline non-past 30-day cigarette smokers who were past 30-day e-cigarette users, past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 17 389 adolescents and young adults, the ages ranged between 14 and 30 years at baseline, and 56.0% were female. The pooled probabilities of cigarette smoking initiation were 30.4% for baseline ever e-cigarette users and 7.9% for baseline never e-cigarette users. The pooled probabilities of past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up were 21.5% for baseline
Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M
Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research.
Gabrhelik, Roman; Duncan, Alexandra; Lee, Myong Hwa; Stastna, Lenka; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Miovsky, Michal
Understanding the developmental pathways and sex differences in cigarette smoking behaviors in adolescents has the potential to positively impact substance abuse prevention and to reduce smoking-related health problems. Using data from the Unplugged school-based prevention trial, we investigated different patterns of smoking behavior development among secondary school students in the Czech Republic. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine different trajectories in cigarette smoking behaviors among male and female students (N=1874 6th graders; 50.4% male, mean age 11.8 years at baseline) participating in the Unplugged school-based randomized control trial for substance use prevention. A two-class model characterized cigarette use as a function of sex and Unplugged intervention status. More rapid cigarette use increases were observed in females (OR=1.17, p=0.01 in both rapid/moderate and slow smoking escalator classes) as compared to males. Further, in both classes, more rapid increases in smoking were observed for the control group as compared to the intervention group (OR=1.22, pprevention strategies aimed at adolescent females and early treatment programs for adolescent smokers to prevent increasing cigarette use with age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adams, Alexandra K; Christens, Brian; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Remington, Patrick L; Lindberg, Sara; Schoeller, Dale
Obesity rates have increased dramatically, especially among children and disadvantaged populations. Obesity is a complex issue, creating a compelling need for prevention efforts in communities to move from single isolated programs to comprehensive multisystem interventions. To address these issues, we have established a childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative) for Wisconsin. This Initiative seeks to test community change frameworks that can support multisystem interventions and provide data for local action as a means for influencing policies, systems, and environments that support individuals’ healthy eating and physical activity. The Initiative is comprised of three components: (1) infrastructure to support a statewide obesity prevention and health promotion network with state- and local-level public messaging and dissemination of evidence-based solutions (healthTIDE); (2) piloting a local, multisetting community-led intervention study in 2 Wisconsin counties; and (3) developing a geocoded statewide childhood obesity and fitness surveillance system. This Initiative is using a new model that involves both coalition action and community organizing to align resources to achieve health improvement at local and state levels. We expect that it will help lead to the implementation of cohesive and sustainable policy, system, and environment health promotion and obesity prevention strategies in communities statewide, and it has the potential to help Wisconsin become a national model for multisetting community interventions to address obesity. Addressing individual-level health through population-level changes ultimately will result in reductions in the prevalence of childhood obesity, current and future health care costs, and chronic disease mortality.
Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Yingst, Jessica; Sciamanna, Chris; Berg, Arthur; Foulds, Jonathan
Background: Identifying effective relapse prevention interventions is a vital step to help smokers maintain abstinence for the long term. Aims: The purpose of this study is to determine if providing recently quit smokers with self-directed relapse prevention booklets is effective at maintaining abstinence after intensive group smoking cessation…
McLeigh, Jill D; Katz, Carmit; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Ben-Arieh, Asher
A unique primary prevention effort, Strong Communities for Children (Strong Communities), focuses on changing attitudes and expectations regarding communities' collective responsibilities for the safety of children. Findings from a 6-year pilot of the initiative in South Carolina have shown promise in reducing child maltreatment, but efforts to adapt the initiative to different cultural contexts have been lacking. No models exist for adapting an initiative that takes a community-level approach to ensuring children's safety. Thus, this article addresses the gap by providing an overview of the original initiative, how the initiative was adapted to the Israeli context, and lessons learned from the experience. Building on conceptualizations of cultural adaptation by Castro et al. (Prevention Science, 5, 2004, 41) and Resnicow et al. (Ethnicity and Disease, 9, 1999, 11), sources of nonfit (i.e., sociodemographic traits, political conflict, government services, and the presence and role of community organizations) were identified and deep and surface structure modifications were made to the content and delivery. Ultimately, this article describes the adaption and dissemination of a community-based child maltreatment prevention initiative in Tel Aviv, Israel, and addresses researchers' calls for more publications describing the adaptation of interventions and the procedures that need to be implemented to achieve cultural relevance. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Vitamin C to Decrease the Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP): Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of effects of in utero tobacco smoke exposure on infant lung function and respiratory health.
McEvoy, Cindy T; Milner, Kristin F; Scherman, Ashley J; Schilling, Diane G; Tiller, Christina J; Vuylsteke, Brittany; Shorey-Kendrick, Lyndsey E; Spindel, Eliot R; Schuff, Robert; Mitchell, Julie; Peters, Dawn; Metz, Jill; Haas, David; Jackson, Keith; Tepper, Robert S; Morris, Cynthia D
Despite strong anti-smoking efforts, at least 12% of American women cannot quit smoking when pregnant resulting in >450,000 smoke-exposed infants born yearly. Smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of childhood respiratory illness including wheezing and asthma. Recent studies have shown a protective effect of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function of offspring exposed to in utero smoke in a non-human primate model and an initial human trial. Vitamin C to Decrease the Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate pulmonary function at 3months of age in infants delivered to pregnant smokers randomized to 500mg/day of vitamin C versus placebo during pregnancy. Secondary aims evaluate the incidence of wheezing through 12months and pulmonary function testing at 12months of age. Women are randomized between 13 and 23weeks gestation from clinical sites in Portland, Oregon at Oregon Health & Science University and PeaceHealth Southwest Medical Center and in Indianapolis, Indiana at Indiana University and Wishard Hospital. Vitamin C supplementation occurs from randomization to delivery. Monthly contact with participants and monitoring of medical records is performed to document medication adherence, changes in smoking and medical history, and adverse events. Pulmonary function testing of offspring occurs at 3 and 12months of age and incidence of wheezing and respiratory illness through 12months is captured via at least quarterly questionnaires. Ancillary studies are investigating the impact of vitamin C on placental blood flow and DNA methylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ribisl, Kurt M
This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.
Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Lun; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po
Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer. Copyright (c) 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.
Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel
A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is
Nguyen Nguyen D
Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.
Sanders, Charles L.
Lung cancer is the most prevalent global cancer, ∼90% of which is caused by cigarette smoking. The LNT hypothesis has been inappropriately applied to estimate lung cancer risk due to ionizing radiation. A threshold of ∼1 Gy for lung cancer has been observed in never smokers. Lung cancer risk among nuclear workers, radiologists and diagnostically exposed patients was typically reduced by ∼40% following exposure to <100 mSv low LET radiation. The consistency and magnitude of reduced lung cancer in nuclear workers and occurrence of reduced lung cancer in exposed non-worker populations could not be explained by the HWE. Ecologic studies of indoor radon showed highly significant reductions in lung cancer risk. A similar reduction in lung cancer was seen in a recent well designed case-control study of indoor radon, indicating that exposure to radon at the EPA action level is associated with a decrease of ∼60% in lung cancer. A cumulative whole-body dose of ∼1 Gy gamma rays is associated with a marked decrease in smoking-induced lung cancer in plutonium workers. Low dose, low LET radiation appears to increase apoptosis mediated removal of α-particle and cigarette smoke transformed pulmonary cells before they can develop into lung cancer
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim... ``Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women Living in the United...
Martin, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The briefing provides an overview of the training capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that can be applied to nonproliferation/responsible science education at nuclear institutes in the Former Soviet Union, as part of the programmatic effort under the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program (GIPP).
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Series among Adolescent Females, IP12-004, and Intervention Study to Increase Use of Standing Orders... Series among Adolescent Females, FOA IP12-004; and Intervention Study to Increase Use of Standing Orders...
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Development and Testing of a Clinic-Based Intervention to Increase Dual Protection... applications received in response to ``Development and Testing of a Clinic-Based Intervention to Increase Dual...
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Intervention to Promote a Targeted Vaccination program in the Obstetrician- Gynecologist Setting, FOA IP11-009... Population-Based Immunization Information Systems, FOA IP11-008; Effectiveness in an Intervention to Promote...
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Middle and High School Students, SIP12-063, Panel F... Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Middle and High School Students, SIP12-063, Panel F...
... Re-Engagement Controlled Trial (CoRECT), Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) PS14- 001, initial... evaluation of applications received in response to ``The Cooperative Re-Engagement Controlled Trial (CoRECT... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease...
Carlsson, Noomi; Alehagen, Siw; Andersson G?re, Boel; Johansson, AnnaKarin
Background Despite knowledge of the adverse health effects of passive smoking, children are still being exposed. Children's nurses play an important role in tobacco preventive work through dialogue with parents aimed at identifying how children can be protected from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The study describes the experiences of Child Health Care (CHC) nurses when using the validated instrument SiCET (Smoking in Children's Environment Test) in dialogue with parent...
