Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo
Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.
Santelli, John S.; And Others
Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…
Sex-workers play an important role in the spread of sexually trans:mitted diseases (STDs) and this article tries to show that they can also play an important role in their prevention. Community participation by sex-workers in the prevention of STDs can also decrease the incidence thereof.
Quilter, Laura; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Marrazzo, Jeanne
Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important part of the care of the HIV-infected individual. STIs have been associated with increased risk of transmission and acquisition of HIV. Among HIV-infected persons, treatment failures and high recurrence rates of some STIs are more common. Despite the recognized importance of prevention and discussion of sexual health, rates of screening for STIs are suboptimal. Moreover, rates of STIs such as syphilis continue to increase particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM). This review focuses on the most common STIs seen among HIV-infected individuals and recommendations for screening and prevention.
LeVasseur, J J
Many studies have suggested that merely warning people about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urging the use of condoms as protection will not result in widespread use of condoms. Regular condom use appears to be grounded in knowledge of its effectiveness, perception of STD risk, and belief in a partner's acceptance. But these are not the only barriers to condom use. Negotiating condom use often comes at a sensitive stage in intimate relationships, when individuals prefer to avoid such discussions and simply to trust the powerful and compelling feelings of mutual attraction. This review will consider (1) the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD transmission, (2) barriers to the use of condoms, and (3) recommended strategies to promote acceptance and use of condoms by heterosexual women.
Abnormal vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) is widely prevalent in the country. According to WHO, over 300 million new cases of sexually-transmitted infections (excluding HIV) occur each year. In addition to these, HIV infection is spreading rapidly in the country with over 3.7 million sero-positive cases (from zero) within 15 years.. The predominant mode of transmission of HIV is by heterosexual route. The multidrug regime for treatment is expensive (about $...
Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…
Shoveller, Jean A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Savoy, Daphne M.; Pietersma, W. A. Wia
Most primary prevention research has attempted to explain sexual health outcomes, such as sexually transmitted infections, by focusing on individual characteristics (e.g. age), qualities (e.g. knowledge levels), and risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected intercourse). Emerging evidence indicates that population-level health outcomes are unlikely to be…
Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich
To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....
Shelton, Andrew A.
An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...
These guidelines for the treatment of patients who have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on September 26-28, 2000. The information in this report updates the 1998 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 1998;47 [No. RR-1]). Included in these updated guidelines are new alternative regimens for scabies, bacterial vaginosis, early syphilis, and granuloma inguinale; an expanded section on the diagnosis of genital herpes (including type-specific serologic tests); new recommendations for treatment of recurrent genital herpes among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); a revised approach to the management of victims of sexual assault; expanded regimens for the treatment of urethral meatal warts; and inclusion of hepatitis C as a sexually transmitted infection. In addition, these guidelines emphasize education and counseling for persons infected with human papillomavirus, clarify the diagnostic evaluation of congenital syphilis, and present information regarding the emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and implications for treatment. Recommendations also are provided for vaccine-preventable STDs, including hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
This thesis explores cultural influences in high-risk behaviour among Egyptian substance users in the Middle Eastern, conservative, male-dominated and predominantly Muslim society in which they live. It investigates why they practice unprotected sex despite the risk of infection by blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), and the factors influencing their risk practices. The study seeks to inform policy and to improve methods of preventing BBVs/STI...
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...
Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A
Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Emilio PINTOR HOLGUÍN
Full Text Available Action takes place in Spain in the mid?eighties (1987 with the change in Spanish society and the appearance of the first cases of AIDS in our country. From a comical sight, the adventures of a dermatologist particularly interested on sexually transmitted diseases prevention; especially in patients with risk behaviors, such as homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts injecting. The entire film revolves around the importance of condom use in preventing all sexually transmitted diseases.
Leichliter, Jami S; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan
Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a nonsystematic review of policy evidence for STD prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact STD prevention through social determinants of health. We also describe potential policy opportunity in these areas. It should be noted that we found gaps in policy evidence for some areas; thus, additional research would be useful for public health policy interventions for STD prevention.
... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... optimal treatments for STIs, especially in pregnant women. General Information About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) STDs/STIs ...
Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas
Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact.
Gottlieb, Sami L; Low, Nicola; Newman, Lori M; Bolan, Gail; Kamb, Mary; Broutet, Nathalie
An estimated 499 million curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) occurred globally in 2008. In addition, well over 500 million people are estimated to have a viral STI such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) at any point in time. STIs result in a large global burden of sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences, including genital symptoms, pregnancy complications, cancer, infertility, and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as important psychosocial consequences and financial costs. STI control strategies based primarily on behavioral primary prevention and STI case management have had clear successes, but gains have not been universal. Current STI control is hampered or threatened by several behavioral, biological, and implementation challenges, including a large proportion of asymptomatic infections, lack of feasible diagnostic tests globally, antimicrobial resistance, repeat infections, and barriers to intervention access, availability, and scale-up. Vaccines against HPV and hepatitis B virus offer a new paradigm for STI control. Challenges to existing STI prevention efforts provide important reasons for working toward additional STI vaccines. We summarize the global epidemiology of STIs and STI-associated complications, examine challenges to existing STI prevention efforts, and discuss the need for new STI vaccines for future prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dembo, Richard; Rollie, Matthew; Childs, Kristina; Salvatore, Christopher
Studies of detained and incarcerated adolescent offenders in the United States indicate that these juveniles have an elevated risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, many more arrestees enter the “front end” of the juvenile justice system than are detained or incarcerated, and research into the STD risk profiles and service needs of this larger group is lacking. An expansion of STD testing (including of asymptomatic youths), prevention, and treatment is needed, as is improved knowledge about gender- and race-specific services. A pilot program in Florida has shown that juvenile justice and public health systems can collaborate to implement STD testing among new arrestees. With integrated linkages to treatment and prevention after release, this model could greatly reduce the STD burden in this underserved, high-risk population. PMID:19372535
Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith
Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized
Cooper, B; Toskin, I; Kulier, R; Allen, T; Hawkes, S
Throughout the last decade substantial research has been undertaken to develop evidence-based behaviour change interventions for sexual health promotion. Primary care could provide an opportunistic entry for brief sexual health communication. We conducted a systematic review to explore opportunistic sexual and reproductive health services for sexual health communication delivered at primary health care level. We searched for studies on PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Jstor, Scopus/Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EBSCO, CINAHL, PsychoInfo, and Web of Knowledge. Both published and unpublished articles were reviewed. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials were included. Participants of all ages, from adolescence onwards were included. Brief (10-60 minutes) interventions including some aspect of communication on sexual health issues were included. Data were extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised form. Interventions differed from each other, hence meta-analysis was not performed, and results are presented individually. A total of 247 articles were selected for full-text evaluation, 31 of which were included. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV were less often reported in the intervention group compared with the control group. Condom use was higher in most studies in the intervention group. Numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse were lower in the intervention groups. There is evidence that brief counselling interventions have some effect in the reduction and prevention of STIs/HIV. Some questions could not be answered, such as the effect over time and in different settings and population groups. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs other than HIV have reappeared as an important public health problem in developed countries (1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, research and treatment of the 'classic' STIs - gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia - were a major focus of infectious diseases practice and research. There were large outbreaks of syphilis in parts of Canada (2, penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae was a concern (3, and high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with complications of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy were being reported (4,5. Then, HIV infection emerged, with its spectre of a wasting, early death. There was no effective treatment, and safe sexual practices were embraced and adhered to by high-risk populations as the only effective way to avoid infection. These practices effectively prevented other STIs; rates of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia infection plummeted in developed countries (5. For at least a decade, it appeared that HIV might be an end to all STIs, at least for some parts of the world. STIs continued unabated in developing countries, as many epidemiological and therapeutic studies explored the association of STIs with HIV infection.
Seidman, Dominika; Hemmerling, Anke; Smith-McCune, Karen
Worldwide, there continues to be a large unmet need for family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention methods. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) is a general term encompassing any single prevention methodology targeting more than one STI (including HIV) and/or pregnancy. While innovation has been slow over the past several decades, recent scientific advances have resulted in new products entering clinical trials. This review focuses primarily on multipurpose technologies that are designed to prevent pregnancy and HIV. To examine the current state of MPTs, we outline key discoveries of biologic mechanisms that influence susceptibility of the female genital tract to HIV and STIs, and review the effects of hormonal contraception on HIV susceptibility. We discuss the state of currently available HIV prevention strategies for women, and their interactions with hormonal contraceptive products. Finally, we describe MPTs currently in preclinical and clinical trials and propose ongoing questions requiring research to help advance the field. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Besoain, Felipe; Perez-Navarro, Antoni; Caylà, Joan A; Aviñó, Constanza Jacques; de Olalla, Patricia García
Advances in the development of information and communication technologies have facilitated social interrelationships, but also sexual contacts without appropriate preventive measures. In this paper, we will focus on situations in which people use applications to meet sexual partners nearby, which could increase their chance of exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI). How can we encourage users to adopt preventive measures without violating their privacy or infringing on the character of the application? To achieve the goal of preventing STI, we have used the design and creation methodology and have developed a prototype software package. This prototype follows the RESTful services principles and has two parts: an Android OS application with emphasis on ubiquitous computing and designed according to General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP), and a server with a web page. To choose the preventive messages, we performed a test in 17 men who have sex with men (MSM). Our software sends preventive notifications to users when it detects situations such as the activation of particular applications on their smartphones, or their proximity to areas with a high probability of intercourse (hot zones). The underlying idea is the same as that for warning messages on cigarette packets, since users read the message just when they are going to smoke. The messages used have been selected from a list that has been rated by the users themselves. The most popular message is "Enjoy sex and enjoy life. Do not expose yourself to HIV". The user is unaware of the software, which runs in the background. Ubiquitous computing may be useful for alerting users with preventive and educational messages. The proposed application is non-intrusive because: 1) the users themselves decide to install it and, therefore, users' privacy rights are preserved; 2) it sends a message that helps users think about taking appropriate preventive measures; and 3) it works in the
AJRH Managing Editor
Sexually transmitted infections: Prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria. Adekemi O Sekoni*, Oluwakemi O Odukoya, Adebayo T Onajole, Kofoworola A Odeyemi. Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of ...
Forrest, J D; Silverman, J
Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Yah, Clarence S; Simate, Geoffrey S; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs - including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases.
Yah, Clarence S.; Simate, Geoffrey S.; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M.
Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. Methods: We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. Results and Discussion: In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. Conclusions: A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs – including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases. PMID:29536957
Sanz-Lorente, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón; Sanz-Valero, Javier
The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. ©María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http
Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.
This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl
Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in
Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui
The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.
Stahlman, Shauna; Hirz, Alanna E; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M; Javanbakht, Marjan
Our objectives were to describe women's reasons for engaging in anal intercourse (AI), contextual factors surrounding AI, and how these vary by current rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) status, and to assess women's knowledge and concerns about rectal infections. Between January 2011 and June 2013, we conducted semistructured, qualitative interviews among 40 women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California. Women were eligible if they were at least 18 years of age, reported AI in the past 90 days, and were tested for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Interviews, which were guided by the theory of gender and power, were transcribed and coded to explore contextual factors surrounding AI. On average, participants reported having 3 AI partners in their lifetime and most (n = 30) reported being in a serious relationship with a main/regular sex partner at the time of the interview. Motivations for engaging in AI and feelings about AI varied by rectal STI status. Women with a rectal STI more prominently conveyed the idea that AI was intended to please their sexual partner, whereas those who did not have a rectal STI reported AI more as a way to increase intimacy and personal sexual gratification. Almost all women (regardless of rectal STI status) reported limited to no knowledge about the risk of rectal STIs. Among women, risk of acquiring rectal STIs may vary by reason for engaging in unprotected AI as well as other contextual factors. Providers should consider addressing these contextual factors to reduce risk.
Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non‑use of condoms 62% ... ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment ... Keywords: Enugu, Female traders, Knowledge, Prevention, Sexually transmitted infections, Vulnerability. Original ...
Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E
Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.
Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida
ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880
Leonardo, C; Chrisler, J C
This paper presents a brief review of historical developments in women's health care. It describes the current campaign against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and assesses the campaign's success in light of its history and the reality of women's lives. The authors suggest that women are forced into a double-bind in which they are expected to take responsibility for the prevention of STDs although they may not have the ability to do so. Modifications are suggested which take into account gender-role socialization and social group norms.
Cooper, Keith; Shepherd, Jonathan; Picot, Jo; Jones, Jeremy; Kavanagh, Josephine; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff; Price, Alison
Reducing sexually transmitted infections (STI) and teenage pregnancy through effective health education is a high priority for health policy. Behavioral interventions which teach skills to practice safer sex may reduce the incidence of STIs. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of school-based behavioral interventions in young people. We developed an economic model to estimate the total number of STI cases averted, consequent gain in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and savings in medical costs, based on changes in sexual behavior. The parameters for the model were derived from a systematic literature search on the intervention effectiveness, epidemiology of STIs, sexual behavior and lifestyles, HRQoL and health service costs. The costs of providing teacher-led and peer-led behavioral interventions were €5.16 and €18 per pupil, respectively. For a cohort of 1000 boys and 1000 girls aged 15 years, the model estimated that the behavioral interventions would avert two STI cases and save 0.35 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Compared to standard education, the incremental cost-effectiveness of the teacher-led and peer-led interventions was €24,268 and €96,938 per QALY gained, respectively. School-based behavioral interventions which provide information and teach young people sexual health skills can bring about improvements in knowledge and increased self-efficacy, though these may be limited in terms of impact on sexual behavior. There was uncertainty around the results due to the limited effect of the intervention on behavioral outcomes and paucity of data for other input parameters.
Full Text Available Introduction: The passage from childhood to adulthood is the period when health habits and sexual behaviors start to form. Thus, the topics of sexual health and reproductive health should be approached with priority during this period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of students of the medical faculty with respect to sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods.Methods: The questionnaire that contains 23 headings created by the researchers after relevant literature reviews was administered to the third-semester students of the Izmir Katip Celebi University Medical Faculty in face-to-face interviews after obtaining their verbal consent. The study data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 demo software bundle. Conditions in which the p-value was under 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Results: The mean age of the students that participated in the study (n=104 was 21.88 ± 1.9 years of age, 51% (n=53 of the students were female, and 49.0% (n=51 were male. Among the students, 93% stated that they had received education about preventing pregnancy. Two of the most well-known prevention methods by the participants were condoms in 99.0% (n=103 and oral contraceptives in 95.2% (n=99. The rate of correct answers given about all of the risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (sex workers, polygamy, homosexuality, being sexually active, substance addiction was 22.1% (n=23.Conclusion: Identifying the level of knowledge in the youth about STDs in early periods, determining the services they require, cooperating with related institutions to review the adequacy of information online, and educating youth about STDs are important in preventing these diseases and also in the treatment of existing diseases before they lead to more problems.
Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan
Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM.
Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Wong, Fiona; Liljestrand, Jerker
To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union. For this systematic review, we examined interventions that aimed at STI risk reduction and health promotion conducted in schools, clinics, and in the community for reported effectiveness (in changing sexual behavior and/or knowledge) between 1995 and 2005. We also reviewed study design and intervention methodology to discover how these factors affected the results, and we compiled a list of characteristics associated with successful and unsuccessful programs. Studies were eligible if they employed a randomized control design or intervention-only design that examined change over time and measured behavioral, biologic, or certain psychosocial outcomes. Of the 19 studies that satisfied our review criteria, 11 reported improvements in the sexual health knowledge and/or attitudes of young people. Ten of the 19 studies aimed to change sexual risk behavior and 3 studies reported a significant reduction in a specific aspect of sexual risk behavior. Two of the interventions that led to behavioral change were peer-led and the other was teacher-led. Only 1 of the 8 randomized controlled trials reported any statistically significant change in sexual behavior, and then only for young females. The young people studied were more accepting of peer-led than teacher-led interventions. Peer-led interventions were also more successful in improving sexual knowledge, though there was no clear difference in their effectiveness in changing behavior. The improvement in sexual health knowledge does not necessarily lead to behavioral change. While knowledge may help improve health-seeking behavior, additional interventions are needed to reduce STIs among young people.
Steiner, Riley J; Liddon, Nicole; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rasberry, Catherine N; Sales, Jessica M
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), specifically intrauterine devices and implants, offers an unprecedented opportunity to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents because it is highly effective even with typical use. However, adolescent LARC users may be less likely to use condoms for preventing sexually transmitted infections compared with users of moderately effective contraceptive methods (ie, oral, Depo-Provera injection, patch, and ring contraceptives). To compare condom use between sexually active female LARC users and users of moderately effective contraceptive methods. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of US high school students in grades 9 through 12. Descriptive analyses were conducted among sexually active female students (n = 2288); logistic regression analyses were restricted to sexually active female users of LARC and moderately effective contraception (n = 619). The analyses were conducted in July and August 2015. Contraceptive method at last sexual intercourse was assessed by 1 item-respondents could select birth control pills; condoms; an intrauterine device or implant; injection, patch, or ring; withdrawal or other method; or not sure. A separate item asked whether respondents used a condom at last sexual intercourse. We created an indicator variable to distinguish those reporting use of (1) LARC (intrauterine device or implant), (2) oral contraceptives, and (3) Depo-Provera, patch, or ring. Among the 2288 sexually active female participants (56.7% white; 33.6% in 12th grade), 1.8% used LARC; 5.7% used Depo-Provera, patch, or ring; 22.4% used oral contraceptives; 40.8% used condoms; 11.8% used withdrawal or other method; 15.7% used no contraceptive method; and 1.9% were not sure. In adjusted analyses, LARC users were about 60% less likely to use condoms compared with oral contraceptive users (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 0.42; 95
Routh, H B; Mirensky, Y M; Parish, L C; Witkowski, J A
Although Sarcoptes scabii and Phthirus pubis infestations in humans are not always associated with the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, usually they are. Therefore, patients presenting with scabies or P. pubis should be routinely tested for various sexually transmitted diseases. These very uncomfortable infestations are easily curable with proper therapy. Lindane 1% preparations effectively exterminate both vermin. We have not seen any resistant strains. Especially with P. pubis, all household contacts should be treated to avoid reinfestation.
Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Almeida, Paulo César de; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida
to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. validar texto educativo no contexto das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis para pessoas com deficiência visual para torná-lo acessível a essa população. estudo de validação, em ambiente virtual. Coleta de dados de maio a setembro de 2012, por meio da utilização dos e-mails eletrônicos dos sujeitos, compostos por sete especialistas em conteúdo na temática, através de instrumento próprio. Análise ocorreu com base nas considerações dos especialistas sobre os Objetivos, Estrutura e Apresentação e Relevância. nos blocos de Objetivos e Estrutura e Apresentação, 77 (84,6%) e 48 (85,7%) eram totalmente adequados ou adequados, respectivamente. No bloco de Relevância, os itens 3.2 - Permite transferência e generalização da aprendizagem, e 3.5 - Mostra aspectos necessários para informar a família, revelaram índices de concordância ruins de 0,42 e 0,57, respectivamente. Após a análise, o texto foi
Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (diseases) has been already increasing again for more than one decade; the world number of 125-340 millions of new cases a year is estimated. Fifteen thousands of new HIV-positive persons daily present a substantial contribution to the total amount. Besides an increasing number of unplanned pregnancies, the huge spreading of sexually transmitted infections predominantly of the second generation is the main reason for a renewed interest in search of local contraceptives, i.e. spermicides. An urgent need for a new, non-detergent, synthetic or natural spermicide emerged to replace the traditional nonoxynol-9. New preparation of microbicidal spermicide should offer dual protection against both unplanned conception and sexually transmitted infections.
Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Fulton, John
Although sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global health problem affecting every region of the world, the higher prevalence and mortality rate of STIs in developing countries of the world, like Nigeria, make them serious public health issues in this region. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and perception of young adults in Nigeria on the role of condom (both male and female condoms) as a preventive measure against STIs during heterosexual and homosexual intercourse. Data was collected from participants selected from the northern and southern Nigeria using self-administered questionnaire specifically designed for this study. Knowledge of condom efficacy in STI prevention was satisfactory. However, knowledge and practice of the correct use of condom was poor. Only 47.1% of the 102 participants in this study reported correct condom use of wearing condoms before staring intercourse and removing condoms after ejaculation. As a strategy to include the experiences, knowledge and perception of men who have sex with men, this study asked the question on condom use during anal sex. Only 24.4% of the male participants indicated they have never had anal sex while for females, the percentage was more than half (53.5%). Condom use during anal sex was low with only 20.6% of participants reporting condom use during anal sex. Negative perceptions about condom use - such as that condom use promotes sexual promiscuity, and not using condoms with steady sexual partners - were significant in this study. Also, condom use errors were common in this study. There is a wide gap in knowledge of correct condom use in this population. There is need for interventions that address the issue of condom use during anal and same-sex sexual intercourse in this population.
Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Efficacious behavioral interventions and practices have not been universally accepted, adopted, or diffused by policy makers, administrators, providers, advocates, or consumers. Biomedical innovations for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV prevention have been embraced but their effectiveness is hindered by behavioral factors. Behavioral interventions are required to support providers and consumers for adoption and diffusion of biomedical innovations, protocol adherence, and sustained prevention for other STDs. Information and communication technology such as the Internet and mobile phones can deliver behavioral components for STD/HIV prevention and care to more people at less cost. Recent innovations in STD/HIV prevention with information and communication technology-mediated behavioral supports include STD/HIV testing and partner interventions, behavioral interventions, self-management, and provider care. Computer-based and Internet-based behavioral STD/HIV interventions have demonstrated efficacy comparable to face-to-face interventions. Mobile phone STD/HIV interventions using text-messaging are being broadly utilized but more work is needed to demonstrate efficacy. Electronic health records and care management systems can improve care, but interventions are needed to support adoption. Information and communication technology is rapidly diffusing globally. Over the next 5-10 years smart-phones will be broadly disseminated, connecting billions of people to the Internet and enabling lower cost, highly engaging, and ubiquitous STD/HIV prevention and treatment support interventions.
Friedman, Allison L; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Kachur, Rachel E; Ford, Jessie; Hogben, Matthew; Habel, Melissa A; Kantor, Leslie M; Clark, Elizabeth; Sabatini, Jamie; McFarlane, Mary
Youth in the United States bear a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Stigma, misconceptions, and access challenges keep many from getting tested or treated. The GYT: Get Yourself Tested campaign was launched in 2009 to reduce stigma and promote STD communication and testing. This evaluation sought to assess the first 2 years of campaign engagement and associations with STD testing among youth. Campaign engagement with select GYT on-the-ground events, social media sites, and STD testing locator tools was measured through process/media tracking metrics. Sexually transmitted disease testing patterns were assessed using data from Planned Parenthood affiliates (2008-2010) and national trend data from clinics participating in national infertility prevention activities (2003-2010). On-the-ground events reached an estimated 20,000 youth in 2009 and 52,000 youth in 2010. Across 2009 to 2010, GYT's Facebook page gained 4477 fans, Twitter feed gained 1994 followers, and more than 140,000 referrals were made to the STD testing locator. From April 2008 to 2010, there was a 71% increase in STD testing and a 41% increase in chlamydia testing at reporting Planned Parenthood affiliates (representing ∼118 health centers). Chlamydia case positivity rates during this period were stable at 6.6% (2008) and 7.3% (2010). Trend data indicate that testing was higher in spring 2009 and 2010 compared with other periods during those years; this pattern is commensurate with STD Awareness Month/GYT activities. Data quality is limited in a manner similar to many STD prevention efforts. Within these limitations, evidence suggests that GYT reaches youth and is associated with increased STD testing.
Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T
... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...
Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T
... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...
Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools' curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before ...
Background: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developed and developing countries. Insufficient knowledge about STDs is a major impediment to successfully prevent the diseases among adolescent populations in developing countries. Objective: To ...
Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary
Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.
Esser, Stefan; Krotzek, Judith; Dirks, Henrike; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schadendorf, Dirk
Rising incidence rates of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections) among MSM (men who have sex with men) in Germany since 2001 call for new approaches in medical prevention. The present study addresses appropriate parameters to identify those HIV-positive MSM who are at high risk for transmitting HIV and STIs. Over a two-year period, 223 HIV-positive MSM attending the HIV outpatient clinic at the University Medical Center Essen (Germany) were systematically surveyed with respect to their sexual behavior, substance abuse, and psychological well-being in the preceding year. Data analyzed included laboratory and clinical data from the time of the initial HIV diagnosis until January 2014. In HIV-positive MSM, a history of substance abuse, promiscuity, younger age, and known STIs was associated with a greater incidence of unprotected sexual intercourse and STIs. Apart from a detectable viral load, additional HIV-specific parameters associated with an increased HIV transmission risk included untreated HIV infection, adherence problems, changes in antiretroviral treatment over the preceding twelve months, known multiresistant HIV infection, and a higher CD 4 nadir. Despite routine quarterly monitoring of viral loads - the result thereof was communicated to patients - only 60 % of individuals assessed their HIV transmission risk correctly. In HIV-positive MSM, patient history and routine laboratory tests allow for the establishment of patient profiles that suggest sexual behavior associated with a high risk of HIV and STI transmission, thus offering new approaches for medical prevention. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Until recently, teen pregnancy and birth rates had declined in the United States. Despite these declines, U.S. teen birth and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates remain among the highest in the industrialized world. Given the need to focus limited prevention resources on effective programs, Advocates for Youth undertook exhaustive reviews…
K. I. Nikolaeva
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a survey held among orphaned children and children without parental care with regard to the prevention of sexually transmitted infections as well as results showing the efficacy of awareness-raising workshops regarding reproductive health.
Tschann, Mary; Salcedo, Jennifer; Soon, Reni; Elia, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss
To assess the values and beliefs regarding sexual behavior, sexual decision-making, and reproductive health learning preferences among teens in Hawaii. Survey regarding teens' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sexual behaviors and preferences for learning about reproductive health. University of Hawaii Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology clinics in Honolulu, Hawaii. Female patients and their male or female companions ages 14-19 years. A 30-question anonymous survey. The main outcome was to describe the norms, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of teens in this setting with regard to sexual health and sexual health education. For this, we provide a description of response frequencies and a comparison of mean scores across demographic characteristics. We analyzed a total of 100 surveys. Teens endorsed more values and norms protective against sexually transmitted infection than those protective against pregnancy. Younger teens expressed more protective values as a result of the influence of perceived parental values, whereas older teens expressed less protective values on the basis of the influence of peers. Respondents expressed comfort talking with their clinician about sexual health, and also expressed a slight preference that their clinicians initiate these conversations. The influence of parental values and peer norms on sexual behavior must be taken into consideration when designing interventions to address adolescent sexual health. Additionally, teens' greater concern about the consequences of sexually transmitted infection could be leveraged by clinicians to initiate broader conversations about sexual health, and a variety of modalities, including online resources and in-person conversations, should be used to meet the diversity of preferences expressed by teens across demographic groups. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Margolis, Stephen; Kaetz, Susan
A nationwide network of clinics to educate health care providers about clinical aspects of sexually transmitted diseases has succeeded and led to development of a 13-clinic network for training in the clinical, epidemiological, psychological, and social aspects of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), drawing on the earlier clinic…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.
Tobian, Aaron A R; Kacker, Seema; Quinn, Thomas C
Randomized trials have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces heterosexual acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital ulcer disease among men, and it reduces HPV, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis among female partners. The pathophysiology behind these effects is multifactorial, relying on anatomic and cellular changes. MC is cost effective and potentially cost saving in both the United States and Africa. The World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS proposed reaching 80% MC coverage in HIV endemic countries, but current rates fall far behind targets. Barriers to scale-up include supply-side and demand-side challenges. In the United States, neonatal MC rates are decreasing, but the American Academy of Pediatrics now recognizes the medical benefits of MC and supports insurance coverage. Although MC is a globally valuable tool to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is underutilized. Further research is needed to address barriers to MC uptake.
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections affect persons of active sex and cause serious consequences for the human organism, society and the generation. They spread sporadically, epidemically, and in some of them there are pandemics. For example, humanity is currently in a third viral hepatitis pandemic and a first AIDS pandemic. Another group of diseases can also be transmitted through sexual contact, but this is not the main mode of transmission. Such are salmonellosis, amoebiasis, influenza, various causes of meningitis and pneumonia. Despite being sexually transmitted, this is not a major and almost irrelevant way of transmitting the infection. Therefore, the diseases themselves are not included in the group of sexually transmitted diseases.
An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies
Marcia Elizabeth Sutherland
Full Text Available Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in children are not uncommon in India, though systematic epidemiological studies to determine the exact prevalence are not available. STDs in children can be acquired via sexual route or, uncommonly, via non-sexual route such as accidental inoculation by a diseased individual. Neonatal infections are almost always acquired intrauterine or during delivery. Voluntary indulgence in sexual activity is also an important factor in acquisition of STDs in childhood. Sexual abuse and sex trafficking remain the important problems in India. Surveys indicate that nearly half of the children are sexually abused. Most at risk children are street-based, homeless or those living in or near brothels. Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Other bacterial STDs are also on decline. On the other hand, viral STDs such as genital herpes and anogenital warts are increasing. This reflects trends of STDs in the adult population. Concomitant HIV infection is uncommon in children. Comprehensive sex education, stringent laws to prevent sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, and antenatal screening of all the women can reduce the prevalence of STDs in children.
Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S
Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.
Maria Rita Teixeira Dutra
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n = 2145. More than one quarter of the sample (25.8% reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions.
Using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework, this study examined university students who may seek access to healthcare through an on-campus student clinic for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from students enrolled in a general health education…
Adolescents and young adults are highly impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy in the United States and globally. Consistent and correct use of male latex condoms is associated with protection against both STIs and pregnancy. Providing adolescents and young adults with access to free condoms in schools may increase the use of condoms by improving condom availability, eliminating cost, and decreasing embarrassment associated with purchasing condoms. Studies demonstrate that condom availability in schools is associated with the increased use of condoms and improved overall sexual health. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages schools to make condoms available to students as part of efforts to decrease rates of STIs and unplanned pregnancy in adolescents and young adults. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages health care providers to advocate for and support the availability of condoms in local schools. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kojima, Noah; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Gowda, Savitha; Jaykrishna, Poornima; Leonardson-Placek, Caitlyn; Siddhaiah, Anand; Bristow, Claire C; Arun, Anjali; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Madhivanan, Purnima
In rural India, mobile medical clinics are useful models for delivering health promotion, education, and care. Mobile medical clinics use fewer providers for larger catchment areas compared to traditional clinic models in resource limited settings, which is especially useful in areas with shortages of healthcare providers and a wide geographical distribution of patients. From 2008 to 2011, we built infrastructure to implement a mobile clinic system to educate rural communities about maternal child health, train community health workers in common safe birthing procedures, and provide comprehensive antenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and testing for specific infections in a large rural catchment area of pregnant women in rural Mysore. This was done using two mobile clinics and one walk-in clinic. Women were tested for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis along with random blood sugar, urine albumin, and anemia. Sociodemographic information, medical, and obstetric history were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires in the local language, Kannada. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using Stata SE 14.1. During the program period, nearly 700 community workers and 100 health care providers were trained; educational sessions were delivered to over 15,000 men and women and integrated antenatal care and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing was offered to 3545 pregnant women. There were 22 (0.6%) cases of HIV, 19 (0.5%) cases of hepatitis B, 2 (0.1%) cases of syphilis, and 250 (7.1%) cases of BV, which were identified and treated. Additionally, 1755 (49.5%) cases of moderate to severe anemia and 154 (4.3%) cases of hypertension were identified and treated among the pregnant women tested. Patient-centered mobile medical clinics are feasible, successful, and acceptable models that can be used to provide quality healthcare to pregnant women in rural and
Full Text Available
Background: An educational intervention on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs accompanied by a multimedia exhibition was proposed in order to verify the effectiveness of an exhibition as a tool for prevention, to increase awareness in youth and to evaluate whether it yielded changes in the sexual behaviour of its’ visitors. The Target population were high schools and university students.
Methods: The Exhibition consisted of a historical overview and four other sections: biological and clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention and a section called the Red Zone with clear and explicit images relating to STDs. The exhibition was supported by three observational studies carried out on about2000 students of two High Schools and the university in the city of Cassino, Italy. Data collection took place through three different types of “ad hoc” questionnaires. The Statistical analysis carried out was that typical of cross-sectional surveys. We utilized the statistical program Epi-Info 3.5.
Results: Regarding survey 1, 48% of 529 students taking part said that the exhibition had contributed “enough” for them to acquire new knowledge, 75.2% had already had sexual intercourse and 37.7% of them did not change their sexual habits. Relative to survey 2, 583 responded to the pre test and 403 posttests returned. Regarding knowledge, data obtained from processing of pre-tests showed how 63.9% of the sample did not know how many STDs existed, whilst this value dropped in post test answers to 49.2% . AIDS was the best known disease (96% whilst other STDs were little known. The educational intervention partly increased these percentages. With regard to sexual practices although 43% of the sample claimed to have already had sexual intercourse (66% male and 34% female. The family doctor is seen by a high percentage of young people (70% - 68.6% as the first figure which should address an
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major public health problem in Zimbabwe. In Zvishavane, STI increased from 66 per 1,000 in 2002 to 97 per 1,000 in 2005, a 31% increase in cases. Objective: To determine the factors associated with contracting sexually transmitted infections (STI) among ...
research projects in the areas of tuberculosis,. HIV/AIDS, immunisation and STIs. Infections by organisms other than HIV that are transmitted by sexual contact are referred to as classic sexually transmitted infections (STIs). SYNDROMIC MANAGEMENT. 62 CME February 2005 Vol.23 No.2. SYNDROMIC MANAGEMENT OF.
Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T
The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.
fore a now recognized mode of transmission – sexual contact. This in turn has led to giardiasis being classified as a sexually transmitted disease by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. This review identifies its occurrence mainly in homosexual populations of the developed world ...
Workowski, Kimberly A.; Bolan, Gail A.
Summary These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30–May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR–12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815
Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T
.... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...
... can increase the risk of acquiring gonorrhea, social determinants of health, such as socioeconomic status, may contribute to the ... Kaufman JS, Fitch M, et al. Are neighborhood sociocultural factors influencing ... Social Health Association. Sexually transmitted diseases in America: how many ...
Crombie, Fionnella S.S.
The family physician plays an important role in controlling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Accurate identification, diagnosis and treatment are essential in exercising this control. In addition, attention must be paid to educating patients and to treating their sexual contacts. This paper will review the management of some of the more common diseases including urethritis, vaginitis, cervicitis, herpes, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum.
Background: The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is a major concern to the World Health Organization. (WHO). Objective: To ..... sexual intercourse in Chiawa, rural Zambia. Social. Science and Medicine 1997; 44: 1211–1220. 3. Brooke SMD. Gait and balance disorders in older adults. American Family ...
Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S
HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) began when both data on HIV prevalence and the toolbox of interventions for prevention of sexual transmission were relatively limited. PEPFAR's early focus was on scaling-up information, education, and communication programs that included messaging on abstinence for youth and faithfulness primarily through nongovernmental organizations, including faith-based organizations. Additional activities included condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing. In epidemics concentrated within key populations, PEPFAR's prevention efforts focused on a minimum package of services including outreach, information, education, and communication programs, STI treatment (where appropriate), and condom promotion and distribution. As more epidemiological data became available and with experience gleaned in these early efforts, the need for tailored and flexible approaches became evident. The next iteration of prevention efforts still emphasized behavioral interventions, but incorporated a sharper focus on key epidemic drivers, especially multiple partners; a data-driven emphasis on high transmission areas and populations, including prevention with people living with HIV; and a more strategic and coordinated approach at the national level. Recently, the paradigm for prevention efforts has shifted yet again. Evidence that biomedical interventions such as male circumcision, treatment for prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission, and treatment itself could lead to declines in incidence has refocused PEPFAR's prevention portfolio. New guidance on sexually transmitted HIV focuses on combination prevention, emphasizing biomedical, behavioral and structural approaches. Landmark speeches by the President and the Secretary of State and new ambitious targets for PEPFAR point toward a new goal: an AIDS-free generation.
Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R
Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.
Celentano, David D; Mayer, Kenneth H; Pequegnat, Willo; Abdala, Nadia; Green, Annette M; Handsfield, H Hunter; Hartwell, Tyler D
This cross-sectional study describes the baseline prevalence and correlates of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risk behaviors among individuals at high risk for HIV recruited in five low- and middle-income countries. Correlations of risk behaviors and demographic factors with prevalent STDs and the association of STDs with HIV prevalence are examined. Between 2,212 and 5,543 participants were recruited in each of five countries (China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe). Standard protocols were used to collect behavioral risk information and biological samples for STD testing. Risk factors for HIV/STD prevalence were evaluated using logistic regression models. STD prevalence was significantly higher for women than men in all countries, and the most prevalent STD was Herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2). HIV prevalence was generally low (below 5%) except in Zimbabwe (30% among women, 11.7% among men). Prevalence of bacterial STDs was generally low (below 5% for gonorrhea and under 7% for syphilis in all sites), with the exception of syphilis among female sex workers in India. Behavioral and demographic risks for STDs varied widely across the five study sites. Common risks for STDs included female gender, increasing number of recent sex partners, and in some sites, older age, particularly for chronic STDs (i.e., HSV-2 and HIV). Prevalence of HIV was not associated with STDs except in Zimbabwe, which showed a modest correlation between HIV and HSV-2 prevalence (Pearson coefficient = .55). These findings underscore the heterogeneity of global STD and HIV epidemics and suggest that local, focused interventions are needed to achieve significant declines in these infections.
Conclusion: The level of knowledge about STDs and their prevention is not matched by sexual behavioural patterns, and male students undertake more risky sexual behaviour. Sexual education should be introduced at the university as a means of increasing students' awareness about the problem and prevention of ...
Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usually viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.
Gilliam, Melissa; Chor, Julie; Hill, Brandon
Digital media, including the Internet, social networking sites, text messaging, and mobile applications, are ubiquitous among adolescents and young adults. These platforms enable users to obtain important information on a multitude of health topics, they may facilitate risk-taking behaviors, and they can be key components of health interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature on digital media and sexually transmitted infections, discussing their role in potentiating and reducing risk. This review demonstrates adolescents' use of digital media to gather information on health topics and discusses significant privacy concerns regarding using media to explore sexual health information. Although several studies demonstrate an association between social media and increased sexual risk-taking behaviors, this relationship is not fully understood. Digital media-based interventions are increasingly being developed to either reduce risk or improve management of sexually transmitted infections. As greater numbers of adolescents use digital media, the potential for these platforms to influence sexual risk-taking behaviors is significant. Additional research is needed to better understand the impact of digital media on sexually transmitted infection risk and to develop social media-based interventions to improve sexually transmitted infection outcomes.
Mayer, Kenneth H; Bush, Timothy; Henry, Keith; Overton, Edgar T; Hammer, John; Richardson, Jean; Wood, Kathy; Conley, Lois; Papp, John; Caliendo, Angela M; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T
To better understand the factors associated with HIV- and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care. We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN Study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected adults in primary care in 4 US cities. At enrollment and 6 months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal, and pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for Trichomonas vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD 6 months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in men who have sex with men. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ≥4 sex partners in the 6 months before testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD. STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active men who have sex with men who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care.
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Full Text Available The data from Board of Health in Surakarta City, on 8 September 2005, from 155 commercial sex worker woman had blood examined, there were 7 persons positive in HIV. One of factor affecting the high infection HIV/AIDS in women commercial sex worker was low use of condom. Aims of this research was to know factor-factor associated with didn’t use of condom and social aspect negotiations about using condom (education, economics status, working experience, devilling place, occupation, ethnic, religious, and income. This research is qualitative research using guided group discussion technique, in-depth interview, and participatory observation. Subject for this research were 30 persons, consist of 25 commercial sex worker, 3 guest, 1 room owner, and 1 parent. Independent variables in this research are social economics characteristic, demography and community characteristics. Dependent variables as PPSK capability in condom using negotiating to prevent sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. Commonly, despite knowing that everyone, including themselves, is vulnerable to AIDS infection, the respondents ignore asking the guest/partners for condom use. Most of them don’t ask for condom use due to their fear of either being the target of the guest anger and bad words, or losing money from them. Women commercial sex worker Silir in using condom and prevent sexual transmitted disease had free education from Board of Health in Surakarta City. In the street prostitutes are low support from peer, room owner, hotel owner, or guest about using condom for women commercial sex worker in illegal place, caused women commercial sex worker in the street more potential and high risk to spread sexual transmitted diseases than they were operated in Silir. The low capability of the street prostitutes for negotiating condom use with the guest customers results from: misperception on "safe-sex" behavior for seeking "help", economic and psychology pressure, free and
Lindberg, Claire E
To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.
Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, especially the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial infection, a common cause of infertility, are highly prevalent in developed countries, and a worrying problem in North Norway, where the incidence of chlamydia twice the Norwegian average. Seventy percent of reported chlamydia cases are found in people below 25 years of age, and although its spread could be controlled with proper prevention, young people are more aware of the risks of unwanted pregnancy than their risk of acquiring a STD. Information and Communication Technologies, including, the Internet, social media and/or smartphones, should be valued for sexual health promotion for their potential to engage young audiences. And in these media, avatars guarantee anonymity to users when handling sensitive information. The main objective of this project is to achieve that North Norwegian youngsters become more aware of STDs through the use of popular technologies among young people. Methods A Virtual Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (VCSTD will be developed. The VCSTD will provide early guidance and reliable information sources concerning reproductive health, delivered in a novel and innovative way to the younger population. The VCSTD consists of an “avatar” supported intervention in a serious gaming and e-learning environment, which will bypass direct physical access (in person to reliable medical information, as well as allowing the youngsters to share that information in social media, and thus helping the VCSTD to be disseminated to more people. Data analyses will be conducted on publically available health data relevant to STDs in Troms and Finnmark, like the absolute number of chlamydia tests, the amount of emergency contraception medication sold, and the number of abortions. Also, usage data of the system and experiences of usefulness will be explored through participants’ voluntary responses to a feedback form available
Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa
Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…
Sexually transmitted infections (STls) remain cosmopolitan in all societies of the world and in some cases assume epidemic proportions. These infections are common infectious diseases nowadays, with an annual incidence of more than 200 million cases a year. Venereal pathogens continue to increase in number and the ...
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infectious diseases in the world today. There are few reliable statistics on the true prevalence of STIs in developing countries, especially in the general practice setting, hence the need to determine the prevalence in each locality. With the ...
Factores psicosociales y culturales en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual Psychosocial and cultural factors in the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases
Full Text Available El artículo trata de las dimensiones psicosociales y culturales de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Sobre la base de resultados de una investigación cualitativa realizada entre hombres y mujeres de sectores populares (jóvenes y adultos en el Gran Buenos Aires, la autora discute cómo las nociones legas acerca de las ETS (sus síntomas, vías de transmisión, consecuencias y las normas culturales sobre el comportamiento sexual y las relaciones de género afectan la habilidad de las personas para considerarse en riesgo y/o adoptar conductas de prevención. También se discuten las implicancias de estos hallazgos en términos de estrategias apropiadas para promover conductas de cuidado de la salud sexual y reproductiva.The article deals with the psychosocial and cultural dimensions of sexually transmitted diseases. Based on results from a qualitative study with lower-class males and females (young and adult from a neighbourhood in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the author discusses how lay beliefs (about symptoms, transmission, consequences and norms regarding sexual matters and gender relations affect people's ability to consider themselves at risk and/or adopt preventive behaviors. Implications of research results for the design of culturally appropriate strategies to promote sexual and reproductive health are also provided.
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Manaseri, Holly; Uehara, Denise; Roberts, Kelly
The overall extent of evidence-based culturally responsive health education programs targeting ethnic minority groups in Hawai'i is limited. The few that do exist were adapted from models developed with other majority ethnic groups in mind and may not always be appropriate for Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander youth (Okamoto et al. in J Alcohol Drug Educ 54(1):56-75, 2010; Helm and Baker in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 20(2):131-149, 2011; Po'a-Kekuawela et al. in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 18(3):242-258, 2009). The need for a culturally responsive, evidence-based health curriculum is clear considering the large disparities reported among Hawaiian youth in health, academic achievement, and other identified risk factors. School-based health interventions are an opportunity not only to improve the physical well being of students, but also to increase their ability to learn and succeed in school. The University of Hawai'i at Manoa-Center on Disability Studies (UH-CDS) received a highly competitive grant from the US Office of Adolescent Health to develop a teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention curriculum for Hawai'i middle school youth. The authors will detail a collaborative process that led to a culturally responsive sexual health curriculum for middle school youth designed to meet the rigorous standards of an evidenced-based review and more importantly reduce teen pregnancies and STI transmission.
Daley, Alison Moriarty
This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.
Bouris, Alida; Jaccard, James; McCoy, Wanda; Aranda, Diane; Pickard, Angela; Boyer, Cherrie B.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a parent-based intervention in a pediatric health clinic to prevent HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unintended pregnancies among urban African American and Latino youth. Eight focus groups were conducted with health care providers, adolescent patients and the mothers of adolescent patients (n = 41) from December 2007 to February 2008. All participants were recruited from a community-based pediatric health clinic in the Bronx, New York. Content analysis of focus group transcripts identified results in three primary areas: (1) the role of parents and providers in preventing HIV, STDs and unintended pregnancies among adolescents, (2) feasibility of the intervention in the clinic setting; and (3) optimal recruitment, retention and intervention delivery strategies. Study results suggest that a parent-based intervention delivered in a community-based pediatric health clinic setting is feasible. Focused recommendations for intervention recruitment, delivery, and retention are provided. PMID:20565322
Until recently, teen pregnancy and birth rates had declined steadily in the United States in recent years. Despite these declines, the United States has the highest teen birth rate and one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among all industrialized nations. To help young people reduce their risk for pregnancy and STIs,…
Williams, Austin; Chesson, Harrell
We examined changes in federal STD funding allocations to areas with high racial/ethnic disparities in STDs following the implementation of a funding formula in 2014. The funding formula increased prevention funding allocations to areas with high relative racial/ethnic disparities. Results were mixed for areas with high absolute disparities.
Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore
This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.
Stephens, Torrance T; Gardner, Darius; Jones, Keena; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Braithwaite, Ronald; Smith, Selina E
This study was designed to identify the extent to which self-reported Mandrax use impacts condom-use beliefs amongst South African prison inmates. Participants were inmates from four prisons in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga. In total, 357 inmates participated in the parent study of which 121 are included in this analysis based on their self-reported use of Mandrax. The questionnaire was developed in English, translated into Zulu, and back translated into English. Age significantly predicted the use of Mandrax: younger prison inmates reported higher use. Linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the use of Mandrax was associated with length of incarceration and other demographic variables, as well as participants' self-reported condom use beliefs behavior. Regression results indicated that two factors operationalizing condom-use beliefs were impacted by Mandrax use: 1) it is important to use condoms every time you have sex (pcondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV (puse. STI prevention programs among prison inmates that seek to promote safer sex behaviors among men must address attitudes to condom use, specifically consistent and correct use of latex condoms and reducing substance misuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Toskin, Igor; Murtagh, Maurine; Peeling, Rosanna W; Blondeel, Karel; Cordero, Joanna; Kiarie, James
Advancing the field of point-of-care testing (POCT) for STIs can rapidly and substantially improve STI control and prevention by providing targeted, essential STI services (case detection and screening). POCT enables definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment in a single visit and home and community-based testing. Since 2014, the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with technical partners, has completed four landscape analyses of promising diagnostics for use at or near the point of patient care to detect syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Chlamydia trachomatis , Trichomonas vaginalis and the human papillomavirus. The analyses comprised a literature review and interviews. Two International Technical Consultations on STI POCTs (2014 and 2015) resulted in the development of target product profiles (TPP). Experts in STI microbiology, laboratory diagnostics, clinical management, public health and epidemiology participated in the consultations with representation from all WHO regions. The landscape analysis identified diagnostic tests that are either available on the market, to be released in the near future or in the pipeline. The TPPs specify 28 analytical and operational characteristics of POCTs for use in different populations for surveillance, screening and case management. None of the tests that were identified in the landscape analysis met all of the targets of the TPPs. More efforts of the global health community are needed to accelerate access to affordable quality-assured STI POCTs, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, by supporting the development of new diagnostic platforms as well as strengthening the validation and implementation of existing diagnostics according to internationally endorsed standards and the best available evidence. © World Health Organization 2017. Licensee BMJ Publishing Group Limited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution IGO
Pérez-Morente, María Ángeles; Cano-Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Ocón, María Teresa; Castro-López, Esperanza; Jiménez-Bautista, Francisco; Hueso-Montoro, César
Describing determinants factors in Sexually Transmitted Diseases is necessary to evaluate and design effective measures for prevention and treatment. The aim of this research was to determine the sexual risk factors of people who are treated at Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre and to analyze differences based on gender. Cross-sectional study on 496 clinical reports, period of time 2010 to 2014, of people who come to the Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation Centre of Granada, for suspected of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sociodemographic, clinical and sexual patterns data were collected. Calculation of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test to compare proportions were performed. 56% men and 44% women. The mean age was 29,01 years (SD=9,07). Most of the sample were single (85,9%). 54,2% had a higher education level. The most prevalent infections were the Human Papilloma-virus (18,8%), followed Molluscum contagiosum (5,6%) and Candidiasis (3,8%). Significant differences were found by sex with sexual behavior, there are more gay men (n=89) and bisexual (n=22) than women (n=4, n=7, respectively) (p smaller than 0,001); differences between sex and sexual life were also found, finding higher prevalence of men with 10-20 couples (n=23) and more than 20 couples (n=20) than women (n=10, n=4, respectively). The user profile is a young, single, with higher education. The most prevalent infection is the Human Papillomavirus. Men are a vulnerable population for contracting sexually transmitted diseases because of their sexual practices.
Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND As on 2015 Human immunodeficiency virus estimations in India, people living with HIV are 21.17 lakhs, women with HIV constituting 2/5th of the total. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and malignancy are more in HIV infected people. Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers among Indian women. HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections, Human Papilloma Virus infection in particular act synergistic in predisposing to cervical neoplasia. Undetected cervical cancer may increase the mortality of HIV infected women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case control study done at STI clinic of tertiary hospital of South India involving 100 HIV infected women and 50 HIV uninfected women as control. STI screening and cervical cytology was done for both the group. RESULTS Sociodemographic profile was similar for both the groups pertaining to Age, Occupation, Literacy. 80% of women in study group and control group were married and monogamous. 34% of HIV infected women had early sexual debut because of early marriage (P value .006. 86% of HIV infected and 40% of HIV uninfected women had sexually transmitted infections. (P value .000.Abnormal cervical cytology was found more in HIV infected women. Inflammatory smear was found in 65% of HIV infected women and in 42% of HIV uninfected women. Epithelial cell abnormalities were found in 25% of HIV infected women and in 2% of control group. High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was found in 4% of study group and none in control group. CONCLUSION Prevalence of STI and abnormal cervical cytology are more common in HIV infected women. Sexually transmitted infections, HIV and HPV in particular, are the proven risk factors of cervical malignancy .So prevention of cervical cancer lies in controlling STI and preventing HPV infection by early vaccination. Screening for STI and periodic Pap smear screening should be ideally done for all HIV infected women as per NACO guidelines.
first sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. CONCLUSIONS: New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females.
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Sethi, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Samanta, Palash; Sharma, Meera
Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium.
Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J
Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.
Sanders, L L; Harrison, H R; Washington, A E
Tetracycline hydrochloride, 500 mg orally four times a day for seven days, remains the treatment of choice for C trachomatis infections in men and nonpregnant women. Either erythromycin, 500 mg orally four times daily for seven days, or an equivalent dosage of another erythromycin product is an alternative treatment for patients who cannot tolerate tetracycline and for pregnant women. These two treatment regimens can be generalized to include nongonococcal urethritis and mucopurulent cervicitis. However, other treatment regimens that are effective against C trachomatis may not be effective for treating nongonococcal urethritis or mucopurulent cervicitis not caused by C trachomatis. The optimal treatment for pregnant women with C trachomatis infections and women with acute PID has not been established. Additional treatment trials with both groups of patients are needed to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in addition to those currently used, to establish the appropriate dose of each antimicrobial agent, and to clarify the appropriate duration of treatment. All individuals who are sexual partners of patients with nongonococcal urethritis, mucopurulent cervicitis, and acute PID (within the 30 days prior to onset of their symptoms or time of positive clinical evaluation findings) should be examined for sexually transmitted disease and treated promptly with a regimen effective against uncomplicated gonorrhea and chlamydial infections. Prompt treatment of sexual partners reduces the rate of treatment failure due to reinfection, reduces the transmission of infection, and reduces the frequency of occurrence of adverse sequelae of infection.
Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Kainz, Katharina; Madeo, Frank
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly spread via sexual contact. It is estimated that one million STIs are acquired every day worldwide. Besides their impact on sexual, reproductive and neonatal health, they can cause disastrous and life-threatening complications if left untreated. In addition to this personal burden, STIs also represent a socioeconomic problem, deriving in treatment costs of tremendous proportions. Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis, treatment and prevention, the incidence of many common STIs is increasing, and STIs continue to represent a global public health problem and a major cause for morbidity and mortality. With this Special Issue, Microbial Cell provides an in-depth overview of the eight major STIs, covering all relevant features of each infection.
Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry
CONTEXT: Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. EVIDENCE...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...... an association between STDs and male infertility is also of inadequate quality. The data regarding possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: There may be an association between STDs and male infertility of unknown genesis and possibly with different pathogenic mechanisms for different...
Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R.; Peinado, Jesus; Paredes, Andres; Lucchetti, Aldo; Russell, Kevin; Kochel, Tadeusz; Sebastian, Jose L.
Background In the Andean Region, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) are most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), but incidence estimates and associated factors have never been prospectively assessed. Methods A cohort of 1056 high-risk HIV-negative MSM in Lima, Peru, was recruited during 1998–2000 (The ALASKA Cohort) and a nested case-control analysis conducted between seroconverters and non-seroconverters, matched 1:3 by age and duration of follow-up for comparison of risk behaviors, acute retroviral symptoms, circumcision, and STI. Results During average follow-up of 335 days, 34 men seroconverted, providing a HIV incidence estimate of 3.5/100 person-years (95% CI: 2.3–4.7). High syphilis (9.2/100 person-years, 95% CI: 6.7–10.1) and HSV-2 infection (10.4/100 person-years, 95% CI: 8.6–11.9) incidence estimates were obtained. HIV seroconverters were more likely than men who remained seronegative to report fever ≥3 days (46% vs. 7%), to seek medical care (62% vs. 27%), and to have ≥1 casual partner (86.2% vs. 74.1%) since their last visit. HIV seroconverters also were more likely to have acquired syphilis or HSV-2 infection (31% vs. 8% among initially HSV-2 seronegative men) while were less likely to be circumcised (4.2% vs. 20.6%, a non-significant difference). In multivariate analysis, incident syphilis or HSV-2 infection (OR: 5.9, 95% CI 1.5–22.7) and sex with any casual partner (OR: 4.8, 95% CI: 0.9–26.2) were associated with HIV seroconversion. Conclusions STI that may cause anogenital ulcers are important risk factors for HIV acquisition among high-risk MSM in Lima, a population with a very high HIV incidence estimate. Synergistic interventions focusing in preventing both HIV and HSV-2, like male circumcision, are warranted to be assessed, especially in MSM populations with low levels of circumcision and high incidence estimates of ulcerative STI. PMID:19384102
Goldmeier, David; Richardson, Daniel
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the UK continue to increase. A discrepancy between knowledge and awareness of STIs, and sexual behaviour appears to be ubiquitous throughout the world. We hypothesize that human beings are biologically programmed to fall in love and bond in powerful relationships, which, at least in the short term, prevents them from using knowledge and cognitive strategies to prevent STI acquisition. We compare this with obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours seen in obsessive-compulsive disorders. We suggest how romantic love might overwhelm logical thought processes to cause a deterministic and non-logical response to have sex and thus acquire STIs. An understanding of this concept may help us humans to be more insightful and thoughtful about STI acquisition.
Morrison, Charles S.; Chen, Pai-Lien; Kwok, Cynthia; McCormack, Sheena; McGrath, Nuala; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Gottlieb, Sami L.
Background Estimates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence are essential for efforts to prevent and control STIs. Few large STI prevalence studies exist, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa by age, region, and population type. Methods and findings We analyzed individual-level data from 18 HIV prevention studies (cohort studies and randomized controlled trials; conducted during 1993–2011), representing >37,000 women, that tested participants for ≥1 selected STIs or BV at baseline. We used a 2-stage meta-analysis to combine data. After calculating the proportion of participants with each infection and standard error by study, we used a random-effects model to obtain a summary mean prevalence of each infection and 95% confidence interval (CI) across ages, regions, and population types. Despite substantial study heterogeneity for some STIs/populations, several patterns emerged. Across the three primary region/population groups (South Africa community-based, Southern/Eastern Africa community-based, and Eastern Africa higher-risk), prevalence was higher among 15–24-year-old than 25–49-year-old women for all STIs except HSV-2. In general, higher-risk populations had greater prevalence of gonorrhea and syphilis than clinic/community-based populations. For chlamydia, prevalence among 15–24-year-olds was 10.3% (95% CI: 7.4%, 14.1%; I2 = 75.7%) among women specifically recruited from higher-risk settings for HIV in Eastern Africa and was 15.1% (95% CI: 12.7%, 17.8%; I2 = 82.3%) in South African clinic/community-based populations. Among clinic/community-based populations, prevalence was generally greater in South Africa than in Southern/Eastern Africa for most STIs; for gonorrhea, prevalence among 15–24-year-olds was 4.6% (95% CI
Torrone, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Charles S; Chen, Pai-Lien; Kwok, Cynthia; Francis, Suzanna C; Hayes, Richard J; Looker, Katharine J; McCormack, Sheena; McGrath, Nuala; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Low, Nicola; Gottlieb, Sami L
Estimates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence are essential for efforts to prevent and control STIs. Few large STI prevalence studies exist, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa by age, region, and population type. We analyzed individual-level data from 18 HIV prevention studies (cohort studies and randomized controlled trials; conducted during 1993-2011), representing >37,000 women, that tested participants for ≥1 selected STIs or BV at baseline. We used a 2-stage meta-analysis to combine data. After calculating the proportion of participants with each infection and standard error by study, we used a random-effects model to obtain a summary mean prevalence of each infection and 95% confidence interval (CI) across ages, regions, and population types. Despite substantial study heterogeneity for some STIs/populations, several patterns emerged. Across the three primary region/population groups (South Africa community-based, Southern/Eastern Africa community-based, and Eastern Africa higher-risk), prevalence was higher among 15-24-year-old than 25-49-year-old women for all STIs except HSV-2. In general, higher-risk populations had greater prevalence of gonorrhea and syphilis than clinic/community-based populations. For chlamydia, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 10.3% (95% CI: 7.4%, 14.1%; I2 = 75.7%) among women specifically recruited from higher-risk settings for HIV in Eastern Africa and was 15.1% (95% CI: 12.7%, 17.8%; I2 = 82.3%) in South African clinic/community-based populations. Among clinic/community-based populations, prevalence was generally greater in South Africa than in Southern/Eastern Africa for most STIs; for gonorrhea, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.4%; I2 = 82.8%) in South Africa
Sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour among Ghanaian women in Accra. RMK Adanu, AG Hill, JD Seffah, R Darko, JK Anarfi, RB Duda. Abstract. The study was to measure the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms among women in Accra, Ghana, to identify characteristics that ...
The burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections in South Africa in 2000. Leigh Johnson, Debbie Bradshaw, Rob Dorrington. Abstract. Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections (STis) in South Africa, to identify the factors contributing to this burden, and to ...
Those who consumed alcohol were more likely to have contracted in Sexually Transmitted Infections: AOR (95% CI) =0.46 (0.26-0.80). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections was comparable among females and males. Substance use, particularly alcohol consumption, found to be a potential risk ...
de Coul, E L M Op; Warning, T D; Koedijk, F D H
High annual figures of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diagnosed in the Netherlands despite significant efforts to control them. Herein, we analyse trends and determinants of STI diagnoses, co-infections, and sexual risks among visitors of 26 STI clinics between 2007 and 2011. We recorded increased positivity rates of STIs (chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and/or HIV) in women and heterosexual men up to 12.6% and 13.4%, respectively, in 2011, while rates in men having sex with men (MSM) were stable but high (18.8%) through the documented years. Younger age, origin from Surinam/Antilles, history of previous STI, multiple partners, or a previous notification are the identified risk factors for an STI in this population. Known HIV-infected men (MSM and heterosexuals) were at highest risk for co-infections (relative rate heterosexual men: 15.6; MSM: 11.6). STI positivity rates remained high (MSM) or increased over time (women and heterosexual men), a fact that highlights the importance of continuing STI prevention. Most importantly, the very high STI co-infection rates among HIV-positive men requires intensified STI reduction strategies to put an end to the vicious circle of re-infection and spread of HIV and other STIs.
Everett, Bethany G
The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.
Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M
Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.
Hickey, Mary T; Cleland, Chuck
To describe perceived risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual risk behavior among sexually active female college students. An online, anonymous survey was used to collect data from 458 sexually active female students between the ages of 18-24 enrolled at a private, suburban university in the mid-Atlantic region. Most women in this study did not consider themselves at risk for contracting an STI, despite low levels of condom use. Perceiving no risk and never using condoms were both more common among women with just one sex partner. Further investigation of factors contributing to individual risk perception is warranted in order to develop effective prevention programs. Nurses and advanced practice nurses who work with women, particularly at-risk women, should be aware of low levels of risk perception for STIs, despite engaging in risk-taking behaviors. Education regarding strategies to reduce and prevent contracting STIs should be incorporated into encounters with women seeking health care, and in health promotion settings. ©2012 The Author(s) ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Borawski, Elaine A; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S; Hayman, Laura L; Yoder, Laura D; Lovegreen, Loren D
We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and tenth grade students in 10 schools. Twenty-seven facilitators (6 nurses, 21 teachers) provided programming; nurse-led classrooms were randomly assigned. Students taught by teachers were more likely to report their instructor to be prepared, comfortable with the material, and challenged them to think about their health than students taught by a school nurse. Both groups reported significant improvements in HIV/STI/condom knowledge immediately following the intervention, compared to controls. Yet, those taught by school nurses reported significant and sustained changes (up to 12 months after intervention) in attitudes, beliefs, and efficacy, whereas those taught by health education teachers reported far fewer changes, with sustained improvement in condom knowledge only. Both classroom teachers and school nurses are effective in conveying reproductive health information to high school students; however, teaching the technical (eg, condom use) and interpersonal (eg, negotiation) skills needed to reduce high-risk sexual behavior may require a unique set of skills and experiences that health education teachers may not typically have. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Kelencristina T. Romero
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento sobre sexualidade, métodos contraceptivos e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST entre adolescentes do sexo feminino, das zonas rural e urbana, de uma escola pública. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com 506 meninas, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos, da Escola Dr. Roberto Feijó, em Guararema, SP. Utilizou-se questionário semi-estruturado, contendo perguntas gerais sobre sexualidade e métodos de prevenção de gravidez e DST. O teste do Qui-quadrado foi usado para verificar a associação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: A média de idade da população adolescente da escola proveniente da área rural foi 13 anos e 11 meses e da área urbana foi 13 anos e 7 meses, não havendo diferença estatística entre as médias. Trinta e um por cento eram provenientes da zona rural e 69% da urbana. As jovens da zona rural buscaram mais informações sobre a sexualidade (81,2%, comparadas com as da zona urbana (72,2 % (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge about sexuality, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STD by female adolescents from both rural and urban zone attending public school. METHODS: A cross sectional study was made with 506 teenagers, 10 to 16 years old, attending Dr. Roberto Feijó Public School in Guararema, São Paulo. A semi-structured questionnaire with general questions about sexuality, contraceptive methods and STD was administered. The Chi-square test was used to verify the association between variables. RESULTS: Mean age of the girls from the rural zone was13 years and 11 months and from the urban zone age was 13 years and 7 months, with no statistical difference. Of all the girls, 31% came from the rural and 69% from the urban zone. Adolescents from the rural zone looked for more information about sexuality (81.2% when compared to those from the urban zone (72.2 % (p<0.0568. Parents were the main source of information for both zones. The condom was the most familiar
Objective: To identify predictors of recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Design: A cross-sectional interview survey. Setting: STD Clinic, Old Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods: Eligible patients answered questions about their socio-demographic situation; STI symptoms; sexual behaviour; sexual partner referral; ...
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora
Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.
Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.
Wen, Yi; Guan, Jihui; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lin, Chunqing; Detels, Roger
Pharmacies play a special role in providing treatment services for patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. There is a need to study the STD/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge among pharmacy workers in retail pharmacies. A total of 200 pharmacy workers were recruited from 120 randomly selected retail pharmacies in Fuzhou, China. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information of demographics, working experience, pharmacy structure and clientele profile, and pharmacy workers' attitudes toward traditional Chinese folk remedies and their STD/HIV knowledge. Work-related training during the past 6 months, holding pharmacist license, and years of being a pharmacy worker showed significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. Work-related training also significantly associated with provision of consultation. Years of education and medical training, however, failed to show significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. In order to improve service quality and avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment of STD/HIV, on-the-job training or continuous education for pharmacy workers should be required, implemented, and monitored as part of the national effort for STD control and treatment.
Wen, Yi; Guan, Jihui; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lin, Chunqing; Detels, Roger
Background Pharmacies play a special role in providing treatment services for patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. There is a need to study the STD/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge among pharmacy workers in retail pharmacies. Method A total of 200 pharmacy workers were recruited from 120 randomly selected retail pharmacies in Fuzhou, China. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information of demographics, working experience, pharmacy structure and clientele profile, and pharmacy workers’ attitudes toward traditional Chinese folk remedies and their STD/HIV knowledge. Results Work-related training during the past 6 months, holding pharmacist license, and years of being a pharmacy worker showed significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. Work-related training also significantly associated with provision of consultation. Years of education and medical training, however, failed to show significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. Conclusions In order to improve service quality and avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment of STD/HIV, on-the-job training or continuous education for pharmacy workers should be required, implemented, and monitored as part of the national effort for STD control and treatment. PMID:19265742
Kretzschmar, MEE; Heijne, Janneke C M
For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward
Un modelo de prevención primaria de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual y del VIH/sida en adolescentes A model for the primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS among adolescents
los de la población investigada.Objective. To develop, apply, and evaluate an educational model for the primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS that was based on the sexual knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs of adolescents and on their perceptions and behaviors in this area, with the ultimate goal of helping develop educational tools to prevent infection with STDs and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Methods. An STD/HIV/AIDS primary prevention model was applied with adolescent schoolchildren (12 to 15 years old in the canton of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador. Two groups with similar characteristics were formed: the experimental group, with 358 students, and the control group, with 288 students. Schools were selected according to inclusion criteria, and adolescents at each school were chosen at random. A discussion guide was applied with 16 focus groups, and the resulting information was used to prepare a KAP survey. After being validated, the KAP survey was applied to the experimental group and to the control group. A prevention education program geared to students and teachers was implemented with the experimental group. Eight months later a second KAP survey was done with the experimental group and the control group. The differences in KAPs before and after the intervention were evaluated using the chi-square test. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups before the intervention, but afterwards the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.012, with an increase in the knowledge of sexuality and STDs/AIDS in the experimental group, even though the long-term behavior changes have not been evaluated. Conclusions. This study validated a multifactorial STD/AIDS prevention model adapted to the reality of adolescents, and it suggests the possibility of extrapolating this experience more broadly to contexts similar to those of this Ecuador
Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments.
Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kumar, Shiv; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Gowda, Pushpalatha Rama Narayana; Raghunathan, N; Gowda, Chandra Shekhar; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F
The primary objectives of this study were to assess the changing demographic characteristics of female sex workers (FSWs) in the urban Bangalore district, India, and trends in programme coverage, HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevalence rates and condom use. Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural and biological assessments of FSWs were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to describe trends over time. The results indicate the mean age of initiation into sex work has increased (26.9 years in 2006 vs 27.6 years in 2011, pcellphones to solicit clients (4.4% in 2006 vs 57.5% in 2011, p<0.01) and their homes for sex work (61.4% in 2006 vs 77.8% in 2011, p<0.01). Reactive syphilis prevalence declined (12.6% in 2006 to 4% in 2011, p=0.02), as did high-titre syphilis prevalence (9.5% in 2006 to 2.5% in 2011, p=0.01). HIV prevalence declined but not significantly (12.7% in 2006 and 9.3% in 2011, p=0.39). Condom use remained above 90% increasing significantly among repeat (paying) clients (66.6% in 2006 to 93.6% in 2011, p<0.01). However, condom use remained low with non-paying partners when compared with occasional paying partners (17.6% vs 97.2% in 2011, p<0.01). Given the changing dynamics in the FSW population at multiple levels, there is a need to develop and customise strategies to meet local needs.
Data from 415 married men from the three socio-economic zones in the commercial city of Ibadan, Nigeria, were analysed to identify the presence and pattern of sexual networking, as well as obtain information on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the community. Of the men interviewed, 43.6% had steady girl friends, ...
There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...
Objective: To describe the association of risky sexual behaviour with alcohol use and problem drinking among female sex workers in ... urban centres in Ethiopia and interviewed regarding their sexual behavior and substance use. Results: About ... HIV infections are now occurring in young people aged less than 25 years.
There is a need for a robust sex education programme, given the lack of information and the high rate of sexual activity among the school adolescents in Mbalmayo. Emphasis should be placed on the different routes of transmission of HIV infection, abstinence and safe sex for those who are already sexually-active.
Vasilenko, Sara A; Rice, Cara E; Rosenberger, Joshua G
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections. Recent research has documented the importance of understanding the multidimensional nature of sexual risk behavior; however, little is known about how multidimensional patterns of sexual behavior among MSM may be associated with STIs. This study applies latent class analysis to data from a large, HIV- sample of 18-25 year old MSM recruited from social and sexual networking websites (N = 5,965; 76% white, 11% Latino, 5% Black, 4% Asian, 4% other; 74% homosexual, 21% bisexual, 1% heterosexual, 3%, unsure/questioning 1% other) to uncover multidimensional patterns of past-year sexual behaviors, partner factors, and protective behavior and their associations with self-reported STI diagnosis. We selected a model with 8 classes, with nearly half of participants belonging to a class marked by multiple behaviors with more than one partner, and smaller numbers of individuals in classes with a smaller number of behaviors, romantic relationships, and sexual inactivity. Class membership was associated with recent STI diagnosis, with classes marked by no penetrative sex or receptive anal sex with consistent condom use having lower prevalence than those with inconsistent condom use, including those engaging in only insertive anal sex. Findings suggest heterogeneity of behaviors within MSM and that prevention messages may be more effective if they are tailored to individuals' patterns of sexual behavior, as well as demographic and socio-contextual factors.
von Sternberg, Kirk; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Jun, Jina; Learman, Joy; Velasquez, Mary M
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infections in the United States and are particularly prevalent in survivors of sexual violence. The purpose of this study is to examine co-occurring risk factors for sexual violence and STIs including mental health, alcohol use, drug use, and multiple partners as intersecting pathways to STIs for women who experienced sexual abuse in the past year. Secondary analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data from women originally recruited as respondents for an epidemiologic survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Project CHOICES. The survey was administered to 2,672 women in six settings: A large, urban jail and residential alcohol and drug treatment facilities (Texas); a gynecology clinic (Virginia); two primary care clinics (Virginia and Florida); and media solicitation (Florida). Women were included in the current study if they were fertile, sexually active, and not pregnant or trying to get pregnant (n = 1,183). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual path model between sexual violence and STI occurrence. In the SEM, there were no significant paths from mental health, alcohol severity, or drug use to STI occurrence contrary to the results of the initial bivariate analyses. Multiple sexual partners significantly mediated the relationship between sexual violence and STIs and between mental health and drug use and STIs. This study highlights the importance of providing effective treatment to survivors of sexual violence, which includes addressing risky sexual behaviors to reduce STI occurrence. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: A description of the pattern of use of alcohol and other substances among female sex workers (FSWs) is particularly important because of the high prevalence of HIV in this particular group and their potential for transmitting HIV infection to other groups. However, there is currently lack of systematic studies from ...
Conclusions: It is recommended that sex education should start at primary school level to educate female teenagers on the dangers of early initiation of sexual activity; and ways of protecting themselves against the sexual advances of the male gender. Key Words: Female adolescents, Sexual behavior, knowledge, Sexually ...
Thurman, Andrea Ries; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle N; Perdue, Sondra T
We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls of age 15 to 19 years, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women of age 20 to 41 years, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone, a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (P sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was "really important" for the teen to have their baby (P = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (P = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.
cy and partner-reported behavior. Journal of Adolescent. Health, 38 (3):179-185. 34. Cooper, M. L., Shapiro, C.M., Powers, A.M. (1998). Motivations for sex and risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults: A functional perspective. Journal of Perspectives in Social Psychology,75:1528–1558. 35. Fortenberry ...
The adolescent age is the period of sexual identity when adolescents make sense of their feeling and turn them into ... study therefore aims at accessing the knowledge and sources of information of STDs among adolescents in .... Richard (2001) asserted that some parents see sex education to their children as immoral due ...
specific genital ulcers (11.5%), syphilis (10.7%), genital herpes (10.1%), and scabies (8.1%). The sexual predilections consisted of heterosexual (70.9%), homosexual (12.2%), bisexual (2.0%), and no data (14.9%). Patients with the number of ...
Almeida, Rebeca Aranha Arrais Santos; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Rolim, Isaura Letícia Tavares Palmeira; Hora, Jessica Marques da; Linard, Andrea Gomes; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Oliveira, Priscila da Silva
To investigate the knowledge of adolescents related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, and pregnancy, and understand the role of school in sex education. A qualitative descriptive study, developed through a semi-structured interview and a form for participant characterization, with 22 high school students from a public school aged 16 to 19 years. Data were submitted to content analysis. After analysis, four thematic categories were developed: sexuality and sex education; understanding of risk behaviors; knowledge of STI/AIDS; and knowledge of and practices for prevention. This study showed the need for preventive educational actions for adolescents, because the lack of information contributes to their vulnerability. The adolescents recognize the importance of sex education; therefore it is important to implement strategies to promote and protect health in the school environment to encourage and strengthen self-care in health. investigar o conhecimento de adolescentes relacionado às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST), AIDS e gravidez, além de conhecer a compreensão sobre o papel da escola na educação sexual. estudo qualitativo, descritivo, desenvolvido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e formulário para caracterização dos participantes, com 22 adolescentes entre 16 e 19 anos de idade, estudantes do Ensino Médio em uma escola pública. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. da análise emergiram quatro categorias temáticas: Sexualidade e educação sexual; Compreensão de comportamentos de risco; Conhecimento de IST/AIDS; Conhecimento e práticas de prevenção. revelou-se a necessidade de ações educativas de prevenção para os adolescentes, pois a falta de informações contribui para a sua vulnerabilidade. Os adolescentes reconhecem a importância da educação sexual; consequentemente, é importante a implementação de estratégias de promoção e de proteção à saúde no ambiente escolar para contribuir e
Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L
Violence against women has been associated with subsequent risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We explored whether sexual coercion or violence at first intercourse was associated with self-reported STIs. Using nationally representative data from the 2006 to 2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we analyzed female respondents aged 18 to 44 (n = 9466) who answered questions on coercion at first intercourse (wantedness, voluntariness, and types of force used) and STIs using logistic regression analyses. We explored degrees of coercion, which we label as neither, sexual coercion (unwanted or nonphysical force), or sexual violence (involuntary or physical force). Eighteen percent of US women reported sexual coercion, and 8.4% experienced sexual violence at first intercourse. Compared with women who experienced neither, the odds of reporting an STI was significantly greater for women who experienced sexual coercion (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.60), after controlling for all variables. The association between sexual violence at first intercourse and STIs (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.57) seemed to be attenuated by subsequent sexual violence. Understanding that women who reported a variety of coercive sexual experiences are more likely to have contracted an STI may indicate a need to focus on the broader continuum of sexual violence to fully understand the impact of even subtle forms of violence on women's health. In addition, focusing on subsequent sexual behaviors and other negative consequences remains important to improve the sexual health of women who have experienced coercive sexual intercourse.