Werb, Daniel; Garfein, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Davidson, Peter; Roux, Perrine; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Auriacombe, Marc; Small, Will; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Injection drug use remains a primary driver of HIV and HCV-related harms globally. However, there is a gap in efforts to prevent individuals from transitioning into injecting. People who inject drugs (PWID) play a key role in the transition of others into injecting, and while behavioral interventions have been developed to address this phenomenon, socio-structural approaches remain unexplored. To that end, we hypothesize that certain interventions designed to reduce injecting-related risk behaviors may also reduce the risk that PWID expose and introduce others into injecting. Identifying the preventive potential of existing interventions will inform broader efforts to prevent injecting and related harms. The Preventing Injecting by Modifying Existing Responses (PRIMER) study is a multi-country mixed methods study with an aim to investigate whether specific interventions (e.g., opioid substitution therapy, supervised injection facilities, stable housing, incarceration environments) and related factors (e.g., public injecting and gender) influence the likelihood that PWID initiate others into injecting. This study will (1) investigate the PWID participation in injection initiation; (2) identify factors influencing the risk that PWID expose others to or facilitate injection initiation; (3) describe drug scene roles that increase the risk of PWID facilitating injection initiation; and (4) evaluate the impact of structural, social, or biomedical interventions on the risk that PWID facilitate injection initiation. It does so by pooling observational data from cohort studies of PWID in six cities: Vancouver, Canada; San Diego, USA; Tijuana, Mexico; Paris, Marseille, and Bordeaux, France. Team members are conducting a prospective, multi-site study of PWID (n = 3050) in North America and France that includes quantitative and qualitative data collection through four separate cohort studies of PWID (San Diego, STAHR II; Tijuana, El Cuete IV; Vancouver, V-DUS; Bordeaux
Meinen, Amy; Hilgendorf, Amy; Korth, Amy L; Christens, Brian D; Breuer, Catherine; Joyner, Hilary; Polzin, Molle; Adams, Alexandra; Wolfe, Daithi; Braun, Abbe; Hoiting, Jill; Paulson, Jeanette; Cullen, Bridget; Stader, Kelli
The Wisconsin Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative), established in 2007, seeks to address and prevent obesity in the early care and education system through nutrition and physical activity environmental and policy changes. The collaborative includes professionals from 3 state of Wisconsin Departments, the University of Wisconsin-Extension, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and public health and early care and education organizations. This paper explores the efforts of the Initiative to advance our understanding of collective impact in practice and its value to health promotion efforts. Evaluators conducted a mixed methods case study to evaluate the application of collective impact principles by the Initiative. This included a survey of Initiative partners, review of archival documents, and qualitative interviews with Initiative leaders. Initiative partners noted progress in establishing the conditions for collective impact. Archival documents and interviews describe both formal and informal practices that helped set a common agenda, align and coordinate partner activities, and promote communication among Initiative leaders. Results also detail the important current and potential roles of “backbone” staff from healthTIDE to support the Initiative. Additionally, results suggest particularly challenging aspects of the Initiative’s impact model related to shared measurement and broader stakeholder communication. While the Initiative is still setting in place the conditions for collective impact, it has achieved significant policy, systems, and environment changes since its formation. Inclusion of nutrition and physical activity criteria in the state’s quality rating improvement system for child care centers is one of its outcomes. This case study offers several important insights about the application of collective impact in health promotion efforts, particularly in relation to the transition from previous collaborative activities, the
Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of Aspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 kGy gamma irradiation. The effect on aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. The non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures. (author)
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Murnaghan, D. A.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Sihvonen, M.; Kekki, P.
This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n = 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with…
Full Text Available Adolescent smoking is an emerging health concern in the developing countries. A cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence and smoking behaviour of adolescents in Sarawak. The prevalence of smoking is 32.8% with mean age of initiation at 12.8±1.9 years. Most (67.2% adolescents are experimental smokers and the majority (67.9% did not smoke on adaily basis. Branded cigarettes are preferred (83.1% and the cigarettes are obtained either from friends (49.1% or selfpurchased (43.6%. Students prefer to smoke at their friend’s house (31.0% or at school (25.3%. Smoking prevalence among adolescents in Sarawak is high and begins early. Early intervention on smoking prevention and risk awareness is perhaps more effective if initiated before the age of 12 years.
Because of the social meaning smoking has acquired and because of different trends in male and female initiation rates, it is reasonable to suspect that different psychosocial factors predict smoking in teen-age boys and girls. A literature review revealed external pressures such as peer and parental smoking are important for both boys and girls though their influence may be moderated differentially by age and type of smoking behavior assessed. Some data support the hypothesis that female smoking is associated with self-confidence, social experience, and rebellion, whereas male smoking is associated with social insecurity. Overall, group differences such as gender and socioeconomic status are well-documented in terms of smoking prevalence but underexplored in the area of psychosocial predictors. In this review, gender differences have been documented with sufficient frequency to warrant further attention to develop gender specific components of smoking prevention programs.
Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M
We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17, 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors' access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment.
Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Ebnesajjad, Cyrus; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Kennedy, Ryan David; Johnson, Renee M
Given the declining trend in adolescent cigarette smoking and increase in general access to marijuana, it is important to examine whether marijuana use in adolescence is a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking in late adolescence and early adulthood. Preliminary evidence from a very small number of studies suggests that marijuana use during adolescence is associated with later smoking; however, to control confounding, previously published studies used regression adjustment, which is susceptible to extrapolation when the confounder distributions differ between adolescent marijuana users and non-users. The current study uses propensity score weighting, a causal inference method not previously used in this area of research, to weight participants based on their estimated probability of exposure given confounders (the propensity score) to balance observed confounders between marijuana users and non-users. The sample consists of participants of Add Health (a nationally representative dataset of youth followed into adulthood) who were 16-18, with no history of daily cigarette smoking at baseline (n = 2928 for female and 2731 for male sub-samples). We assessed the effect of adolescent marijuana use (exposure, ascertained at wave 1) on any daily cigarette smoking during the subsequent 13 years (outcome, ascertained at wave 4). Analyses suggest that for females (but not males) who used marijuana in adolescence, marijuana use increased the risk for subsequent daily smoking: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = (1.13, 2.59). We recommend that adolescent marijuana use be viewed as a possible risk factor for subsequent initiation of daily cigarette smoking in women.
Associations of lifetime active and passive smoking with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis of historical data from the Women's Health Initiative.
Hyland, Andrew; Piazza, Kenneth M; Hovey, Kathleen M; Ockene, Judith K; Andrews, Christopher A; Rivard, Cheryl; Wactawski-Wende, Jean
To examine the associations between tobacco exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes using quantitative measures of lifetime active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Historical reproductive data on 80 762 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were examined with a cross-sectional analysis. We assessed self-reported lifetime active and passive tobacco smoke exposure, self-reported spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and ectopic pregnancies. When compared with never-smoking women, participants who were ever active smokers during their reproductive years had ORs (OR) of 1.16 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.26) for 1 or more spontaneous abortions, 1.44 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.73) for 1 or more stillbirths, and 1.43 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.86) for 1 or more ectopic pregnancies. Never-smoking women participants with the highest levels of lifetime SHS exposure, including childhood >10 years, adult home >20 years and adult work exposure >10 years, when compared with never-smoking women with no SHS exposure had adjusted ORs of 1.17 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.30) for spontaneous abortion, 1.55 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.97) for stillbirth, and 1.61 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.24) for ectopic pregnancy. Women who were ever-smokers during their reproductive years had significantly greater estimates of risk for spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Never-smoking women with the highest levels of lifetime exposure to SHS had significantly increased estimates of risk for spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Schwarz, Peter E H
Many countries are struggling to meet the health care needs of a rapidly growing number of individuals with common chronic illnesses, especially diabetes mellitus. Incorporating the evidence from prevention trials into clinical practice represents one of the major challenges for public health, and the medical community is still learning how this can best be achieved at a population level. A 4-level public health initiative has been initiated that provides guidance for establishing milestones and strategies for such a program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kralovic, Stephen M; Evans, Martin E; Simbartl, Loretta A; Ambrose, Meredith; Jain, Rajiv; Roselle, Gary A
Implementation of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Prevention Initiative within US Department of Veterans Affairs medical facilities was associated with a significant reduction in MRSA health care-associated infection (HAI) rates nationwide. The first 36 months of data from the Initiative were analyzed to determine how many facilities reported zero MRSA HAIs each month. From October 2007 through September 2010, there was a 37.6% increase nationwide in the number of facilities achieving zero MRSA HAIs each month. Published by Mosby, Inc.
The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)
Prokhorov Alexander V
Full Text Available Abstract Background In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. Methods In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Results Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03–1.68; Wald χ2 = 4.78 (df = 1 p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51–3.10; Wald χ2 = 17.80 (df = 1 p 2 = 54.71 (df = 1 p 2 = 26.45 (df = 1 p Conclusion Children of smokers were more likely to smoke and reported more favorable attitudes toward smoking compared to children of non-smokers. One interpretation of our findings is that parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results
Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda
Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...
Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Carretero, Cristina; Conesa, Alfons
The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to progress in the development of public policy interventions. This paper describes a recent Catalan initiative in this sphere: the Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders, made up of different public and private sectors of Catalan society. It specifically details the main actions carried out, such as: media campaigns to reduce weight-related teasing and encouraging self-esteem, encouraging family meals and promoting help-seeking among those affected; the creation of a new informative website about these matters in the Department of Health; the production of a Decalogue of Best Practices for the promotion of self-esteem and positive body image in social media and advertising; and actions to prevent the promotion of eating disorders on the Internet. The Roundtable is the most comprehensive Catalan (and Spanish) public policy activity undertaken until now for the prevention of eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence
This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…
Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan
Smoking remains prevalent among US youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12-17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use…
Xavier, Luiz Eduardo De Freitas; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Tran, Thien-An; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Corrêa, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto; Brinker, Titus Josef
Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a large network of medical students in 13 countries who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting. A recent quasi-experimental EAT study conducted in Germany showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11- to 15-year-old adolescents. The aim of this study is both to describe and to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the EAT intervention involving a photoaging app for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among 12- to 17-year-old pupils in Brazilian public schools. A randomized controlled trial will be conducted among approximately 1500 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in grades 7-11 of public secondary schools in Brazil. The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postintervention. The study groups will consist of randomized classes receiving the standardized EAT intervention (90 minutes of mentoring in a classroom setting) and control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The questionnaire measures smoking status, gender, social, and cultural aspects as well as predictors of smoking. Biochemical validation of smoking status is conducted via random carbon monoxide measurements. The primary end point is the difference of the change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 12 months of follow-up. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the 2 groups as well as effects on the different genders will be studied as secondary outcomes. The recruitment of schools, participating adolescents, and medical students was conducted from August 2016 until January 2017. The planned period of data collection is February 2017 until June 2018. Data analysis will follow in July 2018 and data presentation/publication will follow shortly thereafter. This is the
Xavier, Luiz Eduardo De Freitas; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Tran, Thien-An; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Corrêa, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto
Background Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a large network of medical students in 13 countries who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting. A recent quasi-experimental EAT study conducted in Germany showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11- to 15-year-old adolescents. Objective The aim of this study is both to describe and to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the EAT intervention involving a photoaging app for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among 12- to 17-year-old pupils in Brazilian public schools. Methods A randomized controlled trial will be conducted among approximately 1500 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in grades 7-11 of public secondary schools in Brazil. The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postintervention. The study groups will consist of randomized classes receiving the standardized EAT intervention (90 minutes of mentoring in a classroom setting) and control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The questionnaire measures smoking status, gender, social, and cultural aspects as well as predictors of smoking. Biochemical validation of smoking status is conducted via random carbon monoxide measurements. The primary end point is the difference of the change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 12 months of follow-up. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the 2 groups as well as effects on the different genders will be studied as secondary outcomes. Results The recruitment of schools, participating adolescents, and medical students was conducted from August 2016 until January 2017. The planned period of data collection is February 2017 until June 2018. Data analysis will follow in July 2018 and data presentation/publication will
Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun
Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle a...