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Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R
Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15-49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease
Introduction Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. Material and methods A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. Results The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non?gonococcal urethritis. Conclusions It is possible that H. py...
Lucy Margarita Villafañe-Ferrer
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections are an epidemiologic and clinical problem of first order in all the world by effect that can produce and their economic consequences. Adolescents and young are in most risk to have these diseases by facts such as premature sexual relationships and promiscuity. The objective of this investigation was to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in students’ community. Correlational cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was applied to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections to 128 students’ community. In this study was found 78.1% of students had sexual relationships. 55% of students drink alcohol before a sexual relationship. By means of statistical analysis was found association between sexually transmitted infections and drug use (p=0.042. Students had a regular level of knowledge. It not was found association between risk behaviors and level of knowledge (p>0.05. Results found in this investigation demonstrate the necessity of making activities for prevention of these infections and motivating changes of behaviors for reducing risk of contagion of these infections
Shepherd, J; Kavanagh, J; Picot, J; Cooper, K; Harden, A; Barnett-Page, E; Jones, J; Clegg, A; Hartwell, D; Frampton, G K; Price, A
To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of schools-based skills-building behavioural interventions to encourage young people to adopt and maintain safer sexual behaviour and to prevent them from acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Electronic bibliographic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CCRCT, NHS EED and DARE) were searched for the period 1985 to March 2008. Bibliographies of systematic reviews and related papers were screened and experts contacted to identify additional published and unpublished references. A systematic review of effectiveness and economic evaluation of cost-effectiveness were carried out. A descriptive map of studies that met inclusion criteria was produced, and keywords were developed and systematically applied to these studies to identify a policy-relevant subset of studies for the systematic review. Outcome data for variables including sexual behaviour were extracted. An economic model was developed to compare the costs and consequences of the behavioural interventions. A Bernoulli statistical model was constructed to describe the probability of STI infection. There were few significant differences between the interventions and comparators in terms of changes in sexual behaviour outcomes, although there were some significant differences for knowledge and some measures of self-efficacy. The studies included in this review conducted relatively short follow-up assessments at a time when many young people were becoming sexually active. It is therefore possible that favourable behaviour change may have occurred, and become more cost-effective, with time, as sexual activity becomes more routine in young people's lives. The quality of the intervention provider influenced whether or not young people found the interventions to be acceptable and engaging; enthusiasm and considerable expertise were important for effective class management and delivery of skills
Rafael Alves Guimarães
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang
This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6%) by the students, while chlamydia (26%) and trichomoniasis (21.0%) were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level ( p -values sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24-30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.377-0.859) and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019-8.057) were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Adigun Temiloluwa Folasayo
Full Text Available This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6% had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6% by the students, while chlamydia (26% and trichomoniasis (21.0% were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level (p-values < 0.05. Most of them (88.8% were aware that STD screening was important while use of condoms was protective (63.8%. The majority of them strongly felt that treatment should be sought immediately if they (85.5% and their partners (87.4% have symptoms. Among the sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24–30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.377–0.859 and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019–8.057 were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.
Matthews, P; Fletcher, J
General practitioners and practice nurses require the clinical skills that will enable them to detect sexually transmitted infections in the context of a shift to having no, or insidious symptoms. They need to be able to confirm the diagnosis and have clear models for management and referral. Primary care and genitourinary medicine need to work more closely together to increase mutual understanding and clarify the issues which surround referral and attendance. Sexual health risk assessment th...
Goldenberg, S; Shoveller, J; Ostry, A; Koehoorn, M
Northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is undergoing rapid in-migration of young, primarily male, workers in response to the "boom" in the oil/gas industries. Chlamydia rates in the region exceed the provincial average by 32% (294.6 cases per 100 000 persons compared with 213.3). Evidence indicates that sociocultural and structural determinants of young people's sexual health are key to consider in the design of interventions. To investigate how sociocultural and structural features related to the oil/gas boom are perceived to affect the sexual behaviour of youth in a Northeastern "boomtown". The study included ethnographic fieldwork (8 weeks) and in-depth interviews with 25 youth (ages 15-25 years) and 14 health/social service providers. Participants identified four main ways in which the sociocultural and structural conditions created by the boom affect sexual behaviours, fuelling the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): mobility of oil/gas workers; binge partying; high levels of disposable income and gendered power dynamics. The sociocultural and structural conditions that are fostered by a resource-extraction boom appear to exacerbate sexual health inequalities among youths who live and work in these rapidly urbanising, remote locales. To meet the needs of this population, we recommend STI prevention and testing service delivery models that incorporate STI testing outreach to oil/gas workers and condom distribution. Global, national and local STI control efforts should consider the realities and needs of similar subpopulations of young people.
Gilleece, Yvonne; Sullivan, Ann
This review aims to summarize recent developments in the epidemiology and management of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive individuals. It will also discuss briefly the legal aspects of disclosure in relation to HIV transmission. There has been a dramatic increase in the reported number of cases of syphilis globally in recent years. In the United Kingdom this has mainly been observed among HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Since 2003 there have been a series of outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum reported in several European cities occurring mostly in HIV positive MSM. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C is increasing and appears to be more common in HIV positive MSM. Legal issues regarding HIV transmission have also come to the fore, becoming an important part of the discussion of sexual health with an HIV positive patient. Increases in sexually transmitted infection among HIV positive individuals suggest a worrying lack of adherence to safe sex guidelines and needs to be addressed urgently. The transmission of HIV is facilitated by the presence of certain sexually transmitted infections. Management of sexual health is an essential part of HIV care.
Theetat M. Surawan
Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.
Background: The control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through rapid and effective treatment is critical in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. This is only possible when STD patients access appropriate STD care services. Objectives: To examine factors associated with choice of STD health care facility in ...
Fear of sexually transmitted infections among women with male migrant partners – relationship to oscillatory migration pattern and risk-avoidance behaviour. ... and their rural partners, the social and economic dependency of the women on their migrant partners, and the women's social responsibility to bear children.
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and .... With the help of local leaders, one of 4 in- terview teams approached ... Ethical clearance to conduct the study was sought from the Makerere University School ...
Malawi Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1998) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Sexually transmitted diseases in Malawi. CC Daly, NG Liomba ...
Background: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) is a major global cause of acute illness, infertility, long-term disability and death, with serious medical and psychological consequences to millions of men, women and infants. Moreover, in Ethiopia, epidemiological studies on STI among STI clinic clients are limited. Therefore ...
This study was designed to investigate the pattern and distribution of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 134 adult Subjects (89 women and 45 men) presenting with various signs and symptoms of lower genital tract infections were recruited for the study. Samples such as urine, urethral swab, high vaginal swab and/or ...
Objectives: To study the factors associated with quality of sexually transmitted infection (STI) care among private general practitioners in Gauteng. Methods: We analysed 1 194 records of patients attending 26 randomly selected GP practices in the first 3 months of 2000 and 2002, for 3 STI syndromes, namely urethral ...
Davoren, Martin P
The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.
de Vries, Henry J. C.
Cutaneous signs and skin conditions associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are discussed. Syphilis, condyloma acuminata, and scabies are well-known STIs with cutaneous manifestations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause specific muco-cutaneous signs and symptoms. HIV often
As part of a longitudinal cohort study in rural Malawi in 2000, 469 men and 758 women were asked to respond to a series of surveys, were tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia, and received their results and treatment, if applicable, for themselves and up to 2 partners if positive for either sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwe: a qualitative analysis of factors associated with choice of a health care facility. ... Data from 26 FGDs attended by 281 antenatal clinic attendees, 34 FGDs of 350 women attending well baby clinics, 8 FGDs of 82 women recruited at long distance bus stops/market places, 9 FGDs of ...
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) screening, case and contact treatment, and condom promotion resulting in STI Reduction two years later in rural Malawi. VAP Paz-Soldan, I Hoffman, J deGraft, JT Bisika, PN Kazembe, H Feluzi, AO Tsui ...
Koedijk, F.D.H.; Vriend, H.J.; Veen, M.G. van; Coul, E.L.M. Op de; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Sighem, A.I. van; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der
Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis. Chlamydia was the most common bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) diagnosed in Dutch STI centres in 2008. Similar to previous years, infections were reported as occurring especially in young heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2008, the
This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...
A comparative study of the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among post –primary and tertiary school students in Imo state was carried out from January to December 2002. Questionnaires were administered to the respondents to collect vital information before urine sample, vaginal or urethral swab and ...
Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.
We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunct...
Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.
Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186
In a cross-sectional study, 786 consenting women from two cities in Africa, Harare and Moshi, attending primary health care clinics were interviewed, examined and tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to assess and compare differences in the characteristics that may affect ...
A number of students who were capable of identifying all tracer STDs was comparable between the ordinary (10.5%) and advanced (10.6%) level students (p<0.001). Thirty-two students (8%) were completely unable to identify even a single tracer STD. About 96% respondents said were capable of preventing themselves ...
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method: Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion: It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.
Ernst, R S; Houts, P S
Two hundred sixty-one male homosexuals and one hundred four female homosexuals completed questionnaires dealing with patterns of sexual activity and experience with sexually transmitted diseases. Among lesbians, a history of gonorrhea or syphilis was associated with heterosexual activity. Among gay males, gonorrhea and syphilis were associated with white race, residence in an urban area, low income, and high scores on the Brief Michigan Alcoholism Test. Male homosexuals had more episodes of gonorrhea and syphilis than did female homosexuals. Among male homosexuals the number of sex partners was greater among young urban residents. Poor health practices with respect to sexually transmitted diseases (i.e., delay in seeking treatment, self-treatment, and lack of regular check-ups) were more common among the older, less-well educated, and nonurban groups of gay males.
Max A Chernesky
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.
Zhang, Dangui; Pan, Hui; Cui, Binglin; Law, Frieda; Farrar, Jeremy; Ba-Thein, William
This study investigated the current state of attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge concerning sex and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Chinese university students. A cross-sectional anonymous university intranet-based survey was given to students attending the Shantou University, Guangdong, China using a 28-item questionnaire. Of 3425 website visitors, 1030 university students completed the survey, of which 80% were between 20 and 25 years of age, 76% considered pre-marital sex acceptable, 21% had had sexual intercourse, and 45% of sexually active students had engaged in oral sex, anal intercourse, or sex with strangers. Students had limited knowledge and awareness about common STIs, symptoms, and complications. Three percent of the sexually active students reported having had STIs and another 8% were not sure whether they had or not. Most students had misconceptions about transmission and prevention of STIs. The internet was the main information resource for 76% of students. Despite having more open attitudes and behaviors towards sex, students' STI knowledge and awareness of STI risks was considerably limited, raising concerns about a likely rise in STI incidence. Prior knowledge of STIs had no significant influence. Targeted educational measures such as online education and counseling via Chinese websites and social media, and the provision of safer sex and STI-related information by health experts to university students are suggested.
Broek, I.V.F. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Dijk, C. van; Koedijk, F.D.H.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Bergen, J.E.A.M. van
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) care in the Netherlands is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) and specialized STI centers. STI surveillance is based on data from STI centers, which show increasing numbers of clients. Data from a GP morbidity surveillance network were
van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Verheij, Robert A.; van Dijk, Christel E.; Koedijk, Femke D. H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) care in the Netherlands is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) and specialized STI centers. STI surveillance is based on data from STI centers, which show increasing numbers of clients. Data from a GP morbidity surveillance network were used to
Nonoxynol-9 spermicide for prevention of vaginally acquired HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including more than 5000 women.
Wilkinson, David; Tholandi, Maya; Ramjee, Gita; Rutherford, George W
We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the vaginally administered spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) among women for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We did a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Nine such trials including 5096 women, predominantly sex workers, comparing N-9 with placebo or no treatment, were included. Primary outcomes were new HIV infection, new episodes of various STIs, and genital lesions. Five trials included HIV and nine included STI outcomes, and all but one (2% of the data) contributed to the meta-analysis. Overall, relative risks of HIV infection (1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.42), gonorrhoea (0.91, 0.67-1.24), chlamydia (0.88, 0.77-1.01), cervical infection (1.01, 0.84-1.22), trichomoniasis (0.84, 0.69-1.02), bacterial vaginosis (0.88, 0.74-1.04) and candidiasis (0.97, 0.84-1.12) were not significantly different in the N-9 and placebo or no treatment groups. Genital lesions were more common in the N-9 group (1.18, 1.02-1.36). Our review has found no statistically significant reduction in risk of HIV and STIs, and the confidence intervals indicate that any protection that may exist is likely to be very small. There is some evidence of harm through genital lesions. N-9 cannot be recommended for HIV and STI prevention.
Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van
The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of
transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women.Keywords: intimate partner violence, socio-demographic, sexually transmitted disease, Nepal
Khan, A.; Izhar, V.
Sexually transmitted infections represent a global health problem leading to social stigma and early morbidity and mortality. Prior to this study, different health care providers were dealing with sexually transmitted infections with various parameters and were not following the standard regime given by the WHO. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections and its treatment guidelines. Methods: Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted from health care providers(specialists, family physicians, homeopaths and others )of Lahore from Jan 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected with consent through convenience purposive sampling of randomly selected 100 specialists, 200 family physicians, 100 homeopaths and 100 others. Trained investigators pre-tested the validity and reliability of the questionnaire before use. Data of response was coded, entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 500 practitioners 475 (95%) completed the questionnaire. Those excluded were due to insufficient data in questionnaire. Almost all respondents were aware of STIs and the guidelines and claimed to have decent knowledge. Apart from some disagreement on the user- friendliness and communication facilitating properties, the health care provider's attitude were positive. Conclusion: Overall, all the health care providers knew about sexually transmitted infections. It was the treatment according to the guidelines, in which they differed. Specialists and Family physician in Lahore, Pakistan knew and followed the STIs guidelines while managing the patients. Homeopaths and others were receiving patients and treating most of these infections but were not aware of the standard guidelines yet somehow their patients were treated and satisfied. Enhancing the familiarity of the guidelines among users can result in a positive outcome on the treatment of STIs. (author)
Almeida, Rebeca Aranha Arrais Santos; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Rolim, Isaura Letícia Tavares Palmeira; Hora, Jessica Marques da; Linard, Andrea Gomes; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Oliveira, Priscila da Silva
ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the knowledge of adolescents related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, and pregnancy, and understand the role of school in sex education. Method: A qualitative descriptive study, developed through a semi-structured interview and a form for participant characterization, with 22 high school students from a public school aged 16 to 19 years. Data were submitted to content analysis. Results: After analysis, four thematic categories were develop...
This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attit...
Full Text Available For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward transmission of the infection as long as they persist. In addition, for curable infections re-infection from an infected partner may occur. Furthermore, interventions based on contact tracing rely on the possibility of identifying and treating partners of infected individuals. To reflect these features in a mathematical model, pair formation models were introduced to mathematical epidemiology in the 1980's. They have since been developed into a widely used tool in modelling sexually transmitted infections and the impact of interventions. Here we give a basic introduction to the concepts of pair formation models for a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS epidemic. We review some results and applications of pair formation models mainly in the context of chlamydia infection. Keywords: Pair formation, Mathematical model, Partnership duration, Sexually transmitted infections, Basic reproduction number
Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P.
Background Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. Methods We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000–2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Results Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review. PMID:28703725
Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P
Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.
H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)
textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health
Roberto Dair García de la Rosa
Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.
Brandon L Guthrie
Full Text Available More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI.Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01.Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.
Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar el conocimiento y comportamiento sexual de los adolescentes acerca de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual. Metodo: estudio descriptivo, observacional, cuantitativo, con muestra de conveniencia con 532 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años. El cuestionario fue administrado sobre ETS. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el programa STATA11.1. El proyecto fue aprobado por el. Resultados: 89,2% de las chicas y el 90,3% de los chicos supieron definir adecuadamente el concepto de ETS; 98,5% de las chicas y 98,9% de los chicos el uso del preservativo es el método más eficaz para la prevención. Sin embargo, el 37,1% de las chicas y el 30,5% de los chicos reportaron el uso de anticonceptivos como método preventivo. Conclusion: es saludable la realización de acciones educativas junto a la escuela sobre temas tales como la sexualidad y la salud reproductiva.
Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.
Stephens, Sally C; Bernstein, Kyle T; Philip, Susan S
Current data on sexual health in the United States is limited, in part, because of a lack of measurement tools. It is difficult for programs to develop a holistic approach to improving sexual health that is data-driven and evaluable without a tool that encompasses sexual health beyond the absence of disease. The objective of this study was to understand possible factors associated with sexual health and reported differences in sexual health among women. We conducted a survey measuring sexual health among women seeking care at the municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in San Francisco between January 25, 2010, and June 15, 2010. Records were matched on variables including basic demographics, reason for visit, symptoms at visit, history of an STD, and STD diagnosis at the visit. A total of 822 women completed the questionnaire during the study period. Women reporting no recent sexual activity reported feeling more insecure, angry, isolated, and limited because of health compared with women with recent sexual activity. However, few differences were seen among women based on symptoms and diagnosis at visit. Given the minimal differences based on symptoms and disease, this suggests that there are other factors that impact the quality of life and sexual health. Creating tools that can be used to measure sexual health is a necessary first step for programs to understand the sexual health of a community. More broad-based assessments of sexual health in a variety of populations will be critical to identifying points of intervention and progress toward success.
WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...
Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo
We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases? Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel. Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.
Bernsen Roos MD
Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.
Champion, J D; Piper, J; Shain, R N; Perdue, S T; Newton, E R
Mexican American and African American women (N = 617) with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) underwent a targeted physical exam and questioning regarding sexual abuse, current genitourinary symptomatology, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) risk behaviors to determine the relationship between sexual abuse and risk for PID. Sexually abused women (n = 194) reported higher PID risk behaviors, including earlier coitus, more sex partners, higher STD recurrence, and a tendency toward delayed health-seeking behavior. They also reported more severe genitourinary symptomatology, confirmed by physical exam, and presumptive diagnoses of PID. These characteristics identify sexually abused women at high risk for PID. Because of its considerable impact on risk for PID, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in clinical management of women with STD and for diagnosis of PID. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Michi, Aubrey N; Favetto, Pedro H; Kastelic, John; Cobo, Eduardo R
The objective is to discuss sexually transmitted diseases caused by Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) and Campylobacter fetus (C fetus) subsp. venerealis, with a focus on prevalence, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in cows and bulls. Diagnosis and control are problematic because these diseases cause severe reproductive losses in cows, but in bulls are clinically asymptomatic, which allows the disease to flourish, especially in the absence of legislated control programs. We review research regarding prophylactic systemic immunization of bulls and cows with antigens of T foetus and C fetus venerealis and their efficacy in preventing or clearing preexisting infections in the genital tract. Current diagnostic methods of C fetus venerealis and T foetus (microbial culture and PCR) should be improved. Review of the latest advances in bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis should promote knowledge and provide an impetus to pursue further efforts to control bovine sexually transmitted diseases. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A Grounded Theory study has been used, based on its Theory of Symbolic Interactionism, to explore indigenous healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases amongst the Vhavenda. Initial data collection has been done, using purposive sampling and when categories started emerging, theoretical sampling was then used. Data were analysed by using three basic types of coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings of the study revealed a variety of terms used to identify STDs. It then also became evident that there are similarities between gonorrhoea, syphilis and condylomata as shown in the orthodox Sexually transmitted diseases posters used in orthodox medicine with some of the STDs that the indigenous healers are familiar with. In accordance with the Grounded Theory, the description of types of diseases, disease patterns as well as signs and symptoms culminated in the emergence of the Dirt Theory. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that guidelines for designing a module for teaching health professionals be formulated to assist nurses in understanding the beliefs and practices of the people they serve.
Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos
The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kokko, Hanna; Ranta, Esa; Ruxton, Graeme; Lundberg, Per
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been shown to increase the costs of multiple mating and therefore favor relatively monogamous mating strategies. We examine another way in which STDs can influence mating systems in species in which female choice is important. Because more popular males are more likely to become infected, STDs can counteract any selective pressure that generates strong mating skews. We build two models to investigate female mate choice when the sexual behavior of females determines the prevalence of infection in the population. The first model has no explicit social structure. The second model considers the spatial distribution of matings under social monogamy, when females mated to unattractive males seek extrapair fertilizations from attractive males. In both cases, the STD has the potential to drastically reduce the mating skew. However, this reduction does not always happen. If the per contact transmission probability is low, the disease dies out and is of no consequence. In contrast, if the transmission probability is very high, males are likely to be infected regardless of their attractiveness, and mating with the most attractive males imposes again no extra cost for the female. We also show that optimal female responses to the risk of STDs can buffer the prevalence of infection to remain constant, or even decrease, with increasing per contact transmission probabilities. In all cases considered, the feedback between mate choice strategies and STD prevalence creates frequency-dependent fitness benefits for the two alternative female phenotypes considered (choosy vs. randomly mating females or faithful vs. unfaithful females). This maintains mixed evolutionarily stable strategies or polymorphisms in female behavior. In this way, a sexually transmitted disease can stabilize the populationwide proportion of females that mate with the most attractive males or that seek extrapair copulations.
Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.
This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…
Giannini, A J; Colapietro, G; Slaby, A E; Melemis, S M; Bowman, R K
The authors reviewed historical literature and hypothesized a relationship between epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases and foot fetishism. They tested this hypothesis by quantifying foot-fetish depictions in the mass-circulation pornographic literature during a 30-yr. interval. An exponential increase was noted during the period of the current AIDS epidemic. The authors offer reasons for this possible relationship.
Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai
This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p benefits from condom use (p benefits of condom use (p = 0.016), and perceived risk for HIV (p = 0.033). They explained 36% of behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.
Ross, M W; Daneback, K; Mansson, S-A; Berglund, T; Tikkanen, R
Although the Internet has become a forum for making sexual contacts, and has been associated with increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, we have little information of history of STIs in Internet-based samples. The Internet behaviours that are associated with STI acquisition are poorly understood. We analysed STI histories reported by 904 Swedish men and 931 Swedish women who responded to an Internet-based survey on sexual behaviour in 2002: 16.6% of men and 22.5% of women reported a lifetime history of STIs, with Chlamydia being the most common for both genders. 3% of men and 5% of women who reported an STI, indicated that they had had more than one. Sources of the STI, where known, were Internet-acquired partners in only 3% of cases. There were no differences between men and women with or without an STI history regarding the kind of online sexual activities they engaged in, how they found sexual material online, and the reasons they engage in sexual activities. These rates are similar to those reported in a national random study of sexuality in Sweden. Contrary to prior research, these results suggest no relationship between STI and specific Internet characteristics usage patterns. These data suggest that the Internet is not yet a major source of STIs in Swedish men and women. Given these STI histories, the Internet may be a useful medium to include in STI prevention efforts.
Sorenson, Andrew A.; And Others
Discussed are the types of contraceptives used by a population of university students; the relationship of type of contraceptive used to sociodemographic characteristics and patterns of sexual activity, and the relationship of contraceptive use to sexually transmitted disease. (M M)
This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription.
Goesling, Brian; Colman, Silvie; Trenholm, Christopher; Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin
This systematic review provides a comprehensive, updated assessment of programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or associated sexual risk behaviors. The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify relevant studies released from 1989 through January 2011. Second, identified studies were screened against prespecified eligibility criteria. Third, studies were assessed by teams of two trained reviewers for the quality and execution of their research designs. Fourth, for studies that passed the quality assessment, the review team extracted and analyzed information on the research design, study sample, evaluation setting, and program impacts. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the data extraction and analysis. The studies examined a range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Most studies had mixed-gender and predominately African-American research samples (70% and 51%, respectively). Randomized controlled trials accounted for the large majority (87%) of included studies. Most studies (76%) included multiple follow-ups, with sample sizes ranging from 62 to 5,244. Analysis of the study impact findings identified 31 programs with evidence of effectiveness. Research conducted since the late 1980s has identified more than two dozen teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs with evidence of effectiveness. Key strengths of this research are the large number of randomized controlled trials, the common use of multiple follow-up periods, and attention to a broad range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Two main gaps are a lack of replication studies and the need for more research on Latino youth and other high-risk populations. In addressing these gaps, researchers must overcome common limitations in study design, analysis, and reporting that have negatively affected prior research. Copyright
Sviben, Mario; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav; Vraneš, Jasmina
In order to identify the groups at risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), we assessed the sociodemographic profiles of men testing for STD, their sexual habits, and the results of microbiological analysis. During a three-year period, a total of 700 men older than 18 years of age completed the questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and sexual behavior. Urethral swabs were taken for microbiological analysis. Thirty-three percent of respondents reported not using condoms. Those that do not use condoms were predominantly less educated, unmarried but in steady relationships, employed, with children, and smokers. Alcohol or drug usage before sexual intercourse was disclosed by 21.4% of respondents, and 10.3% respondents reported sexual intercourses with commercial sex workers. Finally, 24.0% respondents reported sexual relations abroad. In 28.1% of subjects, one or more pathogens were observed in urethral swabs. The most commonly diagnosed microorganism was Ureaplasma urealyticum, followed by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This study identified several factors that may contribute to the general risk of STD transmission, which will serve to better understand the transmission dynamics and implementation of adequate prevention programs.
Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R; van Rooijen, Martijn S; Urbanus, Anouk T; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim
Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009, attendees of an STI clinic in Amsterdam were interviewed about sexual behavior and drug use during sex and tested for STI. Associations between sex-related drug use and STI were assessed separately for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. We examined whether drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior. Nine hundred sixty-one heterosexual men, 673 MSM, and 1188 women participated in this study. Of these, 11.9% had chlamydia, 3.4% gonorrhea, and 1.2% syphilis. Sex-related drug use in the previous 6 months was reported by 22.6% of heterosexual men, 51.6% of MSM, and 16.0% of women. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for demographics (and high-risk sexual behavior in MSM), sex-related drug use was associated with STI in MSM (any drugs and poppers) and women (GHB and XTC) but not in heterosexual men. Stratified analysis in MSM showed that sex-related use of poppers was associated with STI in HIV-negative MSM but not in HIV-infected MSM. Clients reported frequent sex-related drug use, which was associated with STI in MSM and women. In MSM, sex-related drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior but only in HIV-negative MSM. Prevention measures targeted at decreasing sex-related drug use could reduce the incidence of STI.
Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla
To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two thousand and nineteen women aged 20 to 44 were randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant's demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06-3.98) and sexual violence (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05-2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08-2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.46-4.00) compared to women with 1 sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.
Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.
Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...
Bos-Bonnie, Linda H. A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; te Pas, Ellen; Kijser, Michael A.; van Dijk, Nynke
Background: Primary health-care professionals play an important role in the treatment and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Continuing Medical Education (CME)-courses can influence the knowledge and behavior of health-care professionals concerning STI. We performed a prospective
Wolfers, Mireille; de Zwart, Onno; Kok, Gerjo
Worldwide, adolescents are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). In The Netherlands, test rates among young heterosexual people are low and knowledge on the behavioral determinants of testing is scarce. In this study, we investigated STI testing in more detail with two independent samples of 16-25 year old vocational school students (n = 756/n = 1302). The aim of this study was to examine risk perceptions in relation to STI testing among lower educated adolescents in order to inform the development of an intervention promoting STI testing. We compared multiple measures of risk perception, fear of testing, self-efficacy for testing, and risk knowledge between groups of adolescents engaging and not engaging in risk behavior. The results show that at least half of the participating students with sexual experience underestimated their susceptibility for STI and showed an optimistic bias. Students with sexual experience also considered STI very severe but lacked self-efficacy for testing. This combination can yield a defensive reaction to the threat of STI that, in turn, results in the underestimation of personal risks. However, self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between intention to test and perceived relative risk. In conclusion, our findings show underestimation of personal risks by vocational school students, a high perceived severity of STI and low self-efficacy for testing. A low level of knowledge regarding sexual risks and symptoms of STI might have contributed to low risk perceptions. Self-efficacy did not change the relation of intention-to-test to perceived risk.
Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O
The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.
Gottlieb, Sami L; Johnston, Christine
This review provides an update on the need, development status, and important next steps for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including herpes simplex virus (HSV), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea), Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia), and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). Global estimates suggest that more than a million STIs are acquired every day, and many new and emerging challenges to STI control highlight the critical need for development of new STI vaccines. Several therapeutic HSV-2 vaccine candidates are in Phase I/II clinical trials, and one subunit vaccine has shown sustained reductions in genital lesions and viral shedding, providing hope that an effective HSV vaccine is on the horizon. The first vaccine candidate for genital chlamydia infection has entered Phase I trials, and several more are in the pipeline. Use of novel technological approaches will likely see viable vaccine candidates for gonorrhea and syphilis in the future. The global STI vaccine roadmap outlines key activities to further advance STI vaccine development. Major progress is being made in addressing the large global unmet need for STI vaccines. With continued collaboration and support, these critically important vaccines for global sexual and reproductive health can become a reality.
Davoren, Martin P; Hayes, Kevin; Horgan, Mary; Shiely, Frances
The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland. Routine diagnostic, demographic and behavioural data from first-time visits to three screening centres in the southwest of Ireland were obtained. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents. A total of 2784 first-time patients, aged 13-19 years, received 3475 diagnoses between January 1999 and September 2009; 1168 (42%) of adolescents had notifiable STIs. The incidence rate of STIs is 225/100 000 person-years. Univariate analysis identified eligible risk factors (pIreland. The proportion of notifications among those aged under 20 years is increasing. These data illustrate the significance of age, condom use and number of sexual partners as risk factors for STI diagnosis. Furthermore, providing data for the first time, we report on the high incidence rate of STIs among adolescents in Ireland. The high levels of risk-taking behaviour and STI acquisition are highlighted and suggest that there is a need for an integrated public health approach to combat this phenomenon in the adolescent population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Shepherd, Lee; Smith, Michael A
This study assessed the extent to which social-cognitive factors (attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and the fear of a positive test result predict sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening intentions and subsequent behaviour. Study 1 (N = 85) used a longitudinal design to assess the factors that predict STI screening intention and future screening behaviour measured one month later at Time 2. Study 2 (N = 102) used an experimental design to determine whether the relationship between fear and screening varied depending on whether STI or HIV screening was being assessed both before and after controlling for social-cognitive factors. Across the studies the outcome measures were sexual health screening. In both studies, the fear of having an STI positively predicted STI screening intention. In Study 1, fear, but not the social-cognitive factors, also predicted subsequent STI screening behaviour. In Study 2, the fear of having HIV did not predict HIV screening intention, but attitude negatively and response efficacy positively predicted screening intention. This study highlights the importance of considering the nature of the health condition when assessing the role of fear on health promotion.
Ansart, Séverine; Hochedez, Patrick; Perez, Lucia; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric
Data are lacking on the spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) diagnosed in returning travelers. All consecutive travelers consulting our tropical unit between November 1, 2002 and October 31, 2003 were included if they presented within 1 month after their return from the tropics, with mucocutaneous signs suggesting STDs. Forty-nine patients (12 women and 37 men; median age 36.4 y, 35 heterosexuals) were included. Four patients had traveled with their usual sexual partner and 45 patients had casual sex while abroad (31 with locals and 14 with other tourists). The main diagnoses were gonococcal urethritis (n = 18), herpes simplex virus 2 infection (n = 12), urethritis of undetermined origin (n = 9), Chlamydia trachomatis infection (n = 4), primary syphilis (n = 4), and primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (n = 2). These results illustrate the broad spectrum of STDs contracted by travelers to the tropics. They suggest the need to also inform travelers of the risks of STD and to promote the use of condoms in case of casual sex while abroad.
Magowe, Mabel K M; Seloilwe, Esther; Dithole, Kefalotse; St Lawrence, Janet
The qualitative research findings are reported on the perceptions of key participants in Botswana about adolescent sexuality problems and the feasibility (with suggestions) of an adolescent prevention intervention. Twenty adult key participants who were selected through purposive sampling from schools and youth centers responded to open-ended questions during face-to-face individual in-depth interviews that were conducted between December, 2011 and January, 2012 in Gaborone, Botswana. The data were analyzed by using an inductive content analysis. Five major themes and 12 subthemes emerged from the interviews. The key participants discussed situations that exposed adolescents to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy. They also discussed unsafe sexual practices, the consequences of unprotected sex, poor parent-adolescent communication on sexuality, and the need for a sexuality education program. Policy changes are needed to improve collaboration between adolescents, parents, teachers, and youth officers in order to address adolescent sexuality problems. Further research is needed to explore the ways in which to improve sexuality communication between these groups. The results of the study provide valuable information on the sexuality risks that expose adolescents to HIV, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections and the strategies for the prevention of these risks, thus informing targeted interventions for risk reduction for adolescents. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.
Caragol, Laura A; Wendel, Karen A; Anderson, Teri S; Burnside, Helen C; Finkenbinder, Allison; Fitch, John D; Kelley, Destiny H; Stewart, Terry W; Thrun, Mark; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A
An online consultation tool, the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network is a new resource for sexually transmitted disease clinicians and clinic managers. An initial evaluation shows that most requests (29%) were from medical doctors, followed by nurse practitioners (22%). Syphilis queries comprised 39% of consults followed by gonorrhea (12%) and chlamydia (11%).
Breyer, Benjamin N; Shindel, Alan W
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Most of the medical literature regarding recreational urethral sounding pertains to foreign body retrieval. Very little is known about men who perform sounding and do not require medical attention. Of >2000 men, who responded to a urinary and sexual wellness survey, 10% had a history of recreational urethral sounding. Compared with men who did not sound, men who did reported higher risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners, sex with strangers and reported more sexually transmitted infections. Men who seek medical attention for complications resulting from sounding should be counselled regarding the hazards of the practice. Realistic strategies for risk reduction should be discussed with men who engage in recreational sounding. To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED
Cook, Robert L; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Fiellin, David A; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Rodriquez-Barradas, Maria C; Kraemer, Kevin L; Gibert, Cynthia L; Braithwaite, R Scott; Goulet, Joseph L; Mattocks, Kristin; Crystal, Stephen; Gordon, Adam J; Oursler, Krisann K; Justice, Amy C
Health care providers may be concerned that prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD) will contribute to risky sexual behavior. To identify characteristics of men who received EDD prescriptions, determine whether EDD receipt is associated with risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and determine whether these relationships vary for certain sub-groups. Cross-sectional study. Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven sexually-active, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men recruited from eight Veterans Health Affairs outpatient clinics. Data were obtained from participant surveys, electronic medical records, and administrative pharmacy data. EDD receipt was defined as two or more prescriptions for an EDD, risky sex as having unprotected sex with a partner of serodiscordant or unknown HIV status, and STDs, according to self-report. Overall, 28% of men received EDD in the previous year. Eleven percent of men reported unprotected sex with a serodiscordant/unknown partner in the past year (HIV-infected 15%, HIV-uninfected 6%, P sexual behavior (11% vs. 10%, p = 0.9) and STDs (7% vs 7%, p = 0.7). In multivariate analyses, EDD receipt was not significantly associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in the entire sample or in subgroups of substance users or men who had sex with men. EDD receipt was common but not associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in this sample of HIV-infected and uninfected men. However, risky sexual behaviors persist in a minority of HIV-infected men, indicating ongoing need for prevention interventions.
Solorio, M. Rosa; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Higgins, Chandra; Gelberg, Lillian
We examined the association between sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing in a sample of homeless youth. Of 261 youth interviewed, 50% had been sexually active in the past 3 months. Gender variation in sexual behaviors and risk were found. Boys were more likely than girls to engage in anal sex (46% vs. 15%), to have 3 or more sexual partners (46% vs. 17%) and to engage in anonymous sex (38% vs. 21%). Girls were less likely to use condoms consistently and more likely to engage in sex with a partner suspected of having an STI (20% vs. 4%). In the past 3 months, the STI testing rates were similar for boys and girls (46%). However, girls were more likely to have positive STI results (46% vs. 9%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only variable that was an independent predictor of STI testing was having either gotten someone or having become pregnant in the past 3 months. High-risk sexual behaviors did not predict STI testing in our sample. Outreach programs are needed that target sexually active homeless youth for early STI testing and treatment. PMID:16479414
Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.
Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,
Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak
Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of
Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak
Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of
Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun
This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.
David E Nelson
Full Text Available The microbiome of the male urogenital tract is poorly described but it has been suggested that bacterial colonization of the male urethra might impact risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI. Previous cultivation-dependent studies showed that a variety of non-pathogenic bacteria colonize the urethra but did not thoroughly characterize these microbiomes or establish links between the compositions of urethral microbiomes and STI.Here, we used 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing to identify bacteria in urine specimens collected from men who lacked symptoms of urethral inflammation but who differed in status for STI. All of the urine samples contained multiple bacterial genera and many contained taxa that colonize the human vagina. Uncultivated bacteria associated with female genital tract pathology were abundant in specimens from men who had STI.Urine microbiomes from men with STI were dominated by fastidious, anaerobic and uncultivated bacteria. The same taxa were rare in STI negative individuals. Our findings suggest that the composition of male urine microbiomes is related to STI.
Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.
Pérez Bernal, A M; Hernández Aguado, I; Sánchez-Pedreño Guillén, P; Feliu Pérez, M M; Camacho Martínez, F
In a series of 1,011 women seen in the Diagnosis Center of Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Faculty of Medicine of Seville, we study the prevalence of cervical infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis and also mucopurulent cervicitis (CMP), these last diagnosed by the presence of more than 10 polymorphonuclear leukocytes x 1,000 magnification in Gram stain of secretion or endocervical mucopus. We calculate the predictive value that the diagnosis of the CMP had in detecting cervical infection by chlamydia and gonococcus. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated in 56 patients (5.5%), C. trachomatis in 83 (8.2%) and both in 15 (1.5%). In all, 154 women presented cervical infections, which correlates to a prevalence of 15.2%. CMP was diagnosed in 267 patients and, of these, 43.4% had cervical infection accused by N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis. The diagnosis criteria of CMP used as predictors of cervical infection, had a sensibility of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.82, with a positive predictive value of 0.42.
Newman, Lori M; Warner, Lee; Weinstock, Hillard S
The objective of this study was to identify characteristics associated with subsequent infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Records were retrospectively reviewed for patients from public STD clinics in 4 cities for 12 months after their initial visit to assess subsequent infection with gonorrhea, chlamydia, mucopurulent cervicitis, nongonococcal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, primary or secondary syphilis, or trichomoniasis. Among 64,463 patients, 33.9% had an initial STD and 7.0% had a subsequent STD. Patients with an initial STD had significantly higher probability of a subsequent STD than patients without (12.0% vs. 4.4%). A subsequent STD was significantly more likely for both sexes for those with an initial STD, who were symptomatic at initial visit, reporting exchange of sex, or under age 20 as well as for men reporting sex with men. Patients with an initial STD were more likely to return with a subsequent STD. Routinely collected information such as initial diagnosis or age can help identify patients at increased risk of a subsequent STD.
Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Chaovarindr, Udom; Kaoien, Surasak; Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Kovavisarach, Ekachai
Behavioral and social changes in the modern era have triggered an increase in the incidence of early sexual contact and teenage pregnancy. Since there is no routine Gonococcal & Chlamydial (GC & CT) screening in teens in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the present study was performed to find the prevalence of STI, especially Chlamydial infection, in teenage pregnancy. To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydial infection (CT), in teenage pregnancy and its related factors. One hundred and twenty-one teenage pregnancies were recruited at the ANC in Rajavithi Hospital from October 2006 to May 2007. After signing informed consent forms, they were asked to answer questionnaires about baseline data, sexual information and risk factors, after which urine specimens were collected for screening for GC and CT using the PCR technique (AMPLICOR by Roche). Later, pelvic examination was per formed by the gynecologist at the STD (sexually transmitted disease) clinic. All the data and LAB results were recorded and analyzed by the SPSS program. Numbers, percentages, means with SD, Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were used. Potential risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of STI in pregnant teenagers was 28.1% (CT = 19.8%, GC = 1.7%, hepatitis B = 3.3%, trichomoniasis 1.7%, Herpes simplex = 0.8% and condyloma acuminata = 0.8%). No Syphilis, chancroid or HIV were found in the present study Other non-STI like candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis were found in 45.5% of participants (candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis at 19.0% and 24.8%, respectively). The risk of CT infection was significantly related (6.9 times higher) to having previous sexual contact before the current partner (95% CI, 1.8-27.0). STI, especially Chlamydial infection, was found in a significant number of teenage pregnancies. Measures should be taken to prevent this resulting in complicated outcomes in the future.
Lee, Seo Yoon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major causes of medical and psychological problems globally, while adolescents in South Korea have recently shown rapid changes in sexual behaviors. We aimed to examine the association between the age of first sexual intercourse and the experience of STIs among adolescents. Additionally, in which specific time period would more likely to get infected from sexual intercourse. We used data from the 2007-2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Only adolescents with sexual intercourse experience (N = 22,381) were included, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. One dichotomized measure and one continuous measure were assessed: (i) STIs experience (defined as having had STIs); and (ii) association between STIs experience and absolute age gap (defined as temporal differences between secondary sexual character emergence age and first sexual intercourse age). Approximately 7.4% of boys and 7.5% of girls reported had STI. For both boys and girls, the chance of experiencing STIs increased as the age of first sexual intercourse decreased (boys: before elementary school [age 7 or under]: odds ratio [OR] = 10.81, first grade [age 7 or 8]: OR = 4.44, second grade [age 8 or 9]: OR = 8.90, fourth grade [age 10 or 11]: OR = 7.20, ninth grade [age 15 or 16]: OR = 2.31; girls: before elementary school: OR = 18.09, first grade: OR = 7.26, second grade: OR = 7.12, fourth grade: OR = 8.93, ninth grade: OR = 2.74). The association between the absolute age gap and STI experience was examined additionally (boys: OR = 0.93, girls: OR = 0.87). This study shows that earlier initiation of sexual intercourse increases the odds of experiencing STIs. Also as the age gap gets shorter, the odds of experiencing STIs increase. Our study suggests that it is important to consider the time period of first sexual intercourse and to reinforce a monitoring system along with the
De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D; Cook, Robert L
Teenage pregnancy and marijuana use are associated with higher risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this study, we examined the role of early and current marijuana use as it related to STI risk in a sample of young women who were pregnant teenagers, using a variety of statistical models. We recruited 279 pregnant adolescents, ages 12-18, from an urban prenatal clinic as part of a study that was developed to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal substance exposure. Six years later, they were asked about their substance use and sexual history. The association of early and late marijuana use to lifetime sexual partners and STIs was examined, and then structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to illustrate the associations among marijuana use, number of sexual partners, and STIs. Bivariate analyses revealed a dose-response effect of early and current marijuana use on STIs in young adulthood. Early and current marijuana use also predicted a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. However, the effect of early marijuana use on STIs was mediated by lifetime number of sexual partners in the SEM, whereas African-American race, more externalizing problems, and a greater number of sexual partners were directly related to more STIs. Adolescent pregnancy, early marijuana use, mental health problems, and African-American race were significant risk factors for STIs in young adult women who had become mothers during adolescence. Pregnant teenage girls should be screened for early drug use and mental health problems, because they may benefit the most from the implementation of STI screening and skill-based prevention programs.
Go, Vivian Fei-ling; Quan, Vu Minh; Chung, A; Zenilman, Jonathan; Hanh, Vu Thi Minh; Celentano, David
We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and 18 women in the general population of northern Vietnam. A framework integrating Andersen's behavioral model of health services use and Zurayk's multi-layered model was used to conceptualize women's health-seeking behavior for STD symptoms. Both men and women noted clear gender differences in sexual roles and expectations. According to participants, a woman's primary roles in northern Vietnam are socially constructed as that of a wife and mother-and in these roles, she is expected to behave in a faithful and obedient manner vis à vis her husband. It emerged that men's marital and sexual roles are less clearly defined by traditional norms and are more permissive in their tolerance of premarital and extramarital sex. For women, however, these activities are socially condemned. Finally, since STDs are associated with sexual promiscuity, both men and women expressed anxiety about telling their partners about an STD; women's expressions were characterized more by fear of social and physical consequences, whereas men expressed embarrassment. Community level interventions that work towards disassociating STDs from traditional social norms may enable Vietnamese women to report possible STD symptoms and promote diagnosis and care for STDs.
Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.
Werber, Dirk; Evans, Meirion R; Rh Thomas, Daniel
Background Current routine surveillance schemes for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United Kingdom (UK) are not designed for outbreak identification. Recognising STI outbreaks, therefore, depends almost entirely on the alertness of health professionals. The objective of this study was to explore health professionals' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, identification and investigation of STI outbreaks in Wales. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Wales in June 2005, and sent a questionnaire to consultants of genitourinary medicine (GUM, n = 11), a consultant microbiologist from each laboratory (n = 14), all consultants in communicable disease control (n = 5), and to epidemiologists of the National Public Health Service (n = 4). Results 26 (76%) of 34 survey recipients responded. Of these, 17 (65%) ranked the investigation of STI outbreaks as important or very important, and 19 (73%) perceived participation in the investigation of an STI outbreak as part of their responsibility. Only six (25%) respondents had actively searched their computer system or patient records for a possible STI outbreak in the previous twelve months, and 15 (63%) had never looked for an outbreak. Of seven GUM physicians who said they had identified at least one STI outbreak, three had never informed public health authorities. Conclusion Prompt identification and coordinated investigation of outbreaks, usually through a multidisciplinary outbreak control team, is central to the control of many infectious diseases. This does not appear to be the case for STIs, which we believe represents a lost opportunity to reduce transmission. Besides improved surveillance methods, a change in culture towards STI outbreaks is needed among health professionals in Wales. PMID:17062138
Full Text Available Background. High risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV persistence is the most important cervical cancer risk factor, while Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium(MG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and parvum (UP are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs causing infertility, pregnancy complication, lung problems in newborns. Methods. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 cervical swabs, 110 seminal fluids and 1440 Thin Prep, were tested with culture methods, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR and multiplex SYBR Green PCR-endpoint to detect STDs. PCR- endpoint was performed to detect HPV. Results. Culture methods showed the lowest sensitivity: for MH it was only 24% (compared to RT-PCR. UP/UU were the most frequent pathogens (13% with culture, 29% with PCR-endpoint, 41,67% with RT-PCR. Turn Around Time was respectively: 48h, 6h and 2h. RT-PCR cervical frequencies for CT, MH, MG, UU, UP were: 5.42%, 11.03%, 1.81%, 11.21% and 35.08%. HPV positivity in primary and secondary screening was 17.33% and 51.14%. Highes t positivity age group was: 23-32 years for CT (17%, and 18-27 years for HPV (33%. Conclusions. RT-PCR is more sensitive, faster, less expensive than other molecular tests like PCR-endpoint and microarrays. It allows more efficient laboratory organization: pre-analytical phase is more automated and enable the implementation of further diagnostic tests for pathologies that need rapid identification, such as meningitidis and sepsis, with reduced human and instrumental resource. Regarding STDs screening, it should be performed in women: for CT at least up to 27 years; for HPV between 35-50 years, since persisting HR-HPV infection is responsible of high-grade lesions.
Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS/VIH/sida entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos A novel school-based strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs, and teen pregnancies
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el diseño de un estudio en escuelas preparatorias para evaluar una intervención de prevención de VIH/sida y embarazos no planeados, y presentar los resultados de su encuesta basal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se implementó una intervención sobre VIH/sida/ITS, dirigida a adolescentes, incluyendo anticoncepción de emergencia (AE, y se diseñó una evaluación prospectiva aleatorizada controlada para medir la efectividad de la misma. Se llevó a cabo una encuesta basal, de la que se deriva un diagnóstico de los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales de la población objetivo. RESULTADOS: De las 40 escuelas participantes, 11 177 estudiantes de primero de preparatoria (52% mujeres; edad media de ambos sexos de 15.5 años participaron en la encuesta basal. De ellos, 10% de las mujeres y 24% de los hombres dijeron tener experiencia sexual, y únicamente 39% reportó haber usado condón en la primera relación. De los sexualmente activos, un tercio de los hombres y la quinta parte de las mujeres reportaron haber experimentado zafadura o rotura del condón. La mayor parte de los participantes había escuchado previamente sobre la AE. CONCLUSIONES: La baja proporción del uso de condón, aunado al hecho de que se reportan problemas para su uso efectivo, refuerza la idea del diseño de este estudio: proponer un método anticonceptivo de respaldo al condón, como la AE, razonablemente conocida y con disposición para su uso.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the study design of an HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention program targeting high school students, and to present the results from the baseline survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A school curriculum was developed to inform adolescent students about HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, which included information on emergency contraception (EC for adolescent students. A randomized controlled study was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effect of this intervention. The baseline survey
Romanowski, B; Campbell, P J; Preiksaitis, J K; Fonseca, K
To investigate the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C infection in association with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sexual practices, and injection drug use. All eligible men and women attending two STD clinics in Alberta, Canada, from May 1994 to May 1995 were studied. Anonymous, unlinked serosurveys were performed using leftover sera drawn for routine syphilis, hepatitis B, or HIV testing. Self-administered questionnaires collected a wide range of data: demographic, sexual behaviors, condom use, STD history, the exchange of drugs or money for sex, and drug and alcohol use. HIV seroprevalence in the overall sample group (n = 6,668) was 1.5%. Univariate analysis showed significant relationships for age between 30 years and 49 years, men having sex with men, injection drug use regardless of sexual orientation, history of STD, anal sex, and exchanging money or drugs for sex. At the multivariate level, only men having sex with men, injection drug use, and age more than 30 years remained predictive of HIV infection. The prevalence of hepatitis C was 3.4% with significant associations being injection drug use and exchanging money or drugs for sex. The behavioral associations between sex practices, injection drug use, and HIV and hepatitis C seroprevalence warrant ongoing investigation. Continuing prevention programs targeted at safer sex practices (particularly for men having sex with men) and the use of clean needles are needed.
Pollack, Lance M; Boyer, Cherrie B; Weinstein, Neil D
Research on the relationship between sexual risk behavior and perceived risk for contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) has yielded mixed results. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which 3 measures of perceived risk accurately reflect 5 sexual risk behaviors in a sample of healthy, sexually active young adult women. A positive monotonic relationship between sexual risk behavior and perceived risk for STIs is hypothesized. A sample of 1192 female U.S. Marine Corps on their first duty assignment 10 to 11 months (on average) after graduation from recruit training answered a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire as part of a larger study evaluating an intervention to prevent STIs and unintended pregnancy that was administered during recruit training. All but 1 of the 15 bivariate associations between sexual risk behavior and perceived risk for STIs was statistically significant. The expected positive monotonic relationship was observed except for condom use. Women who never used condoms during intercourse reported lower levels of perceived risk than occasional users and, in some subgroups, consistent condom users. Multivariate analyses further explored the relationship between condom use and perceived risk. The results suggest that interventions directed at raising awareness of susceptibility to STIs should emphasize how the individual's own behavior puts them at risk, regardless of situation or context.
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.
Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined this…
Donald, W H
The factors associated with the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents in England and Wales are both social and medical. Among the social factors is the large part played by sex in periodicals, advertisements, the theater, radio, and television. Also playing their part are increased mobility of populations, particularly moves from rural to urban areas, increased affluence, increased alcohol comsumption and leisure time together with greater personal freedom. The medical factors include the prevalence of asymptomatic infection mainly in women but also in men, the high incidence in homosexual men who may be asymptomatic and very promiscuous, and the fact that modern treatment is simple and effective reduces the fear of infection. Furthermore, modern contraceptive techniques such as the IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) offer no barriers to infection unlike the condom and diaphragm. Syphilis is no longer a problem in the UK, as the incidence has remained at a low level of 2-3 cases/100,000 population for the past 20 years. Gonorrhea has become a problem in its place reaching almost epidemic proportions by 1975, although the incidence is now showing some sign of leveling off. Nonspecific urethritis in men and nonspecific genital infection in women, and the virus condition of herpes genitalis and genital warts have all continued to increase in incidence. In most clinics 40-50% of female patients with gonorrhea are under the age of 20. Changing patterns of sexual behavior have altered the pattern of disease. Oral coitus, both fellatio and cunnilingus, have become more prevalent and can lead to pharyngeal gonorrhea which can be symptomless in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Rectal gonorrhea occurs in women as well as in male homosexuals and can be a cause of failure of initial treatment. The diagnosis of gonorrhea is a bacteriological diagnosis, and smears and cultures must be taken from the urethra and cervix in the female. It is gradually
Max A Chernesky
Full Text Available Laboratory staff dealing with samples from victims must be aware that such patients have been psychologically traumatized and deserve special care. The help of a sexual assault care team should be sought if available, and appropriate specimens should be collected two to 10 days after an incident, preferably in a single visit. Specimens should be clearly labelled, and the laboratory should be informed. In the laboratory, all procedures need to be clearly documented. There are special requirements for the collection of forensic specimens and associated records, which may later be required for legal proceedings. The laboratory must know what the current legal status is for any test being used in that community. The present article serves as a guideline to more detailed practice standards for the investigation of individual sexually transmitted infections in assault and abuse situations.
Nelson, Martin R; Sutton, Kelly J; Brook, Bindi S; Mallet, Dann G; Simpson, Daniel P; Rank, Roger G
Sexually-transmitted pathogens often have severe reproductive health implications if treatment is delayed or absent, especially in females. The complex processes of disease progression, namely replication and ascension of the infection through the genital tract, span both extracellular and intracellular physiological scales, and in females can vary over the distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. The complexity of these processes, coupled with the common impossibility of obtaining comprehensive and sequential clinical data from individual human patients, makes mathematical and computational modelling valuable tools in developing our understanding of the infection, with a view to identifying new interventions. While many within-host models of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) are available in existing literature, these models are difficult to deploy in clinical/experimental settings since simulations often require complex computational approaches. We present STI-GMaS (Sexually-Transmitted Infections - Graphical Modelling and Simulation), an environment for simulation of STI models, with a view to stimulating the uptake of these models within the laboratory or clinic. The software currently focuses upon the representative case-study of Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen of humans. Here, we demonstrate the use of a hybrid PDE-cellular automata model for simulation of a hypothetical Chlamydia vaccination, demonstrating the effect of a vaccine-induced antibody in preventing the infection from ascending to above the cervix. This example illustrates the ease with which existing models can be adapted to describe new studies, and its careful parameterisation within STI-GMaS facilitates future tuning to experimental data as they arise. STI-GMaS represents the first software designed explicitly for in-silico simulation of STI models by non-theoreticians, thus presenting a novel route to bridging the gap between computational
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) remain an important public health challenge among Nigerian students. Abuja University is located in a region of high STDs prevalence. However, it is not clear what students do to minimize their risk of contracting STDs. The purpose of the study was to explore sexual practices that ...
Conhecimentos de adolescentes sobre Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis: subsídios para prevenção Conocimientos de adolescentes sobre Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles: subsidios para la prevención Teenagers' knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: strategies for prevention
José Roberto da Silva Brêtas
Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento de adolescentes sobre as formas de transmissão e prevenção das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. Metodos: envolveu 920 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos de idade eos dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário estruturado. Resultado: os resultados demonstraram que a principal fonte para obtenção de informações sobre o assunto foi o professor; as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis não são totalmente desconhecidas para os adolescentes do estudo, sendo a AIDS a mais conhecida.Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de conocimiento de adolescentes sobre las formas de transmisión y prevención de las EST. Métodos: Envolvió 920 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años de edad, los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: Los resultados demostraron que la principal fuente para obtención de informaciones sobre el asunto fue el profesor; las Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles no son totalmente desconocidas para los adolescentes del estudio, siendo el SIDA la más conocida.Objective: To identify teenager's knowledge of transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Methods: A sample of children and teenagers aged between 10 and 19 years participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire developed for the study. Results: The findings suggested that the main source of information on Sexually Transmitted Diseases was the participants' school teacher. Sexually transmitted diseases are not entirely unknown by the participants in the study, with AIDS the most notorious.
Augenbraun, M; Bachmann, L; Wallace, T; Dubouchet, L; McCormack, W; Hook, E W
To determine rates of compliance with doxycycline therapy for patients attending two inner city sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics using the MEMS (Medication Event Monitoring System) technology (Aprex Corporation, Fremont, CA). An observational study. Two STD clinics in Brooklyn, New York and Birmingham, Alabama. Patients warranting doxycycline as antichlamydial therapy by usual clinical criteria (e.g., documented chlamydial infections, gonococcal urethritis, mucopurulent cervicitis) were enrolled consecutively from both clinics into four separate categories according to gender and the presence or absence of symptoms: symptomatic men (77), asymptomatic men (30), symptomatic women (83), asymptomatic women (33). In the clinic area, patients were given their doxycycline in standard 30-dram medication bottles fitted with the MEMS cap, which is capable of recording the date and time of each bottle opening and closing. This information was then retrieved using a software program developed by the manufacturer. Patients were instructed to return the bottle and cap at the completion of therapy. Efforts were made to contact those who did not return their bottles by both telephone and mail. Bottle openings as recorded by the MEMS were considered to represent use of medication. Patients were considered strictly compliant with prescription instructions if bottle openings and closings occurred at least twice daily for 6 consecutive days. Noncompliance was defined as initially opening the medication more than 48 hours after leaving the clinic or opening the bottle less than once daily for 5 consecutive days. Usage between these extremes was classified as intermediate. Eighty percent of 223 patients enrolled completed the study by returning their bottles. The rate of strict compliance with prescription instruction was 25%. The rate of noncompliance was 24%. Fifty-one percent used some intermediate amount of medication. There was no statistical difference in compliance by
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among key populations in Cambodia continues to rise. To address this issue, KHANA, the largest national HIV organization in the country developed and implemented the Sustainable Action against HIV and AIDS in Communities (SAHACOM project. This study aims to determine the impacts of the SAHACOM on sexual behaviors and the uptake of HIV/STI services among men who have sex with men (MSM in Cambodia. Methods We compared outcome indicators at midterm (n = 352 and endline (n = 394. Surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2014 in Battambang and Siem Reap provinces. A two-stage cluster sampling method was employed to select the study sample for structured interviews. Results The midterm and endline samples were similar. The average number of sexual partners in the past three months decreased significantly from 6.2 to 4.0 (p = 0.03. The proportion of MSM who reported paying for sex with men in the past three months also decreased significantly from 19.0 % to 9.7 % (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.3-3.0. No significant change was found in condom and lubricant use in all types of relationships. Regarding STIs, 28.1 % of MSM at midterm reported having at least one STI symptom in the past three months compared to 6.1 % at endline (OR = 4.6, 95 % CI = 2.9–7.4; out of them, 14.1 % of MSM at midterm sought treatment compared to 20.7 % at endline (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.1–6.9. The proportion of MSM who reported using illicit drugs in the past three months also decreased significantly from 12.2 % to 5.1 % (OR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.4–4.2. However, the proportion of MSM who reported having been tested for HIV in the past six months decreased significantly from 94.1 % to 77.1 % (OR = 2.9, 95 % CI = 1.8–3.6. Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that the SAHACOM was effective in improving sexual behaviors and related
Hickey, Mary T; Shedlin, Michele G
The availability of emergency contraception pills (ECP) over the counter (OTC) has the potential to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancy; however, the increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition, related to unprotected intercourse, has not been adequately addressed. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into risk perceptions for STIs and subsequent unintended pregnancy in women who have purchased ECP OTC. Twenty-one women, aged 18-24, attending a private university in an urban setting, who purchased and used ECP OTC participated in 1-h, individual interviews. Narrative, descriptive findings indicated that these women did not consider themselves at risk for STI or unintended pregnancy, despite having used ECP OTC. Pregnancy prevention was paramount for these women, which overshadowed concerns regarding STIs. Women at risk for unintended consequences of sexual activity are not fully cognizant of those potential outcomes and do not take measures to prevent their occurrence. The availability of ECP OTC offers protection against unintended pregnancy; however, opportunities for health promotion and prevention counseling may be lost. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.
McCall, George J.
Sexual assault prevention programming remains a confused, scattered, and sporadic enterprise with little scientific underpinning. Sexual assault prevention suffers because it neither fits the traditional crime prevention model, nor the traditional public health model of prevention programming. Traces political and technical consequences, and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive strategies. Methods Youth aged between 18 and 25 years attending an STI clinic were recruited. Social, sexual and demographic characteristics were elicited using a structured standard questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for syphilis and HIV infections. Urethral, high vaginal and cervical swabs were screened for common STI agents. Results A total of 304 youth were studied with mean age of 21.5 and 20.3 years for males and females respectively. 63.5% of youth were seeking STI care. The mean age of coitache was 16.4 and 16.2 years for males and females respectively. The first sexual partner was significantly older in females compared to male youth (23.0 vs 16.8 years (p Conclusion Most female youth seen at the STI clinic had their first sexual intercourse with older males. Youth were engaging in high risk unprotected sexual practices which were predisposing them to STIs and unplanned pregnancies. There is a great need to establish more youth-friendly reproductive health clinics, encourage consistent and correct use of condoms, delay in sexual debut and avoid older sexual partners in females.
Decker, Michele R; McCauley, Heather L; Phuengsamran, Dusita; Janyam, Surang; Silverman, Jay G
The trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking. To compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FSWs on the basis of experiences of trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Data from a national sample of FSWs in Thailand (n=815) was used to assess (a) the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism into sex work and (b) associations of sex trafficking with sexual risk and health outcomes. Approximately 10% of FSWs met criteria for trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Compared with their non-trafficked counterparts, sex-trafficked FSWs were more likely to have experienced sexual violence at initiation to sex work (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.72), recent workplace violence or mistreatment (ARR 1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), recent condom failure (ARR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.80), condom non-use (ARR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49 to 7.52) and abortion (ARR 2.83, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.39). Both the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work and the threats to sexual and reproductive health observed on the basis of trafficking status show the need for comprehensive efforts to identify and support this vulnerable population. Moreover, existing STI/HIV-prevention programming may be stymied by the limited condom-use capacity and high levels of violence observed among those trafficked into sex work.
van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Schellevis, Francois G.; Sandfort, Theo G.; Coenen, Ton T.; Bindels, Patrick J.
Health-care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related symptoms is not well known in the Netherlands. Within the framework of a large representative study, the second National Survey of General Practice (NIVEL 2001), 9687 persons aged 18 years and older were interviewed about
Bergen, J.E.A.M. van; Kerssens, J.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Sandfort, T.G.; Coenen, T.T.; Bindels, P.J.
Health-care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related symptoms is not well known in the Netherlands. Within the framework of a large representative study, the second National Survey of General Practice (NIVEL 2001), 9687 persons aged 18 years and older were interviewed about
Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P
The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services.
Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to prospectively detect the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (CT, neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, and syphilis in a population of asymptomatic sexually active MSM. Methods: Rectal, pharyngeal, and urine samples for CT, NG, MG, and HR-HPV were analyzed in 116 MSM patients attending the clinic for their routine follow-up during the period the study was conducted: 99 patients were issued from the clinic routine follow-up for their HIV infection, and 17 attended the clinic because they were sexual partners of an HIV infected male. Results: An STI was found in 16% of the patients (19/116, with at least one bacterial strain (CT, NG, or MG found in one site (the pharynx, rectum, or urine. Conclusions: In this study, 16% of the MSM reporting recent RAI were asymptomatic carriers of rectal CT, NG, or MG. According to the high prevalence of asymptomatic STIs found in our MSM population and in other studies, prevention efforts in the form of counseling about the risk of STI need to be done in the population of MSM.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer
Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front end of the justice system. Female-male, multi-group latent class analyses identified two subgroups, High Risk and Lower Risk, of youths described by a latent construct of risk based on drug test results, STD test results, and a classification for the seriousness of arrest charge. The results found: (1) a similar classification distinguished High Risk and Lower Risk male and female youths, and (2) important gender group differences in sexual risk related factors (e.g., substance use during sexual encounters). Among the youths in this sample who tested positive for an STD, 66% of the girls and 57% of the boys were released back into the community after arrest. Overall, our findings raise serious public health and social welfare concerns, for both the youths and the community. Prevention and intervention implications of these findings are also discussed.
Chen, Qiang; Yin, Yue-Ping; Dai, Xiu-Qin; Yu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Hong-Chun; Zhu, Bang-Yong; Gao, Xing; Chen, Xiang-Sheng
Gonorrhoea has been one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. A clear understanding of its transmission dynamics is important in formulating prevention and control measures. To investigate the distribution of opa types in patients attending at STD clinics in China and to evaluate the concordance between epidemiologic data and opa-typing results. Opa typing was conducted for 330 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from the patients at 4 STDs clinics in China, and the epidemiologic data were collected as well. A total of 309 opa types were detected from the 330 isolates. Two hundred ninety-two opa types were unique, and 17 opa types were found in more than 1 patient. Opa typing confirmed all 9 sexual links that were revealed by epidemiologic information and further identified 9 opa clusters and 8 similar pairs. Opa typing is a discriminatory tool that can be used in epidemiologic studies on gonococcal infections. This technique is more powerful than epidemiologic data to identify sexual links and improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of gonorrhoea.
Relações afetivo-sexuais e prevenção contra infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e aids entre mulheres do município de Vitória - ES Rrelaciones afectivo-sexuales y prevención contra infecciones sexualmente transmisibles y sida entre mujeres del municipio de Vitoria-ES Sexual relationships and infections sexually transmitted and aids prevention among women in Vitória-ES, Brazil
Melissa Mattos Amorim
preventivas. Se observó que tales percepciones también estaban estrechamente vinculadas a sus relaciones e implicaciones de género.The aim of this study was to understand how women deal with Infections Sexually Transmitted (IST and Aids prevention within the context of relationships. Two discussion groups and 12 individual interviews were carried out with women aged 20-35. One of the groups was formed by five participants, who attended school for a period inferior or equivalent to eight years (Group 1 and, the other, by seven university students or graduates (Group 2. Only three participants (two from Group 1 and one from Group 2 reported consistent use of condom as a preventive measure against IST/Aids. Sexual exclusivity between partners was the main explanation given for the inconsistent use of condom. Values and beliefs related to factors such as, knowing the sexual partners well and trust invested in them, guided participants' perceptions regarding the circumstances in which adhesion to preventive measures is necessary. Results also suggest that those perceptions were associated to the type of relationship and other implications regarding that.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415
... org/ 2016/ 05/ sexual- assault- prevention- on- u- s- college- campuses- a- national- scan/ n Not Alone www. notalone. gov n CDC’s Report to the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual ... ...
Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie Y S
Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of "tweeters" (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of "tweet" messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs-chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words "chlamydia" or "HIV", and the hashtags "#chlamydia" or "#HIV". Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words "chlamydia" and/or "HIV". Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable
Isil Irem Budakoglu
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to determine the knowledge level and behaviors of nurses towards AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD who are working at Baskent University Ankara Hospital\tDesign: There were 321 nurses at Baskent University Ankara Hospital at January 2005. Two hundred fifty six (79.7% of them participated the study. The data was collected with a questionnaire.\tMain outcome measures: The nurses who were answered the question “Are you using any method in order to prevent STD?” as\t“needless” were accepted as “sexually inactive”. The level of AIDS knowledge was evaluated over 100 point scale.\tRESULTS: The mean age of nurses was 25.8±0.2 (19-38, while 69.8% of them were college or faculty graduate and 71.1% of them were single. AIDS (94.4%, syphilis (70.6% and gonorrhea (60.2% were the first three STD implicated by nurses. The average value of AIDS knowledge of nurses was 83.8±0.8. The average value of nurses who had bachelor’s degree or doctorate, who were\tat the 26-27 age group, who were married or widowed and sexually inactive group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Only 31 nurses (20.1% declared that they have been using any preventive method for STD.\tCONCLUSIONS: It is determined, although the status of STD and AIDS knowledge of nurses are high, but the percentage of usage of any preventive method is low.
In 2005 the WHO declared as many as 457 million people worldwide were affected by sexually transmitted infections. Transvestite is one of a high-risk group for contracting STIs and HIV. STI prevalence is still high on tranvestite, this is due to the use of condoms is still low and this can trigger the occurrence of STI. This study aimed to look at sexual behavior risk of transvestites, includes knowledge and attitudes related to the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on trans...
Hoover, Karen W; Parsell, Bradley W; Leichliter, Jami S; Habel, Melissa A; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L
We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients.
Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K
This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sánchez Recio, Raquel; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Santabárbara Serrano, Javier
To measure incidence and main risk factors related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Daroca Prison (Zaragoza, Spain). A retrospective cohort study (2005-2013) to measure the incidence of STI and a cross-sectional study to measure risk factors. Of the 203 inmates, 79 developed an STI, 37 had a previous STI, 55.2% lacked knowledge on STI prevention, and 28.9% showed behaviours unfavourable for STI prevention. The incidence rate was 6.5 STIs per 1,000 inmates-year. The most frequent STIs were hepatitis B (39.7%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (19.1%), herpes simplex (16.2%) and HIV (8.8%). The risk (hazard ratio, HR) of acquiring a new STI was significantly higher in inmates with a history of previous STI (HR=2.61; 95%CI: 1.01 to 6.69), and was at the limit of significance for non-preventive behaviour (HR=2.10; 95%CI: 0.98 to 4.53), but not in knowledge related to STIs (HR=1.33; 95%CI: 0.58 to 3.07). The most important risk factors in prison are behaviours related to STIs and previous history of STIs. Other factors are being a repeat offender, injecting drug use, or being in a methadone programme. Health personnel and peer education can facilitate prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing reproductive and sexual health services is an important and challenging aspect of caring for displaced populations, and preventive and curative sexual health services may play a role in reducing HIV transmission in complex emergencies. From 1995, the non-governmental "Reproductive Health Group" (RHG worked amongst refugees displaced by conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia (1989–2004. RHG recruited refugee nurses and midwives to provide reproductive and sexual health services for refugees in the Forest Region of Guinea, and trained refugee women as lay health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 to assess sexual health needs, knowledge and practices among refugees, and the potential impact of RHG's work. Methods Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire on self-reported STI symptoms, and sexual health knowledge, attitudes and practices to 445 men and 444 women selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Chi-squared tests were used where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors (to adjust for the cluster sampling design was used to assess if factors such as source of information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs was associated with better knowledge. Results 30% of women and 24% of men reported at least one episode of genital discharge and/or genital ulceration within the past 12 months. Only 25% correctly named all key symptoms of STIs in both sexes. Inappropriate beliefs (e.g. that swallowing tablets before sex, avoiding public toilets, and/or washing their genitals after sex protected against STIs were prevalent. Respondents citing RHG facilitators as their information source were more likely to respond correctly about STIs; RHG facilitators were more frequently cited than non-healthcare information sources in men who correctly named the key STI symptoms (odds ratio (OR = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–13.9, and in men and
The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a telephone survey of US teenagers in the spring of 1996 to gather information about what teenagers believe they need in terms of sex education and who they would like to teach them. It was found that although 55% of the teenagers believed their parents to be their most complete and reliable source of information about contraception and sex, they actually received more information from school sources. The respondents indicated that 54% of their parents had failed to discuss contraception with them, and 45% of the parents had not discussed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In many cases, parents waited until "too late" to broach these subjects. Information about contraception was usually too general to be of practical use. The survey also revealed that the teenagers exhibited inconsistent use of contraception. While 55% of the sexually active teens indicated that they worry about pregnancy, only 48% stated that they always use contraception. When asked why teenagers had unplanned pregnancies, most responded that the teenagers felt immune from pregnancy, indicating a need for more information about the specific risks of pregnancy. About half of the young people believe that teenagers have sexual intercourse because they think they are ready. The other reason cited by more than half of the respondents was to increase popularity. Teenagers, thus, need specific information about how to prevent pregnancy and STDs and about how to resist pressure to have sex (and avoid situations, such as alcohol or drug use, which are conducive to sexual behavior). While 69% of the respondents recognize teen pregnancy as a "big" problem, they have unrealistic expectations about their ability (should they become pregnant) to finish high school or to marry the mother/father of the child, and they underestimate their potential need for public assistance or their willingness to resort to abortion.
Artzrouni, Marc; Deuchert, Eva
We apply a consistent sexual partnership formation model which hinges on the assumption that one gender's choices drives the process (male or female dominant model). The other gender's behavior is imputed. The model is fitted to UK sexual behavior data and applied to a simple incidence model of HSV-2. With a male dominant model (which assumes accurate male reports on numbers of partners) the modeled incidences of HSV-2 are 77% higher for men and 50% higher for women than with a female dominant model (which assumes accurate female reports). Although highly stylized, our simple incidence model sheds light on the inconsistent results one can obtain with misreported data on sexual activity and age preferences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Llata, Eloisa; Bernstein, Kyle T; Kerani, Roxanne P; Pathela, Preeti; Schwebke, Jane R; Schumacher, Christina; Stenger, Mark; Weinstock, Hillard S
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains an important source of preventable reproductive morbidity, but no recent studies have singularly focused on US sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in relationship to established guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Of the 83,076 female patients seen in 14 STD clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network, 1080 (1.3%) were diagnosed as having PID from 2010 to 2011. A random sample of 219 (20%) women were selected, and medical records were reviewed for clinical history, examination findings, treatment, and diagnostic testing. Our primary outcomes were to evaluate how well PID diagnosis and treatment practices in STD clinic settings follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) treatment guidelines and to describe age group-specific rates of laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) in patients clinically diagnosed as having PID in the last 12 months, inclusive of the PID visit. Among the 219 women, 70.3% of the cases met the CDC treatment case definition for PID, 90.4% had testing for CT and GC on the PID visit, and 68.0% were treated with a CDC-recommended outpatient regimen. In the last 12 months, 95.4% were tested for CT or GC, and positivity for either organism was 43.9% in women aged 25 years or younger with PID, compared with 19.4% of women older than 25 years with PID. Compliance with CDC guidelines was documented for many of the women with PID, though not all. Our findings underscore the need for continued efforts to optimize quality of care and adherence to current guidance for PID management given the anticipated expertise of providers in these settings.
Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Vieira Junior, Elso Elias; Moysés, Ana Carolina Marteline Cavalcante; de Lima, Fernão Dias; de Morais, Fátima Regina Borges; Vizinho, Natalina Lima
BACKGROUND Sexually Transmitted Diseases are still considered a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. OBJECTIVE To examine Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevalence and the sickness impact profile of STDs in a reference health center specializing in the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. METHOD We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the medical records and interviews of 4,128 patients who had attended the center from January 1999 to December 2009. RESULTS Male patients outnumbered (76%) females (24%), Caucasians outnumbered (74.3%) those of mixed race (14.8%), blacks (10.8%) and Asians (0.1%). STD occurrence was higher in the 20-29 age group (46.2%) This population included 34.7% high school graduates, 8.7% college graduates and 0.8% illiterates. As for affective-sexual orientation, 86.5% were heterosexual, 7.8% homosexual and 5.5% bisexual. Regarding patients' sexual practices over the previous 30 days, 67.7% reported sexual intercourse with one person, 8.6% had had sex with two persons and 3.9%, with three or more people. The highest incidence of STD was condyloma acuminata, affecting 29.4% of all the patients, genital candidiasis 14.2%, and genital herpes 10.6%. Of the 44.3% who submitted to serologic testing for HIV detection 5% were positive, with a ratio of 6.8 males to 1 female. CONCLUSIONS STD prevalence remains high in Brazil and it is necessary to invest in early detection, prevention and treatment. PMID:24068122
Full Text Available Introduction: The Government of India provides treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs through government's sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics with the mandate of providing curative and preventive services for clients in the context of STIs. However, besides the patients suffering from STDs, other clients with problems related to reproductive and sexual health also attend these clinics. This study aimed to assess the profile and treatment-seeking behavior of clients attending STD clinics in government hospitals in India. Materials and Methods: This multicentric, cross-sectional study with 5098 participants was conducted over 2 months in identified 19 Indian states. Chi–square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage with STDs (62.98% was nearly double than those with non-STDs (37.1%. Around 8.2% of patients had an STD and were also HIV positive. Compared to the total STD cases, only 9% of the partners had turned up for screening. Of significance were the non-STD cases who presented with both physical and psychological symptoms including infertility. Among males, it was mainly sexual dysfunction and balanoposthitis, and in females, lower abdominal pain and bacterial vaginosis. Only 27.3% reported that they had come directly to the government facility/clinic. Nearly 38% of males and 30% of females had tried home remedies before coming to the government clinic. Majority (77.9% of the clients reported that they had never been counseled on any aspect of STD or HIV. Conclusion: The profile of clients in the various clinics across the country indicates that the name “STD Clinic” is a misnomer since the presenting complaints of clients are varied, and related not only to STDs but also to other reproductive tract problems. Furthermore, the average new patient load observed in our study is low and this was attributed to the name “STDs” given to these clinics. Renaming them as “Reproductive Health
Results: The STI group comprised 12% of the study population. Compared to those denying a history of STI, the STI group was less likely to know where to get condoms (37% vs 23%, p=.001) but more likely to use a condom at their last sexual encounter (27% vs 17%, p=.003). Women in the STI group were significantly less ...
The roles of gonorrhea and non-gonococcal urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis in the etiology of infertility due to tubal occlusion have been established by various studies. Hysterosalphingography (HSG) is done to investigate tubal patency. This study was aimed at finding the prevalence of asymptomatic sexually ...
Results also showed significant relationships between discussing sexual issues with( parents, educators, peers and no-one) and knowledge of some STI symptoms like foul smell (p=0.021), blisters on the penis (p=0.033) and clear vaginal discharge (p=0.021). These results indicate that learners have poor and inadequate ...
Full Text Available Block piedra affecting only the hairs of the pubic region is reported in a recently married young male. His wife was found to have similar disease on the hairs of the scalp and pubic region. A sexual mode of transmission of the disease to the patient from his wife is suggested.
This study set out to explore street children's vulnerability to sexual exploitation in the cities of Blantyre and Lilongwe in Malawi. Objective The objective for this study was to explore street children's vulnerability to HIV and STIs infection. Design This qualitative study employed In-depth interviews with street children in the two ...
Rodriguez Gonzalez, Zaskia M; Leavitt, Karla; Martin, Jose; Benabe, Erika; Romaguera, Josefina; Negrón, Ivette
Based on our population data, the teen pregnancy rate and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported during pregnancy are worrisome. STIs appear to pose a threat to pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), neonatal low birth weight (NLBW) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of STIs in pregnant teens and the association of this variable to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of STIs among pregnant teens during a 4-year period at our institution. Birth outcomes such as gestational age at delivery, PROM and NLBW were analyzed and compared with adults. In the four years of our study, teen pregnancy rate fluctuated from 21.7% in 2010 to 16.8% in 2013. The rate of STIs for adult and teen pregnancies was similar, 21% and 23%, respectively. Chlamydia was the most common STI (67.3%) for both groups. PTB was more prevalent among adults affected with STIs than teens, 13.8% and 11.5%, respectively. NLBW was similar among teens and adults with STIs. PROM complicated 9.1% of teen pregnancies with STIs, compared to 6.7% in adults. There was no significant correlation between the STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes on teen pregnancies for our population, except for PROM. This age group is associated with a high-risk sexual behavior and poor adherence to treatment. They would benefit from efforts to prevent unintended pregnancies and infectious diseases.
Elena R. Frati
Full Text Available Background: Migrant women are one of the most vulnerable population to health problems and well-being. This study aimed at implementing a counseling and preventive strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan, Italy. Methods: Women (ages 18–65 were enrolled at the NAGA Centre (2012–2013 and asked for a urine sample in order to carry out molecular detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng-DNA. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior information were collected. All HPV/Ct+ women were offered Pap tests and/or were prescribed antibiotic treatment. Results: 537/757 women participated in the study (acceptability rate: 70.9%. Most of the women were from Latin America (45.6% and Eastern Europe (30.7%; >60% of them had stable partners, did not use contraception and had had at least one pregnancy. The prevalence rates of HPV, Ct, Tv and Ng infections were 24.2%, 7.8%, 4.8% and 0%, respectively. In all, 43.2% of the positive women agreed to undergo a gynecological examination and accepted suitable treatment. Conclusions: This study shows an overall high prevalence of STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan. The screening strategy based on counseling and urine testing contributed to the successfully high acceptability rate. More appropriate health services that adequately address all aspects of women’s health are required.
Chen, Feng; Li, Chunguang
The Penna model is a computational model which can encompass the inheritance, mutation, evolution and ageing phenomena of population successfully. Some researchers considered social interactions in an asexual Penna model, got a complex network and found some interesting properties. We consider a sexual Penna model to study the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our model can also generate a complex network and we observed some properties in real networks, such as small-world and assortative mixing. In the real world, the fatality of STD is changing with the advancing of medicine and it can affect our life. In this paper, we uncover the effect induced by the fatality of STD. We found that fatality plays an important role in the transmission of STD because whether the STD will disappear or continue to exist depends on the fatality of STD. Also, the fatality of STD can affect the evolution of inherited diseases and average life span. Some properties found in the model should be useful for the prevention and control of STD.
Full Text Available Background: The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in women at risk of STDs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action by using conventional content analysis method. An empowerment program regarding STDs (Action was performed among 32 (with convenient sample drug user women with addicted husbands referring to the counseling center for vulnerable women (drop in enter in Isfahan in 2015. The knowledge of quiddity, transmission, and prevention of STDs, as well as some items of life skills such as self-awareness, interpersonal communication, and assertive behavior were taught in an educational program. Teaching methods were lectures, group, and individual training and role play. The impact of the program on modified belief and behavior change regarding STDs was evaluated with structured interviews. Results: Analysis of the obtained results yielded three categories. The categories were awareness of STD, believing in being at risk, and decision and change. Conclusions: Promoting self-care and prevention through education programs based on action research can make a significant reduction in the incidence of problems and cause a behavior change in women with the disease or those at risk for STDs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections, patients may prefer to keep their illness private, and choose instead to try self-treatment remedies from the internet. However, such remedies may prove hazardous if the sellers do not provide detailed advice on adverse effects, or on avoiding transmission and re-infection. We conducted an internet search to determine the availability of treatments for STIs and the nature of information provided by vendors of these treatments. Methods We conducted a systematic internet search using five different search engines in February 2007. The search term included the words "self treatment" and the name of six different common STIs. We visited the vendors' websites and recorded any information on the formulation, adverse effects, cautions, and prevention of infection. Results We identified a total of 77 treatments from 52 different companies, most of which were sold from the UK and US. The available remedies were predominantly for topical use and consisted mainly of homeopathic remedies. Only a small proportion of the web-listed products gave details on adverse effects, contraindications and interactions (22%, 25% and 9% respectively. Similarly, web vendors seldom provided advice on treatment of sexual contacts (20% of chlamydia and 25% of gonorrhea treatments or on preventive measures (13%. Conversely, evidence of effectiveness was claimed for approximately 50% of the products. Conclusion While treatments for certain STIs are widely available on the internet, purchasers of such products may potentially suffer harm because of the lack of information on adverse effects, interactions and contra-indications. Moreover, we consider the paucity of preventive health advice to be a serious omission, thereby leading to patients being needlessly exposed to, and potentially re-infected with the causative pathogens.
Schwartz, Rebecca M; Bruno, Denise M; Augenbraun, Michael A; Hogben, Matthew; Joseph, Michael A; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M; Rubin, Steve R; Wilson, Tracey E
Previous studies have shown that racial/ethnic and gender disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STI) may be due in part to factors such as poverty and income-inequality. Little has been published in the HIV/STI literature on the effect of the perception of having unmet basic needs on sexual risk behavior. Data on perceived financial need and sexual risk were collected as part of a behavioral intervention aimed at promoting STI partner notification and reducing sexual behavior among minority patients presenting for care at 1 of 2 STI treatment centers in Brooklyn, NY, between January 2002 and December 2004. Data from 528 participants collected at the 6-month follow-up visit were used for the current study. Forty-three percent of participants were categorized as having unmet needs. Those with unmet needs were more likely to report unprotected anal or vaginal sex (unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse [UAVI]; 62%) versus those who had met needs (53%). This association was significant (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% confidence interval=1.04-1.53), after controlling for age, sex, site of recruitment, intervention group membership, and country of origin. Stratified analyses indicated that, in the group that did not receive the intervention, there was a statistically significant interaction between sex and basic needs such that women with unmet needs were more likely to report any UAVI (78%) than those with met needs (54%) (adjusted odds ratio=1.18; 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.24). No such relationship was detected for men in this sample. The significant association between perceived unmet needs and UAVI appears to be particularly relevant for women. These findings provide preliminary evidence that HIV/STI intervention components that seek to directly deal with issues of reduction in partner conflict might be beneficial to women with high perceived unmet basic needs, and for whom a potential dissolution of a relationship
Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J
This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients. © The Author(s) 2014.
R. Steen (Richard)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a large and diverse category within communicable diseases, comprising more than thirty-five pathogens transmissible through sexual contact.  Common, curable bacterial and protozoal STIs manifest with
Caterino-de-Araujo, A; de-los-Santos Fortuna, E
The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and its relationship with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was investigated by serological determinations in a group of 45 women working as prostitutes in Santos, State of São Paulo. Seropositivity to HIV-1 was demonstrated in 4 (9%) of the cases and to HIV-2 in one case. Syphilis and hepatitis B were detected in 29% and 43% of the 45 women, respectively. Specific antibodies to C. trachomatis were found in all subjects. The high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis and C. trachomatis in this population was related to predisposing factors such as number of sexual contacts, sexual practices, drug use and episodes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Aisyah Riseta Aini Hendrana
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are major health problem. Until today, the prevalence of STIs is still high and the incidence is increasing. Almost half of STIs new cases occur in adolescents andyoung adults. It is assumed that there is a positive correlation of knowledge about STIs with attitude and practices; therefore, giving proper information of STIs to adolescents could influence their safe sexual practices, and further, it can prevent STIs to occur. The objective of this study is to discover knowledge and attitude of senior high school students in Jatinangor towards STIs. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Sekolah Menengah Atas Persatuan Guru Republik Indonesia (SMA PGRI Jatinangor and Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri (SMAN Jatinangor from May to September 2013. Questionnaires were completed by 278 respondents selected by stratified cluster random sampling. Results: More than half respondents had poor knowledge about STIs (56.5% while 53.2% of the respondents had positive attitude towards STIs. Most mentioned choices as the information source of STIs were teacher (66.5%, followed by television/radio (45.3%, friends (37.8%, newspaper/magazine (21.2%, mother (16.2%, sibling (7.2%, and father (6.5%. Conclusions: More detail information about STIs is needed by adolescents as a way to encourage safe sexual practices. Teacher and parents are expected to be the source information of STIs while mass media can also be used to educate adolescents. Education on STIs for teachers is also needed since they are as the main source for educating the adolescents.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.
Cramer, Ryan; Martinez, Nina; Roberts, Craig; Habel, Melissa A; Leino, E Victor; Leichliter, Jami S
We examined expedited partner therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhea in college and university health centers by institutional and policy characteristics. Expedited partner therapy awareness and use was low (44.1% used), did not differ by institutional characteristics, and differed by policy environment. Our findings suggest missed opportunities for sexually transmitted disease prevention in college and university health centers.
Chico, R Matthew; Chandramohan, Daniel
Introduction: The first-line therapy for the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). There is an urgent need to identify safe, well-tolerated and efficacious alternatives to SP due to widespread Plasmodium falciparum resistance. Combination therapy using azithromycin and chloroquine is one possibility that has demonstrated adequate parasitological response > 95% in clinical trials of non-pregnant adults in sub-Saharan Africa and where IPTp is a government policy in 33 countries. Areas covered: Key safety, tolerability and efficacy data are presented for azithromycin and chloroquine, alone and/or in combination, when used to prevent and/or treat P. falciparum, P. vivax, and several curable sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STI/RTI). Pharmacokinetic evidence from pregnant women is also summarized for both compounds. Expert opinion: The azithromycin-chloroquine regimen that has demonstrated consistent efficacy in non-pregnant adults has been a 3-day course containing daily doses of 1 g of azithromycin and 600 mg base of chloroquine. The pharmacokinetic evidence of these compounds individually suggests that dose adjustments may not be necessary when used in combination for treatment efficacy against P. falciparum, P. vivax, as well as several curable STI/ RTI among pregnant women, although clinical confirmation will be necessary. Mass trachoma-treatment campaigns have shown that azithromycin selects for macrolide resistance in the pneumococcus, which reverses following the completion of therapy. Most importantly, no evidence to date suggests that azithromycin induces pneumococcal resistance to penicillin. PMID:21736423
Denison, Hayley J; Bromhead, Collette; Grainger, Rebecca; Dennison, Elaine M; Jutel, Annemarie
To investigate the barriers that prevent or delay people seeking a sexually transmitted infection (STI) test. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 university students, who are a group prone to behaviours putting them at risk of STIs, to understand the factors that had prevented or delayed them from going for an STI test in the past. Resulting data were thematically analysed employing a qualitative content analysis method, and a final set of themes identified. There were three main types of barrier to STI testing. These were: personal (underestimating risk, perceiving STIs as not serious, fear of invasive procedure, self-consciousness in genital examination and being too busy); structural (financial cost of test and clinician attributes and attitude); and social (concern of being stigmatised). Conclusions and implications for public health: These data will help health providers and policy-makers provide services that minimise barriers and develop effective strategies for improving STI testing rates. The results of this study suggest a holistic approach to encouraging testing is required, which includes addressing personal beliefs, working with healthcare providers to minimise structural barriers and developing initiatives to change social views about STIs. © 2017 The Authors.
Cleghorn, F R; Jack, N; Murphy, J R; Edwards, J; Mahabir, B; Paul, R; White, F; Bartholomew, C; Blattner, W A
To study trends in prevalence and to ascertain risk factors for HIV-1 among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attenders in Trinidad. Serial cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1987-1988 and 1990-1991 at a centralized STD clinic in Port of Spain. A case-control study was carried out to examine in greater detail the demographic and behavioral risk factors for HIV-1 among self-declared heterosexuals in this population. HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-3.9] in 1987-1988 to 13.6% (95% CI, 11.8-15.6) in 1990-1991. Age > or = 40 years [odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8], urban residence (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and human T-lymphotropic virus-I seropositivity (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0) were significant risk factors for HIV-1 in 1990-1991. In the case-control analysis, significant independent risk factors for men included current genital ulcer disease (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.2-12.5), current genital warts (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.0), having ever had syphilis (OR, 3.2; 95% CI 1.6-6.1), and use of crack cocaine in the preceding 6 months (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.7-14.2). Corresponding risk factors for women were commercial sex work (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.3-25.7), initiation of sexual activity before age 14 years (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0), and past non-gonococcal cervicitis (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.3-13.1). HIV-1 in this setting is primarily heterosexually transmitted in a milieu of unprotected sexual activity fuelled by a crack cocaine epidemic. Targeted interventions to prevent, detect and treat STD and crack cocaine addiction, as well as disrupt their adverse synergism, may substantially reduce HIV-1 transmission in this population.
Anwar, Mudassir; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar S; Ahmadi, Keivan; Khan, Tahir M
Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) and their sexual activity to help establish control and education programmes. Students from form 4 (aged between 15 to 16 years), form 5 (aged between 16 to 17 years) and form 6 (aged between 18 to 20 years) in their class rooms were approached and asked to complete self administered and anonymous pre-validated questionnaires. SPSS for windows version 13 was used to analyze the results statistically and results were presented in tabular form. Data was collected from 1139 students aged between 15 to 20 years, 10.6% of which claimed that they never heard about STIs. Sexual experience related significantly with gender, race, and education level. Approximately 12.6% claimed to have sexual experience of which 75.7% had their sexual debut at 15-19 years and 38.2% were having more than 3 partners. Sexual experience was found to be significantly associated with gender (p = 0.003), ethnicity (p = 0.001) and education level (p = 0.030). However, multiple partner behaviour was significantly associated only with gender (p = 0.010). Mean knowledge score was 11.60 +/- 8.781 and knowledge level was significantly associated with religion (p = 0.005) education level (p = 0.000), course stream (p = 0.000), socioeconomic class (p = 0.000) and sexual experience (p = 0.022). It was concluded that school students have moderate level of knowledge about STIs although they are sexually active. Interventions such as reinforcing the link between STIs and HIV/AIDS, assessing the current status of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually transmitted Infections (STIs and their sexual activity to help establish control and education programmes. Methods Students from form 4 (aged between 15 to 16 years, form 5 (aged between 16 to 17 years and form 6 (aged between 18 to 20 years in their class rooms were approached and asked to complete self administered and anonymous pre-validated questionnaires. SPSS for windows version 13 was used to analyze the results statistically and results were presented in tabular form. Results Data was collected from 1139 students aged between 15 to 20 years, 10.6% of which claimed that they never heard about STIs. Sexual experience related significantly with gender, race, and education level. Approximately 12.6% claimed to have sexual experience of which 75.7% had their sexual debut at 15-19 years and 38.2% were having more than 3 partners. Sexual experience was found to be significantly associated with gender (p = 0.003, ethnicity (p = 0.001 and education level (p = 0.030. However, multiple partner behaviour was significantly associated only with gender (p = 0.010. Mean knowledge score was 11.60 ± 8.781 and knowledge level was significantly associated with religion (p = 0.005 education level (p = 0.000, course stream (p = 0.000, socioeconomic class (p = 0.000 and sexual experience (p = 0.022. Conclusions It was concluded that school students have moderate level of knowledge about STIs although they are sexually active. Interventions such as reinforcing the link
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Wilson Aparecido Silva
there are few studies describing young male vulnerability to HIV. A study was carried out aiming at developing a STD/AIDS prevention program for junior professional soccer players. METHODS: Study participants were twenty-five junior soccer players of a major league professional team of the city of Campinas, Brazil. There were 2 segments. In segment 1, participants were given a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, specific gender-related behaviors, condom use, HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention, and sports associated exposure risk. In segment 2, 17 sessions of group dynamics were carried out. Many forms of expression (speech, writing, pictures, and videos were encouraged to grasp participants' thoughts on STD/AIDS-related matters. RESULTS: Participants showed good knowledge on HIV transmission but they were poorly informed on reproduction and STDs. Unwanted pregnancy is their main concern. As for condom use, 73% consistently used condoms with casual partners (73%, and only 27% consistently used them with regular partners. Also, 58% considered risky to have HIV-positive players among them. CONCLUSIONS: Young players do not consider themselves vulnerable despite their chances of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. They have poor knowledge about the human body and reproductive health. Soccer milieu as well as other sports milieus create great opportunities for prevention programs, where they may have a multiplier effect since athletes are often regarded as role models for children and youngsters.
Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ
Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on
Background: Most sexually transmitted infection (STI) management efforts focus on the syndromic approach to diagnose and treat patients. However, most women with STIs have been shown to be entirely asymptomatic, or if symptoms exist, are often missed when either clinical or conventional bacteriologic diagnostic tools ...
van de Wijgert, J. H.; Mason, P. R.; Gwanzura, L.; Mbizvo, M. T.; Chirenje, Z. M.; Iliff, V.; Shiboski, S.; Padian, N. S.
One hundred sixty-nine Zimbabwean women were studied to determine whether the use of intravaginal practices (cleaning with the fingers, wiping the vagina, and inserting traditional substances) are associated with disturbances of vaginal flora and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene
This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…
Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…
Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D
Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance.
Hira, S K; Spruyt, A B; Feldblum, P J; Sunkutu, M R; Glover, L H; Steiner, M J
OBJECTIVE. This study assessed the acceptability of three nonoxynol-9 spermicides among persons attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS. Spermicidal foam, suppositories, and foaming tablets were evaluated. Women (n = 114) and men (n = 150) attending an sexually transmitted disease clinic were enrolled. After each participant used two products, each for 2 weeks, consistency of use and acceptability were evaluated. RESULTS. At admission, most women (74%) and men (58%) were not using any family planning method. Moreover, most women (85%) and men (98%) had at least one sexually transmitted disease or genital infection. During the study, the proportion of coital episodes protected by spermicide use was high, yet loss to follow-up and discontinuation were also substantial. Discontinuation was frequently unrelated to acceptability. Women and men rated all three products positively along several acceptability parameters. Foam was the least desirable delivery system due to excess messiness. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible to distribute spermicides to women and men at increased risk for sexually transmitted disease and that the products will be used. Further research should be done among different populations and include other spermicidal delivery mechanisms. PMID:7625503
Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.
Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…
Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.
Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…
covering the major sexually transmitted disease syndromes such as urethral and vaginal discharges and genital ... will certainly be a worthwhile investment. J. Terblanche. ABC of Brainstem Death· ... In the early 1980's the cultural implications of brainstem death were largely unexplored. Today the criteria must be.
Breslin, Kristen; Tuchman, Lisa; Hayes, Katie L; Badolato, Gia; Goyal, Monika K
To determine test characteristics of provider judgment for empiric antibiotic provision to patients undergoing testing for a sexually transmitted infection. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional electronic health record review of all patients aged 13-19 years who had Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing sent from an urban, academic pediatric emergency department in 2012. We abstracted data, including patient demographics, chief complaint, sexually transmitted infection test results, and treatment. We calculated test characteristics comparing clinician judgment for presumptive treatment for a sexually transmitted infection with the reference standard of the actual results of testing for a sexually transmitted infection. Of 1223 patient visits meeting inclusion criteria, 284 (23.2%) had a positive GC and/or CT test result. Empiric treatment was provided in 615 encounters (50.3%). Provider judgment for presumptive treatment had an overall sensitivity of 67.6% (95% CI, 61.8-73.0) and a specificity of 55% (95% CI, 51.7-58.2) for accurate GC and/or CT detection. Many adolescents tested for GC and CT receive empiric treatment at the initial emergency department visit. Provider judgment may lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for identifying infected patients, resulting in the potential for undertreatment of true disease, overtreatment of uninfected patients, or both. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.
LEENAARS, PEM; ROMBOUTS, R; KOK, G
Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their social and economic impact and their role in increasing transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Unfortunately, a common response to illness is
Self reported STD included syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, genital warts and pelvic inflammatory diseases. Condom use was not associated with prevention against pregnancy demonstrating that knowledge cannot be translated into action and behavior change without modification of attitudes and beliefs. Reasons cited for ...
Banani, Shirli; Schlaeffer, Francisc; Leibenson, Lilach; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Shemer, Yonat; Sagi, Orly; Borer, Abraham; Riesenberg, Klaris
Co-infection of HIV and other sexualLy transmitted diseases (STDs) is common. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine yearly screening for STDs in HIV carriers. There is only scarce data on the prevalence of STD in HIV positive individuals in Israel and no current recommendations on this issue are available. To evaluate the prevalence of STDs, in HIV positive females attending the HIV Clinic at the Soroka University Medical Center in Beer Sheva and to compare prevalence and risk factors for STDs between HIV female carriers of Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian origin. Eighty five HIV-positive women were enrolled in the study. Demographic data and sexual behavior were obtained and medical records were reviewed. Cervical swabs for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Herpes simplex 1 and 2, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis and serum samples for hepatitis B, C and syphilis were obtained. Thirty two of the study participants (37.6%) had at least one STD and in eleven cases (12.9%) two or more STDs were found. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most frequent pathogen (29.4%). Prevalence for Mycoplasma hominis, HSV1 and 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and HBV was low. Despite significant differences in sexual behavior between women of Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian origin there were no differences in the prevalence of STDs in the two groups. HCV was significantly more prevalent in women of non-Ethiopian origin, due to high use of intravenous drugs in this group. There was no correlation between CD4 levels and the prevalence of STDs in both groups. A relatively low prevalence of STDs among female HIV carriers was found, despite low condom use. The exclusion of males in this study may have contributed to this. The most frequent pathogen found in this study was asymptomatic Ureaplasma urealyticum (29.4%). As this pathogen may cause premature delivery and fetal death it seems important to routinely screen HIV-positive fertile women for its presence. A
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditio...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....
Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna
To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)
Tiwari, V D; Talwar, S; Panvelkar, V V; Tutakne, M A
A large majority of the world's soldiers are young, away from home, of low rank, and of low educational level. Many consume large quantities of alcohol and other drugs to cope. This combination of factors leads many soldiers to have sex with prostitutes and other casual partners, placing them at high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs. The worldwide incidence of STD for the US Army in 1978 was 98 per 1000 soldiers. The authors reviewed the records of STD cases treated in the Indian armed forces during the period 1938-78 to find that there was a decline in STDs in the Indian Army from 5.22 per 1000 in 1895 to 2.12 per 1000 in 1978. There was, however, an increase in the incidence of STD during war in the Indian Army, albeit marginal compared to global figures. The incidence of STD in the Indian Armed Forces has been much lower than in any other country. Chancroid was the most common STD, affecting most commonly soldiers aged 21-30 years. Prostitutes remained the most common source of infection. Better education appears to decrease the incidence of infection, there was no homosexuality recorded, marital status had little impact upon the risk of contracting STD, prophylactic measures were taken by only 6% of individuals, and 5% of infected soldiers in 1965 and 7% in 1971 were repeat patients. 60% of the men contracted their STD while on leave just prior to entering the theater of war. The rapid expansion of armed forces which results in relaxed recruiting standards, individual separation from sources of moral influence, the lack of disciplinary and moral control by superiors, the uncertainty of survival, emotional strains, illiteracy, and the lack of adequate recreational facilities support the increased incidence of STD during war. Reasons for the comparatively low incidence of STD among Indian soldiers include good management and discipline, religious faith, social customs, fear of social stigmatization upon contracting STD, close surveillance by military
Aral, Sevgi O; Ward, Helen
Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modification in many societies, becoming more acceptable, more dispersed, and larger in volume in some societies and shrinking in others. Concurrent with changes in the characteristics of sex work, the accumulating data on the sexual behaviors of the general population suggest a shift toward those of sex workers, including large numbers of sex partners and short-duration partnerships. The closing of the gap between behaviors associated with high and low sexual activity may have important implications for theories of sexual structure and models of transmission dynamics for STIs, including HIV infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Anderson, Patricia L.
School administrators should develop a clear policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment; create guidelines to implement the policy; and designate a key administrator to oversee and ensure compliance with laws related to sexual harassment. Lists steps for dealing with a claim, what teachers can do to protect themselves from claims, and what a…
Mak, Donna B; Plant, Aileen J; Bulsara, Max K
The objectives of this study were to assess health professionals' adherence to Western Australian sexually transmitted infection (STI) management guidelines and to document the outcomes of contact tracing in a remote Indigenous setting. This article comprises 2 parts: a retrospective clinical audit of quality of clinical STI management and outcomes of contact tracing and an analysis of completeness of relevant laboratory investigations. Documented clinical STI management of index cases varied from 94% receiving treatment in accordance with the Guidelines, whereas only 48% underwent a clinical examination. Sexual contacts who underwent STI consultation had concordant (30%) and discordant (17%) STI(s). The proportion of patients with STI(s) in whom all appropriate laboratory investigations had been requested increased from 25% in 1998 to 9% to 49% in 2001-2002. This study demonstrates that quality of clinical STI management comparable to that observed overseas is possible despite the challenges of healthcare delivery in a remote setting.
Crosby, R; Leichliter, J S; Brackbill, R
Although adolescent use of condoms has been increasing, incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among young people remains high. To identify adolescent behavioral risk factors for acquiring STDs, this study assessed adolescent self-reports of acquired chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis within 1 year after a baseline interview. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health for this study. Data were collected in the homes of survey respondents, using audio-computer-assisted self-interview (audio-CASI) technology and interviews. Participants were enrolled in grades 7-11 from 134 U.S. schools. A cohort of 4593 sexually experienced adolescents was followed for 1 year. We conducted separate analyses for both genders. About 3.1% of the male adolescents and nearly 4.7% of the female adolescents reported having had at least one STD after the baseline interview. For both genders, self-reported STD infection before baseline interview was the best predictor of self-reported STD infection 1 year after baseline interview. Female adolescents were more likely to report diagnosis with an STD after baseline if they self-identified as a minority race (other than Asian) and perceived that their mother did not disapprove of their having sex. Female adolescents were less likely to report STDs if they perceived that adults care about them. No additional variables predicted STD diagnosis after baseline for male adolescents. We conclude that past history of STD infection is the most important indicator of subsequent STD infection among adolescents. Thus, this study suggests the benefit of specific clinical efforts designed to promote preventive behavior among adolescents newly diagnosed with an STD.
Belenko, Steven; Dembo, Richard; Weiland, Doris; Rollie, Matthew; Salvatore, Christopher; Hanlon, Alexandra; Childs, Kristina
Background Adolescent offenders may be at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). With previous research and interventions focused on incarcerated adolescents, data are needed on STD prevalence and risk factors among newly arrested youth released to the community, a far larger subgroup. Methods Participants were recruited from all arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center during the last half of 2006 (506 males, 442 females). Participants voluntarily providing urine samples for drug testing as part of standard protocol were also consented to having their specimens split and tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, using an FDA-approved nucleic acid amplification test. Results STD prevalence was similar to those previously reported among incarcerated adolescents: 11.5% tested positive for chlamydia, 4.2% for gonorrhea, and 13.2% for either or both infections. Prevalence was significantly higher among females: 19.2% of females had either or both infections compared with 10.5% of males. Prevalence was higher for 17 to 18 year olds (15.2% of males, 25.5% of females), blacks, detained youths, drug users, and those engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Previous STD testing experience was limited. Conclusions The study indicated that a voluntary STD screening protocol is feasible for arrested youth entering the juvenile justice system, and these offenders are at high risk for STDs. Because most arrested youths are released back to the community, routine testing and treatment of recently arrested youths, and expanded access to risk reduction and prevention programs, can yield substantial public health benefits. PMID:18461014
Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Lima, Bettina Moulin Coelho; Giami, Alain; Golub, Jonathan E; Talhari, Sinesio
Studies about sexual risk behaviors can provide information to support design strategies to control the spread of HIV infection. To assess sexual risk behaviors among women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Vitória, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed among women attending an STD/AIDS reference center. Enrolled participants were interviewed and provided a blood sample to determine HIV status. A total of 276 women participated. among 284 selected; 109 (39.5%) were HIV-positive and 167 (60.5%) HIV-negative. Median age was 31 years (interquartile range (IQR)24-36) and 69% of women were between 18 and 34 years of age. Women reported high access to information about STD (87%) and AIDS (90%) but information about sexuality was less common (55%). HIV-positive women asked their partners to use condoms more often than HIV-negatives (31% vs. 5%, p=0.02), and were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse (65% vs. 33%, psexual intercourse (99.6%) and needle sharing (99.2%) were most frequently answered correctly, while questions regarding risk of HIV transmission through blood donation (57%) were least. Though this population reports easy access to information and services for HIV/sexually transmitted diseases, most report little understanding of unsafe sexual behaviors, particularly HIV-negative women.
Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Yang, Hongmei; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei; Liang, Shaoling
Vaginal douching has been hypothesized to increase a woman's risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, data on the prevalence of this practice and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. A cross-sectional survey among 454 female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese county. Vaginal douching was reported by 64.7% of the women. The prevalence of self-reported history of STI and that of current STI was 19.4% and 41.5%, respectively. Fifteen percent of the women reported consistent use of condoms with their clients and 8.4% with their regular partners. Vaginal douching was significantly associated with decreased use of condoms (with clients: OR = 0.31; with regular partner(s): OR = 0.22) and increased rate of self-reported STI history (OR = 1.95). However, there was no direct relation between douching and current STI. Over one third of the women believed that douching can prevent STI/HIV. Vaginal douching exposes FSWs to a high risk of STI/HIV. Medical professional and public health workers should correct women's misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities.
Jimmy Boon Som Ong
Full Text Available The "classical model" for sexually transmitted infections treats partnerships as instantaneous events summarized by partner change rates, while individual-based and pair models explicitly account for time within partnerships and gaps between partnerships. We compared predictions from the classical and pair models over a range of partnership and gap combinations. While the former predicted similar or marginally higher prevalence at the shortest partnership lengths, the latter predicted self-sustaining transmission for gonorrhoea (GC and Chlamydia (CT over much broader partnership and gap combinations. Predictions on the critical level of condom use (C(c required to prevent transmission also differed substantially when using the same parameters. When calibrated to give the same disease prevalence as the pair model by adjusting the infectious duration for GC and CT, and by adjusting transmission probabilities for HIV, the classical model then predicted much higher C(c values for GC and CT, while C(c predictions for HIV were fairly close. In conclusion, the two approaches give different predictions over potentially important combinations of partnership and gap lengths. Assuming that it is more correct to explicitly model partnerships and gaps, then pair or individual-based models may be needed for GC and CT since model calibration does not resolve the differences.
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become one of the major public health threats to the sustainable development of human beings. Among all of the STIs in China, three are listed as the notifiable infectious diseases, i.e., gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS, which demand more attention. This study aims to detect, describe, and compare the spatial-temporal clustering of these notifiable STIs in China and to relate spatial analysis results to epidemiologic trends during the past decade. A descriptive epidemiology analysis and a spatial autocorrelation analysis (global and local are adopted to study the epidemiologic trends and spatial changing patterns of STIs respectively. The results indicated that there were regional disparities and spatial clusters in the spatial distribution of notifiable STIs in China. However, the incidence rates of the three notifiable STIs displayed relatively different characteristics in epidemiologic trends and the agglomeration level. Overall, the Yangtze River Delta region, the southwestern border area, and some other border regions are the places demanding more attention. In the end, we propose a three-dimensional prevention and control strategy, which focuses on not only the most-at-risk populations, but also the most-at-risk areas and most-at-risk timings. Besides, some measures targeting more than one STI should also be formulated.
Ryan, C A; Vathiny, O V; Gorbach, P M; Leng, H B; Berlioz-Arthaud, A; Whittington, W L; Holmes, K K
A cross-sectional study conducted in 5 locations in Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Svay Pak, Sihanoukville, Battambang, and Sisophon) in 1996, compared prevalences of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 314 women seeking reproductive health services, 322 male police and military personnel, and 437 brothel-based sex workers (SWs). Among SWs, 38.7% had chlamydial and/or gonococcal infection and 13.8% were syphilis seroreactive. Among police and military personnel, 2.1% had chlamydial infection, 5.0% had gonorrhea, and 6.6% were syphilis seroreactive. 5.3% of reproductive health care clients had chlamydial and/or gonococcal infection and 4.0% were syphilis seroreactive. HIV prevalence was 40.6% among SWs (range by site, 19-51%), 12.5% among police and military personnel (range, 6-16%), and 4.5% in the reproductive health client group (range, 3-7%). Assays of serum specimens from 9 HIV-1-seropositive individuals revealed subtype E, suggesting that Cambodia's HIV epidemic is a result of regional spread from Thailand rather than importation by UN peacekeeping troops. 56% of police and military personnel acknowledged having sex with a prostitute in the month preceding the survey and 88.5% reported such an encounter in the past year; only 38% reported consistent condom use with commercial SWs. The high rates of HIV and other STDs identified in this study indicate an urgent need for preventive interventions, particularly ones focused on the commercial sex industry.
Schönfeld, Andreas; Feldt, Torsten; Tufa, Tafese B; Orth, Hans M; Fuchs, André; Mesfun, Million G; Pfäfflin, Frieder; Nordmann, Tamara; Breuer, Matthias; Hampl, Monika; Häussinger, Dieter
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major global public health issue and omnipresent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the risk of HIV acquisition. Moreover, STIs and HIV in pregnant women can harm the unborn child. In this study, we systematically investigated the prevalence of HIV, relevant STIs and vaginal group B streptococcus colonization among pregnant women presenting at Asella Teaching Hospital in central Ethiopia and their effect on perinatal mortality. A follow-up was performed six weeks after delivery. A total of 580 women were included, of which 26.6% tested positive for at least one pathogen ( Chlamydia trachomatis 9.8%, trichomoniasis 5.3%, hepatitis B 5.3%, gonorrhoea 4.3%, group B streptococcus 2.4%, syphilis 2.2%, HIV 2.1%). None of the HIV infections were previously undiagnosed, indicating effective HIV screening activities in the region. Follow-up data were available for 473 (81.6%) children, of which 37 (7.8%) were stillborn or died within the first six weeks of life. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis and recruitment at obstetric ward (versus antenatal care) were associated with mortality. High prevalence of STIs in pregnant women and their impact on the unborn child demonstrate the need for screening and treatment programmes in order to prevent perinatal mortality.
Garnett, Geoffrey P
Vaccination programs provide both direct protection to those immunized and herd immunity, which is indirect protection of those who remain susceptible, owing to a reduced prevalence of infections. The well-understood impact of vaccination against ubiquitous childhood infections is compared with that of vaccination against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and theoretical insights are derived from a review of mathematical modeling studies. Typically, a large fraction of cases of STIs are acquired by those with modest risk, and these cases could be prevented by low-efficacy vaccines. If coverage is good, vaccination of only one sex can protect the other sex. Candidate vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital herpes are in the final stages of testing. The former is likely to be highly efficacious for a limited number of disease-causing HPV types, and the latter has provided protection against disease in women who initially were seronegative for both herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and HSV-2, with 73% efficacy. In models, this vaccine had a substantial impact when infectiousness was assumed to be reduced along with incidence of disease. With such vaccines on the horizon, the requirements for vaccine delivery need to be considered, particularly who should be vaccinated and at what age.
Bjekíc, M; Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vlajinac, H; Marinkovíc, J
To assess the personality characteristics of patients with repeated sexually transmitted diseases (STD). A case-control study comparing 101 STD repeaters (subjects with a lifetime history of three or more STDs) with 182 controls who had no history of STD. All subjects attended the City Department for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade (Yugoslavia) from June 1997 to April 1998. Personality characteristics was assessed by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). The analysis of MCMI test showed that STD repeaters had higher scores on narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid scales. The difference between STD repeaters and the controls was significant on antisocial, psychotic thinking and psychotic delusion scales, although scores on clinical syndromes were low for both cases and controls. Discriminant analysis showed that antisocial personality was predictive for STD repeaters. This study support the hypothesis that STD repeaters are different from controls in terms of their psychological characteristics. The behaviour of STD repeaters is ego-syntonic, which makes the treatment of their personality difficult and emphasizes the importance of work on primary and secondary prevention of STD.
Keen, Larry; Blanden, Gwenna; Rehmani, Nasreen
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and marijuana use are more prevalent in African Americans/Blacks (Blacks) than any other ethnicity in the United States. Given the significant health care costs and deleterious health correlates of using marijuana or contracting a STI, it is imperative to examine their association, especially in the vulnerable and underrepresented group of young adult Blacks. The current study examines the association between lifetime marijuana use on history of STI diagnosis in a sample of Black college students. Approximately 81% of the 213 participants were female, with approximately 81% also being 21years of age or younger. Alcohol (88%) led the prevalence of substances ever used, followed by marijuana (75%), and cigarettes (57%). When including demographic and substance use covariates, lifetime marijuana use (AOR=2.51; 95% CIs, 1.01, 6.21) and age (AOR=2.72; 95% CIs, 1.32, 5.64) were associated with history of STI. These findings will inform intervention and prevention methods used to reduce STI prevalence and marijuana use among Black young adults. Both epidemiological and biological foundations will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.
Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598
Cornelisse, Vincent J; Fairley, Christopher K; Phillips, Tiffany; Walker, Sandra; Chow, Eric Pf
'Fuckbuddies' are a type of regular sexual partner with whom men have ongoing sexual contact, generally in the absence of romantic attachment. We surveyed 989 men who have sex with men (MSM) at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, with the aim of determining the frequency of 'fuckbuddy' partnerships among sexual health clinic attendees and assessing their sexual risk. The majority (60%) of 1139 regular partnerships were described as 'fuckbuddies'. Most MSM (63%) with a 'fuckbuddy' had multiple 'fuckbuddies'. MSM with 'fuckbuddies' were more likely to also have casual sexual partners (odds ratio [OR] 5.7; 95% confidence interval 3.6-8.9) and had more casual sexual partners (median of 4 versus 1, p partnerships as part of their risk assessment during patient interviews, as these patients may benefit from HIV prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
High rates of sexually transmitted infections in the Arctic have been a focus of recent research, and youth are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Little research has focused on understanding youth perspectives on sexual health. The goal of this study was to collect the perspectives of youth in Nunavut on sexual health and relationships with the intent of informing public health practice. This qualitative research study was conducted within an Indigenous knowledge framework with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews in three Nunavut communities with 17 youth between the ages of 14 and 19 years. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their experiences talking about sexual health and relationships with their family, peers, teachers or others in the community. There are four key findings, which are important for public health: (a) Parents/caregivers are the preferred source of knowledge about sexual health and relationships among youth respondents; (b) youth did not report using the Internet for sexual health information; (c) youth related sexual decision-making to the broader community context and determinants of health, such as poverty; and (d) youth discussed sexual health in terms of desire and love, which is an aspect of sexual health often omitted from the discourse. The youth in this study articulated perspectives on sexual health, which are largely neglected in current public health practice in the North. The findings from this study underscore the important role of community-led participatory research in contributing to our understanding of the public health challenges in our communities today, and provide direction for future interventions and research.
Javier J. Toibaro
Full Text Available Existen pocos datos disponibles acerca del comportamiento de riesgo y la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS, incluyendo HIV-1, en personas transgénero. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las características demográficas, factores de riesgo, prevalencia de HIV-1 e ITS en personas transgénero versus personas no transgénero que consultan al Centro de Prevención, Asesoramiento y Diagnóstico del Hospital General de Agudos J.M. Ramos Mejía. Se utilizó el diseño de estudio de corte transversal y se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en nuestro centro que firmaron consentimiento informado entre noviembre de 2002 y abril de 2006. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, uso de drogas, utilización de preservativos, nivel de educación alcanzado, diagnóstico de ITS y estado actual de la pareja. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y chi² para comparar proporciones. En la población estudiada (n: 4118 se identificaron a 105 personas transgénero. La prevalencia de infección por HIV-1 fue del 27.6% (29/105, mientras que en personas no transgénero (n: 4013 fue de 6.2% (247/4013; p:0.0000. El bajo nivel educativo, el consumo de alcohol, el abuso de drogas, los antecedentes de ITS y el trabajo sexual (100% en transgénero y 2.3% en no transgénero fueron más frecuentes en personas transgénero. La prevalencia de sífilis fue del 42% en personas transgénero y del 18% en personas no transgénero. Estos datos demuestran que las personas transgénero que consultan en nuestro centro tienen alta prevalencia de infección por HIV-1 e ITS. Esta información podría contribuir al diseño de estrategias de prevención necesarias en esta población.Few data are available regarding the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including HIV-1 infection, and risk behaviors of transgender individuals. Previous reports indicate that this community has a high prevalence of HIV and STIs. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of
Full Text Available Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies.A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist.Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants. While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers.Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio-political interventions
Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N
Paramount in control of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is their prompt recognition and appropriate treatment. In countries where definitive diagnoses are difficult, a 'syndromic approach' to management of STIs is recommended and practiced, yet many STIs have common symptoms or are asymptomatic and therefore go undetected and untreated. This is of particular concern with the recognition that HIV transmission is increased with co-existent STIs: the attributable risk for each STI varying with the prevalence within a particular population. Hence, HIV public health prevention approaches must include STI preventative strategies to be effective. Even then, microbiological screening is incorporated into STI control strategies; lack of access to appropriate services (especially in rural and remote areas), reluctance of at-risk populations to attend for treatment, fear of invasive genital examinations, and lower sensitivities of conventional diagnostic assays reduces the effectiveness of such programmes. Therefore, accurate, cost-effective, reliable diagnostic assays (preferably those which can be used in the field) are needed to impact on the incidence of the various STIs, as well as HIV. With the advent of molecular technologies, including target and signal amplification methods, diagnoses of STIs have been revolutionised and allow the use of non or minimally invasive sampling techniques, some of which are self-collected by the patient, e.g. first-void urine, cervico-vaginal lavage, low vaginal swabs, and tampons. Most studies evaluating such self-sampling with molecular diagnostic techniques have demonstrated an equivalent or superior detection of STIs as compared to conventional sampling and detection methods. These sampling methods can also be used to determine prevalence of STIs in various populations, but particularly those with difficult access to medical care. In this article, the utility of self-sampling collection devices for detection of
Antonietta Caffaro Rouget
Full Text Available Four groups of adolescents – 35 juvenile prostitutes, 36 street youth, 31 monogamous sexually active adolescents and 35 non-sexually active adolescents – were studied between January 1, 1988 and December 31, 1988 for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases and other genital pathogens. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases found in the juvenile prostitutes (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 49%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 83% is in contrast to other studies, which document much lower rates of infection. This could be due to the fact that there are few studies done on juvenile prostitutes as a well defined group. Despite high risk sexual behaviour, the consistent use of contraception was low. No contraceptives were used by 57% of the juvenile prostitutes and 85% of the street youth. None of the adolescents sought medical attention although 48% of the juvenile prostitutes and 53% of the street youth had genital symptoms. It appears that the present public health education and health care delivery do not reach this high risk population.
Actitudes hacia los programas de prevención on-line del VIH y las ITS, y perfil de los usuarios de Internet en los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres Attitudes toward online HIV/sexually-transmitted infection prevention programs and Internet user profiles among men who have sex with men
prevención del VIH y las ITS, combinando estrategias on-line y off-line.Objectives: To describe the attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM toward online HIV/sexually-transmitted infection (STI prevention programs and to identify and characterize user profiles with regard to their attitudes toward online prevention programs. Method: A survey in gay venues or via the internet was completed by 2,044 participants from Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and San Sebastián (Spain. The survey explored socio-demographic variables, sexual behavior and other risk behaviors associated with HIV infection, as well as attitudes toward online prevention programs. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and non-hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most MSM had positive attitudes towards online HIV/STI prevention programs. Factor analysis revealed two factors: online prevention aimed at interaction and online prevention aimed at information. Based on these factors, three user profiles were identified: users oriented toward informative and interactive online prevention (53.5%, users oriented toward interactive online prevention (25.9% and users were not oriented toward online prevention (20.7%. On characterizing these profiles, we observed a significant presence of men who were not interested in online prevention among those with a lower educational level, bisexual men and HIV-positive men. Conversely, those most receptive to online prevention were men self-identified as gay, those with a bachelors degree, those who had been tested for HIV and those who were HIV-negative. Conclusion: The internet can facilitate sexual health promotion among MSM. Characterization of user profiles offers the possibility of segmenting prevention programs and of combining online and offline strategies.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.
White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.
Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.
Nankinga, Olivia; Misinde, Cyprian; Kwagala, Betty
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major reproductive and public health concern, especially in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study examined the relationship between sexual empowerment and STI status of women in union (married or cohabiting) in Uganda, controlling for sexual behaviour, partner factors, and women's background characteristics. The study, based on data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), analysed 1307 weighted cases of women age 15-49 in union and selected for the domestic violence module. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the predicators of STI status. The main explanatory variables included sexual empowerment, involvement in decision making on own health, experience of any sexual violence, condom use during last sex with most recent partner, number of lifetime partners and partner control behaviours. Sexual empowerment was measured with three indicators: a woman's reported ability to refuse sex, ability to ask her partner to use a condom, and opinion regarding whether a woman is justified to refuse sex with her husband if he is unfaithful. Results show that 28 % of women in union reported STIs in the last 12 months. Sexual violence and number of lifetime partners were the strongest predictors of reporting STIs. Women's sexual empowerment was a significant predictor of their STI status, but, surprisingly, the odds of reporting STIs were greater among women who were sexually empowered. Reporting of STIs was negatively associated with a woman's participation in decision-making with respect to her own health, and was positively associated with experience of sexual violence, partner's controlling behaviour, and having more than one life partner. Our findings suggest that, with respect to STIs, sexual empowerment as measured in the study does not protect women who have sexually violent and controlling partners. Interventions promoting sexual health must effectively address negative
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are a major reproductive and public health concern, especially in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study examined the relationship between sexual empowerment and STI status of women in union (married or cohabiting in Uganda, controlling for sexual behaviour, partner factors, and women’s background characteristics. Methods The study, based on data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS, analysed 1307 weighted cases of women age 15–49 in union and selected for the domestic violence module. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the predicators of STI status. The main explanatory variables included sexual empowerment, involvement in decision making on own health, experience of any sexual violence, condom use during last sex with most recent partner, number of lifetime partners and partner control behaviours. Sexual empowerment was measured with three indicators: a woman’s reported ability to refuse sex, ability to ask her partner to use a condom, and opinion regarding whether a woman is justified to refuse sex with her husband if he is unfaithful. Results Results show that 28 % of women in union reported STIs in the last 12 months. Sexual violence and number of lifetime partners were the strongest predictors of reporting STIs. Women’s sexual empowerment was a significant predictor of their STI status, but, surprisingly, the odds of reporting STIs were greater among women who were sexually empowered. Reporting of STIs was negatively associated with a woman’s participation in decision-making with respect to her own health, and was positively associated with experience of sexual violence, partner’s controlling behaviour, and having more than one life partner. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, with respect to STIs, sexual empowerment as measured in the study does not protect women who have sexually violent and controlling
Akokuwebe, M E; Daini, B; Falayi, E O; Oyebade, O
Globally, sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a public health problem. In Nigeria, adolescents form a substantial proportion (22%) of the population and are particularly prone to STDs because of the influence of peer pressure and urge to experiment sexual activity. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of adolescents towards the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The survey study was descriptive cross- sectional and carried out among consenting secondary school students aged 10-24 years completing a self- administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitude in relation to sexually transmitted diseases in Ikeji- Arakeji, Oriade Local government, Osun State, Nigeria. The proportionate sampling technique was used to recruit 341 participants into the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Male-Female distributions were 46.3% and 53.7% respectively. Mean age at first sex (sex initiation) was 16.8 years (approximately 17years) and about 97% of the respondents knew about STDs. The media/ magazine was the major source of information about STDs, accounting for more than half (57%) of the responses on sources of STD information followed closely from that from friends with 31%. Parent's source of information was about 11%. Knowledge of STDs centred mainly on HIV/AIDS with 83% and there was a poor knowledge (78%) of its symptoms. About 40% of all respondents had initiated sex at the time of the study and 46% of the adolescents, as against 54%, thought it was bad to initiate sex before marriage. There was a significant association between perception about initiating sex before marriage and ever having sex using bivariate analysis x(2)=268.4, Psex initiation (F=318.47 and P=0.000). Post-hoc analysis showed that each of the different groups (sources of information) was distinct. Adolescents' knowledge of STDs generally limited to HIV/AIDS and perception about sex significantly influenced the decision to initiate sex. There is
McGowin, Chris L.; Anderson-Smits, Colin
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 pub...
Miller, J M; Goodridge, C
Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between marijuana use and sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective review of clinic records over a 12-1/2 month period identified all women entering prenatal care. Eighty-six women using no illicit substance other than marijuana were compared to 441 drug-free women. The prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen, human papilloma virus, and herpes was as...
Adeniyi, W. O.; Okewole, J. O.
The study examined the influence of knowledge and awareness of sexually transmitted diseases on change in sexual behaviour of fresh undergraduates with a view to providing useful suggestions for positive sexual behaviour of adolescents. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. A sample of 600 fresh undergraduates was selected from the…
Hutton, Heidi E; McCaul, Mary E; Santora, Patricia B; Erbelding, Emily J
Binge drinking is associated with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Few studies have investigated this by gender or in an STD clinic. This cross-sectional study examined the association between binge drinking and risky sexual behaviors/STDs among patients attending an urban STD clinic. A total of 671 STD clinic patients were tested for STDs, and queried about recent alcohol/drug use and risky sexual behaviors using audio computer-assisted-self-interview. The association between binge drinking and sexual behaviors/STDs was analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for age, employment, and drug use. Binge drinking was reported by 30% of women and 42% of men. Gender differences were found in rates of receptive anal sex which increased linearly with increased alcohol use among women but did not differ among men. Within gender analyses showed that women binge drinkers engaged in anal sex at more than twice the rate of women who drank alcohol without binges (33.3% vs. 15.9%; p women who abstained from alcohol (11.1%; p women binge drinkers than women abstainers (40.5% vs. 16.8%; p women binge drinkers compared to women abstainers (10.6% vs. 2.2%; p sexual behaviors/gonorrhea remained after controlling for drug use. Among men, rates of risky sexual behaviors/STDs were high, but did not differ by alcohol use. Rates of binge drinking among STD clinic patients were high. Among women, binge drinking was uniquely associated with risky sexual behaviors and an STD diagnosis. Our findings support the need to routinely screen for binge drinking as part of clinical care in STD clinics. Women binge drinkers, in particular, may benefit from interventions that jointly address binge drinking and risky sexual behaviors. Developing gender-specific interventions could improve overall health outcomes in this population.
Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are prevalent in the U.S. military. However, there are limited data on risk-factor differences between sexes. We used data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among active duty military personnel to identify risk factors for self-reported STIs within the past 12 months and multiple sexual partners among sexually active unmarried service members. There were 10,250 active duty personnel, mostly white (59.3%) aged 21 to 25 years (42.6%). The prevalence of any reported STI in the past 12 months was 4.2% for men and 6.9% for women. One-fourth of men and 9.3% of women reported 5 or more sexual partners in the past 12 months. Binge drinking, illicit substance use, and unwanted sexual contact were associated with increased report of sexual partners among both sexes. Family/personal-life stress and psychological distress influenced number of partnerships more strongly for women than for men (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.58, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.18-2.12 and AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.14-1.76, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that the report of multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with the report of an STI among men (AOR, 5.87 [95% CI, 3.70-9.31], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.59-3.49], for 2-4 partners) and women (AOR, 4.78 [95% CI, 2.12-10.80], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.30-4.25], for 2-4 partners). Factors associated with the report of increasing sexual partnerships and report of an STI differed by sex. Sex-specific intervention strategies may be most effective in mitigating the factors that influence risky sexual behaviors among military personnel.
Department of Defense Sexually Transmitted Infections: Estimation of Burden among Active Duty Service Members using Clinical...the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the United States Government. i DOD Sexually ...Transmitted Infections, FY2008 Updated: March 2016 EpiData Center Department NMCPHC-TR-EDC-191-2016 ii DOD Sexually Transmitted Infections
Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including sexual risk behavior. This cross-sectional study explored mediators of the relationship between IPV and risky sexual behavior in 717 women recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Participants were recruited from a public STD clinic in upstate New York as part of a randomized controlled trial that was designed to evaluate several sexual risk reduction interventions. They completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview in a private room. Among these women, 18% reported IPV in the past 3 months and 57% reported lifetime experience of IPV. Recent IPV was associated with greater sexual risk, as measured by more episodes of unprotected sex (overall and with a steady partner). Although IPV was associated with depressive symptoms and drug use before sex, these variables did not mediate the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior. The results indicate that IPV is common among women who attend an STD clinic and warrants increased attention. Research is needed to better understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk in women, to optimize the design of effective interventions.
Sabrina Zaman Mou
Full Text Available Background: Young people are most vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health issues is also common in this group. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health of young female university students (19-27 years in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 402 female students from seven universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic information, knowledge, and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health. Descriptive analysis was used, and data were presented as frequencies and percentages. Results: The majority of the participants were young, unmarried, undergraduate students. Most of the participants reported that they knew about STDs (79% and HIV/AIDS (66%. However, knowledge about the modes of transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. HIV/AIDS was considered by 90% participants as a public health threat to Bangladesh, mostly due to illiteracy (76%, increased mortality (20%, existence of risky sexual behavior (18%, and aggression of Western culture (31%. About 65% of the participants mentioned that AIDS can be prevented by safe sexual practice, 55% mentioned prevention through upholding religious values and moral education, and 59% mentioned that education about AIDS would help prevent transmission. Conclusions: Although a majority of young Bangladeshi female students reported knowing about HIV/AIDS, their knowledge regarding transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. Strategies for creating reproductive health education targeted at young female students are essential for the prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS.
Sala de espera como estratégia de educação em saúde no campo da atenção às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis The waiting room as a health education strategy in the field of sexually transmitted diseases prevention and care
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute uma experiência de sala de espera no âmbito da atenção às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis - DST, desenvolvida em um serviço especializado na atenção às DST, localizado em Porto Alegre-RS. O objetivo da sala de espera foi oferecer uma possibilidade de prevenção e educação em saúde, tendo por base uma abordagem participativa e problematizadora, buscando diferenciar-se da lógica prescritiva, centrada na transmissão de informação, hegemonicamente presente nos serviços de saúde. A atividade ocorreu diariamente, antecedendo a consulta médica de homens que procuravam o serviço para atendimento relacionado às DST. Entendida como uma atividade relativa ao campo de competências profissionais (Campos, 2002, foi coordenada por duplas de residentes multiprofissionais (Psicólogos, Nutricionistas, Enfermeiros e Assistentes Sociais. A abordagem da sala de espera utilizou-se das contribuições da prática do aconselhamento em HIV/Aids, buscando trabalhar com aspectos afetivos/emocionais, informativos e avaliação de riscos. Através de uma perspectiva problematizadora, buscou-se interrogar e colocar em análise as relações que as pessoas estabelecem com a sexualidade, as DST e o uso do preservativo. Esta intervenção propiciou maior acesso a informações (sobre as DST, insumos de prevenção, tratamento e testagem anti-HIV e discussão sobre aspectos relacionados às repercussões das DST na vida afetiva e sexual, reconfigurando o momento de espera em um momento de prevenção e educação em saúde.This article presents a waiting room experience developed in the scope of sexually transmitted diseases (STD prevention and care, developed at an STD specialized service, located in the city of Porto Alegre (Southern Brazil. The objective of the waiting room was to offer a possibility of prevention and health education, based on a participatory and problematizing approach, in an attempt to
Devosa, Iván; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Fáyné Dombi, Alice; Barabás, Katalin
Promiscuity and lack of use of reliable contraceptive methods increase the probability of sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of unwanted pregnancies, which are quite common among university students. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of university students about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases, and to assess the effectiveness of the sexual health education in secondary schools, with specific focus on the education held by peers. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out in a randomized sample of students at the University of Szeged (n = 472, 298 women and 174 men, average age 21 years) between 2009 and 2011. 62.1% of the respondents declared that reproductive health education lessons in high schools held by peers were reliable and authentic source of information, 12.3% considered as a less reliable source, and 25.6% defined the school health education as irrelevant source. Among those, who considered the health education held by peers as a reliable source, there were significantly more females (69.3% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.001), significantly fewer lived in cities (83.6% vs. 94.8%, p = 0.025), and significantly more responders knew that Candida infection can be transmitted through sexual intercourse (79.5% versus 63.9%, p = 0.02) as compared to those who did not consider health education held by peers as a reliable source. The majority of respondents obtained knowledge about sexual issues from the mass media. Young people who considered health educating programs reliable were significantly better informed about Candida disease.
Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam
At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.
Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira
Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses.
Full Text Available Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS comprenden un grupo de patologías, de etiología infecciosa diversa, en las que la transmisión sexual es relevante desde el punto de vista de salud pública. La carga de enfermedad que suponen las ITS globalmente se desconoce, ya que las infecciones asintomáticas son frecuentes, las técnicas diagnósticas no siempre están disponibles y la vigilancia epidemiológica es inexistente o muy deficiente en muchos países. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó que en 1999 se produjeron en el mundo 340 millones de casos nuevos de sífilis, gonorrea, clamidiasis y tricomoniasis. En la Unión Europea, al igual que en España, ITS como la gonococia o la sífilis muestran en los últimos años una tendencia ascendente. La co-infección entre distintas ITS es muy frecuente. Por ello, en cualquier persona que presente una de ellas debe descartase la presencia de otras, en particular la infección por VIH y la infección por clamidia; esta última es la ITS más común en Europa y frecuentemente es asintomática. La prevención y el control de las ITS se basa en la educación sanitaria, el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz, la detección de las infecciones asintomáticas, el estudio de los contactos y la inmunización cuando se dispone de vacuna.Sexually transmitted infections (STI include a group of diseases of diverse infectious etiology in which sexual transmission is relevant. The burden of disease that STI represent globally is unknown for several reasons. Firstly, asymptomatic infections are common in many STI; secondly, diagnostic techniques are not available in some of the most affected countries; finally, surveillance systems are inexistent or very deficient in many areas of the world. The Word Health Organization has estimated that in 1999 there were 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia infection and trichomoniasis. An increasing trend in the incidence of gonorrhoea and
Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta
Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029
Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors such as using an oil-based lubricant have been associated with condom failures such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview technology, and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Nearly all participants made at least 1 error, with high rates of using oil-based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil-based lubricants than white and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have an STI (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12). Young men who have sex with men report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil-based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV.
Simões-Barbosa, Augusto; Coutinho Feijó, Gilvânia; da Silva, Joaquim Xavier; Rama Leal, Isabel Irene; Wanderley Paes Barbosa, Tânia
The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.
Conde-Glez Carlos J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18% and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking, but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity. Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors.
Muzny, Christina A; Austin, Erika L; Harbison, Hanne S; Hook, Edward W
African American women who have sex with women (WSW) are emerging as a population at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The objectives of this study were to explore partnership characteristics for a cohort of African American WSW and evaluate those characteristics as potential risk factors for STIs. In addition, we aimed to determine STI diagnoses and identify predictors of STI infection. Women who have sex with women presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Birmingham, AL, completed a questionnaire and were tested for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, HIV, and herpes simplex virus type 2. A total of 163 women were enrolled: 78 WSW and 85 women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) (based on report of past year sexual behavior). Both WSW and WSWM reported similar numbers of female partners over the lifetime, past year, and past month; however, WSWM reported significantly more lifetime male partners, thus having a higher overall number of sexual partners. Women who have sex with women and men were more likely to report new or casual partner(s), group sex, history of STIs, and sex with partner(s) known to have STIs. Overall, WSWM were more likely to have a current diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, a current diagnosis of a curable STI, or a diagnosis of a noncurable STI (85% vs. 56%, P sexual health may be directly or indirectly influenced by male partners. A better understanding of the distinctions and differences between African American WSW and WSWM will enable health care providers to improve the quality of care provided.
Anwar, Mudassir; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Ahmadi, Keivan; Kham, Tahir M.
Abstract Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually tr...
Full Text Available In 2005 the WHO declared as many as 457 million people worldwide were affected by sexually transmitted infections. Transvestite is one of a high-risk group for contracting STIs and HIV. STI prevalence is still high on tranvestite, this is due to the use of condoms is still low and this can trigger the occurrence of STI. This study aimed to look at sexual behavior risk of transvestites, includes knowledge and attitudes related to the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs on transvestites in Sidoarjo. This research used analytic study design in which the type of research is a case control. Respondents in the research were transvestites within the range of KPA Sidoarjo, as many as 54 people who were divided into two groups: 18 in cases group and 36 in control group. Age of the respondents from both groups were the same. >40 years, the highest educational level in case group was senior high school and for the control group was high school junior, both groups had the same marital status which was not married, the occupation mostly in the case group was sex workers and as beauty shop workers in the control group, lenght of time been being transvestite on case group vary for 1-12 years and 13-24 years in the control group. There was a relationship between knowledge of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.007 p < α. There was a relationship between the attitude of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.001 p < α. Keyword: transvestite, Sexual Transmitted Disease, risk behaviour, knowledge, attitude
McGarrigle, C. A.; Nicoll, A.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the importance of world region of birth as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection, the likelihood of having an HIV-1 infection diagnosed and the likelihood of having another coexisting acute sexually transmitted infection (STI) among attenders at genitourinary medicine clinics. SUBJECTS: Specimens from attenders having routine syphilis serology at 15 sexually transmitted disease clinics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland participating in the unliked anonymous se...
Megan M McLaughlin
Full Text Available Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China.Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36-1.28% for HIV, 2.91% (2.17-3.89% for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46-3.17% for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94-12.72% for chlamydia.The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients' sexual risk and disease prevalence in China's STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies.
Flagg, Elaine W; Weinstock, Hillard S; Frazier, Emma L; Valverde, Eduardo E; Heffelfinger, James D; Skarbinski, Jacek
Bacterial sexually transmitted infections may facilitate HIV transmission. Bacterial sexually transmitted infection testing is recommended for sexually active HIV-infected patients annually and more frequently for those at elevated sexual risk. We estimated percentages of HIV-infected patients in the United States receiving at least one syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia test, and repeat (≥2 tests, ≥3 months apart) tests for any of these sexually transmitted infections from mid-2008 through mid-2010. The Medical Monitoring Project collects behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States using nationally representative sampling. Sexual activity included self-reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex in the past 12 months. Participants reporting more than 1 sexual partner or illicit drug use before/during sex in the past year were classified as having elevated sexual risk. Among participants with only 1 sex partner and no drug use before/during sex, those reporting consistent condom use were classified as low risk; those reporting sex without a condom (or for whom this was unknown) were classified as at elevated sexual risk only if they considered their sex partner to be a casual partner, or if their partner was HIV-negative or partner HIV status was unknown. Bacterial sexually transmitted infection testing was ascertained through medical record abstraction. Among sexually active patients, 55% were tested at least once in 12 months for syphilis, whereas 23% and 24% received at least one gonorrhea and chlamydia test, respectively. Syphilis testing did not vary by sex/sexual orientation. Receipt of at least 3 CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts and/or HIV viral load tests in 12 months was associated with syphilis testing in men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex with women only, and women. Chlamydia testing was significantly higher in sexually active women (30%) compared with men who have sex with women only
Mwambete, Kennedy D; Mtaturu, Zephania
In Tanzania, it is considered a taboo for teachers and parents to talk with children about sexual matters including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in schools and at home because of cultural and religious barriers. Political pressure also keeps sexual education and thus education on STDs out of classrooms. Generally, there is disagreement over STDs education on what to teach, by whom, and to what extent. To assess the knowledge of STDs, and attitude towards sexual behavior and STDs among secondary school students. This was a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. A sample size of 635 students was determined by simple random sampling. Majority of the students (98%) said have heard about STDs; however their knowledge of the symptoms associated with STDs was poor. Similarly 147 (23%) students did not know other means of STDs transmission rather than sexual intercourse. A number of students who were capable of identifying all tracer STDs was comparable between the ordinary (10.5%) and advanced (10.6%) level students (p parents as source of information (p < 0.001). Regarding vulnerability to STDs, 503 (79%) students said female students were more vulnerable to STDs compared to males. The level of knowledge about STDs (ability to identify tracer STDs, to describe symptoms associated with STDs and their mode of transmission) is poor with regard to the students' levels of education. Female students are more vulnerable to STDs compared to male counterparts. Mass media is still the more effective means of educating the students on STDs.
Bruno Jonas Rauber
Full Text Available The truckers live in constant geographical displacement and have a lifestyle itself, which seems to facilitate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and this factor precludes the articulation of health policies. Thus the aim of this is the vulnerability of truckers Evidence sexually transmitted diseases and the influence of the profession as a risk factor for acquiring these diseases. This is a qualitative study, conducted with three truckers on the banks of the BR 163, in the urban area of the municipality of Sinop in Mato Grosso, the data collection was conducted through semi-structured interview, and the speeches were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed by the method of content analysis. This study has a favorable ethical opinion by the Committee for Ethics and Research of the University Hospital Julio Muller. The results suggested that the profession of truck driver is susceptible to the individual to acquire STDs, since it remains for long hours away from their homes and live in a way that fosters sexual practices with casual partners and unprotected.
Thacker, Rebecca A.
Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)
Hardin, Pam; Brown, Janice; Wright, Mary Ellen
The focus of the patient experience in health care delivery has afforded the opportunity to integrate pet therapy as a part of patient care. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a pet therapy program that includes guidelines for the prevention of transmitted infections. Consideration of infection prevention strategies has resulted in a 16-year program with no documented incidences of transmitted infections, averaging 20,000 pet therapy interactions per year. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Reproductive and sexual health related problems constitute one third of health problems among women aged 15 to 44 years. Sexually transmitted infections are a significant challenge for human development. We aimed to assess the prevalence of STIs and identify factors associated with among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, 399 women aged 10-49 years were recruited. These were women who referred to urban and rural health centers in a city in Iran. Through a behavioral questionnaire, high-risk behaviors of the sample were asked about. Syndromic STIs were also assessed through clinical examination. T-test and multivariable Modified Poisson Regression was used to estimate the Prevalence Risk Ratios (PRRs in Stata 13. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: About 64.2% of the participants had at least one of the STIs. STI prevalence was significantly higher among women who self-reported not using condoms in their last sexual contact (75% vs. 39.8%, whose spouse/sexual partners (SSP had extramarital sex (87.7% vs. 59.6%, whose SSP had a past-year history of illicit substance use (72.9%vs. 60.9%, and whose SSP had a history of incarceration (91.5% vs. 59.1%. In multivariable analysis, it was shown that having first sexual intercourse before 20 years of age, history of abortion in the past year, low family income, not using condom in last sexual contact, and the partner’s incarceration history were identified as significant predictors. Conclusions: The knowledge produced from the current research can serve as evidence for the promotion of interventions and healthcare services related to sexual and reproductive health for Iranian women and their SSPs. The findings from the current study also support research on improving strategies for STI diagnosis and STI management.
Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont
was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods: We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care...
Bos, JM; van der Meijden, WI; Swart, W; Postma, MJ
HIV screening for attenders of clinics for sexually transmitted disease (STD) may identify individuals with high-risk sexual behaviour and avert HIV infections in partners. Extending our previous analysis in AIDS, we performed an economic evaluation of HIV screening of STD-clinic attenders in
... Twitter STD on Facebook CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted ... has sex can get an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk. In ...
Chico, R Matthew; Hack, Berkin B; Newport, Melanie J; Ngulube, Enesia; Chandramohan, Daniel
The WHO recommends the administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to all pregnant women living in areas of moderate (stable) to high malaria transmission during scheduled antenatal visits, beginning in the second trimester and continuing to delivery. Malaria parasites have lost sensitivity to SP in many endemic areas, prompting the investigation of alternatives that include azithromycin-based combination (ABC) therapies. Use of ABC therapies may also confer protection against curable sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs). The magnitude of protection at the population level would depend on the efficacy of the azithromycin-based regimen used and the underlying prevalence of curable STIs/RTIs among pregnant women who receive preventive treatment. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy data of azithromycin against curable STIs/RTIs. PMID:24191955
Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Cabral, R J
The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether individual self-reports of perceived ability to use a condom correctly correlated with the actual ability to do so. Participants in the study were 3,059 clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The findings revealed that the participants' perceived self-efficacy with regard to using a condom effectively was a poor indicator of their clinically demonstrated skills using a penile model as scored on the 6-point Condom Skills Index...
Verma, Vivek; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Møller, Niels Frimodt
's innate immune system in response to various pathogens. Components of specific pathogens activate different inflammasomes, which once activated in response to pathogen-induced infection, induce the activation of caspases, and the release of mature forms of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Identifying...... the mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced inflammasome activation is important if we are to develop novel therapeutic strategies to target sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related pathogens. This information is currently lacking in literature. In this review, we have discussed the role of various...
Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and epidemiological analysis of the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI and the most frequently reported infectious skin diseases in the Saratov region. To estimate the contribution of immigrants to the formation and number of episodes of infections with sexually transmission in the region. Materials and methods. Retrospective evaluation of the incidence and manifestations of the epidemiological process conducted by evaluating data obtained from the forms of state statistical reporting (№ 9 and № 34, annual report of Saratov regional dermatovenerologic dispensary (2009-2013. Results. We carried out a comparative analysis of the incidence of STI and the most common infectious skin diseases of the population of Saratov region and noted resistant dynamics to decrease. Conclusion. Population displacement within the country and the influx of immigrants from the former CIS countries, have a significant impact on the epidemiological situation in the Saratov region
Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen
Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.
Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu
Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the knowledge, behavior and attitudes about sexually transmitted infections (STIs among university students attending faculties other than medicine. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed. A self-administered questionnaire comprising 37 questions was administered to students of Turkish nationality in a six-week period who attended to medico. Three hundred and eighty eight students completed the questionnaire. Results: Among students, 56.9% were female and 43.1% were male. Mean age was 21.18±2.46. Of the students, 76.9% claimed that they knew about STIs. ?Internet? (63.9% was the most common source of information, followed-by ?friends? (48%. HIV was the most common known disease as a STI (96.8%, followed-by gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis-B, genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis-C. Of the respondents, 93.7% knew that STIs could be transmitted by vaginal sex, while 69% knew about transmission by blood, 48.9% by anal sex and 32% by oral sex. The rate of students who did not know any of the symptoms of STIs was 32.9%. Of the females 13.3% and of the males 51.6% stated to have sexual experience with statistically significant difference among sexes (c2=62.722, p=0.001. Females reported first sexual intercourse at an older age than males (t=3.970, p=0.001. Approximately half of the males (55.8% and nearly all of the females (95.8% who reported to have sexual activity had 2 or less sexual partners (c2=9.564, p=0.008. Both sexes showed risky sexual behavior about condom use (c2=3.210, p=0.523. Conclusion: It seems that most of the Turkish university students are not aware of STIs other than HIV. They especially lack knowledge about symptoms, complications and transmission routes of STIs. The low rate of condom use shows their risky behavior to get STI. Lack of knowledge about STIs, condom use and risky sexual behaviors among university students deserve attention to the
Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula
Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite their living in an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people's knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-group discussions with 65 participants aged 11-24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns emergent until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people.