Blanch, Carles; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Schiaffino, Anna; Rajmil, Luis; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Nebot, Manel
To assess the effectiveness of a multi-level (individual, family, and school) school-based intervention to prevent the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a population of schoolchildren (12-14 years old). This was a community trial with cluster randomization of schools to an intervention and comparison group (ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier NCT01881607). The intervention targeted schoolchildren in Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed SHS exposure in different settings and tobacco consumption by means of a questionnaire before and one year after the intervention. We analyzed data from 1734 students with both baseline and follow-up data. The crude analysis showed that SHS exposure among students in the intervention group significantly decreased at school (-14.0%), at home (-19.9%), and on transportation (-21.8%). In the comparison group, SHS exposure significantly decreased only at home (-16.9%). After adjustment for potential confounders, the good accomplishment of the activities showed a possible trend towards a non-significant reduction in exposure at home, transportation, and leisure time. While this school-based multi-level intervention had no overall effect in SHS exposure, the improvement of the activities focused on preventing SHS would be needed in order to achieve a significant decrease in the proportion of children exposed to SHS. © 2013.
Full Text Available Prevention of genital herpes is a global health priority. B5, a recently identified ubiquitous human protein, was proposed as a candidate HSV entry receptor. The current studies explored its role in HSV infection. Viral plaque formation was reduced by approximately 90% in human cells transfected with small interfering RNA targeting B5 or nectin-1, an established entry receptor. However, the mechanisms were distinct. Silencing of nectin-1 prevented intracellular delivery of viral capsids, nuclear transport of a viral tegument protein, and release of calcium stores required for entry. In contrast, B5 silencing had no effect on these markers of entry, but inhibited viral protein translation. Specifically, viral immediate early genes, ICP0 and ICP4, were transcribed, polyadenylated and transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but the viral transcripts did not associate with ribosomes or polysomes in B5-silenced cells. In contrast, immediate early gene viral transcripts were detected in polysome fractions isolated from control cells. These findings are consistent with sequencing studies demonstrating that B5 is eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit m (eIF3m. Although B5 silencing altered the polysome profile of cells, silencing had little effect on cellular RNA or protein expression and was not cytotoxic, suggesting that this subunit is not essential for host cellular protein synthesis. Together these results demonstrate that B5 plays a major role in the initiation of HSV protein translation and could provide a novel target for strategies to prevent primary and recurrent herpetic disease.
Augustson, Erik M.; Wanke, Kay L.; Rogers, Scott; Bergen, Andrew W.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Synder, Kirk; Albanes, Demetrius; Taylor, Phil R.; Caporaso, Neil E.
Objectives. Because US smoking rates have not declined during the past decade, there is a renewed need to identify factors associated with smoking cessation. Using a nested case–control design, we explored the association between ability to sustain cessation over an extended period and demographic, smoking, medical, and behavioral variables. Methods. We selected a sample of 1379 sustained quitters (abstinent from smoking for at least 40 months) and 1388 relapsers (abstinent for more than 8 months before relapse) from participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a nutritional intervention study involving Finnish men aged 50 to 69 years at baseline. Contingency table and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate potential differences between the 2 groups on baseline variables. Results. Compared with sustained quitters, relapsers were more likely to report symptoms of emotional distress and higher levels of nicotine dependence, to drink more alcohol, and to report more medical conditions. Conclusions. Factors associated with both tobacco use and comorbid conditions impact an individual’s ability to maintain long-term smoking cessation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action and potential common pathways among these factors may help to improve smoking cessation therapies. PMID:17600267
Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Chan, Ching Han Helen; Wang, Man Ping; Li, Ho Cheung William; Lam, Tai-Hing
Online social groups have been increasingly used for smoking cessation intervention. This study aimed to explore the social support components of the online discussion through WhatsApp and Facebook, how these components addressed the need of relapse prevention, and how the participants evaluated this intervention. We coded and analyzed the posts (N = 467) by the 82 recent quitters in WhatsApp and Facebook social groups, who were recruited from the eight smoking cessation clinics in Hong Kong to participate in a pragmatic randomized trial of relapse prevention. Participants' postintervention feedback was collected from the 13 qualitative interviews after the intervention. The WhatsApp social groups had more participants' posts than the Facebook counterparts. The participants' posts in the online social groups could be classified as sharing views and experiences (55.5%), encouragement (28.7%), and knowledge and information (15.8%). About half of the participants' posts (52.9%) addressed the themes listed in the U.S. Clinical Practice Guideline for preventing smoking relapse. The participants perceived the posts as useful reminders for smoking cessation, but avoidance of reporting relapse, inactive discussions, and uninteresting content were barriers to the success of the intervention. Online social groups provided a useful platform for the delivery of cessation support and encouragement of reporting abstinence, which support relapse prevention. The effectiveness of such intervention can be improved by encouraging more self-report of relapse, active discussions, sharing of interesting content, and using an appropriate discussion platform. Quitters who participate in the online social groups can benefit from peer support and information sharing, and hence prevent smoking relapse.
Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.
Turner, Michelle C; Cohen, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Pope, C Arden; Krewski, Daniel; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Samet, Jonathan M
The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans. However, there are gaps in the epidemiologic literature, including assessment of possible joint effects of cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We present estimates of interaction on the additive scale between these risk factors from Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective US cohort study of nearly 1.2 million participants recruited in 1982. Estimates of the relative excess risk of lung cancer mortality due to interaction, the attributable proportion due to interaction, and the synergy index were 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.10, 4.83), 0.14 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.25), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37), respectively, using the 25th and 75th percentiles as cutpoints for fine particulate matter. This suggests small increases in lung cancer risk among persons with both exposures beyond what would be expected from the sum of the effects of the individual exposures alone. Although reductions in cigarette smoking will achieve the greatest impact on lung cancer rates, these results suggest that attempted reductions in lung cancer risk through both tobacco control and air quality management may exceed expectations based on reducing exposure to either risk factor alone. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Prevention and Treatment of Smoking and Tobacco Use During Pregnancy in Selected Indigenous Communities in High-Income Countries of the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand: An Evidence-Based Review.
Gould, Gillian S; Lim, Ling Li; Mattes, Joerg
Tobacco smoking during pregnancy is the most important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term health complications for mother and baby. Tobacco use during pregnancy has decreased in high-income countries but not in Indigenous women in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and Canada. This evidence-based review focuses on tobacco use among Indigenous pregnant women in high-income countries that share a history of European colonization. Indigenous women are more likely to use tobacco because of socioeconomic disadvantage, social norms, and poor access to culturally appropriate tobacco cessation support. Complications arising from tobacco smoking during pregnancy, such as low birth weight, prematurity, perinatal death, and sudden infant death syndrome, are much higher in Indigenous populations. Effective approaches to cessation in pregnant nonindigenous women involves behavioral counseling, with or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Higher nicotine metabolism during pregnancy and poor adherence may affect therapeutic levels of NRT. Only two randomized trials were conducted among Indigenous women: neither found a statistically significant difference in cessation rates between the treatment and comparison arms. Considerations should be given to (1) whole life course approaches to reduce tobacco use in Indigenous women, (2) prohibiting tobacco promotion and reducing access to alcohol for minors to prevent smoking initiation in Indigenous youth, and (3) training health-care professionals in culturally appropriate smoking cessation care to improve access to services. It is critical to ensure acceptability and feasibility of study designs, consult with the relevant Indigenous communities, and preempt implementation challenges. Research is needed into the effect of reducing or stopping smoking during pregnancy when using NRT on subsequent maternal and infant outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from the US Truth campaign suggests that interventions focusing on tobacco industry tactics can be effective in preventing smoking uptake by children. Operation Smoke Storm is the first school-based intervention based on this premise and comprises three classroom sessions in which students act as secret agents uncovering tobacco industry tactics through videos, quizzes, discussions, and presentations. We report a qualitative evaluation of its acceptability. Methods We conducted eight focus groups with 79 students aged 11-12 who participated in Operation Smoke Storm at two UK schools in Autumn 2013, and 20 interviews with teachers who delivered the intervention. These were digitally audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the framework method. Results Students enjoyed the secret agent scenario and reported acquiring new knowledge about smoking and the tobacco industry, which seemed to strengthen their aversion to smoking. Teachers felt confident delivering the ‘off the shelf’ resource, although they would have welcomed more background information about the topic and guidance on steering discussions. Teachers highlighted a need for the resource to be flexible and not dependent on lesson length, teacher confidence, or expertise. Students and teachers endorsed the idea of developing a booster component for older students and supported the development of printed information complementing the resource to encourage parents to support their child not to smoke. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that Operation Smoke Storm can be delivered by teachers to raise awareness about smoking-related issues. The ideas and issues raised are now being used to improve and extend the resource for further evaluation.