Jung, Minsoo; Lee, Joongyub; Kwon, Dong Seok; Park, Byung-Joo
It is necessary to examine groups carrying out sexually risky behavior because the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is high among them. In this study, the prevalence of STDs among homosexuals and sex-buying men in South Korea was investigated, along with their sexual risk factors. Men who have sex with men (MSMs, n=108) were recruited in Seoul and Busan by applying the time location sampling method, while sex-buying men (n=118) were recruited from a john school in Gyeonggi province, the suburbs of Seoul. Dependent variables included past or present infection with syphilis, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human immunodeficiency virus. Independent variables included health behavior, social support, sexual behavior, and safe sex. It was found that when the MSMs were non-drunk while having sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 0.132), they showed a higher STD infection rate when they had a higher number of anal sex partners (OR, 5.872), rarely used condoms (OR, 1.980), had lower self-efficacy (OR, 0.229), and were more anxious about becoming infected with an STD (OR, 3.723). However, the men who paid for sex showed high STD infections when they had more sex partners (OR, 2.286) and lower education levels (OR, 3.028). STD infections among the two groups were high when they were engaged with many sex partners and not having protected sex. In other words, there was a gap in risky sex behavior within such groups, which was significantly related to the possibility of developing an STD. Therefore, the preventive intervention against STDs for these groups needs to be expanded to include management of sex behaviors.
Full Text Available Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases’ spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students’ education on HIV/AIDS and STIs.
Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing
Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287
Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta
Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307
Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra
The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.
Hazel, Ashley; Holland Jones, James
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprise a significant portion of the infectious-disease burden among rural people in the Global South. Particular characteristics of ruralness-low-density settlements and poor infrastructure-make healthcare provision difficult, and remoteness, typically a characteristic of ruralness, often compounds the difficultly. Remoteness may also accelerate STI transmission, particularly that of viral STIs, through formation of small, highly connected sexual networks through which pathogens can spread rapidly, especially when partner concurrency is broadly accepted. Herein, we explored the effect of remoteness on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) epidemiology among semi-nomadic pastoralists in northwestern (Kaokoveld) Namibia, where, in 2009 we collected HSV-2-specific antibody status, demographic, sexual network, and travel data from 446 subjects (women = 213, men = 233) in a cross-sectional study design. HSV-2 prevalence was high overall in Kaokoveld (>35%), but was heterogeneously distributed across locally defined residential regions: some regions had significantly higher HSV-2 prevalence (39-48%) than others (21-33%). Using log-linear models, we asked the following questions: 1) Are sexual contacts among people in high HSV-2-prevalence regions more likely to be homophilous (i.e., from the same region) than those among people from low-prevalence regions? 2) Are high-prevalence regions more "functionally" remote, in that people from those regions are more likely to travel within their own region than outside, compared to people from other regions? We found that high-prevalence regions were more sexually homophilous than low-prevalence regions and that those regions also had higher rates of within-region travel than the other regions. These findings indicate that remoteness can create contact structures for accelerated STI transmission among people who are already disproportionately vulnerable to consequences of untreated STIs.
Oluwatoyosi A Adekeye
Full Text Available Approximately 20 million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs are diagnosed yearly in the United States costing the healthcare system an estimated $16 billion in direct medical expenses. The presence of other STIs increases the risk of HIV transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has long recommended routine HIV screening for individuals with a diagnosed STI. Unfortunately, HIV screening prevalence among STI diagnosed patients are still sub-optimal in many healthcare settings.To determine the proportion of STI-diagnosed persons in the Medicaid population who are screened for HIV, examine correlates of HIV screening, and to suggest critical intervention points to increase HIV screening in this population.A retrospective database analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of HIV screening among participants. Participant eligibility was restricted to Medicaid enrollees in 29 states with a primary STI diagnosis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis or pelvic inflammatory disease claim in 2009. HIV-positive persons were excluded from the study. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample in general and by STI diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to estimate unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratio respectively and the 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression models that included the independent variables (race, STI diagnosis, and healthcare setting and covariates (gender, residential status, age, and state were analyzed to examine independent associations with HIV screening.About 43% of all STI-diagnosed study participants were screened for HIV. STI-diagnosed persons that were between 20-24 years, female, residing in a large metropolitan area and with a syphilis diagnosis were more likely to be screened for HIV. Participants who received their STI diagnosis in the emergency department were less likely to
Akpak Yaşam Kemal
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.
Heijne, Janneke C M; Herzog, Sereina A; Althaus, Christian L; Low, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Mirjam
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are, by definition, transmitted between sexual partners. For curable STIs an infected index case can potentially re-infect the same partner multiple times. Thus, R0, the average number of secondary infections one typical infected individual will produce during his or her infectious period is not necessarily the same as the average number of secondary cases (infected persons). Here we introduce the new concept of the case reproduction number (Rc). In addition, we define the partnership reproduction number (Rp) as the average number of secondary partnerships consisting of two infected individuals one typical infected individual will produce over his or her infectious lifetime. Rp takes into account clearance and re-infection within partnerships, which results in a prolongation of the duration of the infectious period. The two new reproduction numbers were derived for a deterministic pair model with serial monogamous partnerships using infection parameters for Chlamydia trachomatis, an example of a curable STI. We showed that re-infection within partnerships means that curable STIs can be sustained endemically even when the average number of secondary cases a person produces during his or her infectious period is below one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e procura da contracepção de emergência em farmácias e drogarias do município de São Paulo Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and acquisition of emergency contraception at pharmacies in the city of São Paulo
Full Text Available São apresentados aspectos da experiência do projeto de intervenção educativa voltado à prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (DST/Aids realizado com profissionais de farmácias e drogarias da área metropolitana de São Paulo. Discute-se a aquisição de contracepção de emergência como importante motivo de procura de farmácias e drogarias e seu uso como fonte de dúvidas para os profissionais. Concluiu-se que a intervenção educativa, realizada pelos profissionais nos estabelecimentos farmacêuticos, contribui na prevenção de DST/Aids, visto que o balcão de farmácia é meio frequentemente utilizado pela população na busca por orientação e indicação de produtos farmacêuticos, além de informações sobre saúde. Pode-se afirmar que é possível e indispensável a incorporação dessa estratégia educativa na prevenção de DST/Aids por estabelecimentos farmacêuticos, em situações cotidianas de risco ou preocupação com doenças presumíveis e com a gravidez por meio de proposição de condutas eficazes de saúde para a população. Extraíram-se lições sobre a experiência quanto à importância de ações de educação para jovens e para profissionais de farmácias em que se enfatizem os direitos sexuais e reprodutivos e a promoção do uso racional de fármacos.The present study discusses results of an educational intervention project directed at preventing sexually transmitted diseases and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/Aids, carried out with professionals from pharmacies in the metropolitan area of São Paulo (Brazil. The acquisition of emergency contraception was found to be an important reason for seeking help from pharmacies as well as a source of doubts for the professionals. Educational intervention carried out by the professionals at pharmaceutical establishments contributes toward the prevention of STD/Aids, as the population often uses
Chan, Philip A; Crowley, Christina; Rose, Jennifer S; Kershaw, Trace; Tributino, Alec; Montgomery, Madeline C; Almonte, Alexi; Raifman, Julia; Patel, Rupa; Nunn, Amy
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about the use of websites and mobile phone applications to meet sexual partners ("hookup sites") and association with STD diagnoses. We performed a demographic and behavioral assessment of 415 MSM presenting to the Rhode Island STD clinic. Bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between using hook up sites and testing positive for syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia. Venue-based affiliation networks were created to evaluate hookup sites and their association with STD diagnoses. Among 415 MSM, 78% reported meeting a partner online in the last 12 months, and 25% tested positive for at least one STD. Men who met partners online were more likely to be white (67% versus 54%, p=0.03) and have >10 lifetime partners (87% versus 58%, pTinder (22%). In the multivariable analysis, only Scruff use was associated with testing positive for an STD (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.09-4.94). However, among men who met partners online, 75% of men diagnosed with an STD had met a sexual partner on Grindr, including 100% of those who were diagnosed with gonorrhea. Use of hookup sites was nearly ubiquitous among MSM undergoing STD screening. Specific hookup sites were significantly associated with STD diagnoses among MSM. Greater efforts are needed to promote STD screening and prevention among MSM who meet partners online. The majority of MSM surveyed at an STD clinic reported using an online application (hookup site) to find sex partners. Use of specific hookup sites may increase risk of an STD diagnosis. However, widespread use of hookup sites offer opportunities for STD screening and prevention messaging.
Vallely, Andrew; Page, Andrew; Dias, Shannon; Siba, Peter; Lupiwa, Tony; Law, Greg; Millan, John; Wilson, David P.; Murray, John M.; Toole, Michael; Kaldor, John M.
Background The potential for an expanded HIV epidemic in Papua New Guinea (PNG) demands an effective, evidence-based and locally-appropriate national response. As sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be important co-factors in HIV transmission nationally, it is timely to conduct a systematic review of STI prevalences to inform national policy on sexual health and HIV/STI prevention. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of HIV and STI prevalences in PNG, reported in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications for the period 1950–2010. Prevalence estimates were stratified by study site (community or clinic-based), geographic area and socio-demographic characteristics. The search strategy identified 105 reports, of which 25 studies (10 community-based; 10 clinic-based; and 5 among self-identified female sex workers) reported STI prevalences and were included in the systematic review. High prevalences of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas were reported in all settings, particularly among female sex workers, where pooled estimates of 26.1%, 33.6%, 33.1% and 39.3% respectively were observed. Pooled HIV prevalence in community-based studies was 1.8% (95% CI:1.2–2.4) in men; 2.6% (95% CI:1.7–3.5) in women; and 11.8% (95% CI:5.8–17.7) among female sex workers. Conclusions/Significance The epidemiology of STIs and HIV in PNG shows considerable heterogeneity by geographical setting and sexual risk group. Prevalences from community-based studies in PNG were higher than in many other countries in the Asia-Pacific. A renewed focus on national STI/HIV surveillance priorities and systems for routine and periodic data collection will be essential to building effective culturally-relevant behavioural and biomedical STI/HIV prevention programs in PNG. PMID:21203468
Saura, Sílvia; Jorquera, Víctor; Rodríguez, Dolors; Mascort, Carina; Castellà, Immaculada; García, Jordi
To identify the links between social representations used by young people to construct their gender identity, sexuality, and the risk management for sexually transmitted infections. Different settings of Primary Health Care in Girona. Young people aged between 16 and 21 years (32 participants) living in Girona. A qualitative study with a social constructionist perspective. A theoretical sampling was carried out and the triangular group and individual interview techniques were used for data collection. The data was interpreted using discourse analysis. Among girls, the ideology of romantic love was associated with dependence on their partner, resulting in a loss of autonomy in the negotiation of condom use. Boys represented sexual desire as an irrepressible urge that causes a loss of self-control through hormonal impulses, which was used to justify their carelessness in relation to condom use. These perspectives explain why girls are subject to sexist prejudices when they have sex just for physical pleasure in the absence of a stable affective bond, whereas boys in the same situation experience enhanced prestige among their peers that reinforces their male identity. The discourse on trust among couples often results in the rejection of condom use, because condoms encapsulate various meanings that are not compatible with faithfulness. These results show the need for awareness among Primary Care professionals of the influence of psychosocial processes among young people, specifically those related to the construction of gender identity and of male and female sexuality in the management of risks associated with sexual activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
cabo proyectos de investigación en esta área y se desarrollen el marco legal y las guías específicas adaptadas a nuestro ámbito.Objectives: To undertake a critical literature review of published evidence on the effectiveness of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections, mechanisms of referral, and the criteria for initiating this activity. To describe how these factors vary by causative agent and to characterize the current state of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections in developed countries. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken using online databases and scientific publications, as well as guidelines and documents pertaining to the legal framework within which contact tracing takes place. Results: Contact tracing is specifically recommended for infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis and HIV. The principal approaches to contact tracing reported were patient referral, provider referral or conditional patient referral. In addition, patient-dispensed partner treatment and the use of new technologies were reported. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy, effectiveness and social and legal context of contact tracing in different countries and populations. This situation contrasts with that in Spain, where there is a notable absence of guidelines, legal framework and formal studies dealing with contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: Contact tracing is an increasingly important tool in the public health management of sexually transmitted infections and should be valued as such. This activity should be an integral and effective component of the control and prevention of sexually transmitted infection programmes in all autonomous regions in Spain. Research in this field is required to develop the legal framework and practice guidelines appropriate to the local context.
Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M
Methamphetamine (meth) use is a continuing problem in the United States and is associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few studies have examined the meth use/STI risk association among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California, from 2009 to 2010. Routinely collected clinic intake data were used to compare the prevalence of meth use among women with different demographics/sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of meth use. There were 1.4% (n = 277) women who reported meth use, with a mean age of 29 years. Prevalence was highest among Whites and those reporting both male and female partners. Most women who reported meth use also reported polysubstance use. In a multivariable model controlling for age, race/ethnicity, condom use, having a new sex partner, and other illicit substance use, women who reported sex with an injection drug user were nearly 10 times more likely to report meth use as compared with those who did not (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.86-16.75). Other factors associated with meth use included sex with a recently incarcerated partner (AOR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16-4.86), anonymous partner (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54-4.04), and transactional sex (AOR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.69-6.32). Women who tested positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea were 1.48 times more likely to use meth as compared with those who did not. Female meth users have high-risk behaviors that could increase their risk for STIs/HIV.
ABSTRACT Objective: To identify and characterize the scientific production of nurses related to young people's vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Method: Descriptive study of transverse cutting (2009-2013, bibliometric research, conducted through the search of publications on the Health Virtual Library and the catalog of theses and dissertations of Brazilian Association of Nursing. The sample consisted of 40 articles, 05 theses and 05 dissertations. Results: The most of the publications were carried out by nurses’ teachers with doctoral degree. The theme of HIV/aids, focus of health education, field research and qualitative analysis of the findings had greater representativeness in the sample analyzed. Conclusion: Although STD have been manifested in young people and the Health Ministry of Brazil showing the increased incidence of HIV/aids in this group, the scientific literature on the subject in the studied timeframe is irregular and reduced. Descriptors: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Adolescent, Young adult, Bibliometrics. RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar y caracterizar la producción científica de enfermería relacionado a la vulnerabilidad de los jóvenes con enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Método: Estudio descriptivo de tipo bibliométrico (2009-2013, de corte transversal realizado en la Biblioteca Virtual de salud y en el catálogo de tesis y disertaciones de la Asociación Brasileña de enfermería. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 40 artículos, 05 tesis y 05 disertaciones. Resultados: La mayoría de las publicaciones se llevó a cabo por enfermeras docentes con grado de doctorado. El tema del VIH/SIDA, el enfoque de educación para la salud, la investigación de campo y análisis cualitativo de los resultados tuvieron mayor representatividad en la muestra analizada. Conclusión: Aunque las enfermedades de transmisión sexual si manifiesta en los jóvenes y los documentos del Ministerio de salud de Brasil demostra el aumento
S. N. Kalininа
Full Text Available Study of the efficacy and safety of natural complex multi-component biologically active additives (BAA to food Spermstrong and Testogenona in the diagnosis and treating 63 men with reproductive disorders after illness, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. During the 12 weeks 41 patients the primary group assigned Spermstrongom combination therapy in combination with Testogenonom, 22 patient control group received only Spermstrong. Immediate treatment results evaluated through 4 weeks and distant through 12 weeks after stopping treatment. It has been established that the appointment of a combination therapy of complex components Spermstrong and Testogenon was statistically significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment. In the main group was marked by a more pronounced positive clinical effect through 12 weeks after treatment in 84.5 % of patients receiving combination therapy (increase the concentration and mobility of spermatozoa to normozoospermii, increase testosterone levels to normal values, improving the quality of erections, improve blood flow in the prostate gland, testes, in the control group who received Spermstrong, the effect is achieved in two times fewer patients, i. e. normozoospermija in 40.9 % have patients. The results confirm that the components of the Spermstrong complexes and Testogenon in combination therapy is effective, safe, have no side effects and can be used in complex treatment of reproductive disorders in men who have STDs, as well as for prophylaxis of incremental sexual glands: prostate, testicules and improve sexual function.
Moreno-Ribera, N; Fuertes-de Vega, I; Blanco-Arévalo, J L; Bosch-Mestres, J; González-Cordón, A; Estrach-Panella, T; García-de Olalla, P; Alsina-Gibert, M
The number of consultations for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is increasing in Spain. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the epidemiological, behavioral, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of patients registered at the STI unit of a tertiary hospital. This was a retrospective, single-center descriptive study carried out between 2010 and 2013 in a multidisciplinary unit specialized in STIs, situated in a tertiary hospital. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were gathered using a face-to-face interview and a standardized questionnaire. Samples were collected for microbiology analysis. The study included 546 patients: 96% were men, 41% had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and 56% were men who have sex with men. The reasons for consultation were the following: urethritis; genital, anal, or perianal ulcers; proctitis; oral ulcers; sexual contact with a person with a known STI; and high-risk sexual contact. The most common microbiological diagnoses were Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethritis, Treponema pallidum in genital and anal or perianal ulcers, and Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum serovars in proctitis. The highest prevalences of the main STIs studied occurred in homosexual men with HIV infection. This study confirms the increase in the incidence of STIs in recent years and the epidemiological characteristics of the HIV/STI epidemic in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases (STD due to their special conditions and poor knowledge about these diseases in the society. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the vulnerable women’s self-care needs in knowledge, attitude and practice concerning STD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-descriptive study conducted in 2014. The data collection was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 120 vulnerable women referring to centers affiliated to health and well-being center in Isfahan participated in this study. They were selected through proportional rationing sampling and filled out a researcher developed questionnaire containing information on personal characteristics, self-care knowledge, attitude, and practice needs toward the STD. The data were analyzed using statistical methods including Spearman & Pearson correlation co-efficient, independent t-test and ANOVA. All analyses were carried out using SPSS, 20. Results: Based on the results, most of the subjects mentioned that their priorities of self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice were “familiarization with the types and contamination ways of sexually transmitted diseases” (57.9%; “diagnosis of STD only makes us anxious” (24.8, and “the method of washing the genital area before and after intercourse” 41.3%, respectively. There was a significant association among marital status, education, history of addiction, and self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that vulnerable women not only knew their need about STD, but also paid attention to their attitude and practice needs toward STD. Therefore, educational programs should be designed and administrated by the experts, based on vulnerable women’s self-care needs concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice to prevent and control STD in vulnerable individuals.
Noda, Angel A; Blanco, Orestes; Correa, Consuelo; Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Rodríguez, Islay
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in particular genital ulcer disease (GUD) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in resource-constrained countries. Surveillance of autochthonous etiologies provides epidemiological information contributing to the prevention and treatment of STIs. We investigated the etiology and factors associated with GUD among male patients attending a STD clinic in Havana, Cuba. Swabs from genital ulcers of 113 male patients, collected from May 2012 to June 2015, were analyzed using PCR for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis. We also investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with the presence of these pathogens in GUD. At least one of the pathogens was detected in 70% of patients. The occurrence of the pathogens was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (51.3%), T. pallidum (29.2%), and C. trachomatis (1.8%). Co-infections occurred as follows: T. pallidum-HSV-2 (10.6%), C. trachomatis-HSV-2 (0.9%) and C. trachomatis-T. pallidum (0.9%). Herpes simplex virus type 1 and H. ducreyi were not detected. Ages 15 to 40 years, HIV-positive serostatus, and no condom use were significant risk factors for the presence of HSV-2 in genital ulcers. Our preliminary results highlight the predominance of HSV-2 and T. pallidum as the leading GUD etiologies in the study population and identified risk factors associated with HSV-2. This information should help to inform guidelines for better management of GUD in Havana, Cuba.
Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R
Objectives: To describe sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviours in Slovenia. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the general population aged 18–49 years in 1999–2001 was conducted. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews and anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used. Results: 849 men and 903 women were interviewed. In the past 5 years, both men and women reported a median of one heterosexual partner (means 3.2, 1.5, respectively), concurrent heterosexual partnerships were reported by 24.4% of men and 8.2% of women, heterosexual sex with non-Slovenian partners by 12.6% of men and 12.2% of women, forced sex by 4.8% of women, paid heterosexual sex by 2.6% of men, sex with another man by 0.6% of men and heterosexual sex with an injecting drug user by 1.2% of men and 1.3% of women. In the past year, 22.7% of men and 9.5% of women reported forming at least one new heterosexual partnership. The mean numbers of episodes of heterosexual sex in the previous 4 weeks were 6.1 for men and 6.0 for women. Consistent and inconsistent condom use was reported more frequently among men reporting multiple female partners and those not married or cohabiting. Conclusions: Recent patterns of reported sexual behaviour are consistent with a low risk of HIV and STI transmission in Slovenia. The results will inform Slovenian sexual health policies including HIV/STI prevention, and are particularly valuable because population-based data on HIV/STI risk behaviour have not previously been available in low HIV prevalence countries of central Europe. PMID:19060036
O que acontece atrás das grades: estratégias de prevenção desenvolvidas nas delegacias civis contra HIV/AIDS e outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis What happens behind bars: prevention strategies developed in civilian police stations against HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases
Cássia Barbosa Reis
Full Text Available A Política de Saúde Preventiva brasileira tem realizado importantes estratégias de combate a disseminação do HIV/AIDS. Porém, existem indivíduos que, teoricamente, não fazem parte da sociedade e são receptores e transmissores de doenças: os encarcerados. Esta população interage com a comunidade por meio dos familiares, visitantes, servidores prisionais e das diversas reincidências. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo conhecer as estratégias desenvolvidas para prevenir a infecção e a disseminação das DST/AIDS nas Delegacias Civis. De desenho qualitativo, foi realizada com internos das cadeias públicas de quatro municípios da regional de Naviraí/MS, sendo a análise realizada através da técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo. Resultados mostram que apesar de reconhecerem a importância da prevenção, o preservativo masculino é utilizado apenas na primeira relação, sendo que quando se trata de relacionamento com parceiro (a fixo (a este não é usado. É notória a falta de orientação em relação à prevenção das DST/AIDS e a precária assistência à saúde dos presos, relacionado principalmente ao preconceito e à discriminação da sociedade. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade de que a política de atenção à saúde dos prisioneiros precisa ser implantada também nas cadeias públicas.Brazilian Preventive Healthcare Policy has implemented important strategies to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, there are some individuals that are theoretically not part of society who are catching and transmitting disease, namely prisoners. This population interacts with the community by means of relatives, visitors, prison wardens and repeat incarceration. The scope of this research is to establish the strategies developed to prevent the transmission and dissemination of STD/AIDS in Civil Police stations. A qualitative study was conducted with interns of the public prisons of four cities of the region of Naviraí in Mato
Mimiaga, Matthew J; Goldhammer, Hilary; Belanoff, Candice; Tetu, Ashley M; Mayer, Kenneth H
This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of the barriers and facilitators related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV screening among at-risk Boston men who have sex with men (MSM). The cohort was recruited by a modified respondent-driven sampling technique and used one-on-one semistructured interviews and a quantitative survey to examine participants' understanding of STDs and HIV, perceptions of risk for disease, reasons for getting (or not getting) tested, and experiences with testing. The study found that although most of the MSM knew the signs and symptoms of HIV, they were less familiar with STDs. MSM were most likely to be screened if they had symptoms or were told by a partner of a recent exposure. However, many barriers to STD/HIV screening among MSM still exist, including lack of awareness of symptoms, misperceptions about the ways STDs are transmitted, and perceived impediments from the healthcare system, including misgivings about provider sensitivity. To decrease current increases in HIV/STDs among MSM, new strategies that include community and provider education are needed.
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...
Bertha Victoria Rodríguez Pendás
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es insistir en la asociación que existe entre el incremento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual y la infertilidad masculina. Se muestran numerosas investigaciones realizadas en este campo que demuestran el rol de estas infecciones en la etiología de la infertilidad, y se describen algunas de las principales infecciones en el semen que provocan la declinación de la fertilidad masculina y sus consecuencias en la salud reproductiva de los hombres. Con este trabajo de revisión nos proponemos resaltar la necesidad de incluir en el estudio de la infertilidad masculina el control microbiológico del semen, particularmente útil en los servicios de salud reproductiva, donde el riesgo de prevalencia de infecciones asociadas a la infertilidad provoca una reproducción fallida con consecuencias emocionales y sociales en la parejaAim of this paper is to insist on association between the sexually transmitted diseases increase and male infertility. We present most researches performed in this field emphasizing the role of these infections in infertility origin, and we describe also some of main semen infections causing decrease of male fertility, and its consequences on reproductive health of men. Aim of this review paper is to highlight the need of to include in male infertility study, the metabolic control of semen, where risk of infections prevalence associated to infertility provokes a failure reproduction with emotional and social consequences in couple
The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Jain, Parul; Hoffman, Eric; Beam, Michael; Xu, Shan Susan
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread in the United States among people ages 15-24 years and cost almost $16 billion yearly. It is therefore important to understand message design strategies that could help reduce these numbers. Guided by exemplification theory and the extended parallel process model (EPPM), this study examines the influence of message format and the presence versus absence of a graphic image on recipients' accessibility of STI attitudes regarding safe sex. Results of the experiment indicate a significant effect from testimonial messages on increased attitude accessibility regarding STIs compared to statistical messages. Results also indicate a conditional indirect effect of testimonial messages on STI attitude accessibility, though threat is greater when a graphic image is included. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...... collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had...... significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P HIV-uninfected women. There were no statistically significant...
Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James
High rates of infection for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been noted among youths involved in the juvenile justice system. Although both individual and community-level factors have been found to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk, their relative importance has not been tested in this population. A two-level logistic regression analysis was completed to assess the influence of individual-level and community-level predictors on STD test results among arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility. Results from weighted two level logistic regression analyses (n = 1,368) indicated individual-level factors of gender (being female), age, race (being African American), and criminal history predicted the youths' positive STD status. For the community-level predictors, concentrated disadvantage significantly and positively predicted the youths' STD status. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed.
França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier de; Magalhães, Isabella Medeiros de Oliveira; Sousa, Francisco Stélio de; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; Silva, Arthur Felipe Rodrigues; Baptista, Rosilene Santos
To validate a video containing image representations of clinical signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections expressed in Libras. Methodology development study conducted in an audio communication school. Thirty-six deaf people were selected. A video containing image representations of clinical signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections expressed in Libras was produced. Semantic validation was performed by deaf students and content validation by three judges who are Libras experts. The validation results were subjected to the Content Validity Index, where an index score > 0.80/80% was considered as agreement among judges. Seven signs and symptoms related to sexually transmitted infections were validated and obtained satisfactory Content Validity Indexes, most of them with 100% representativeness and agreement. The validation process made the expressions of signs and symptoms related to sexually transmitted infections represented in Libras valid for establishing effective communication in the area of the study, turning it into a care tool that facilitates and standardizes communication with deaf people through Libras. Validar um vídeo contendo as representações imagéticas de sinais e sintomas clínicos de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis expressas em Libras. Estudo de desenvolvimento metodológico, realizado em uma escola de audiocomunicação. Selecionou-se uma amostra de 36 surdos. Elaborou-se um vídeo contendo a representação imagética de sinais e sintomas de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis expressos em Libras. A validação semântica foi realizada pelos surdos e a validação de conteúdo por três juízes experts em Libras. Os resultados da validação foram submetidos ao Índice de Validade de Conteúdo, considerando-se o escore do índice > 0,80/80% de concordância entre os juízes. Foram validados sete sinais e sintomas relacionados às infecções sexualmente transmissíveis que obtiveram Índices de Validade de
Calmet, Montserrat; Juvé, Rosa; Alberny, Mireia; Andreu, Antonia; Loureiro, Eva; Matas, Lourdes; Vilamala, Anna; Casabona, Jordi
With the aim of describing both the capacity and organization of the laboratories in Catalonia to diagnose sexually transmitted infections, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2005 and March 2006, which included 140 laboratories. Ninety-eight laboratories performed some STI tests, 45 received more than 50 vaginal swabs per month, 42 diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis, but only six used polymerase chain reaction techniques. None diagnosed venereal lymphogranuloma. Eighty were able to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 76 by means of culture and 63 analyzed its antibiotic resistance. A total of 23, 22, 22 and 14 laboratories received more than 500 blood samples for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis, respectively. Non-treponemic and treponemic tests were available in 84 and 52 laboratories, respectively. In Catalonia, most STIs can be diagnosed but new technologies need to be introduced. Moreover, the efficiency of biological sample circuits should be improved.
Leichliter, Jami S; Copen, Casey; Dittus, Patricia J
National-level data are limited regarding confidentiality-related issues and the use of sexually transmitted disease (STD) services for adolescents and young adults. Changes in the U.S. health care system have permitted dependent children to remain on a parent's health insurance plan until the child's 26th birthday and required coverage of certain preventive services, including some STD services, without cost sharing for most plans (1,2). Although these provisions likely facilitate access to the health care system, adolescents and young adults might not seek care or might delay seeking care for certain services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out (3,4). Therefore, it is important to examine STD services and confidentiality-related issues among persons aged 15-25 years in the United States. CDC analyzed data from the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth and found that 12.7% of sexually experienced youths (adolescents aged 15-17 years and those young adults aged 18-25 years who were on a parent's insurance plan) would not seek sexual and reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out. Particularly concerned were persons aged 15-17 years (22.6%). Females with confidentiality concerns regarding seeking sexual and reproductive health care reported a lower prevalence of receipt of chlamydia screening (17.1%) than did females who did not cite such concerns (38.7%). More adolescents aged 15-17 years who spent time alone with a health care provider (without a parent in the room) reported receipt of a sexual risk assessment (71.1%) and, among females, chlamydia testing (34.0%), than did those who did not spend time alone (36.6% and 14.9%, respectively). The results indicated that confidentiality-related issues were associated with less reported use of some STD services, especially for younger persons and females. Spending time alone with a provider (i.e., without a parent present
Walter Belda Junior
Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis estão entre os problemas de saúde pública mais comuns em todo o mundo. Entre suas consequências estão a infertilidade feminina e masculina, a transmissão de mãe para filho, determinando perdas gestacionais ou doença congênita, e o aumento do risco para a infecção pelo HIV. Dessa forma, este guideline tem o objetivo de contribuir para melhorar a qualidade de atenção às pessoas com infecções sexualmente transmissíveis mais frequentes no Brasil, trazendo de forma didática e concreta o estado atual dos conhecimentos para os dermatologistas e médicos em geral que atuam no atendimento dessas pessoas e as principais recomendações para o diagnóstico e tratamento das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis mais recorrentes.Nowadays, sexually transmitted diseases are one of the most common public health issues. Among its consequences are the possibility of transmission from mother to baby - which may cause miscarriages and congenital disease, male and female infertility, and the increase of HIV infection risk. Therefore, the main goal of these guidelines is to contribute to the improvement of the treatment for sexually transmitted diseases patients by presenting to the medical community how today's science stands on the matter and also what the recommendation for diagnosing and treating a patient are.
Anwar, Mudassir; Sulaiman, Syed A Syed; Khan, Tahir M
The aim of this study was to assess the patients' knowledge and awareness of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A face-to-face interview was conducted among the patients visiting the Venereal Diseases Outpatient Department of the General Hospital of Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). A 19-item questionnaire was used. A total of 116 patients participated in the study and 107 patients had valid responses. The reliability and internal consistency of the questionnaire tool was estimated on the basis of Cronbach's alpha (= 0.81). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0(R)) was used for data analysis. Student's t test and analysis of variance were used to analyse the knowledge differences among the groups. Of the 107 patients, 82 (76.6%) were diagnosed with syphilis; AIDS was the most commonly known STI among the patients. Of the 107 patients, 35 were sexually active and of these 23 (65.7%) had more than 1 sexual partner. The most popular source of knowledge was newspapers (51 patients, 47.7%), with hospitals (3 patients, 2.8%) being the least popular one. Overall mean score on knowledge questions was 12.21 out of the maximum of 33 points. Knowledge about causative organisms, risk groups, transmission, symptoms, prevention and treatment of STIs was inadequate. The knowledge level was significantly related to gender (p = 0.03), religion (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.000), marital status (p = 0.000) and income level (p = 0.036). This study demonstrated evidence of poor knowledge of STIs amongst the patients attending an STI service in the General Hospital of Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). Hence there is an immediate need for efforts towards improving patient knowledge of STIs. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Guimarães, Eleuse M B; Guimarães, Mark D C; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nádia M; Seixas, Mirian S S; Garcia, Mônica S D; Daud, Lyana E S; Côrtes, Rejane L M; Alves, Maria de Fátima C
Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.
Côrtes Rejane LM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6% were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2 and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7. Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.
Ng, Brian E; Butler, Lisa M; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George W
The transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is closely related to the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Similar risk behaviours, such as frequent unprotected intercourse with different partners, place people at high risk of HIV and STIs, and there is clear evidence that many STIs increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. STI control, especially at the population or community level, may have the potential to contribute substantially to HIV prevention.This is an update of an existing Cochrane review. The review's search methods were updated and its inclusion and exclusion criteria modified so that the focus would be on one well-defined outcome. This review now focuses explicitly on population-based biomedical interventions for STI control, with change in HIV incidence being an outcome necessary for a study's inclusion. To determine the impact of population-based biomedical STI interventions on the incidence of HIV infection. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science/Social Science, PsycINFO, and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), for the period of 1 January1980 - 16 August 2010. We initially identified 6003 articles and abstracts. After removing 776 duplicates, one author (TH) removed an additional 3268 citations that were clearly irrelevant. Rigorously applying the inclusion criteria, three authors then independently screened the remaining 1959 citations and abstracts. Forty-six articles were chosen for full-text scrutiny by two authors. Ultimately, four studies were included in the review.We also searched the Aegis database of conference abstracts, which includes the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), the International AIDS Conference (IAC), and International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS) meetings from their inception dates (1993, 1985 and
Laura M Kuyper
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While several studies have reported on sexual risk behaviours and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among injection drug users (IDUs, there are fewer prospective studies that have been able to examine populations of IDUs with no history of STIs. Therefore, the authors examined prevalence, correlates and factors associated with time to first STI infection in a prospective cohort of IDUs in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman
Background The ability to seek help or medical care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is vital for sexually active youth; yet, their needs are often unmet. Methods We conducted a qualitative systematic review of studies to assess youth and provider views about the behaviors of young people in help seeking and care seeking for STI services in low- and middle-income countries. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001 and 2014 with a study population of yo...
João Bosco Ramos Borges
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of adolescents living in Vila Ana and Morada das Vinhas region, in the city of Jundiaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on prevention and diagnosis of the main sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and on cervical cancer, as well as the immediate impact of educational lectures. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed to assess the knowledge of a particular group of female adolescents about STDs and cervical cancer, by means of a questionnaire applied before and after educational lectures. Results: After the lecture, there was an increased number of correct answers about sexual education, knowledge about HPV (44%, and prevention of cervical cancer (22%. Conclusion: The adolescents in our study had little knowledge about STDs and cervical cancer, but educative lectures could change this reality at a low cost to Public Health services.
No evidence for a sustained increase in sexually transmitted diseases among heterosexuals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a 12-year trend analysis at the sexually transmitted disease outpatient clinic, Amsterdam
van der Bij, Akke K.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Fennema, Han S. A.; Adams, Karin; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are on the rise, mainly among men having sex with men (MSM). GOAL: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether STD increases as seen in MSM are also visible among heterosexuals. STUDY DESIGN: Attendees of the STD clinic in Amsterdam, The
Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather
Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women.
Full Text Available Image elicitation methods generating visual data are becoming more common in social science research to generate rich and detailed findings and access topics using nonverbal approaches. Current elicitation techniques using photos and drawing methods have limited application for studying sexually transmitted infections (STIs. To address this, I describe a novel elicitation method—the flash card activity—which involves ranking STI flash cards according to predetermined themed continua. The activity was embedded within semistructured interviews focusing on social representations of STIs and experiences and meanings of STI symptoms and care-seeking behavior with 27 participants. Participants were recruited from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles that took place in Britain 2010–2012. This article reports on the methodological findings of implementing the flash card activity. The activity generated linked verbal and visual data that were more fluent, cohesive, and diverse than other interview data and disrupted normative accounts of infections, enabling participants to reflect on the formation and influences on their social representations. Acceptability of the flash card activity was high, although there were feasibility issues when either language comprehension or time were limited. There is scope for further methodological innovation and adaptation for different topics.
Elisângela de Souza Marques
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research was to verify the knowledge of the school adolescents, of a public school in Goiânia – Goiás, about STD/Aids. The research is characterized as descriptive and was made from 2003 January to October, with students of the related school 7th and 8th classes’ and 2nd and 3rd high school classes. The data had been collected by structuralized questionnaire. The research had evaluated 113 students and 46% of them were male and 54% were female. The age goes to 12 to 19 years old. 15% of the students told that they already had sexual relations. It was observed that, although 90,43% of the students have showed previous knowledge of the subject, when they were asked about how much they knew about DST/AIDS, many of them had answered incorrectly. The research suggests an effective implementation of educative programs about the theme in all the schools and school levels. KEYWORDS: Public Health Nursing; Teen Health; Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.
Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Chitale, Rohit A; Rigg, Robert; Goldstein, Binh Y; Kerndt, Peter R; Tavrow, Paula
Undiagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be common in the adult film industry because performers frequently engage in unprotected oral and anal intercourse, STIs are often asymptomatic, and the industry relies on urine-based testing. Between mid-May and mid-September 2010, a consecutive sample of adult film industry performers recruited from a clinic in Los Angeles, California, that provides medical care to performers was offered oropharyngeal, rectal, and urogenital testing for Gonorrhea, and rectal and urogenital testing for Chlamydia. During the 4-month study period, 168 participants were enrolled: 112 (67%) were female and 56 (33%) were male. Of the 47 (28%) who tested positive for Gonorrhea and/or Chlamydia, 11 (23%) cases would not have been detected through urogenital testing alone. Gonorrhea was the most common STI (42/168; 25%) and the oropharynx the most common site of infection (37/47; 79%). Thirty-five (95%) oropharyngeal and 21 (91%) rectal infections were asymptomatic. Few participants reported using condoms consistently while performing or with their personal sex partners. Adult film industry performers had a high burden of STIs. Undiagnosed asymptomatic rectal and oropharyngeal STIs were common and are likely reservoirs for transmission to sexual partners inside and outside the workplace. Performers should be tested at all anatomical sites irrespective of symptoms, and condom use should be enforced to protect workers in this industry.