Tevendale, Heather D; Condron, D Susanne; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brooks, Megan A M; Walrath, Christine
This paper presents an overview of the key evaluation components for a set of community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. We first describe the performance measures selected to assess progress toward meeting short-term objectives on the reach and quality of implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention interventions and adolescent reproductive health services. Next, we describe an evaluation that will compare teen birth rates in intervention communities relative to synthetic control communities. Synthetic controls are developed via a data-driven technique that constructs control communities by combining information from a pool of communities that are similar to the intervention community. Finally, we share lessons learned thus far in the evaluation of the project, with a focus on those lessons that may be valuable for local communities evaluating efforts to reduce teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krist, Lilian; Lotz, Fabian; Bürger, Christin; Ströbele-Benschop, Nanette; Roll, Stephanie; Rieckmann, Nina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Willich, Stefan N; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk
In Germany, the smoking prevalence among adolescents is among the highest in Europe. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a combined student-parent and a student-only smoking prevention programme to reduce the smoking prevalence among 7th grade students in Berlin. Three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Schools as cluster units were randomized into (i) student intervention, (ii) combined student-parent intervention or (iii) control group, with follow-up after 12 and 24 months. High schools and integrated secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Seventh grade students aged 11-16 years. We included 47 schools, 161 classes and 2801 students [50.1% girls, mean age ± standard deviation (SD) = 13.0 ± 0.6 years]. The primary outcome was self-reported regular smoking (at least one cigarette per day) after 24 months (point prevalence). Further self-reported outcomes were other smoking behaviours as well as parental rules and attitudes towards smoking. Comparisons were calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). At baseline, 2.3% of the students reported that they smoked regularly. After 24 months, 7.8% and 7.0% were regular smokers in the student-only intervention and the student-parent intervention, respectively, compared with 10.1% in the control group. The OR for being a regular smoker was 0.81 (0.34-1.92) for the student-parent intervention versus control, 0.95 (CI = 0.41-2.22) for the student-only intervention versus control and 0.85 (0.38-1.89) for student-parent intervention versus student-only intervention. A combined student-parent smoking prevention intervention delivered via secondary schools in Berlin, Germany did not result in a statistically significant reduction in regular smoking compared with a control group or a student-only intervention. The student-only intervention did not result in a significant reduction in regular smoking compared with the control group. © 2016 Society for the Study
Khalil, Georges Elias; Wang, Hua; Calabro, Karen Sue; Mitra, Natasha; Shegog, Ross; Prokhorov, Alexander V
Web-based programs for smoking prevention are being increasingly used with some success among adolescents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that link the experience of such programs to intended nicotine or tobacco control outcomes. Based on the experiential learning theory and extended elaboration likelihood model, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a Web-based intervention, A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), on adolescents' intention to smoke, while considering the experience of interactivity and entertainment as predictors of reduced intention to smoke, under a transitional user experience model. A total of 101 adolescents were recruited from after-school programs, provided consent, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 2 conditions: the full ASPIRE program as the experimental condition (n=50) or an online , text-based version of ASPIRE as the control condition (n=51). Data were collected at baseline and immediate follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models and path analyses were conducted. A total of 82 participants completed the study and were included in the analysis. Participants in the experimental condition were more likely to show a decrease in their intention to smoke than those in the control condition (beta=-0.18, P=.008). Perceived interactivity (beta=-0.27, P=.004) and entertainment (beta=-0.20, P=.04) were each associated with a decrease in intention to smoke independently. Results of path analyses indicated that perceived interactivity and perceived entertainment mediated the relationship between ASPIRE use and emotional involvement. Furthermore, perceived presence mediated the relationship between perceived interactivity and emotional involvement. There was a direct relationship between perceived entertainment and emotional involvement. Emotional involvement predicted a decrease in intention to smoke (beta=-0.16, P=.04). Adolescents' experience of interactivity and entertainment
Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex
Holm, Klavs; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Hein
For the first time a comprehensive international research-based smoking prevention programme addressing adolescents has been launched in Denmark. The ESFA cohort study started in 1997, and this article presents baseline findings. Factors that relate to the initiation of adolescent smoking are found among the concepts of attitude, social norms, social pressure and self-efficacy beliefs. Baseline findings from Danish adolescents (n = 1770) in secondary school (mean age 13.8 years). The cross-sectional baseline data show that the attitude-social influence-efficacy-model proves to be of value in highlighting the associations of adolescent smoking behaviour. Social self-efficacy, peer smoking behaviour and the intention to smoke proved to have the strongest associations with smoking. It is recommended that self-efficacy beliefs and the individual intentions to smoke should be included in the future in smoking prevention programmes in Denmark. Furthermore, a distinction between the roles of parents and peers should be emphasized when addressing the social environment of adolescents in health promotion.
Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.
Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860
Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Liang, Caihua; Lu, Ciyong
To identify the influence factors of parental participation in tobacco control among adolescents. In a cross-sectional survey, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data about smoking-related information from 2851 students and their parents in six secondary schools. The method of Ordinal Regression was applied to select significant influence factors. A total of 2617 pairs of valid questionnaires were included in final analysis. The portion of parents with V level participation was highest (46.4%), followed by IV level at 33.4%, III level at 13.4%, II level at 4.9% and I level at 1.9%. The mothers' participation was significant (P smoking, correct attitudes to image and psychological effects of smoking, level of knowledge about respiratory diseases and cancers caused by cigarette smoking, correct attitudes to bans of smoking, having a male child, correct attitudes to smoking and personal interaction, and correct attitudes to health damage of smoking. On the contrary, two variables had significant association with low parental participation: current smoking and ages of parents. The parents with lower education level, older age, daughters and current smoking are comparatively inactive in tobacco control among adolescents. Health promotion family is proposed as an effective way to increase their participation. As a result, the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in China will be under control in some extent.
Carvajal Chávez, Luz María; Andrade, Denise de
The use of alcohol and drugs is a social issue that constitutes serious problem for the health, with personal, family and social consequences. The present study is exploratory-descriptive nature and its objective was to evaluate the primary school as a predicting factor in the prevention of the consumption of the school and tobacco in students. Interviews to students and professors were made by a pre-established guide, the results demonstrate that the 66.6% age is of 10 to 11 years. Exposed to factors of risks associated to scholastic problems, low self- esteem and familiar problems. Research shows that 15.6% have experienced alcohol and the 13.4% tobacco. The professors say that the children do not consume alcohol, tobacco or drugs, they say the children have conduct problems.
Cobb, J E; Bélanger, L M A; Park, S E; Shen, T; Rivers, C S; Dvorak, M F; Street, J T; Noonan, V K
The purpose of this study was to determine whether implementation of a Pressure Ulcer Prevention Initiative (PUPI) changed the assessment and treatment of patients with a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in an acute care setting, and improved patient outcomes. The success of implementation was evaluated by examining the percentage of patients with completed occupational therapist (OT) skin care assessments and prescriptions for therapeutic support surfaces (TSS; i.e., mattresses) before implementation (historical, cohort 1) and after implementation (experimental, cohort 2). Patient outcomes were evaluated by examining changes in PU incidence, severity, timing and recurrence, as well as PU prevalence and satisfaction with life in the community. Final analysis included 70 patients in cohort 1 and 73 in cohort 2. OT skin care assessment documentation (31% to 60%; pprevention but no statistically significant improvements in PU-related patient outcomes were demonstrated. Results from this study identified facilitators and barriers to implementation and highlighted the complexity and difficulty of instituting effective preventative or therapeutic interventions for this population in an acute care setting. This information will assist with refinements of the PUPI and inform similar future initiatives.
M. PAOLA ZAGO
Full Text Available In the present study we characterized the capacity of zinc to protect lipids and proteins from Fe2+-initiated oxidative damage. The effects of zinc on lipid oxidation were investigated in liposomes composed of brain phosphatidylcholine (PC and phosphatidylserine (PS at a molar relationship of 60:40 (PC:PS, 60:40. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as the oxidation of cis-parinaric acid or as the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. Zinc protected liposomes from Fe2+ (2.5-50 muM-supported lipid oxidation. However, zinc (50 muM did not prevent the oxidative inactivation of glutamine synthelase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase when rat brain superntants were oxidized in the presence of 5 muM Fe2+ and 0.5 mM H2O2 .We also studied the interactions of zinc with epicatechin in the prevention of liid oxidation in liposomes. The simulaneous addition of 0.5 muM epicatechin (EC and 50 muM zinc or EC separately. Zinc (50 muM also protecte liposomes from the stimulatory effect of aluminum on Fe2+-initiated lipid oxidation. Zinc could play an important role as an antioxidant in biological systems, replacing iron and other metals with pro-oxidant activity from binding sites and interacting with other components of the oxidant defense system.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: It has been reported that noni has multiple health benefits for over 2000 years. In this study, the cancer preventive effects of Tahitian noni® juice (TNJ at the initiation stage on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female SD rats was investigated.Objective: We took advantage of the DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenic model to study the preventive effects of TNJ at the initiation stage of mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats by using clinical observation, pathological examination, and 32P-postlabeling assay.Methods: One hundred and sixty female SD rats were divided into eight groups with 20 rats in each group. Three doses of TNJ or placebo was given to the animals at the age of 35 days until the end of the experiment. When the animals were 55 days old, 25 mg/kg DMBA was fed to the animals in the DMBA group, placebo, and TNJ groups. The 20 rats were kept at age-matched controls. Palpable tumors were examined twice a week after DMBA administration in each group by an experienced professional. The size of tumor was measured by a graduated caliper. A piece of tumor, vascularization area, and mammary glands in the thoracic and abdomen areas of each rat were dissected respectively and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for light microscope examination. The DMBA-DNA adduct formation in mammary tissues was detected by 32P-postlabeling assay.Results: The tumor latency in TNJ groups was delayed about 60-90 days when compared with positive controls. The number of palpable tumors per group was significantly reduced by 73%, 72% and 80% in 3%, 5%, and 10% TNJ groups respectively when compared with positive controls at the end of 330 days after DMBA administration. The number of palpable tumors in the placebo groups was slightly reduced in the early stage, but much less than that in the TNJ groups. The multiplicity and malignancy of lesions were significantly reduced and the survival rate of animals in the TNJ groups was
A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative public health interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom.
White, Pam; Skirrow, Helen; George, Abraham; Memon, Anjum
Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative public health interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling of local authority commissioned public health preventative interventions in the UK. Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation. The systematic review identified studies between January 1994 and February 2015, using five databases. We synthesized the studies to identify the key methods and examined results of the economic evaluations. The majority of the evaluations related to cost-effectiveness, rather than cost-benefit analyses or cost-utility analyses. These analyses found preventative interventions to be cost effective, though the context of the interventions differed between the studies. Preventative public health interventions in general are cost-effective. There is a need for further studies to support justification of continued and/or increased funding for public health interventions. There is much variation between the types of economically evaluated preventative interventions in our review. Broader studies incorporating different contexts may help support funding for local authority-sponsored public health initiatives.
Miner, Robert N; Crutcher, James M
Evidence has mounted in recent years establishing second-hand tobacco smoke exposure as a cause of morbidity and mortality in nonsmokers. The ratio of deaths is approximately one nonsmoker dying from illness caused by second-hand smoke exposure for every eight smokers who die from diseases caused by tobacco use. This is equivalent to about 750 nonsmoker deaths each year in Oklahoma caused by exposure to second-hand smoke. This article reviews the components of second-hand smoke, its health effects, its prevalence in Oklahoma, and the means of protecting children and nonsmoking adults from exposure. Oklahoma physicians are encouraged to advise their patients about the harmful effects of second-hand smoke and to actively support public policies that decrease exposure to second-hand smoke in public places and workplaces.