Full Text Available This study is to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its risk factors among the female attendees of sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Zhejiang Province, China. A self-administered questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional design was administered to attendees at four STD clinics in 2007. Of the 313 female STD clinic attendees, 42.5% reported that they had at least one unintended pregnancy; the induced abortion rate was 39.0%. Over their lifetime, 12.1% responded “use condoms always/often” and 5.4% “always/often used oral contraceptives.” The risk factors for the unintended pregnancy identified by the multivariate analysis were as follows: being married, experience of nonconsensual sex, and a history of STD, having two and over two sexual partners. Unintended pregnancies and induced abortion by female STD clinic attendees have reached an alarming prevalence. Doctors at STD clinics should attach importance not only to the STD problem of the female attendees, but also to the unintended pregnancy and the associated factors. Targeted contraceptive counseling and intervention should be promoted at STD clinics as a strategy to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the reproductive health services in China.
Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan; Ramjee, Gita
Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a significant public health problem especially among women of reproductive age in Africa. Methods. A total of 2236 women that had enrolled in the MDP301 vaginal microbicide trial were tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Results. CT was identified as the most prevalent STI (11%) followed by TV (10%), NG, and Syphilis (3%). The highest prevalence of coinfection was reported between T. pallidum and TV (19.67%, P = 0.004), followed by CT and TV (13.52%, P ≤ 0.001). Risk factors that were significantly associated with STI acquisition were women of 23 years of age or younger (HR: 1.50, 95% CI 1.17, 1.93), baseline STI with CT (HR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.32, 2.35), TV (HR: 1.58, 95% CI, 1.20, 2.10), and T. pallidum (HR: 5.13, 95% CI 3.65, 7.22), and a low education level (HR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66). Conclusion. Young women with lower education and a history of STIs are at high risk of multiple STIs. Prevention programs should consider target approach to STI prevention among young women. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64716212.
Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively.Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior.Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs.
Sanchez, Maria T R; Bermudez, Maripaz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in power distribution between males and females in couple relationships, and whether these differences are associated with risky sexual behaviour in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents. The study also examined the influence of partner's age on the power dynamics that occur in a relationship. The sample comprised 1,223 adolescents attending state and private schools in the 17 autonomous regions in Spain. All adolescents included in the sample were involved in a heterosexual relationship (for at least one month) at the time of evaluation. Relationship control and decision-making dominance were evaluated using the Spanish version of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale. Two further questionnaires were administered to collect sociodemographic data, and data on sexual behaviour. Females showed greater relationship control and greater control over decision-making than males. In the female group, participants with partners five or more years older than them were found to have less control over decision-making, while greater control over decision-making was linked to less exposure to risk. In the male group, participants with partners older than them were found to have greater control over decisionmaking, while relationship control was found to be negatively related to exposure to sexual risk. These results highlight the importance of taking power distribution and gender inequalities in couple relationships into consideration for STI and HIV prevention.
Cuffe, Kendra M; Newton-Levinson, Anna; Gift, Thomas L; McFarlane, Mary; Leichliter, Jami S
Persons aged 15-25 years have high sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates and suboptimal screening. There has been limited research analyzing barriers to STI testing at a national level. We examined STI testing among 15-25 year olds and reasons for not testing. We used data from a national survey of youth. Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined differences in testing behaviors by demographics, separately by sex. Among sexually experienced respondents who reported never being tested, health system-related reasons for not testing were examined in bivariate and multivariable analyses. Females (16.6%) were more likely to have ever been tested compared with males (6.1%, p < .01) in the last 12 months. Among sexually experienced respondents who were never tested, 41.8% did not seek testing because they felt they were not at risk for STIs. Males (60.1%) had significantly higher reports of foregoing testing for confidentiality reasons compared with females (39.9%, p < .01). Non-Hispanic whites (44.9%) the highest reports of this compared with other ethnic/racial groups (p < .01). This national-level study found that most of the 15-25 year olds never received an STI test. In addition, confidentiality concerns may deter youth from seeking STI testing. Appropriate strategies to minimize these concerns may be useful. Potential strategies to ameliorate these issues may include engaging clinicians who frequently serve adolescents and young adults to address confidentiality issues with youth patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Barbera-Gracia, María Jesús; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; García de Olalla, Patricia; Muñoz, Rafael; Jacques-Aviñó, Constanza; Saladié-Martí, María Pilar; Gosch-Elcoso, Mercè; Arellano Muñoz, Encarna; Casabona, Jordi
Among men who have sex with men (MSM), the association between searching for sexual partners' on the Internet and increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV infection, together with current low levels of partner notification (PN), justifies a study to explore the intention to use new communication technologies for PN in Spain. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed: the first was administered online to visitors to web pages where the survey was advertised; the second was administered on paper to patients attending an STI Unit and centres similar to Community-Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing centres. The study population comprised 1578 Spanish residents (median age, 34 years [range: 18 to 74]); 84% lived in urban areas, and 69% reported searching for sexual partners on the Internet. Thirty-seven per cent would be willing to use a website for PN, 26% did not know if they would use one, and 37% would not want to use one. The main reasons for not intending to notify STI/HIV were "shame or fear" (stable partner) and "not knowing how to contact them" (casual partner). The preferred method of notification was face to face (73%) for both stable and casual partners, although using new technologies (Short Messaging System, e-mail, web page, phone applications) was widely accepted for notifying casual partners. Fighting stigma and promoting alternative methods of PN among MSM and health professionals through new technologies could increase the frequency of PN. This approach will improve early detection and reduce transmission in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi
Full Text Available Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation.
Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres: associação com variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among women: association with socioeconomic and demographic variables
Ana Luisa Jiménez
Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST têm sido debatidas no ambiente científico e nos meios de comunicação de massa, em especial, por sua associação a maior risco de infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV. Estudou-se a adoção de comportamentos por mulheres para proteção das DST, tal como a associação destes a variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, com dados secundários de pesquisa feita em Campinas, São Paulo, na qual foram entrevistadas 635 mulheres selecionadas mediante a técnica de amostragem "bola de neve". Foram classificadas em: adolescentes e adultas de status sócio-econômico médio-alto ou baixo. Grande proporção delas não se prevenia das DST, em particular, as de status baixo. Em todos os grupos, o condom masculino foi o método de prevenção mais referido. Houve associação negativa entre parceiro fixo e uso de condom, e a principal razão para não usá-lo foi "só ter um parceiro e confiar nele". Em meio às adolescentes, ocorreu associação positiva entre escolaridade acima da oitava série e uso de condom, bem como negativa entre idade e uso desse método. Entre adultas o uso exclusivo de condom esteve, em geral, positivamente associado a status sócio-econômico.Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have been a subject of discussion both among scientists and in the mass media, especially because of their association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We studied the adoption of specific protective behaviors for the prevention of STDs among women, as well as the associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic and demographic variables. This was a descriptive study based on secondary data from a previous study carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected using the social network ("snowball" technique. Subjects were classified into four groups: adolescents and adults of upper middle and lower
Trienekens, S.C.M.; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Donker, G.A.; Bergen, J.E.A.M. van; Sande, M.A.B. van der
Objectives: In the Netherlands, sexually transmitted infection (STI) care is provided by general practitioners (GPs) as well as by specialised STI centres. Consultations at the STI centres are monitored extensively, but data from the general practice are limited. This study aimed to examine STI
Matteelli, Alberto; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Carvalho, Anna C. C.; Weld, Leisa; Davis, Xiaohong M.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Barnett, Elizabeth D.; Parola, Philippe; Pandey, Prativa; Han, Pauline; Castelli, Francesco; Murphy, Holly; Weber, Rainer; Steffen, Robert; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Jenks, Nancy Piper; Kerr, Christine A.; Borwein, Sarah; Leder, Karin; Torresi, Joseph; Brown, Graham V.; Keystone, Jay S.; Kain, Kevin C.; Jensenius, Mogens; Wang, Andy; Eason, Jane; MacDonald, Susan; McCarthy, Anne E.; Anderson, Nicole L.; Batchelor, Trish; Meisch, Dominique; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Pérez-Molina, Jose A.; Field, Vanessa; Schwartz, Eli; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Loutan, Louis; Chappuis, François; Caumes, Eric; Pérignon, Alice; Lim, Poh Lian; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Libman, Michael D.; Ward, Brian J.; Maclean, J. Dick; Stauffer, William M.; Walker, Patricia F.; Hale, Devon C.; Anand, Rahul; de Vries, Peter J.
Travel is thought to be a risk factor for the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but no multicentre analyses have been done. We aimed to describe the range of diseases and the demographic and geographical factors associated with the acquisition of travel-related STIs through
Borgdorff, Hanneke; Verwijs, Marijn C.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Verhelst, Rita; Schuren, Frank H.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.
The observed association between Depo-Provera injectable use and increased HIV acquisition may be caused by hormone-induced increased susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or changes in the cervicovaginal microbiota (VMB), accompanied by genital immune activation and/or
Bernard, Sandie; Clement, Pierre; Carvalho, Graca; Gilda, Alves; Berger, Dominique; Thiaw, Seyni Mame; Sabah, Selmaoui; Salaheddine, Khzami; Skujiene, Grita; Abdelli, Sami; Mondher, Abrougui; Calado, Florbela; Bogner, Franz; Assaad, Yammine
Our study focused on two topics, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and their control using condoms. For this, we analysed and compared 42 school textbooks from 16 countries on the general topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education" using a specific grid designed by the BIOHEAD-Citizen project. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome…
Morris, Brian J.; Hankins, Catherine A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Krieger, John N.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.
We critically evaluate a recent article by Van Howe involving 12 meta-analyses that concludes, contrary to current evidence, that male circumcision increases the risk of various common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our detailed scrutiny reveals that these meta-analyses (1) failed to
Urbanus, Anouk T.; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Geskus, Ronald; Vanhommerig, Joost W.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Schinkel, Janke; Heijman, Titia; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria
Since 2000, there is growing evidence that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive MSM. Here, we present a 15-year overview of the HCV epidemic among MSM visiting a large STI-clinic in the Netherlands. During biannual cross-sectional
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.
Ma, Qiaoqin; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Cong, Liming; Xu, Guozhang; Pan, Xiaohong; Zamani, Saman; Ravari, Shahrzad Mortazavi; Zhang, Dandan; Homma, Takayuki; Kihara, Masahiro
To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3%) completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners), multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.
Fageeh, Wafa M K
To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education (P Women inmates at Briman
Brown, Monique J; Pugsley, River; Cohen, Steven A
The Internet has now become a popular venue to meet sex partners. People who use the Internet to meet sex partners may be at a higher risk for contracting HIV and STIs. This study examined the association between meeting sex partners from the Internet, and HIV testing, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Data were obtained from the Virginia Department of Health STD Surveillance Network. Logistic regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals for the associations between meeting sex partners through the Internet and ever tested for HIV, HIV testing in the past 12 months, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression was also used to determine if gender and men who have sex with men interaction terms significantly improved the model. Women who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to have had an HIV test in the past 12 months than women who did not meet a partner in this way. On the other hand, men who met a sex partner through the Internet were more likely to have ever had an HIV test than other men, but this was only seen for heterosexual men. All populations who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to take part in risky sexual behavior. HIV prevention strategies should emphasize annual testing for all populations.
[Clinical, laboratory and uretroscopic evaluation of the effectiveness of Safocid in the complex treatment of urethritis associated with sexually transmitted infections by using endoscopic techniques].
Abdrakhmanov, R M; Khalilov, B V; Abdrakhmanov, A R
The study included 110 men suffering from sexually transmitted infections. Clinical diagnosis was made using modern hardware and instrumental methods of examination. It is shown that the combined preparation "Safocid" is a high-effective drug for the etiotropic treatment of specific and non-specific urethritis, with elimination of causative microorganisms of sexually transmitted infections in 96.4% of cases.
Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of population. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married scheduled castes women in Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of SPSS version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. Results: Around 8.8% of women experienced sexually transmitted infections among the study population. The proportion of women who experienced STIs was seven times higher among illiterates (46.9% than women who completed secondary education (6%. The women in households in the high standard of living index (SLI were less likely to experience STIs (1.7% than women in low SLI (15.6%. The agricultural laborers were 1.145 times more likely to experience STIs than non-agricultural workers (OR=0.251. Conclusions: The main causes for sexual health problems were found to be the less education and lowest SLI among women. It is recommended that policy makers should be introduce community intervention programs to increase the awareness regarding sexual health issues among rural population.
Full Text Available Introduction: The Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a global health problem of great magnitude. The pattern of STDs differs from country to country and from region to region. The increased risk of the transmission of HIV is known to be associated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and despite the presence of the National STD Control Program in India the number of people with STDs remains high. Aim: The aim of our study was to study the profile of patients in a STD clinic in North India and to study various sexually transmitted infections in both male and female patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study of the patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital in North India from December 2009 to December 2012 was done. A total of 2700 patients attending the STDclinic in three years from December 2009 to December 2012 were taken up for the study. Results: The commonest sexually transmitted infection in males was herpes genitalis (30% followed by 20% cases of genital warts. 10% patients had gonorrhoea, genital molluscum contagiosum, syphilis and genital scabies each and 5% patients had nongonococcal urethritis. Only 5% of the total patients had chancroid, donovanosis and LGV. The commonest sexually transmitted infection in females was vaginal discharge seen in 40% patients, lower abdominal pain in 20% patients, herpes genitalis in 15% patients followed by 20% cases of genital warts and syphilis each. Genital molluscum contagiosum was seen in 5% patients only. Conclusions: The treatment of STD’s is important as both non-ulcerative and ulcerative STDs increase the susceptibility to or transmissibility of HIV infection and as such, an increase in STD prevalence as revealed by clinic attendance in this study was bound to facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS. Perhaps it is high time health planners adopted a more aggressive and result oriented HIV/AIDS/STD awareness campaign strategy.
Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na visão de idosos de uma Estratégia da Saúde da Família Prevención de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles según la óptica de ancianos de una Estrategia de Salud Familiar Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in the point of view of elderly clients of a Family Health Strategy
Andreia Kullmann Cezar
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o conhecimento de pessoas idosas sobre as ações preventivas para as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DSTs no contexto da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, envolvendo 94 pessoas idosas, idade ≥60 anos, adstritas à ESF na Serra Gaúcha. Os resultados apontam paridade na amostra para vida sexual ativa e predominância da atividade sexual com o mesmo parceiro. As pessoas idosas têm conhecimento de como evitar as DSTs, sendo enfático o uso de preservativos. A maioria relatou que não recebeu orientações da equipe da ESF; já os idosos que receberam, os mesmos declararam que a orientação teve o enfoque no preservativo. É necessário intensificar as ações e discussões em torno da sexualidade e DSTs, visando ao envelhecimento saudável.El objetivo de este trabajo fue la evaluación de conocimiento de personas mayores con respecto a acciones de prevención para enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en el contexto de la Estrategia Salud de la familia (ESF. Se trata de un estudio transversal con 94 personas con más de 60 años asociadas a ESF, en la Sierra Gaucha (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Los resultados demuestran paridad en relación a la vida sexual activa y predominancia de la vida sexual con la misma pareja. Los ancianos tienen conocimiento sobre las formas de evitar las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles y son enfáticos sobre el uso de preservativos. La mayoría relató que no recibió orientación del equipo de ESF; los que recibieron dijeron que las orientaciones tuvieron enfoque en el uso del preservativo. Es necesario intensificar las acciones y discusiones sobre la sexualidad y enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles pensando en la vejez saludable.The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of elderly people on preventive actions to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in the context of the Family Health Strategy (FHS. This is a cross
Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.
Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…
Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights ...
Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D. Brian
In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants…
Zh. Z. Trumova
Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic continues to expand in Eastern Europe and Central Asia according to UNAIDS data (2012, Geneva. The rate of new HIV infections AIDS – related mortality has increased by 25 % from 2001 to 2009 in Kazakhstan (WHO data, 2012. The number of new HIV infections among newly diagnosed patients attributed to heteroand homosexual contact has been steadily increasing. There is also higher rate of HIV among Injecting Drug Users. There is an increase incidence of co-infections especially sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, comorbid STIs increase patients' susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV (Guenthner PC, Secor WE, Dezzutti CS., 2005; Kissinger P, Amedee A, Clark RA, et al. , 2009. HIV/AIDS shares transmission characteristics with other sexual and blood-borne agents. Higher sexual mixing rates and lack of condom use are conspicuous risk factors (Vermund et al. 2009. However, while all groups are affected by HIV, some are more vulnerable than others: sex workers (SWs, men who have sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU. All these findings determined to set up the goal of this research. The purpose of the study is еpidemiologic situation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS and related STIs in the Republic of Kazakhstan and in some vulnerable population groups to HIV infection. Materials and methods. To study the dynamics of HIV/STIs in Kazakhstan (cumulatively an analysis of 2012–2013 years statistics was conducted. Testing for HIV/STI of blood samples of the vulnerable groups was carried out in the laboratories of AIDS centers. The algorithm of confirming the diagnosis of HIV infection included a twofold enzyme immunoassay (EIA study of blood samples. Samples with positive results of the first EIA were retested using expert test systems; in case with a positive result of the second EIA a confirmatory test was conducted using a method of HIV-1 Western blot in the reference
Bos-Bonnie, Linda H A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Te Pas, Ellen; Kijser, Michael A; van Dijk, Nynke
Primary health-care professionals play an important role in the treatment and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Continuing Medical Education (CME)-courses can influence the knowledge and behavior of health-care professionals concerning STI. We performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate if the individual and online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the Commitment-to-Change (CtC)-method, is able to improve the knowledge, attitude and behavior of Dutch General Practitioners (GPs), concerning the STI-consultation. This e-learning program is an individual, accredited, online CME-program, which is freely available for all GPs and GP-trainees in the Netherlands. In total 2192 participants completed the questionnaire before completing the e-learning program and 249 participants completed the follow-up questionnaire after completing the e-learning program. The effect of the program on their knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning the STI-consultation was evaluated. In total 193 participants formulated 601 learning points that matched the learning objectives of the program. The knowledge and attitude of the participants improved, which persisted up to two years after completing the program. Another 179 participants formulated a total of 261 intended changes concerning the sexual history taking, additional investigation and treatment of STI, 97.2% of these changes was partially or fully implemented in daily practice. Also, 114 participants formulated a total of 180 "unintended" changes in daily practice. These changes concerned the attitude of participants towards STI and the working conditions concerning the STI-consultation. The individual, online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the CtC-method, has a small but lasting, positive effect on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of GPs concerning the STI-consultation.
Habel, Melissa A; Leichliter, Jami S
Since Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensure of emergency contraception (EC) over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006, this is the first U.S. study to use a nationally representative sample of reproductive-aged women (15-44) to explore the relationship between receipt and use of EC and sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related health services. Using a sample of 6329 women from the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2008, we examined the relationship between lifetime EC use and recent receipt of EC and demographics, sexual behaviors, and STI-related services. Variables significant at p<0.10 in bivariate analyses were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Overall, 10% (704) of the sample had ever used EC. Most EC users had received EC from a family planning clinic (51%), drugstore (23%), or doctor's office (17%). In adjusted analyses, demographic factors associated with receipt of EC in the past 12 months included never married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.0) and living in a metropolitan statistical area (AOR 4.2). Women reporting multiple partners (2+) (AOR 2.4), inconsistent condom use (AOR 3.4), and having recently been tested for chlamydia (AOR 2.0) had higher odds of receiving EC in the past 12 months. Findings among women ever reporting EC use were similar, except women who had 4+ lifetime partners (AOR 2.5) and had recently received a chlamydia diagnosis (AOR 2.2) had higher odds of ever having used EC. EC recipients were no more likely than nonrecipients to have received STI counseling or screening despite greater numbers of sex partners in the past year. This research indicates that women are accessing EC in pharmacies, which may be a missed opportunity for counseling and testing.
Barberis, I L; Pájaro, M C; Godino, S; Pascual, L; Rodríguez, I; Agüero, M; Ordóñez, C
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are acquired mainly through sexual intercourse, being one of the most frequent groups of infectious diseases worldwide and consequently an important public health problem. The aim of this paper was to determine the current state of STD and to compare different diagnostic methods in the population studied. A total of 1060 samples from vaginal flows, endocervical material and urethral discharge were studied during 3 years. Of the total samples, 583 were positive, 493 in women and 90 in men. Microorganisms found in women were: Gardnerella vaginalis (39.3%), Candida albicans (21.1%), Trichomonas vaginalis (17.3%), Candida trachomatis (11.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.2%): Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urelyticum (6.5%) and Treponema pallidum (1.4%), the associations found were, Gardnerella vaginalis with Trichomonas vaginalis 5.5%; Gardnerella vaginalis with Candida albicans 4.9%; Trichomonas vaginalis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2.2%) and Gardnerella vaginalis with Chlamydia trachomatis (1.9%). In men, gonococcal urethritis (UG) represented 37.7% non UG 55.6% and Treponema pallidum 6.7%. These results indicate a decrease in sifilis and in UG when compared to previous studies showing that gonococcal cervicitis had also decreased. We found an important increase in the prevalence of urethritis and non gonococcal cervicitis in agreement with world statistics which consider these diseases as the most common venereal ones. It is necessary to increase the search for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women due to vertical transmission. It should be noted that, in spite of certain fluctuations, the incidence of the STD in our area is still unacceptably high.
Humeau, Zoe; Elliott, Elise G.; Warren, Joshua L.; Niccolai, Linda M.
Background The growing shale gas (“fracking”) industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000–2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US). Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census. Results Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08–1.36) increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98–1.44) increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis. Conclusion This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts. PMID:29570712
d'Oro, L C; Parazzini, F; Naldi, L; La Vecchia, C
OBJECTIVE--To understand whether barrier methods of contraception (BMC) and/or spermicides lower the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted disease (STD) and to quantify the protection. DESIGN--Review of published experimental studies, in vitro and in vivo evidence on the issue. SUBJECTS--We reviewed 22 papers that examined the impermeability of BMC in vitro against STD agents or the effect of spermicides, and 60 papers reporting results of epidemiological studies on the risk of STD in users of BMC. RESULTS--There was in vitro evidence that both BMC and spermicides were effective against most sexually transmissible agents. Doubts remain on the effectiveness of BMC and spermicides in normal conditions of use, particularly against human papilloma virus. Natural membrane condoms are not impermeable and pores are seen by electron microscopy. Epidemiological studies show a consistent reduction in the risk for use of condoms against gonococcal (most studies giving relative risk, RR, estimates around 0.4 to 0.6) and HIV infection (RRs between 0.3 and 0.6 in most studies). Spermicides protect women against gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis; their role against other STDs is less clear and there is some indication of an irritative effect on the vaginal mucosa that is likely to be dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS--A large amount of evidence indicates that BMC reduce the risk of gonorrhoea and HIV transmission, but the results are--at least in quantitative terms--less consistent for other diseases. Implications for individual choices and public health approaches should relate to frequency of exposure and severity of the disease too. PMID:7705860
Kapiga, S H; Vuylsteke, B; Lyamuya, E F; Dallabetta, G; Laga, M
To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to assess the validity of STD screening approaches among family planning clients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Between March and September 1995, information about sociodemographic characteristics, contraceptive use, sexual behaviour, and medical history was obtained from consenting women (n = 908). After interview, blood and genital specimens were collected for diagnosis of STDs and HIV. Based on the information obtained at interview and clinical examination, STD diagnostic algorithms were developed and validated. The prevalence of STDs was HIV (16.9%), gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervicitis (8.2%), and Trichomonas vaginalis and/or Candida albicans (27.2%). The risk of cervicitis was increased among unmarried women and among women with a husband women having more than one sex partners in the past 3 months or a new sex partner during the past month. Most women with cervicitis (62.2%) and vaginitis (67.6%) were asymptomatic. A screening strategy for cervicitis based on symptoms had a sensitivity of 29.7%, a specificity of 84.1%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 15.9%. The corresponding figures for an algorithm based on clinical signs were 20.3%, 90.2%, and 15.6%. The sensitivity of a simple risk assessment algorithm ranged from 20.3% to 73%. An approach based on both risk assessment (risk score > or = 1) and clinical signs (cervical mucopus and friability) had a sensitivity of 37.8%, a specificity of 87.5%, and a PPV of 21.4%. A syndromic approach for vaginitis resulted in a higher sensitivity than the approach based on the type of vaginal discharge. Although there is no single screening strategy for cervicitis which can be advocated for large scale application, risk assessment might be the only cost effective strategy for identifying women with cervicitis in family planning clinics in Tanzania.
Steiner, Riley J; Michael, Shannon L; Hall, Jeffrey E; Barrios, Lisa C; Robin, Leah
To examine associations between (1) youth violence victimization and perpetration and later sexually transmitted infections (STI) and (2) parent-family and school connectedness and later STI, and to explore the moderating role of connectedness on the associations between youth violence victimization and perpetration and later STI. We used data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which provided a baseline weighted sample of 14,800 respondents. We used logistic regression to examine associations between youth violence and connectedness with self-reported ever STI diagnosis, including gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts or human papillomavirus, or human immunodeficiency virus. If participants reported having an STI at Wave I they were excluded from the analysis. Controlling for biological sex, race/ethnicity, age, parent's highest education level, and parent's marital status, both youth violence victimization and perpetration were associated with an increased risk of later STI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.52; and AOR, 1.21, 95% CI, 1.04-1.41, respectively). Parent-family and school connectedness in adolescence were associated with a decreased risk for later STI (AOR, .96, 95% CI, .95-.98; and AOR, .97, 95% CI, .95-.99, respectively); however, connectedness did not moderate the associations between nonsexual violence involvement and later STI. These results indicate that youth violence victimization and perpetration may be risk factors for STI later in life. Conversely, parent-family and school connectedness in adolescence appear to protect against subsequent STI. The findings suggest that provider efforts to address youth violence and connectedness in adolescence can promote positive sexual health outcomes in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi
The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail
Kraft, Joan Marie; Whiteman, Maura K; Carter, Marion W; Snead, M Christine; DiClemente, Ralph J; Murray, Collen Crittenden; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Kottke, Melissa
Black teenagers have relatively high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and recent research suggests the role of contextual factors, as well as risk behaviors. We explore the role of 4 categories of risk and protective factors on having a biologically confirmed STD among black, female teenagers. Black teenage girls (14-19 years old) accessing services at a publicly funded family planning clinic provided a urine specimen for STD testing and completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview that assessed the following: risk behaviors, relationship characteristics, social factors, and psychosocial factors. We examined bivariate associations between each risk and protective factor and having gonorrhea and/or chlamydia, as well as multivariate logistic regression among 339 black female teenagers. More than one-fourth (26.5%) of participants had either gonorrhea and/or chlamydia. In multivariate analyses, having initiated sex before age 15 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.87) and having concurrent sex partners in the past 6 months (aOR, 1.55) were positively associated with having an STD. Living with her father (aOR, 0.44), believing that an STD is the worst thing that could happen (aOR, 0.50), and believing she would feel dirty and embarrassed about an STD (aOR, 0.44) were negatively associated with having an STD. Social factors and attitudes toward STDs and select risk behaviors were associated with the risk for STDs, suggesting the need for interventions that address more distal factors. Future studies should investigate how such factors influence safer sexual behaviors and the risk for STDs among black female teenagers.
Datta, S Deblina; Saraiya, Mona
In April 2008, experts reviewed updates on sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and treatment in preparation for the revision of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) STD Treatment Guidelines. This included a review of cervical cancer screening in the STD clinical setting. Key questions were identified with assistance from an expert panel. Reviews of the literature were conducted using the PubMed computerized database and shared with the panel. Updated information was incorporated in the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. We recommend that STD clinics offering cervical screening services screen and treat women according to guidelines by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Cancer Society, the US Preventive Services Task Force, and the American Society for Colposcopists and Cervical Pathologists. New to the 2010 guidelines are higher age for initiating cervical screening (age ≥ 21 years) and less frequent intervals of screening (at least every 3 years). New recommendations include new technologies, such as liquid-based cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests. Liquid-based technologies are not recommended over conventional testing. HPV DNA tests are recommended as adjunct tests and with new indications for use in cervical screening and management. Stronger recommendations were issued for STD clinics offering cervical screening services to have protocols in place for follow-up of test results and referral (eg, colposcopy). Important additions to the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines include information on updated algorithms for screening and management of women and recommendations for use of liquid-based cytology and high-risk HPV testing.
Pearson, William S; Cramer, Ryan; Tao, Guoyu; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L; Hoover, Karen W
To survey patients of publicly funded sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics across the United States about their willingness to use health insurance for their visit. In 2013, we identified STD clinics in 21 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance reports. Patients attending the identified STD clinics completed a total of 4364 surveys (response rate = 86.6%). Nearly half of the insured patients were willing to use their health insurance. Patients covered by government insurance were more likely to be willing to use their health insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (odds ratio [OR] = 3.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.79, 4.65), and patients covered by their parents' insurance were less likely to be willing to use their insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.52, 1.00). Reasons for unwillingness to use insurance were privacy and out-of-pocket cost. Before full implementation of the Affordable Care Act, privacy and cost were barriers to using health insurance for STD services. Barriers to using health insurance for STD services could be reduced through addressing issues of stigma associated with STD care and considering alternative payment sources for STD services.
Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Goldstein, Edward; Gómez-Liévano, Andrés; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Towers, Sherry
Rampant urbanisation rates across the globe demand that we improve our understanding of how infectious diseases spread in modern urban landscapes, where larger and more connected host populations enhance the thriving capacity of certain pathogens. A data-driven approach is employed to study the ability of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to thrive in urban areas. The conduciveness of population size of urban areas and their socioeconomic characteristics are used as predictors of disease incidence, using confirmed-case data on STDs in the USA as a case study. A superlinear relation between STD incidence and urban population size is found, even after controlling for various socioeconomic aspects, suggesting that doubling the population size of a city results in an expected increase in STD incidence larger than twofold, provided that all other socioeconomic aspects remain fixed. Additionally, the percentage of African-Americans, income inequalities, education and per capita income are found to have a significant impact on the incidence of each of the three STDs studied. STDs disproportionately concentrate in larger cities. Hence, larger urban areas merit extra prevention and treatment efforts, especially in low-income and middle-income countries where urbanisation rates are higher. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Merten, Michael J; Williams, Amanda L
Background Women's risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were examined in terms of adolescent and young adult weight status, self-esteem trajectories and weight contentment using two waves of a nationally representative dataset. Using Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem and weight contentment were examined during adolescence and young adulthood to assess the likelihood of STDs among 4000 young adult single women. Change in BMI, specifically weight loss between adolescence and young adulthood, significantly increased women's risk for STDs. Continuously low self-esteem during adolescence and young adulthood significantly increased women's risk for STDs. When women's contentment with their weight decreased from adolescence to young adulthood, women's risk for STDs was greater. Regardless of other variables, Black women were more likely to have an STD. RESULTS suggest that women's self-perception is important in reducing sexual risk; specifically, patterns of self-esteem, BMI and weight contentment across developmental periods should be a critical focus of research and practice related to adolescent and young adult sexual health. There are many known benefits to fostering self-esteem during adolescence and findings from this study add STD prevention among young women to this list. RESULTS emphasise the needed prevention during adolescence to address self-perspective and self-esteem for the long-term sexual well-being of young women.
Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee
Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie
This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S; Kent, Charlotte K; Aral, Sevgi O
We examined the association between racial disparity in income and reported race-specific county-level bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States focusing on disparities between Blacks and Whites. Data are from the US 2000 decennial census. We defined 2 race-income county groups (high and low race-income disparity) on the basis of the difference between Black and White median household incomes. We used 2 approaches to examine disparities in STI rates across the groups. In the first approach, we computed and compared race-specific STI rates for the groups. In the second approach, we used spatial regression analyses to control for potential confounders. Consistent with the STI literature, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis rates for Blacks were substantially higher than were those for Whites. We also found that racial disparities in income were associated with racial disparities in chlamydia and gonorrhea rates and, to a lesser degree, syphilis rates. Racial disparities in household income may be a more important determinant of racial disparities in reported STI morbidity than are absolute levels of household income.
Chris L McGowin
Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.
Wong, E S; Fennell, C L; Stamm, W E
The symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings for 69 women who were seen at a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and who had acute urinary tract infection (UTI) were compared with those for women who had vaginitis, gonorrhea, or chlamydial infection. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were the two most common causes of acute cystitis in this population and accounted for 62 (90%) of 69 infections. Forty-three percent of the women had positive tests for antibody-coated bacteria (ACB), an observation implying renal infection although symptoms of upper tract infection were infrequent. Frequency, urgency, dysuria, and suprapubic tenderness were significantly associated with cystitis, whereas vaginal discharge and vulvar itching were associated with vaginitis. There was, however, considerable overlap in symptoms among the four groups of women, and their accurate differentiation required objective information based upon pelvic examination, examination of vaginal fluid, and urinalysis. In the absence of vaginitis on wet mount and mucopurulent cervicitis on examination, pyuria, as determined by examination of centrifuged urine, had an 88% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 61% positive predictive value, and 93% negative predictive value for acute UTI. Because of the high prevalence of positive ACB tests and the possibility that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be mistaken for cystitis, we prefer a five- to seven-day course of antibiotics over single-dose therapy for treatment of patients with possible UTI in the setting of an STD clinic.
McGowin, Chris L; Anderson-Smits, Colin
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.
Shacham, Enbal; Nelson, Erik J; Schulte, Lauren; Bloomfield, Mark; Murphy, Ryan
Identifying predictors that contribute to geographical disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is necessary. This study assesses the spatial relationship between condom availability to locations of STIs in order to better understand these geographical disparities. We conducted a condom availability audit among potential condom-selling establishments. New gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases in 2011 (n=6034) and HIV infection cases from 2006 to 2011 (n=565) were collected by census tract in St Louis, Missouri. 829 potential condom-selling establishments participated in the condom availability audit in St Louis City; 242 of which sold condoms. A negative linear relationship exists between condom vendors and cases of gonorrhoea and chlamydia, after adjusting for concentrated disadvantage and free condom locations. Higher concentrated disadvantage, higher proportions of convenience vendors and free locations were associated with higher rates of HIV. This study was conducted to provide evidence that lack of condom availability is associated with STI rates, and likely is an integral component to influencing the subjective norms surrounding condom use and STI rates. Condom distribution interventions may be addressing availability needs and social norms, yet are more likely to be effective when placed in locations with the highest STI rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the β-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are more dynamic than other infections prevailing in the community. It is important that such dynamic epidemiological changes in STIs are acknowledged and kept track of in a vast and populous developing country like India, particularly in this HIV era. It is with this aim that the authors have reviewed the relevant literature in STI epidemiology in India during the past 25 years. Admittedly, there has been heterogeneity of data to account for the subcontinental dimension of this country. But a basic pattern in the changing epidemiology is discernible. Like the developed countries, in India too the bacterial STIs like chancroid and gonorrhea are declining, while viral STIs like HPV and herpes genitalis are on an upswing. The overall decline in the prevalence of STIs has to be interpreted with caution, however. This may partially reflect the improved facilities of treatment in the peripheral centres that obviates the need of many patients in attending the STD clinics in the tertiary centres. Also, the improved pharmacotherapy of many of the bacterial STIs may result in partial clearance and non-reporting of many of these infections.
Álvaro Piazzetta Pinto
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have long been known, but they have only recently been recognized as causes of significant long-term morbidity, mainly as a result of increased knowledge concerning viral STDs. The relationship of these diseases with conditions such as anogenital cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has made viral STDs an important issue in the healthcare of women and infants, and in reproductive health. The evolution of the AIDS pandemic is now characterized by growing differences between rich and poor nations. New diagnostic tools include rapid tests of blood, urine and saliva samples. New techniques, such as computerized cytology, have been developed for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV. Women infected with HIV are at a greater risk of being co-infected with HPV, and they are also more prone to the progression and persistence of HPV lesions. The herpes simplex virus presents high rates of co-infection with HIV, and it plays a particularly important role in increasing transmission rates of this virus.
Vermund Sten H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1 willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2 the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3 client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4 infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5 PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management.
Alam, Nazmul; Chamot, Eric; Vermund, Sten H; Streatfield, Kim; Kristensen, Sibylle
The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management.
Ciemins, E L; Kent, C K; Flood, J; Klausner, J D
The advent of more sensitive diagnostic testing technologies and competition in public healthcare spending have resulted in a reevaluation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening practices in an attempt to target populations at greatest risk. Screening among populations with a < 2% prevalence of chlamydia and a < 1% prevalence of gonorrhea may not be cost-effective. To identify subpopulations with a low prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhea. The prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonorrhea among asymptomatic STD patients screened from 1997 to 1998 at San Francisco City Clinic was stratified by demographic and behavioral risk factors. The prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhea was 3.4% and 1.1% among asymptomatic women and 4.0% and 1.0% among asymptomatic men, respectively. Two low-prevalence subpopulations identified among asymptomatic patients were women older than 29 years (chlamydia, 1.2%) and men who have sex with women (gonorrhea, 0.8%). These data identified low-prevalence subpopulations among asymptomatic STD patients. As a result, the STD screening criteria at San Francisco City Clinic were changed accordingly.