Tahlil, Teuku; Woodman, Richard J; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul R
Smoking prevention programs have been taught in schools to reduce the high smoking prevalence and its related problems among adolescent populations. Although short-term benefits have been observed, the long-term effectiveness of such programs appear to be inconsistent. This study aims at investigating the long-term impact of both health and Islamic focused interventions amongst students in Indonesia. At 6 months after completion of the interventions, 427 of the original 447 participants (control group = 128, intervention groups = 299) from a school-based cluster randomized control trial were re-assessed for their smoking knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviours using a self-report questionnaire. Data was analyzed according to the study's 2 × 2 factorial design with adjustment for baseline scores, school and classroom clustering effects and multiple comparisons. Compared to the control group, significant long term effects were found for the health-based intervention program in improved health (β = 4.3 ± 0.4, p smoking attitudes (β = -11.5 ± 1.8, p smoking attitude (β = -6.0 ± 1.9, p smoking behaviors in the past month (OR = 0.1, 95 % CI = 0.0-0.8, p = 0.03). The effects were greater but less than additive in the combined group for health (β = -3.2 ± 0.9, p smoking attitudes (β = 6.1 ± 3.2, p = 0.07 for interaction). No significant effects on smoking intentions were observed at 6 months follow-up in the health or Islamic-based intervention programs. School-based programs can provide long term benefits on Indonesian adolescents' smoking knowledge and attitudes. Tailoring program intervention components with participants' religious background might maximise program effectiveness. A larger and more encompassing study is now required to confirm the effectiveness of this new Indonesia culturally-based program. Adolescents in similar areas might also benefit from this type of school
Nakanishi, Miharu; Yamauchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Tadashi
In Japan, the Cabinet Office released the 'General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy' in 2007 and suggested nine initiatives. In 2009, a national fund was launched to help prefectures (the administrative divisions of Japan) and local authorities implement five categories of suicide-prevention programs. This paper examines the impact of the national fund on the establishment of the systems for suicide prevention and the implementation of these initiatives among local authorities. The present study included 1385 local authorities (79.5%) from all 47 prefectures that responded to the cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Improved suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives in April 2013 were observed among 265 local authorities (19.1%) that implemented 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; 178 local authorities (12.9%) that implemented 'Face-to-face counseling', 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; and 324 local authorities (23.4%) that implemented 'Trauma-informed policies and practices'. There was no significant difference in suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives between 203 local authorities (14.7%) that implemented only 'Public awareness campaigns' and 231 local authorities (16.7%) that did not implement any suicide-prevention programs. The results of our study suggest that the national fund promoted the establishment of community systems for suicide prevention and helped implement initiatives among local authorities. The national suicide-prevention strategy in Japan should explore a standard package of programs to guide community suicide-prevention efforts with a sustained workforce among local authorities. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.
Gaskins, Ronnesia B; Jennings, Ernestine G; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M; Bock, Beth C
Innovative treatments like yoga for men's smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men's SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18-65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±13.7) who smoked on average 18.6 cigarettes/day (±8.3). Wellness (75.8 %) versus yoga (56 %) men attended more SC classes, p < 0.01. Sixty percent attended ≥1 yoga class. Men reported greater satisfaction with in-house versus community yoga classes. Wellness appears to be the preferred intervention; results indicated that it may be more feasible and showed increased attendance at smoking classes. To be fully feasible, yoga + SC may need to be a unified program offering all classes tailored for men and in the same location.
The recognition of the serious health-damaging effects of tobacco smoke exposure has initiated several preventive programmes on the national and international levels worldwide. In the last decade, a considerable decrease in the prevalence of active smoking was observed in Denmark, changing...... the country from a poor to a favourable position in comparison to other EU countries. However, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, especially in homes, still ranks Denmark among the problematic countries in Europe. This poorly recognised and studied discrepancy calls for further research and effective...
, principalmente, los efectos del grupo de amigos, el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y el poco interés por los estudios como factores asociados al consumo de tabaco.Objective: To analyse the determining of the acquisition and later consolidation of the tobacco consumption in young adolescents. Material and method: Longitudinal study of three years of duration (2000-2002. Subjects were students of secondary education between 13 and 14 years old at the beginning of the study. The research was performed in Gran Canaria Island with a final sample of 745 subjects. Models of conditional binary election were considered for longitudinal data where the dependent variable reflects decisions of the adolescents through time, with regard to the probability of beginning to smoke, «beginning model», and the probability of being occasional or habitual smoker, «experimentation model». Results: In the last year, 57% of the young teenagers surveyed use tobacco, a 25% more than in the first year, some of them, 9% on a daily basis. In the «beginning model» the determining of the tobacco consumption are interest in studies (odds ratio [OR] = 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.08-0.87 and OR = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.58 for the students having enough and much interest in studies, respectively, to have a smoker as the best friend (OR = 7.44; 95% CI, 2.59-21.4, the alcohol consumption (OR = 11.82; 95% CI, 4.96-28.2 and OR=15.42; 95% CI, 4.68-50.7 for youngs who drink alcohol occasionally or frequently and having more pocket money (euros per week (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19. For the «experimentation model», to have a smoker as the best friend (OR = 7.01; 95% CI, 2.96-16.5, the alcohol consumption (OR = 5.71; 95% CI, 1.98-16.4 and OR = 5.22; 95% CI, the 1.56-17.5 for youngs who drink alcohol occasionally or frequently and the number of years since the student started smoking (OR = 1.44; 95% IC, 1.11-1.86. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes, peer group effect, drinking alcoholic beverages and lack
Chaboyer, Wendy; Harbeck, Emma; Bucknall, Tracey; McInnes, Elizabeth; Thalib, Lukman; Whitty, Jennifer; Wallis, Marianne; Gillespie, Brigid
The aim of this study was to develop the Patient Participation in Pressure injury Prevention (PPPIP) scale and undertake initial testing of some of its psychometric properties. Clinical practice guidelines recommend patient involvement in pressure injury prevention. There is some evidence that patients are willing to participate in this activity, but there are currently no instruments to measure this participation. This methodological study used data collected as part of a cluster randomized trial to develop and test the PPPIP scale. A sample of 688 of patients with complete PPPIP scale data was used. A stratified random subsample, (Subsample A) was created and the remainder became Subsample B. Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha reliability were undertaken in Subsample A. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha reliability were undertaken in Subsample B. Data collection occurred between June 2014 - May 2015. In Subsample A (n = 320), inter-item correlations, item total correlations met the acceptance criteria and an exploratory factor analysis identified a one factor solution. In Subsample B (n = 368), the confirmatory factor analysis supported this one factor. In both subsamples, the Cronbach's alpha was 0·86. This study provides preliminary evidence of acceptable reliability and validity of the PPPIP scale in two subsamples of hospitalized patients who had limited mobility. It may be used in research and quality improvement activities. As a better conceptual understanding of patient participation emerges, the PPPIP scale may require refinement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; De La Rosa, Mario; Brook, David W
To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the early forties are similar or different in terms of lack of preventive health behaviors (e.g., underuse of preventive health services, unhealthy eating habits) in early midlife. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties (N = 548). Data were collected from adolescence to early midlife (mean age = 43 years, standard deviation [SD] = 2.8) at seven time points. Using growth mixture modeling, we statistically identified the number of smoking trajectories. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the probabilities of participants' smoking trajectory group membership and lack of preventive behaviors in early midlife. Five trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. With controls, as compared with the nonsmoker trajectory group, higher probabilities of belonging to the heavy/continuous smoker trajectory group and the late starter trajectory groups were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of lack of preventive health behaviors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.49 and 4.02 respectively). In addition, as compared to the quitter/decreaser trajectory group, higher probabilities of belonging to the heavy/continuous smoker trajectory group and the late starter trajectory group were also significantly associated with a higher likelihood of lack of preventive health behaviors (AOR = 3.51 and 4.04 respectively). Intervention programs may consider focusing on heavy/continuous smokers and late starters in programs designed to promote adequate use of preventive health services and healthy general lifestyles in early midlife.
Aquilino, Mary Lober; Goody, Cynthia M; Lowe, John B
To examine the perspectives of WIC clinic providers on offering smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women. Four focus groups consisting of WIC nurses, dietitians, and social workers (N = 25) were conducted at WIC clinics in eastern Iowa. Researchers developed discussion guidelines to determine how WIC providers currently approached pregnant women who smoke cigarettes and what they considered barriers to providing effective smoking cessation interventions. Code mapping was used to analyze focus group discussions. Factors influencing the ability of WIC staff to provide a smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women included available time, clinic priorities, staff approaches to clients, and staff training. In addition, providers expressed concerns about educational materials for clients as well as additional client issues that prevented smoking cessation. The absence of mechanisms to track clinic outcomes related to smoking cessation was also noted. WIC providers have time limitations that may necessitate minimal or low-intensity interventions for smoking cessation, but did not know that such approaches are actually effective. WIC providers require more education about the entire issue of smoking cessation in order to become more proactive in their attempts to help pregnant women quit. Training that enhances self-efficacy and understanding of the impact of smoking on mothers, infants, and children should be initiated to motivate staff to intervene. Another strategy to motivate WIC staff in this regard could be tracking clinic outcomes in helping women to quit smoking or prevent relapse.
O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C
To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms
Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric
Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.
... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...
Gold, Marthe R; Realmuto, Lindsey; Scherer, Maya; Kamler, Alexandra; Weiss, Linda
Internal revenue service provisions require not-for-profit hospitals to provide "community benefit." In addition, the Affordable Care Act requires these hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments that involve appropriate stakeholders. These requirements signal government interest in creating opportunities for developing programs that are well tailored and responsive to the needs of the communities served. Gaining meaningful input from residents is a critical aspect of these processes. To implement public deliberations that explore local resident priorities for use of a hospital's community benefit resources to prevent chronic disease. Public deliberation is a method of community engagement that can provide guidance to decision makers on value-laden issues when technical solutions alone are inadequate to provide direction or set priorities. Three deliberations featuring presentations by experts and discussions among participants were convened with a cross section of residents in Brooklyn, New York. Participants were asked whether new hospital initiatives should prioritize: clinical prevention, community-based interventions, or action on broader policies affecting population health. Pre- and postsurveys, as well as qualitative methods, were used to assess knowledge and attitudes. Postdeliberation, participants had significant changes in knowledge, particularly on the impact of education on health. Participants prioritized community-based and policy interventions over expanding clinical prevention capacity. Public deliberation offers a method to probe informed constituent views of how a hospital can best promote its community's health. Informed local residents felt that hospitals should frame health-promoting activities more broadly than is current practice. Not-for-profit hospitals gain significant tax advantages. Increased insurance rates suggest that some hospitals will experience savings in uncompensated care that can be used to promote health more
Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L.; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M.; Bock, Beth C.
Innovative treatments like yoga for men’s smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men’s SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18–65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±1...
Suzuki, Yohei; Sato, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Masataka; Baskoro, Hario; Karasutani, Keiko; Mitsui, Aki; Nurwidya, Fariz; Arano, Naoko; Kodama, Yuzo; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ishigami, Akihito; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a cigarette smoke (CS)-triggered disease with features of chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidants derived from CS can induce DNA damage and stress-induced premature cellular senescence in the respiratory system, which play significant roles in COPD. Therefore, antioxidants should provide benefits for the treatment of COPD; however, their therapeutic potential remains limited owing to the complexity of this disease. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been reported as a preventive and therapeutic antioxidant. Molecular H 2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radical accumulation with no known side effects, showing potential applications in managing oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. However, there have been no reports on the efficacy of molecular H 2 in COPD patients. In the present study, we used a mouse model of COPD to investigate whether CS-induced histological damage in the lungs could be attenuated by administration of molecular H 2 . We administered H 2 -rich pure water to senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice exposed to CS for 8 weeks. Administration of H 2 -rich water attenuated the CS-induced lung damage in the SMP30-KO mice and reduced the mean linear intercept and destructive index of the lungs. Moreover, H 2 -rich water significantly restored the static lung compliance in the CS-exposed mice compared with that in the CS-exposed H 2 -untreated mice. Moreover, treatment with H 2 -rich water decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage markers such as phosphorylated histone H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and senescence markers such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, and β-galactosidase in the CS-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that H 2 -rich pure water attenuated CS-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice by reducing CS-induced oxidative DNA damage and premature cell senescence in the lungs. Our
... in young adults: Age at initiation of cigarette smoking and other suspected influences,” American Journal of Public Health 86(2):214-20, February 1996. 18 See also, HHH, “Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of ... Initiation on Lung Cancer Risk,” Epidemiology 4(5): ...
Roberts, Megan E.; Nargiso, Jessica E.; Gaitonde, Linda Brazil; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Colby, Suzanne M.
Objective: Converging lines of research suggest that adolescents’ smoking behaviors are strongly influenced by the characteristics of their social network and the social processes their network facilitates. The primary goal of this study was to conduct a detailed comparison of the social networks of adolescent smokers and nonsmokers to determine what aspects relate the most to smoking status. A secondary goal was to conduct within-group analyses to examine relationships between key measures of behavior-specific social support and (a) smoking susceptibility among nonsmokers, and (b) readiness to quit smoking among smokers. Method: A matched sample of 190 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers (Mage = 16.8 years; 51% female) completed a questionnaire in which they nominated and reported on up to 10 important people in their lives. This measure allowed us to examine adolescents’ overall networks (both peers and family) and to investigate numerous aspects, including general network characteristics (e.g., size of network, average contact with network members), social support (e.g., importance of people in the network), and the pervasiveness of smoking in the network (e.g., percentage of smoking peers). Results: The pervasiveness of smoking in adolescents’ social network was the strongest distinguisher of smokers versus nonsmokers. In addition, behavior-specific social support was strongly associated with susceptibility to initiate smoking among nonsmokers and readiness to quit among smokers. Conclusions: This research offers insight into potential targets for prevention and early intervention by demonstrating how social networks can both promote and attenuate risk for smoking. PMID:25785800
Sasco, A J; Merrill, R M; Benhaïm-Luzon, V; Gérard, J P; Freyer, G
To provide information that may promote more effective cancer prevention, we identified factors associated with regular smoking among adolescents in Lyon, France. School grades where these factors began to influence regular smoking were also identified. Seven consecutive cross-sectional anonymous surveys were conducted in three public schools, beginning in grade 6ème (average age 11.5 years) in 1993 and ending in grade Terminale (average age 17.4 years) in 1999. All classes in each respective grade were surveyed, with 3650 completed questionnaires for all years combined. Prevalence of current regular smoking is presented according to school grade for 17 variables identified as significantly related to regular smoking in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Important factors associated with regular smoking were identified as early as grade 6ème and included not viewing the taking care of one's health as important, not eating breakfast regularly, associating with groups where smoking occurs, having a best friend who smokes, and having a brother and/or sister who smokes. Not regularly reading was first associated with an increased risk of regular smoking in grade 5ème. Not living with both parents, alcohol drinking, episodes of drunkenness, illicit drug use, and sexual relationships were positively associated with regular smoking in the middle and later grades, when these questions were first asked. Not playing sports and not playing with computers were initially associated with an increased risk of regular smoking in grade 3ème.
Dell'Omo, M; Baccolo, T P; Marcolina, D; Roscelli, F; Muzi, G; Murgia, N
In many industrialized countries smokers have been observed in high prevalence among workers with poor educational status, who are usually exposed to major occupational risks. The smoking habit and passive smoking may by themselves, or through interactions with other occupational risk factors, cause the onset of serious diseases. Therefore health reasons and the legal obligation to observe the smoking ban in the workplace make it essential to prevent and combat smoking in the workplace and to promote smoking cessation in workers who smoke. This initiative should benefit not only workers' health and well-being but also company finances. The Occupational Physician should engage in diverse activities ranging from encouraging young people not to start smoking to providing programmes to encourage workers who smoke to abandon the habit. For example, he or she should i) inform managers, supervisors and workers about the high risks linked to smoking, passive smoking and obligations established by law ii) collect information about the smoking habit among workers and supply workers with the so-called minimal clinical intervention during routine health surveillance appointments and iii) collaborate with specific health promotion programmes in the workplace.
Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects
Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard
Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...
Berndt, Nadine; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian; Mudde, Aart; Verheugt, Freek W A; de Vries, Hein
There is no more effective intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease than smoking cessation. Yet, evidence about the (cost-)effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment methods for cardiac inpatients that also suit nursing practice is scarce. This protocol describes the design of a study on the (cost-)effectiveness of two intensive smoking cessation interventions for hospitalised cardiac patients as well as first results on the inclusion rates and the characteristics of the study population. An experimental study design is used in eight cardiac wards of hospitals throughout the Netherlands to assess the (cost-)effectiveness of two intensive smoking cessation counselling methods both combined with nicotine replacement therapy. Randomization is conducted at the ward level (cross-over). Baseline and follow-up measurements after six and 12 months are obtained. Upon admission to the cardiac ward, nurses assess patients' smoking behaviour, ensure a quit advice and subsequently refer patients for either telephone counselling or face-to-face counselling. The counselling interventions have a comparable structure and content but differ in provider and delivery method, and in duration. Both counselling interventions are compared with a control group receiving no additional treatment beyond the usual care. Between December 2009 and June 2011, 245 cardiac patients who smoked prior to hospitalisation were included in the usual care group, 223 in the telephone counselling group and 157 in the face-to-face counselling group. Patients are predominantly male and have a mean age of 57 years. Acute coronary syndrome is the most frequently reported admission diagnosis. The ultimate goal of the study is to assess the effects of the interventions on smoking abstinence and their cost-effectiveness. Telephone counselling is expected to be more (cost-)effective in highly motivated patients and patients with high SES, whereas face-to-face counselling is expected to be
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the brain infarction (lacunar and atherothrombotic brain infarction) and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Not only active smoking but also passive smoking and smokeless tobacco products pose a risk. The risk after smoking cessation for 5-10 years is equal to that faced by a non-smoker. Many patients continue smoking even after an attack of stroke; therefore, support measures to enforce nonsmoking are required in this high-risk population. We offer nonsmoking support using the 5A approach, and assess the nonsmoking stage (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). We also administer medical therapy for smoking cessation when the patients find it difficult to quit smoking on their own accord. Nicotine dependency needs a follow-up like that required for other risk factors in the primary and secondary prevention of the stroke because smoking is a chronic disease that tends to recur.
Cole, John W; Brown, David W; Giles, Wayne H; Stine, Oscar C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Sparks, Mary J; Dobbins, Mark T; Shoffner, Latasha T; Zappala, Nancy K; Reinhart, Laurie J; Kittner, Steven J
Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by curre...
Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Sussan, Thomas E; Gebska, Melina A; Strong, Travis D; Berkowitz, Dan E; Biswal, Shyam; Burnett, Arthur L; Champion, Hunter C
We determined the effect of passive secondhand cigarette smoke on 1) erectile function in vivo, 2) molecular mechanisms involved in penile vascular function, and 3) erectile function and penile molecular signaling in the presence of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy. Four groups of mice were used, including group 1--controls, group 2--mice exposed to 3 weeks of secondhand smoke (5 hours per day for 5 days per week), group 3--control plus sildenafil (100 mg/kg per day) and group 4--smoke exposed plus sildenafil (100 mg/kg per day). Cavernous nerve electrical stimulation and intracavernous injection of acetylcholine were done to assess erectile function. Constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, reactive oxygen species generation, nitrotyrosine formation and superoxide anion levels were assessed. Decreased erectile responses to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation and impaired endothelium dependent erectile responses to ACh in mice exposed to secondhand smoke were observed. Superoxide anion was increased in endothelial and corporeal smooth muscle cells of smoking mouse penises. In mice exposed to secondhand smoke constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity was decreased, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, reactive oxygen species generation and nitrotyrosine formation increased. Sildenafil therapy restored constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity in the penis of smoking mice, decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, reactive oxygen species generation and nitrotyrosine formation, and improved erectile responses to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation and acetylcholine. Short-term exposure to secondhand smoke impairs erectile function through excessive penile reactive oxygen species signaling and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. Decreased penile constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity may be attributable to the decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity resulting from increased oxidative
Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den
The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in
Faria, Bianca Lisa; Brieske, Christian M; Cosgarea, Ioana; Omlor, Albert J; Fries, Fabian N; de Faria, Christian Olber Moreira; Lino, Henrique Augusto; Oliveira, Ana Carla Cruz; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Klode, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Brinker, Titus J
Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous; the dramatic health consequences are too far in the future to fathom. We recently designed and tested an intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance. A free photoageing mobile app (Smokerface) was implemented by medical students in secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The pupils' altered three-dimensional selfies on tablets were 'mirrored' via a projector in front of their whole grade. This is the first randomised trial to measure the effectiveness of the mirroring approach on smoking behaviour in secondary schools. The mirroring intervention, which lasts 45 min, is implemented by Brazilian medical students in at least 35 secondary school classes with 21 participants each (at least 35 classes with 21 participants for control) in February 2018 in the city of Itauna, Brazil. External block randomisation via computer is performed on the class level with a 1:1 allocation. In addition to sociodemographic data, smoking behaviour is measured via a paper-pencil questionnaire before, 3 and 6 months postintervention plus a random carbon monoxide breathing test at baseline and end line. The primary outcome is cigarette smoking in the past week at 6 months follow-up. Smoking behaviour (smoking onset, quitting) and effects on the different genders are studied as secondary outcomes. Analysis is by intention to treat. Ethical approval is obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Itauna in Brazil. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, throughout the Education Against Tobacco network social media channels and on our websites. NCT03178227. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Helen Y How
Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate
Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah
Patterns of physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, victimization, and related behaviors were examined with data from the evaluation of the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships initiative, a dating violence primary prevention program targeting middle school students. Latent class and latent transition models were used to estimate distinct patterns of TDV and related behaviors of bullying and sexual harassment in seventh grade students at baseline and to estimate transition probabilities from one pattern of behavior to another at the 1-year follow-up. Intervention effects were estimated by conditioning transitions on exposure to Start Strong. Latent class analyses suggested four classes best captured patterns of these interrelated behaviors. Classes were characterized by elevated perpetration and victimization on most behaviors (the multiproblem class), bullying perpetration/victimization and sexual harassment victimization (the bully-harassment victimization class), bullying perpetration/victimization and psychological TDV victimization (bully-psychological victimization), and experience of bully victimization (bully victimization). Latent transition models indicated greater stability of class membership in the comparison group. Intervention students were less likely to transition to the most problematic pattern and more likely to transition to the least problem class. Although Start Strong has not been found to significantly change TDV, alternative evaluation models may find important differences. Latent transition analysis models suggest positive intervention impact, especially for the transitions at the most and the least positive end of the spectrum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The author examines the traditional emphasis of health educators in preventive approaches to smoking behavior and suggests (through a brief literature review) specific techniques that may be useful in aiding those who would stop smoking. (MJB)
Okagua, Joyce; Opara, Peace; Alex-Hart, Balafama A
Cigarette smoking remains a major preventable public health problem associated with premature deaths worldwide. Adolescence is a unique developmental stage between childhood and adulthood. Smoking is a lifestyle habit acquired during adolescence and into adulthood, with its associated morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to determine the factors associated with cigarette smoking in these adolescents in order to institute preventive measures and health policies to protect these adolescents early. This study aims to determine the prevalence of smoking, factors associated with smoking, and knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking in these adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1120 adolescents aged 10-19 years selected from 10 secondary schools in Port Harcourt was conducted using a multistage sampling technique. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) core questionnaire was used to collect data from the subjects. A smoker was defined as one who had ever smoked a cigarette or who had one or two puffs, while a current smoker was defined as one who had taken a puff or smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days preceding the day of the questionnaire's completion. Eighty subjects (7.1%) were smokers. This was significantly (p=smoking was initiated was 12.47±3.0 years. Twenty six (32.5%) of the smokers reported that they were initiated into cigarette smoking by their friends, 36 (45%) just wanted to experiment, 7 (8.8%) were influenced by media advertisements while 5 (6.3%) were due to parental exposure. Parental history of smoking and poor knowledge of cancer of the lungs as a harmful effect of smoking, was significantly (p=smoking. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in Port Harcourt is high and is associated with parental smoking and poor knowledge of cancer of the lungs as a harmful effect. We recommend that adolescent health education with an emphasis on the harmful effects of smoking be included in the curriculum of all secondary schools.
Sorkin John D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by current cigarette smoking status. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-comparable control subjects (43.1% African-American. Several inflammatory candidate gene SNPs chosen through literature review were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke and interaction with smoking status. Results Of the 8 SNPs (across 6 genes analyzed, only IL6 SNP rs2069832 (allele C, African-American frequency = 92%, Caucasian frequency = 55% was found to be significantly associated with stroke using an additive model, and this was only among African-Americans (age-adjusted: OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–5.0, p = 0.049; risk factor adjusted: OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.0–6.5, p = 0.05. When stratified by smoking status, two SNPs demonstrated statistically significant gene-environment interactions. First, the T allele (frequency = 5% of IL6 SNP rs2069830 was found to be protective among non-smokers (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–.082, p = 0.02, but not among smokers (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.48–5.58, p = 0.43; genotype by smoking interaction (p = 0.036. Second, the C allele (frequency = 39% of CD14 SNP rs2569190 was found to increase risk among smokers (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.09–3.86, p = 0.03, but not among non-smokers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.62–1.39, p = 0.72; genotype by smoking interaction (p = 0.039. Conclusion This study demonstrates
Remesh Kumar, R; Jayakumar, P R; Krishna Mohan, R
Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases. All these facts stress the importance of behavioral changes in the population as well as stringent public health measures and legislation for ensuring smoke free work places, public places and households for children. M POWER- Package by WHO is a novel global initiative taking us closer to the target of achieving tobacco free environment for children in the near future.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.
Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A
A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25 years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17 years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10-15-year-olds in grades 6-8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical
Mulindi H Mwanahamuntu
Full Text Available Groesbeck Parham and colleagues describe their Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia, which has provided services to over 58,000 women over the past five years, and share lessons learned from the program's implementation and integration with existing HIV/AIDS programs.
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...; and Tobacco Use Quitline Registries for Continuously Engaging Participants in Cessation, SIP13-073.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...
Massey, Suena H; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M
Little is known about the characteristics of women who smoke during pregnancy beyond demographic factors. We examined the relationship between novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-directedness and (a) abstinence from smoking during pregnancy and (b) average daily cigarette consumption during pregnancy. Participants were 826 birth mothers who made adoption placements in the Early Growth and Development Study and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory - Short Form, and interview-based smoking assessments 3-6 months postpartum. Never smokers (n=199), pregnancy abstainers (n=277), pregnancy light smokers (n=184), and pregnancy heavy smokers (n=166) were compared on personality dimensions and smoking-related processes. Using regression analyses we examined relationships between personality and (a) abstinence versus smoking during pregnancy; and (b) average daily cigarette consumption among lifetime smokers, controlling for nicotine dependence, birth father substance dependence, maternal antisocial behavior, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Smokers with higher self-directedness and lower harm avoidance were more likely to abstain during pregnancy [O.R. 1.380; 95% C.I. (1.065-1.787); B(SE)=.322(.132); p=.015] and [O.R. .713; 95% C.I. (.543-.935); B(SE)=-.339(.138); p=.014], respectively. Novelty seeking differentiated never smokers from lifetime smokers (t=-3.487; p=.001), but was not significant in multivariate models. Lifetime smokers who abstained during pregnancy reported fewer depressive symptoms relative to never smokers. Personality dimensions associated with abstinence from smoking and cigarettes per day during pregnancy may be important to consider in etiologic and intervention research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Fernández, Daniel; Fernández, Tania; de Abajo, Serafín; Delgado, Miguel
This paper is a report of the effectiveness of a tobacco use prevention and control course on health sciences students' smoking prevalence and incidence. Although it is known that the intervention of health professionals in their patients' tobacco use can be affected by their own habit, very few studies have analysed the effect of specific tobacco-oriented training on smoking among health science students. This study is a quasi-experimental study of community intervention. During the years 2005-2008, a total of 290 health science students on the intervention campus and 256 on the control campus took part in the study. In the former, the intervention consisted of a course on the prevention and control of tobacco use for students, which was not offered on the control campus. Data about tobacco use and socio-demographic variables were collected by means of a questionnaire before and 6 months after the intervention. Prevalence of tobacco use decreased in the intervention group (-1.1%) and increased in the control group (1.5%). The risk of acquiring the habit was almost three times higher in the control group than in the intervention group and the probability of cessation was 40% higher in the intervention group and correlated with nicotine dependence. The intervention suggests the effect on habit acquisition was slight but not so on cessation. Preventive interventions should be carried out before students go to university, while more specific cessation programmes are required to reduce tobacco use among students. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Judson, Timothy; Haas, Mark; Lagu, Tara
Medical identity theft refers to the misuse of another individual's identifying medical information to receive medical care. Beyond the financial burden on patients, hospitals, health insurance companies, and government insurance programs, undetected cases pose major patient safety challenges. Inaccuracies in the medical record may persist even after the theft has been identified because of restrictions imposed by patient privacy laws. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH; Boston) has conducted initiatives to prevent medical identity theft and to better identify and respond to cases when they occur. Since 2007, MGH has used a notification tree to standardize reporting of red flag incidents (warning signs of identity theft, such as suspicious personal identifiers or account activity). A Data Integrity Dashboard allows for tracking and reviewing of all potential incidents of medical identity theft to detect trends and targets for mitigation. An identity-checking policy, VERI-(Verify Everyone's Identity) Safe Patient Care, requires photo identification at every visit and follow-up if it is not provided. Data from MGH suggest that an estimated 120 duplicate medical records are created each month, 25 patient encounters are likely tied to identity theft or fraud each quarter, and 14 patients are treated under the wrong medical record number each year. As of December 2013, 80%-85% of patients were showing photo identification at appointments. Although an organization's policy changes and educational campaigns can improve detection and reconciliation of medical identity theft cases, national policies should be implemented to streamline the process of correcting errors in medical records, reduce the financial disincentive for hospitals to detect and report cases, and create a single point of entry to reduce the burden on individuals and providers to reconcile cases.
Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E
Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.
In epidemiologic studies, high intake of beta-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among current smokers. However, data are not available from well-controlled animal studies to examine the effects of beta-cryptoxanthin on cigarette smoke-induced lung ...
Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M
Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. T...
Whelan, Jillian; Love, Penny; Romanus, Anne; Pettman, Tahna; Bolton, Kristy; Smith, Erin; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve
Abstract Objective: Obesity is the single biggest public health threat to developed and developing economies. In concert with healthy public policy, multi-strategy, multi-level community-based initiatives appear promising in preventing obesity, with several countries trialling this approach. In Australia, multiple levels of government have funded and facilitated a range of community-based obesity prevention initiatives (CBI), heterogeneous in their funding, timing, target audience and structure. This paper aims to present a central repository of CBI operating in Australia during 2013, to facilitate knowledge exchange and shared opportunities for learning, and to guide professional development towards best practice for CBI practitioners. Methods: A comprehensive search of government, non-government and community websites was undertaken to identify CBI in Australia in 2013. This was supplemented with data drawn from available reports, personal communication and key informant interviews. The data was translated into an interactive map for use by preventive health practitioners and other parties. Results: We identified 259 CBI; with the majority (84%) having a dual focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Few initiatives, (n=37) adopted a four-pronged multi-strategy approach implementing policy, built environment, social marketing and/or partnership building. Conclusion: This comprehensive overview of Australian CBI has the potential to facilitate engagement and collaboration through knowledge exchange and information sharing amongst CBI practitioners, funders, communities and researchers. Implications: An enhanced understanding of current practice highlights areas of strengths and opportunities for improvement to maximise the impact of obesity prevention initiatives. PMID:25561083
Whelan, Jillian; Love, Penny; Romanus, Anne; Pettman, Tahna; Bolton, Kristy; Smith, Erin; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve
Obesity is the single biggest public health threat to developed and developing economies. In concert with healthy public policy, multi-strategy, multi-level community-based initiatives appear promising in preventing obesity, with several countries trialling this approach. In Australia, multiple levels of government have funded and facilitated a range of community-based obesity prevention initiatives (CBI), heterogeneous in their funding, timing, target audience and structure. This paper aims to present a central repository of CBI operating in Australia during 2013, to facilitate knowledge exchange and shared opportunities for learning, and to guide professional development towards best practice for CBI practitioners. A comprehensive search of government, non-government and community websites was undertaken to identify CBI in Australia in 2013. This was supplemented with data drawn from available reports, personal communication and key informant interviews. The data was translated into an interactive map for use by preventive health practitioners and other parties. We identified 259 CBI; with the majority (84%) having a dual focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Few initiatives, (n=37) adopted a four-pronged multi-strategy approach implementing policy, built environment, social marketing and/or partnership building. This comprehensive overview of Australian CBI has the potential to facilitate engagement and collaboration through knowledge exchange and information sharing amongst CBI practitioners, funders, communities and researchers. An enhanced understanding of current practice highlights areas of strengths and opportunities for improvement to maximise the impact of obesity prevention initiatives. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...
Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...
Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Gagné, Thierry; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Frohlich, Katherine
This study uses a Bourdieusian approach to assess young adults' resources and examines their association with smoking initiation and cessation. Data were drawn from 1450 young adults participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, a cohort study in Montreal, Canada. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between young adults' income, education, and peer smoking at baseline and smoking onset and cessation. Young adults where most or all of their friends smoked had greater odds of smoking onset. Young adults that had completed pre-university postsecondary education also had higher odds of smoking onset after controlling for social support, employment status, and lacking money to pay for expenses. Income and the sociodemographic variables age and sex were not associated with smoking onset. Young adults where half of their friends smoked or where most to all of their friends smoked had lowers odds of smoking cessation. Men were more likely to cease smoking than women. Education, income and age were not associated with cessation. Interventions focusing on peer smoking may present promising avenues for tobacco prevention in young adults.
Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Chan, Ching Han Helen; Lai, Chi-Keung Jonah; Chan, Wai Fung Vivian; Wang, Man Ping; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai-Hing
Quit attempters often have episodes of smoking relapse before they eventually quit. Interactive text messaging through mobile phones has been shown to increase abstinence. This service can be potentially applied on the platform of a social networking service to help quitters maintain abstinence. Our aim was to determine if the group discussion and reminders via the WhatsApp or Facebook social group were effective to prevent smoking relapse in quitters who had stopped smoking recently. This was a single-blinded, parallel, 3-arm pilot cluster randomized controlled trial allocating recent quitters, who had completed an 8-week treatment and reported abstinence for at least 7 days, to WhatsApp (n=42), Facebook (n=40), and a control group (n=54). The 2 intervention groups participated in a 2-month online group discussion with either WhatsApp or Facebook moderated by a trained smoking cessation counselor and received a self-help booklet on smoking cessation. The control group only received the booklet. The primary outcome was the 2- and 6-month relapse rates, defined as the proportion of participants who smoked at least 5 cigarettes in 3 consecutive days. Fewer participants in the WhatsApp group (17%, 7/42) reported relapse than the control group (42.6%, 23/54) at 2-month (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.71) and 6-month (40.5%, 17/42 vs 61.1%, 33/54; OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.99) follow-ups. The Facebook group (30.0%, 12/40) had an insignificantly lower relapse rate than the control group (42.6%, 23/54) at 2-month (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.24-1.37) and 6-month (52.5%, 13/40 vs 61.1%, 33/54; OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.31-1.61) follow-ups. The WhatsApp social groups had more moderators' posts (median 60, IQR 25 vs median 32, IQR 7; P=.05) and participants' posts (median 35, IQR 50 vs median 6, IQR 9; P=.07) than their Facebook counterparts, but the difference was insignificant. The intervention via the WhatsApp social group was effective in reducing relapse probably because of enhanced discussion and
... with High HIV Prevalence, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) IP14-002, initial review. In... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology.... Matters To Be Discussed: The meeting will include the initial review, discussion, and evaluation of...
... with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), FOA DD13-002, initial review.'' Contact Person for More... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of Treatments and Services Provided to People with ] Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), FOA DD13-002, initial...
Azagba, Sunday; Kennedy, Ryan David; Baskerville, Neill Bruce
Tobacco control prevention efforts are important to protect people from exposure to dangerous tobacco smoke, support cessation, and reduce tobacco-use initiation. While smoke-free laws have been a widespread tobacco control strategy, little work has been done to examine the impact of smoke-free school policies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of provincial smoke-free school ground policies on youth-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on school property. This study used a nationally representative sample of 20 388 youth aged 15-18 from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of smoke-free school policies on SHS exposure. Approximately over half (52%) of respondents reported SHS exposure on a school property in the past month. Smoke-free school policy had a statistically significant effect on SHS exposure. Specifically, the adoption of smoke-free school reduced the probability of SHS exposure by about 8 percentage points. Respondents who were smokers were more likely to report being exposed to SHS than nonsmokers. Likewise, those living in urban areas had higher probability of being exposed to SHS than those living in rural parts of Canada. Reported exposure to tobacco smoke did decrease after the introduction of smoke-free ground policies; however, almost half of high-school aged youth report exposure in the last month. Across Canada, provincial health authorities as well as school administers may need to assess the implementation of these smoke-free policies and improve enforcement strategies to further reduce exposure to dangerous SHS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.
Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K; Forster-Cox, Sue; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Buckingham, Robert W
This study assessed the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among adolescents in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. We used a cross-sectional method to examine the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and ETS exposure of 6th-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years, attending six randomly selected middle schools. Schools were classified by school setting (i.e., public vs. private) and socioeconomic status (SES; i.e., low, middle, or high). The results indicated that 6th-grade students attending a public, low-SES school setting in Ciudad Juárez not only exhibited significantly higher rates of ETS exposure at home and in public places (p<.01) but also were more likely to have tried smoking (p<.01) and to be current smokers (p<.01), and were less likely to support a ban on smoking in public places (p<.01), compared with students who attended a private school or a public, middle- or high-SES school setting. These results provide further evidence that public health interventions to prevent initiation of smoking and to assist in smoking cessation among adolescents and to reduce their ETS exposure at home and in public need to target all school-aged students, especially those attending school in a low-SES settings.
Bray, Jeremy W., Ed.; Galvin, Deborah M., Ed.; Cluff, Laurie A., Ed.
Although higher rates of substance use among young adults aged 16 to 24 are well-established (OAS, 2010), existing workplace substance use prevention and early intervention programs primarily target older workers. These data suggest that workplaces need substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs that are proven to be efficacious…
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN)--Coordinating Center, SIP12-061 and Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN)--Collaborating...
... JT, et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 284(6): ... of the U.S. Department of Agriculture System. American Journal of Preventive Medicine ... Institute (1998). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 9: Cigars: Health Effects ...
... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...
Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A
To evaluate the multinational medical-student-delivered tobacco prevention programme for secondary schools for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among adolescents aged 11-15 years in Germany at half year follow-up. We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design with measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months postintervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 8 German secondary schools. The participants were split into intervention and control classes in the same schools and grades. A total of 1474 eligible participants of both genders at the age of 11-15 years were involved within the survey for baseline assessment of which 1200 completed the questionnaire at 6-month follow-up (=longitudinal sample). The schools participated voluntarily. The inclusion criteria were age (10-15 years), grade (6-8) and school type (regular secondary schools). Two 60 min school-based modules delivered by medical students. The primary end point was the difference from t1 to t2 of the smoking prevalence in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t2 in the intervention group (difference of differences approach). The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups were studied as secondary outcome measures. In the control group, the percentage of students who claimed to be smokers doubled from 4.2% (t1) to 8.1% (t2), whereas it remained almost the same in the intervention group (7.1% (t1) to 7.4% (t2); p=0.01). The likelihood of quitting smoking was almost six times higher in the intervention group (total of 67 smokers at t1; 27 (4.6%) and 7 (1.1%) in the control group; OR 5.63; 95% CI 2.01 to 15.79; p<0.01). However, no primary preventive effect was found. We report a significant secondary preventive (smoking cessation) effect at 6-month follow-up. Long-term evaluation is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rodger, Alison J; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro
The results from the HPTN 052 trial have increased the focus on use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission; however, condom use also effectively prevents HIV transmission. Studies in heterosexual serodiscordant couples with viral suppression have so far only reported...... follow-up data for 330 couple-years when condoms were not being used. Data are even more limited for anal sex in men who have sex with men. Additional data on the effectiveness of ART as prevention when practicing condom-less sex is urgently needed....
... announced below concerns ``Using Behavioral Economics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in... meeting will include the initial review, discussion, and evaluation of ``Using Behavioral Economics to...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.
Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A
The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.
This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.
Sánchez Carracedo, David
The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to prog...
Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C
Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental