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Sample records for prevent sexual transmission

  1. Condoms for sexually transmissible infection prevention: politics versus science.

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    Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra

    2008-03-01

    The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.

  2. Ebselen alleviates testicular pathology in mice with Zika virus infection and prevents its sexual transmission.

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    Simanjuntak, Yogy; Liang, Jian-Jong; Chen, Si-Yu; Li, Jin-Kun; Lee, Yi-Ling; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongoing; therefore, in the meantime, preventing the disease transmission is critical. Primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, ZIKV also can be sexually transmitted. We used AG129 mice lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors to study the testicular pathogenesis and sexual transmission of ZIKV. Infection of ZIKV progressively damaged mouse testes, increased testicular oxidative stress as indicated by the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase 4, spermatogenesis-associated-18 homolog in sperm and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and G-CSF. We then evaluated the potential role of the antioxidant ebselen (EBS) in alleviating the testicular pathology with ZIKV infection. EBS treatment significantly reduced ZIKV-induced testicular oxidative stress, leucocyte infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, it improved testicular pathology and prevented the sexual transmission of ZIKV in a male-to-female mouse sperm transfer model. EBS is currently in clinical trials for various diseases. ZIKV infection could be on the list for potential use of EBS, for alleviating the testicular pathogenesis with ZIKV infection and preventing its sexual transmission.

  3. Ebselen alleviates testicular pathology in mice with Zika virus infection and prevents its sexual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogy Simanjuntak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongoing; therefore, in the meantime, preventing the disease transmission is critical. Primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, ZIKV also can be sexually transmitted. We used AG129 mice lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors to study the testicular pathogenesis and sexual transmission of ZIKV. Infection of ZIKV progressively damaged mouse testes, increased testicular oxidative stress as indicated by the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase 4, spermatogenesis-associated-18 homolog in sperm and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and G-CSF. We then evaluated the potential role of the antioxidant ebselen (EBS in alleviating the testicular pathology with ZIKV infection. EBS treatment significantly reduced ZIKV-induced testicular oxidative stress, leucocyte infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, it improved testicular pathology and prevented the sexual transmission of ZIKV in a male-to-female mouse sperm transfer model. EBS is currently in clinical trials for various diseases. ZIKV infection could be on the list for potential use of EBS, for alleviating the testicular pathogenesis with ZIKV infection and preventing its sexual transmission.

  4. Gendered discourses of youth sexualities--an exploration of PubMed articles on prevention of sexually transmissible infections.

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    Johansson, Eva E; Alex, Lena; Christianson, Monica

    2014-10-01

    To explore how gender is addressed in medical articles on the prevention of sexually transmissible infections (STI) among adolescents. Sixtyone articles were retrieved from a PubMed search and scrutinized by qualitative content analysis. Most articles were affiliated with North American research institutions, but there were also reports from Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia. Gender turned up in the following four recurrent discourses: Gendered Receptiveness for Information, Stereotyped Heterosexual Expectations, Power Imbalance in Sexual Relations, and Gendered Prevention Approaches. Young women were described as knowledgeable, communicative, and responsible, but at risk because of feminine ideals and a lack of negotiating power. Men were described as less informed, more reluctant to discuss, and more risk taking due to masculine ideals and power dominance. Prevention approaches concerned how to postpone sex and/or tailor gender-sensitive programs for specific groups of young women and men. Researchers' own gender expectations might have a substantial impact on how sex and sexual health is considered in prevention research. To avoid reconstruction of current inequalities and stereotypes regarding sexual practices of young women and men, the impact of gender, the power structures in intimate relations, and the cultural context should be considered. Medical research on STI prevention could benefit from including a wider array of gender perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual Health—Get Involved: A Kinesthetic Learning Experience of STI Transmission and Prevention

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    Selina Patel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OFSTED repeatedly finds the teaching of sexually transmitted infections in secondary schools ‘inadequate’ across the UK (3. This is thought to be due to a number of reasons, including the fact that staff teaching this topic feel inadequately prepared and not knowledgeable enough to do so (4. In 2010, over half of newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs in England were within patients aged 16-24 years (2. This could be the result of a lack of mandatory, quality sexual health education in schools, combined with larger scale social issues. Young females, in particular, reported feelings of shame when visiting sexual health clinics which on occasion may compel them to lie about their sexual history to a practitioner in order to protect a ‘fragile sexual reputation’(1. In response to the recommendations of FPA and the aforementioned public health statistics, this session was developed to improve student understanding of sexual health and of the risks associated with different sexual behaviors. Another aim was, by integrating information about the importance of regular sexual health check-ups into sexual health education in schools, to reduce the associated feelings of shame across the young female population. The activity was carried out with two classes of Year 12 students (16-17 years in an independent school in the London borough of Lewisham. The session builds on education about STIs, which is part of the national science curriculum, and extends concepts about transmission to the most common STIs prevalent within the population aged 16-24.

  6. Historical development of vaginal microbicides to prevent sexual transmission of HIV in women: from past failures to future hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notario-Pérez F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Notario-Pérez, Roberto Ruiz-Caro, María-Dolores Veiga-Ochoa Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV remains a global public health concern and is particularly serious in low- and middle-income countries. Widespread sexual violence and poverty, among other factors, increase the risk of infection in women, while currently available prevention methods are outside the control of most. This has driven the study of vaginal microbicides to prevent sexual transmission of HIV from men to women in recent decades. The first microbicides evaluated were formulated as gels for daily use and contained different substances such as surfactants, acidifiers and monoclonal antibodies, which failed to demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials. A gel containing the reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir showed protective efficacy in women. However, the lack of adherence by patients led to the search for dosage forms capable of releasing the active principle for longer periods, and hence to the emergence of the vaginal ring loaded with dapivirine, which requires a monthly application and is able to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV. The future of vaginal microbicides will feature the use of alternative dosage forms, nanosystems for drug release and probiotics, which have emerged as potential microbicides but are still in the early stages of development. Protecting women with vaginal microbicide formulations would, therefore, be a valuable tool for avoiding sexual transmission of HIV. Keywords: vaginal formulations, microbicides, prevention, sexual transmission, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  7. Historical development of vaginal microbicides to prevent sexual transmission of HIV in women: from past failures to future hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Veiga-Ochoa, María-Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health concern and is particularly serious in low- and middle-income countries. Widespread sexual violence and poverty, among other factors, increase the risk of infection in women, while currently available prevention methods are outside the control of most. This has driven the study of vaginal microbicides to prevent sexual transmission of HIV from men to women in recent decades. The first microbicides evaluated were formulated as gels for daily use and contained different substances such as surfactants, acidifiers and monoclonal antibodies, which failed to demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials. A gel containing the reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir showed protective efficacy in women. However, the lack of adherence by patients led to the search for dosage forms capable of releasing the active principle for longer periods, and hence to the emergence of the vaginal ring loaded with dapivirine, which requires a monthly application and is able to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV. The future of vaginal microbicides will feature the use of alternative dosage forms, nanosystems for drug release and probiotics, which have emerged as potential microbicides but are still in the early stages of development. Protecting women with vaginal microbicide formulations would, therefore, be a valuable tool for avoiding sexual transmission of HIV.

  8. Using Multiple Outcomes of Sexual Behavior to Provide Insights Into Chlamydia Transmission and the Effectiveness of Prevention Interventions in Adolescents.

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    Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.

  9. Sexual Violence Prevention

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    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  10. Optimization of tenofovir release from mucoadhesive vaginal tablets by polymer combination to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

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    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2018-01-01

    The use of sustained-release mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of antiretroviral drugs as microbicidal formulations can be an effective strategy for reducing the sexual transmission of HIV from men to women, which is a main problem particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Different polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan, guar gum and Eudragit ® RS) have proven some good features for this purpose. At this work, these polymers have been combined in pairs in different proportions to enhance the advantages offered by each one individually. The in vitro release of tenofovir from the matrices, ex vivo mucoadhesive capacity (evaluated on vaginal mucosa) and the degree of swelling in simulated vaginal fluid have been assessed. A multimodal pore size distribution is observed in porosimetry studies -carried out with swelling witnesses-, due to the contribution of polymers with different swelling behaviour to the pore formation, and it is corroborated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction technique confirms the changes in crystallinity of the formulation after swelling. We can report that the combination of HPMC and chitosan in the same formulation may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, since tablets can be obtained that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa for 96h, so the drug is released in a sustained manner for 72h. When the formulation contains more chitosan than HPMC the swelling is moderate, making it more comfortable for women to apply. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion—determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate—the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid), and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:28230790

  12. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2017-02-21

    The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit ® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion-determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate-the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid), and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV.

  13. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Notario-Pérez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion—determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate—the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid, and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV.

  14. Prevention and control of sexually transmissible infections among hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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    McCormick, Duncan F; Rahman, Motiur; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Alam, Anadil; Ashraf, Lutfa; Neilsen, Graham A; Kelly, Robert; Menezes, Prema; Miller, William C; Hoffman, Irving F

    2013-12-01

    Hotel-based sex workers in Bangladesh have high rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs), high client turnover and low condom use. Two monthly clinic-based strategies were compared: periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) and enhanced syndromic management (ESM) - one round of presumptive treatment followed by treatment based on assessment and laboratory tests. A randomised controlled trial compared PPT and ESM by prevalence and incidence, behaviour, retention, cost and STI incidence and prevalence. Demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected from women at two clinics in Dhaka. All women received presumptive treatment and were randomised to receive PPT or ESM at nine monthly visits. In total, 549 women (median age: control. PPT offered a feasible, low-cost alternative to ESM. Educational aspects led to a reduction in coercion and fewer sessions. Implementation studies are needed to improve condom use and retention.

  15. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission to serodiscordant couples.

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    Hallal, Ronaldo Campos; Raxach, Juan Carlos; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-09-01

    The use antiretroviral reduces the sexual transmission of HIV, expanding interventions for serodiscordant couples. This article aims to review the use of antiretroviral and other prevention interventions among serodiscordant couples and to analyze its use in Brazil. A retrospective review was performed through the MEDLINE database and bases included in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. The articles recovered exhibit four main strategies: (1) condom; (2) reduction of risks in sexual practices; (3) use of antiretrovirals, particularly early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (TASP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); (4) risk reduction in reproduction. TASP is highly effective in reducing sexual transmission, PrEP was tested in serodiscordant couples and both reduce the sexual transmission risk in different sexual practices, enabling individualized prevention strategies. When used in combination, antiretrovirals and sexual practices with condoms offer greater efficacy than any single strategy. The combined use of new and old strategies allows us to build a prevention policy for all.

  16. [Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases].

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    Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo

    2008-02-01

    Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.

  17. Diaryltriazine non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are potent candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis in the prevention of sexual HIV transmission.

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    Ariën, Kevin K; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Michiels, Johan; Joossens, Jurgen; Vereecken, Katleen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Abdellati, Saïd; Cuylaerts, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Heyndrickx, Leo; Heeres, Jan; Augustyns, Koen; Lewi, Paul J; Vanham, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis and topical microbicides are important strategies in the prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially since partial protection has been shown in proof-of-concept studies. In search of new candidate drugs with an improved toxicity profile and with activity against common non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant HIV, we have synthesized and investigated a library of 60 new diaryltriazine analogues. From this library, 15 compounds were evaluated in depth using a broad armamentarium of in vitro assays that are part of a preclinical testing algorithm for microbicide development. Antiviral activity was assessed in a cell line, and in primary human cells, against both subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 and against viruses resistant to therapeutic NNRTIs and the candidate NNRTI microbicide dapivirine. Toxicity towards primary blood-derived cells, cell lines originating from the female reproductive tract and female genital microflora was also studied. We identified several compounds with highly potent antiviral activity and toxicity profiles that are superior to that of dapivirine. In particular, compound UAMC01398 is an interesting new candidate that warrants further investigation because of its superior toxicity profile and potent activity against dapivirine-resistant viruses.

  18. Sexualidade na terceira idade: medidas de prevenção para doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e AIDS Sexualidad en la tercera edad: medidas de prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y SIDA Sexuality in the elderly: prevention methods for sexually transmissible illnesses and AIDS

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    Manoela Busato Mottin Maschio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as medidas de prevenção que os idosos estão utilizando para à prevenção das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis e Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida. A pesquisa foi de caráter prospectivo, quantitativo e descritivo com uma amostragem intencional, realizada com 98 idosos. Foi aplicado um questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas, relacionadas à vida sexual dos idosos frequentadores de uma instituição que desenvolve programas para a melhoria da qualidade de vida dos idosos no município de Curitiba, Paraná. Dos entrevistados 43%, relatam fazer uso de alguma medida de prevenção. A realização de programas de prevenção voltados para o atendimento de pessoas com 50 anos ou mais, deve estar atenta às questões de sexualidade no envelhecimento. Os idosos devem ser vistos como indivíduos que possuem desejos, necessidades sexuais e que fazem projetos para o futuro.El objetivo de este estudio es identificar medidas que los ancianos están utilizando para la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y el Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida. La encuesta fue de carácter prospectivo y cuantitativo con una muestra intencional, realizado con 98 personas de edad avanzada. Se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y cerradas, relacionadas con la vida sexual de los visitantes mayores de una institución que desarrolla programas para la mejora de la calidad de vida de las personas mayores en la ciudad de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. De los 43% de los encuestados informaron que usan de alguna medida de prevención. La ejecución de los programas de prevención se centró en la atención de personas mayores de 50 años o más, deben de estar atentos a las cuestiones de la sexualidad en el envejecimiento. Los ancianos deben ser vistos como individuos que tienen necesidades sexuales y deseos, que hacen proyectos para el futuro.This study aimed

  19. The Committed Intimate Partnerships of Incarcerated African-American Men: Implications for Sexual HIV Transmission Risk and Prevention Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R; El-Bassel, Nabila; Golin, Carol E; Scheidell, Joy D; Adimora, Adaora A; Coatsworth, Ashley M; Hu, Hui; Judon-Monk, Selena; Medina, Katie P; Wohl, David A

    2017-10-01

    Incarceration is thought to influence HIV transmission by disrupting partnerships that provide support and protect against sex risk-taking. Current correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs focus on marital partnerships, a minority of inmates' partnerships. Research on the sex partnerships of incarcerated African-American men and the types of partnerships most likely to protect against HIV-related sex risk is limited. Improved understanding can inform expansion of correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs to a greater proportion of protective partnerships and HIV risk reduction programs to partnerships vulnerable to sex risk. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of African-American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in committed heterosexual partnerships at prison entry. Using baseline survey data (N = 189), we conducted latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of participants with distinct relationship profiles and measured associations between relationship characteristics and multiple partnerships of inmates and their partners in the six months before incarceration. LCA indicated a two-class solution, with relationships distinguished by satisfaction/stability (satisfied/stable class: 58.0%; dissatisfied/unstable class: 42.0%); each class had comparable relationship length and levels of marriage and cohabitation. Dissatisfied/unstable relationships were associated with multiple partnerships among participants (AOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.50, 5.72) and partners (AOR 4.95, 95% CI 1.68, 14.58). Satisfaction indicators-versus length, marriage, or cohabitation-were the strongest independent correlates of inmates' and partners' multiple partnerships. Pre-incarceration economic deprivation, mental disorder symptoms, substance use, and violence in relationships were associated with dissatisfaction/instability. Prison-based programs designed to maintain healthy partnerships, strengthen relationship skills, and reduce

  20. Zika - Sexual Transmission and Prevention

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    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika Can Be Passed Through Sex Zika can be ... in other body fluids. Infected People Can Pass Zika Through Sex Even When They Don’t Have ...

  1. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus

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    Fátima Mitiko TENGAN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to a better understanding of the forms of acquisition of hepatitis C virus (HCV in Brazil, with special emphasis on sexual transmission, we determined the presence of HCV infection in regular partners and in non-sexual home communicants of blood donors seen at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo from January 1992 to July 1996. Of 154 blood donors with HCV infection (index cases, 111 had had regular partners for at least 6 months. Sixty-eight of 111 partners were evaluated for HCV infection. Of these, 8 (11.76% were considered to have current or previous HCV infection; a history of sexually transmissible diseases and index cases with a positive HCV-RNA test were more prevalent among partners with HCV infection. Of the 68 index cases whose partners were studied, 56 had non-sexual home communicants. Of the total of 81 home communicants, 66 accepted to be evaluated for HCV infection. None of them was HCV-positive, suggesting that the high prevalence of HCV infection among partners may be attributed at least partially to sexual transmission.

  2. Effectiveness of ART and condom use for prevention of sexual HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Huixin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consistent and correct condom use and suppressive antiretroviral therapy for the infected partner are two of the primary strategies recommended for prevention of heterosexual HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples today. The applied effectiveness of treatment as a prevention strategy in China is still under investigation, and much less is known about its effects in the presence of other prevention strategies such as consistent condom use. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and three Chinese language databases to identify relevant articles for the estimation of relative effectiveness of a consistent condom use and b ART use by index partners for preventing HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples. We also estimated the prevention effectiveness of ART stratified by condom use level and the prevention effectiveness of consistent condom use stratified by ART use level. RESULTS: Pooled results from the eleven eligible studies found a pooled HIV seroconversion incidence of 0.92 cases per 100 person years (PY among HIV-negative spouses whose index partners were taking ART versus 2.45 cases per 100 PY in untreated couples. The IRR comparing seroconversion in couples where the index-partner was on ART versus not on ART was 0.47 (95%CI: 0.43, 0.52, while stratified by condom use, the IRR was 0.33(0.17,0.64. The IRR comparing incidence in couples reporting "consistent condom use" versus those reporting otherwise was 0.02(95%CI:0.01,0.04, after stratified by ART use level, the IRR was 0.01(95%CI: 0.00, 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: ART use by index partners could reduce HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples, and the effectiveness of this prevention strategy could be further increased with consistent condom use.

  3. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission to serodiscordant couples

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    Ronaldo Campos Hallal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The use antiretroviral reduces the sexual transmission of HIV, expanding interventions for serodiscordant couples.Objective:This article aims to review the use of antiretroviral and other prevention interventions among serodiscordant couples and to analyze its use in Brazil.Methods:A retrospective review was performed through the MEDLINE database and bases included in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde.Results:The articles recovered exhibit four main strategies: (1 condom; (2 reduction of risks in sexual practices; (3 use of antiretrovirals, particularly early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (TASP and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; (4 risk reduction in reproduction.Discussion:TASP is highly effective in reducing sexual transmission, PrEP was tested in serodiscordant couples and both reduce the sexual transmission risk in different sexual practices, enabling individualized prevention strategies.Conclusions:When used in combination, antiretrovirals and sexual practices with condoms offer greater efficacy than any single strategy. The combined use of new and old strategies allows us to build a prevention policy for all.

  4. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C Transmissão sexual da hepatite C

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    Norma de Paula Cavalheiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed that the hepatitis C virus (HCV can be efficiently transmitted parenterally, although data on viral transmission by sexual or non-sexual intrafamilial contact are conflicting. Since data collection began in 1989, the first study dealt with the risk of sexual transmission among multiple sex partners. Other investigations followed, emphasizing that risk increases in specific groups such as patients co-infected with HIV and HBV, sex workers, homosexuals, illicit drug users and patients attended at sexually transmittable disease clinics. The question arises as to what might be the risk for monogamous heterosexuals in the general population, in which one of the partners has HCV? The literature provides overall rates that vary from zero to 27%; however, most studies affirm that the chances of sexual transmission are low or almost null, with rates for this mode fluctuating from zero to 3%. Intrafamilial transmission is strongly considered but inconclusive, since when mentioning transmission between sex partners within the same household, specific situations also should be considered, such as the sharing of personal hygiene items, like razorblades, toothbrushes, nail clippers and manicure pliers, which are important risk factors in HCV transmission. In this review, we discuss the hypotheses of sexual and/or intrafamilial transmission.A eficiência da transmissão parenteral da hepatite C é consenso, porém dados na literatura sobre transmissão sexual e intrafamiliar são conflitantes. Data de 1989 o primeiro trabalho que relaciona o risco de transmissão sexual a múltiplos parceiros sexuais, na seqüência, outros estudos também reforçam que os riscos aumentam em populações específicas como co-infectados HIV, HBV, profissionais do sexo, homossexuais, usuários de drogas ilícitas e populações de clínicas de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Agora, na população geral qual seria o risco para casais monog

  5. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Nielsen, V.R.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a RNA virus that can be transmitted parenterally, sexually or vertically. An effective prevention strategy has been implemented in industrialised countries, thereby reducing vertical transmission from 15-25% to < 1%. The aim of this study was to...

  6. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. ... questionnaires to evaluate key high – risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism.

  7. Sexual transmission of Lyme disease: challenging the tickborne disease paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Middelveen, Marianne J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. In this article, we explore the clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence for sexual transmission of Lyme disease in animal models and humans. Although the likelihood of sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete remains speculative, the possibility of Lyme disease transmission via intimate human contact merits further study.

  8. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, S D; Abramson, P R

    1997-05-01

    The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS.

  9. Prevention of sexual transmission of Ebola in Liberia through a national semen testing and counselling programme for survivors: an analysis of Ebola virus RNA results and behavioural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soka, Moses J; Choi, Mary J; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Rogers, Emerson; Purpura, Lawrence J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Abad, Neetu; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip K; Christie, Athalia; Ladele, Victor; Subah, Oneykachi C; Pillai, Satish; Mugisha, Margaret; Kpaka, Jonathan; Kowalewski, Stephen; German, Emilio; Stenger, Mark; Nichol, Stuart; Ströher, Ute; Vanderende, Kristin E; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Green, Hugh Henry W; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Williams, Desmond

    2016-10-01

    -PCR varies by individual and might be associated with age. By combining behavioural counselling and laboratory testing, the Men's Health Screening Program helps male Ebola virus disease survivors understand their individual risk and take appropriate measures to protect their sexual partners. World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ©2016 World Health Organization; licensee Elsevier. This is an Open Access article published under the CC BY 3.0 IGO license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In any use of this article, there should be no suggestion that WHO endorses any specific organisation, products or services. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article's original URL.

  10. An Ounce of Prevention: Sexual Harassment Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna

    1995-01-01

    To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)

  11. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine

    2004-01-01

    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....

  12. Sexual Harassment Identification and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia L.

    1993-01-01

    School administrators should develop a clear policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment; create guidelines to implement the policy; and designate a key administrator to oversee and ensure compliance with laws related to sexual harassment. Lists steps for dealing with a claim, what teachers can do to protect themselves from claims, and what a…

  13. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  14. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    tachyzoites, respectively. Using this technique, it was also possible to diagnose the presence of the parasite in the "pool" of tissues from the lambs of one female that underwent natural mating with the male sheep infected with oocysts. These results demonstrated the sexual transmission of T. gondii in the sheep species with consequent vertical transmission to their lambs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventing Sexual Violence and HIV in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598

  16. Possible sexual transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of family transmission of laboratory-confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF among spouses are reported. These spouses had sexual contact at the end of the incubation period or during the early stage of the mild form of CCHF, without any hemorrhagic symptoms in the first infected spouse. This report demonstrates that sexual contact may represent a real risk of CCHF transmission, even if the patient only experiences mild symptoms.

  17. Towards effective interventions for transgender people and their clients to prevent HIV infection and transmission : A study of the psychological determinants, sexual behavior s, and socio-demographic characteristics related to condom use and health care use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabawanti, Ciptasari

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, transgender people (waria) have the second highest HIV prevalence (21.9%), the first being people who inject drugs (36.4%). To reduce HIV incidence among transgender people and prevent HIV transmission, they should have access to all prevention services including education, prevention

  18. [Prevention of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam

    2004-01-01

    At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.

  19. Development and Characterization of a Vaginal Film Containing Dapivirine, a Non- nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI), for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ayman; Parniak, Michael A; Dezzuitti, Charlene S; Moncla, Bernard J; Cost, Marilyn R; Li, Mingguang; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2011-06-01

    Dapivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is a potent and promising anti-HIV molecule. It is currently being investigated for use as a vaginal microbicide in two dosage forms, a semi-solid gel and a silicone elastomer ring. Quick-dissolving films are promising and attractive dosage forms that may provide an alternative platform for the vaginal delivery of microbicide drug candidates. Vaginal films may provide advantages such as discreet use, no product leakage during use, lack of requirement for an applicator for insertion, rapid drug release and minimal packaging and reduced wastage. Within this study the in vitro bioactivity of dapivirine as compared to the NNRTI UC781 was further established and a quick dissolve film was developed for vaginal application of dapivirine for prevention of HIV infection. The developed film was characterized with respect to its physical and chemical attributes including water content, mechanical strength, drug release profile, permeability, compatibility with lactobacilli and bioactivity. The anti-HIV activity of the formulated dapivirine film was confirmed in in vitro and ex vivo models. Importantly the physical and chemical properties of the film as well as its bioactivity were maintained for a period of 18 months. In conclusion, a vaginal film containing dapivirine was developed and characterized. The film was shown to prevent HIV-1 infection in vitro and ex vivo and have acceptable characteristics which make this film a promising candidate for testing as vaginal microbicide.

  20. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Vulnerabilidade ao HIV/AIDS e a prevenção da transmissão sexual entre casais sorodiscordantes Vulnerabilidad al VIH/SIDA y la prevención de la transmisión sexual entre parejas donde solo un sujeto está contaminado por el VIH Vulnerability and prevention of sexual HIV transmission among HIV/AIDS serodiscordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Karina Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descritivo e exploratório objetivou descrever e analisar a vulnerabilidade de casais sorodiscordantes ao HIV, e foi realizado em um Serviço Ambulatorial Especializado em aids de um município do estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas individuais com 11 portadores do HIV/AIDS, que convivem com parceria sabidamente sorodiscordante. Para organização e análise dos dados, empregamos o método de análise de Prosa e o conceito de vulnerabilidade como referencial teórico. A naturalização da infecção do HIV/aids como doença controlável por medicamentos, crença na impossibilidade de transmissão do HIV relacionadas com carga viral indetectável, sentimento de invencibilidade que surge com o tempo de convívio entre o casal, e sua influência na manutenção do sexo seguro são fatores de vulnerabilidade para a parceria sexual soronegativa. Serviços especializados no atendimento a indivíduos com HIV/aids necessitam incluir a parceria sexual nas ações educativas/preventivas promovidas pelos profissionais de saúde.Este estudio descriptivo e exploratorio que tuvo por objetivo describir y analizar la vulnerabilidad de parejas en que uno de sus componentes está contaminado por el HIV; el estudio fue realizado en un Servicio de Ambulatorio Especializado en SIDA de un municipio del estado de São Paulo. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas individuales con 11 portadores del VIH/SIDA que conviven con compañeros no contaminados por el virus VIH. Para la organización y el análisis de los datos, empleamos el método de análisis de Prosa y el concepto de vulnerabilidad como marco teórico. La naturalización de la infección del VIH/SIDA como enfermedad controlable por medicamentos, la creencia en la imposibilidad de la transmisión del VIH relacionadas con carga viral indetectable, el sentimiento de invencibilidad que surge con el tiempo de convivencia entre la pareja y su

  2. Preventing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Rebecca A.

    1992-01-01

    Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)

  3. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN ZIMBABWE: PREVENTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacob Mugumbate

    that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention. KEY TERMS: Child sexual abuse (CSA), social work, prevention,. Meili's model. ..... network/2013/mar/19/world-social-work-day-fair-global- · economy1.

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets 中文 (Chinese) Kreyòl (Haitian Creole) Русский (Russian) Tiẽng Viêt (Vietnamese) Prevention Success Stories Provider Pocket ... you protect yourself? What are the treatment options? Learn the answers to these questions by reading the ...

  5. Pathogenesis and sexual transmission of Spondweni and Zika viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M McDonald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spondweni serogroup of viruses (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus is comprised of Spondweni virus (SPONV and Zika virus (ZIKV, which are mosquito-borne viruses capable of eliciting human disease. Numerous cases of ZIKV sexual transmission in humans have been documented following the emergence of the Asian genotype in the Americas. The African ZIKV genotype virus was previously implicated in the first reported case of ZIKV sexual transmission. Reports of SPONV infection in humans have been associated with non-specific febrile illness, but no association with sexual transmission has been reported. In order to assess the relative efficiency of sexual transmission of different ZIKV strains and the potential capacity of SPONV to be sexually transmitted, viral loads in the male reproductive tract and in seminal fluids were assessed in interferon α/β and -γ receptor deficient (AG129 mice. Male mice were inoculated subcutaneously with Asian genotype ZIKV strains PRVABC59 (Puerto Rico, 2015, FSS13025 (Cambodia, 2010, or P6-740 (Malaysia, 1966; African genotype ZIKV strain DakAr41524 (Senegal, 1984; or SPONV strain SAAr94 (South Africa, 1955. Infectious virus was detected in 60-72% of ejaculates collected from AG129 mice inoculated with ZIKV strains. In contrast, only 4% of ejaculates from SPONV-inoculated AG129 males were found to contain infectious virus, despite viral titers in the testes that were comparable to those of ZIKV-inoculated mice. Based on these results, future studies should be undertaken to assess the role of viral genetic determinants and host tropism that dictate the differential sexual transmission potential of ZIKV and SPONV.

  6. Moral Agency and the Sexual Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Wolitski, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual transmission of HIV occurs because an infected person has unprotected sex with a previously uninfected person. The majority of HIV infections are transmitted by individuals who are unaware of their infection, and most persons who are diagnosed with HIV significantly reduce or eliminate risk behaviors once they learn they have HIV. However,…

  7. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  8. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  9. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e Aids entre jogadores juniores Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS among junior professional players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Aparecido Silva

    2002-08-01

    there are few studies describing young male vulnerability to HIV. A study was carried out aiming at developing a STD/AIDS prevention program for junior professional soccer players. METHODS: Study participants were twenty-five junior soccer players of a major league professional team of the city of Campinas, Brazil. There were 2 segments. In segment 1, participants were given a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, specific gender-related behaviors, condom use, HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention, and sports associated exposure risk. In segment 2, 17 sessions of group dynamics were carried out. Many forms of expression (speech, writing, pictures, and videos were encouraged to grasp participants' thoughts on STD/AIDS-related matters. RESULTS: Participants showed good knowledge on HIV transmission but they were poorly informed on reproduction and STDs. Unwanted pregnancy is their main concern. As for condom use, 73% consistently used condoms with casual partners (73%, and only 27% consistently used them with regular partners. Also, 58% considered risky to have HIV-positive players among them. CONCLUSIONS: Young players do not consider themselves vulnerable despite their chances of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. They have poor knowledge about the human body and reproductive health. Soccer milieu as well as other sports milieus create great opportunities for prevention programs, where they may have a multiplier effect since athletes are often regarded as role models for children and youngsters.

  10. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...

  11. Older Americans and AIDS: Transmission Risks and Primary Prevention Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Growing number of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among older Americans is of increasing concern. In context of primary prevention, reviews findings that bear on modes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (blood transfusions, sexual) among older individuals and knowledge of magnitude of the AIDS problem represented…

  12. Possible sexual transmission of Ebola virus - Liberia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Athalia; Davies-Wayne, Gloria J; Cordier-Lassalle, Thierry; Cordier-Lasalle, Thierry; Blackley, David J; Laney, A Scott; Williams, Desmond E; Shinde, Shivam A; Badio, Moses; Lo, Terrence; Mate, Suzanne E; Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Palacios, Gustavo; Holbrook, Michael R; Janosko, Krisztina B; de Wit, Emmie; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J; Pettitt, James; Schoepp, Randal J; Verhenne, Leen; Evlampidou, Iro; Kollie, Karsor K; Sieh, Sonpon B; Gasasira, Alex; Bolay, Fatorma; Kateh, Francis N; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; De Cock, Kevin M

    2015-05-08

    On March 20, 2015, 30 days after the most recent confirmed Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola) patient in Liberia was isolated, Ebola was laboratory confirmed in a woman in Monrovia. The investigation identified only one epidemiologic link to Ebola: unprotected vaginal intercourse with a survivor. Published reports from previous outbreaks have demonstrated Ebola survivors can continue to harbor virus in immunologically privileged sites for a period of time after convalescence. Ebola virus has been isolated from semen as long as 82 days after symptom onset and viral RNA has been detected in semen up to 101 days after symptom onset. One instance of possible sexual transmission of Ebola has been reported, although the accompanying evidence was inconclusive. In addition, possible sexual transmission of Marburg virus, a filovirus related to Ebola, was documented in 1968. This report describes the investigation by the Government of Liberia and international response partners of the source of Liberia's latest Ebola case and discusses the public health implications of possible sexual transmission of Ebola virus. Based on information gathered in this investigation, CDC now recommends that contact with semen from male Ebola survivors be avoided until more information regarding the duration and infectiousness of viral shedding in body fluids is known. If male survivors have sex (oral, vaginal, or anal), a condom should be used correctly and consistently every time.

  13. Relações afetivo-sexuais e prevenção contra infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e aids entre mulheres do município de Vitória - ES Rrelaciones afectivo-sexuales y prevención contra infecciones sexualmente transmisibles y sida entre mujeres del municipio de Vitoria-ES Sexual relationships and infections sexually transmitted and aids prevention among women in Vitória-ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Mattos Amorim

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer como mulheres vivenciam a prevenção de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST e aids em suas relações afetivo-sexuais. Foram realizados dois grupos de discussão e 12 entrevistas individuais com mulheres na faixa etária de 20 a 35 anos. Um grupo foi composto por cinco participantes com ensino fundamental ou médio (Grupo1 e o outro, por sete participantes com ensino superior completo ou incompleto (Grupo2. Apenas três participantes faziam uso consistente do preservativo masculino como medida preventiva de IST/Aids. O uso inconsistente do preservativo foi justificado pela presença, no contexto relacional, do compromisso de exclusividade sexual mútua. Valores e crenças acerca do conhecimento sobre o parceiro sexual e da confiança nele investida orientavam as percepções das participantes de ambos os grupos sobre a necessidade de adesão a medidas preventivas. Observou-se que tais percepções também estavam estreitamente vinculadas às suas relações e implicações de gênero.El propósito de este estudio fue conocer como mujeres vivencian la prevención de infecciones sexualmente transmisibles (IST y SIDA en sus relaciones afectivo-sexuales. Fueron realizados dos grupos de discusión y 12 entrevistas individuales con mujeres en la franja de edad desde 20 hasta 35 años. Un grupo fue compuesto de cinco participantes con enseñanza fundamental o media (Grupo 1, y otro de siete participantes con enseñanza superior completa o incompleta (Grupo 2. Solamente tres mujeres hacían uso consistente del preservativo masculino como medida preventiva de IST/SIDA. El uso inconsistente del condón fue justificado por la presencia, en el contexto relacional, del compromiso de exclusividad sexual mutua. Valores y creencias acerca del conocimiento sobre el compañero sexual y de la confianza invertida en él, orientaban las percepciones de las participantes - de ambos grupos - sobre la necesidad de adhesión a medidas

  14. prevention of sexual assault in nigeria feature article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    person to join in unwanted sexual contact or attention2. Sexual ... though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. .... Some workers have also focused on perpetrator ... of this approach to sexual assault prevention, the.

  15. A Sexual Assault Primary Prevention Model with Diverse Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D. Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants…

  16. Conhecimentos de adolescentes sobre Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis: subsídios para prevenção Conocimientos de adolescentes sobre Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles: subsidios para la prevención Teenagers' knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto da Silva Brêtas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento de adolescentes sobre as formas de transmissão e prevenção das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. Metodos: envolveu 920 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos de idade eos dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário estruturado. Resultado: os resultados demonstraram que a principal fonte para obtenção de informações sobre o assunto foi o professor; as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis não são totalmente desconhecidas para os adolescentes do estudo, sendo a AIDS a mais conhecida.Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de conocimiento de adolescentes sobre las formas de transmisión y prevención de las EST. Métodos: Envolvió 920 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años de edad, los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: Los resultados demostraron que la principal fuente para obtención de informaciones sobre el asunto fue el profesor; las Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles no son totalmente desconocidas para los adolescentes del estudio, siendo el SIDA la más conocida.Objective: To identify teenager's knowledge of transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Methods: A sample of children and teenagers aged between 10 and 19 years participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire developed for the study. Results: The findings suggested that the main source of information on Sexually Transmitted Diseases was the participants' school teacher. Sexually transmitted diseases are not entirely unknown by the participants in the study, with AIDS the most notorious.

  17. Sexual Transmission of XMRV: A Potential Infection Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although XMRV dissemination in humans is a matter of debate, the prostate of select patients seem to harbor XMRV, which raises questions about its potential route of transmission. We established a model of infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with XMRV. In spite of the intravenous inoculation, all infected macaques exhibited readily detectable XMRV signal in the reproductive tract of all 4 males and 1 female during both acute and chronic infection stages. XMRV showed explosive growth in the acini of prostate during acute but not chronic infection. In seminal vesicles, epididymis, and testes, XMRV protein production was detected throughout infection in interstitial or epithelial cells. In the female monkey, epithelial cells in the cervix and vagina were also positive for XMRV gag. The ready detection of XMRV in the reproductive tract of male and female macaques infected intravenously suggests the potential for sexual transmission for XMRV.

  18. Preventing HIV transmission in Chinese internal migrants: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Cai, Rui; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China.

  19. Preventing HIV Transmission in Chinese Internal Migrants: A Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  20. Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Sandra; Willis, Gwenda M

    2017-03-01

    The extensive and sometimes profoundly damaging effects of sexual violence and large numbers of victims necessitate dedicated attention to primary prevention efforts. Few studies have examined the scope of current prevention activities or their fit with empirical research into effective prevention strategies. The current article presents findings from a survey of primary prevention activities in non-Māori and bicultural communities within Aotearoa New Zealand. Forty-four respondents representing 42 agencies responded to a comprehensive survey that canvased types of sexual violence primary prevention activities undertaken, sexual violence primary prevention programs, and barriers and supports to sexual violence prevention work. Consistent with findings from previous international surveys, the focus of primary prevention work in New Zealand was on sexual violence education and increasing awareness. Findings are discussed in the context of the sexual violence prevention literature and what works in prevention more broadly to help identify promising initiatives as well as gaps in current practices. Recommendations for advancing sexual violence primary prevention research are also provided.

  1. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  2. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  3. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  4. Episodic sexual transmission of HIV revealed by molecular phylodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Lewis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of sexual contact networks plays a key role in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections, and their reconstruction from interview data has provided valuable insights into the spread of infection. For HIV, the long period of infectivity has made the interpretation of contact networks more difficult, and major discrepancies have been observed between the contact network and the transmission network revealed by viral phylogenetics. The high rate of HIV evolution in principle allows for detailed reconstruction of links between virus from different individuals, but often sampling has been too sparse to describe the structure of the transmission network. The aim of this study was to analyze a high-density sample of an HIV-infected population using recently developed techniques in phylogenetics to infer the short-term dynamics of the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM.Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 2,126 patients, predominantly MSM, from London were compared: 402 of these showed a close match to at least one other subtype B sequence. Nine large clusters were identified on the basis of genetic distance; all were confirmed by Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC phylogenetic analysis. Overall, 25% of individuals with a close match with one sequence are linked to 10 or more others. Dated phylogenies of the clusters using a relaxed clock indicated that 65% of the transmissions within clusters took place between 1995 and 2000, and 25% occurred within 6 mo after infection. The likelihood that not all members of the clusters have been identified renders the latter observation conservative.Reconstruction of the HIV transmission network using a dated phylogeny approach has revealed the HIV epidemic among MSM in London to have been episodic, with evidence of multiple clusters of transmissions dating to the late 1990s, a period when HIV prevalence is known to have doubled in this

  5. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  7. Sexual Harassment Prevention Policies at Japanese Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Creaser, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an accumulation of Japanese research about sexual harassment and a number of very public court cases involving prominent public figures placed the issue of sexual harassment in the media spotlight. Japan was forced to recognise sexual harassment as a national problem, and not an issue, which was confined to the Western world. In April 1999, the Japanese government realised the need to amend existing laws to include sexual harassment under article twenty-one of the Equal Oppor...

  8. Larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Deirdre P; Garner, Paul; Adeel, Ahmed A; Pyke, Graham H; Burkot, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    -target species. Fish that feed on mosquito larvae for preventing malaria transmission What is the aim of this review? Adult female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. The aim of this Cochrane Review was to evaluate whether introducing fish that eat mosquito larvae and pupae (early life stages of mosquitoes) into water sources near where people live will decrease the adult Anopheles mosquito population and thus the number of people infected with Plasmodium parasites. Key messages We do not know if introducing fish that eat mosquito larvae and pupae has an impact on the number of people with malaria or on the adult Anopheles mosquito population. What was studied in the review? The review authors examined the available research that evaluated introducing fish that eat larvae ('larvivorous') to Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in areas where malaria was common. Fifteen small studies looked at the effects of larvivorous fish on Anopheles larvae and pupae in different larval habitats, including localized water bodies (such as wells, domestic water containers, fishponds, and pools; seven studies), riverbed pools below dams (two studies), rice field plots (four studies), and water canals (two studies). These studies were undertaken in Sri Lanka (two studies), India (three studies), Ethiopia (one study), Kenya (two studies), Sudan (one study), Grande Comore Island (one study), Korea (two studies), Indonesia (one study), and Tajikistan (two studies). This is an update of a 2013 Cochrane Review and includes some older unpublished studies from Tajikistan and a new trial from India. What are the main results of the review? In our main analysis, we found no studies that looked at the effects of larvivorous fish on adult Anopheles mosquito populations or on the number of people infected with Plasmodium parasites. In our analysis exploring the effect of fish introduction on the number of Anopheles larvae and pupae in water collections, these studies

  9. HCV Transmission between serodiscordant couples through sexual route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.S.A.; Khalid, S.R.; Naseer, M.; Mirza, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the rate of transmission of HCV between n spouses through sexual route. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. It was conducted over a period of 4 years from June 2009 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty eight consecutive patients confirmed to have HCV infection by PCR for HCV RNA were enrolled in the study. Their spouses were also included in the study, and it was established through PCR for HCV RNA that the spouses were not suffering from HCV infection. All couples were inducted in the study within the first two months of starting the study. Therefore, the maximum and minimum follow-up time was 48 months and 46 months, respectively. The spouses were questioned for HCV risk factors and were tested for HCV antibodies six monthly. Once spouses were found to be anti-HCV positive, their HCV status was confirmed with PCR for HCV RNA. Results: Out of 168 patients, 90 (53.57%) were males and 78 (46.43%) were females. PCR for HCV RNA was found to be positive in 4 of 168 (2.38%) spouses. All the se 4 couples in whom HCV transmission was found had genotype 3a. Out of the 4 spouses who tested positive for HCV RNA PCR, 3 (75%) were females and 1 (25%) was male. So HCV infection was transmitted in 3 out of 90 (3.33 %) and 1 out of 78 (1.28%) female and male spouses, respectively. In PCR for HCV RNA positive and negative spouses, the duration of marriage was 202 +- 53 and 199 +- 49 weeks; and the number of total sexual intercourses was 171 +- 93 and 169 +- 89, respectively. Conclusion: HCV transmission among serodiscordant couples in our setup did occur. The overall rate of transmission was 2.38%. The rate of transmission from male to female (3.33%) was higher than female to male (1.28%). However, a large scale study conducted over a longer duration of time is needed to recommend protected sex in serodiscordant couples if either partner is suffering

  10. Reclaiming Gender and Power in Sexual Violence Prevention in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.

  11. The pathogen transmission avoidance theory of sexual selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.

  12. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  13. Male Partner Risk Behaviors Are Associated With Reactive Rapid HIV Antibody Tests Among Pregnant Mexican Women: Implications for Prevention of Vertical and Sexual HIV Transmission in Concentrated HIV Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Estela; Kendall, Tamil

    2015-01-01

    Mexico's policies on antenatal HIV testing are contradictory, and little is known about social and behavioral characteristics that increase pregnant Mexican women's risks of acquiring HIV. We analyzed the association between risk behaviors reported by pregnant women for themselves and their male partners, and women's rapid HIV antibody test results from a large national sample. Three quarters of pregnant women with a reactive test did not report risk behaviors for themselves and one third did not report risk behaviors for themselves or their male partners. In the retrospective case-control analysis, other than reporting multiple sexual partners, reactive pregnant women reported risk behaviors did not differ from nonreactive women's behaviors. However, reactive pregnant women were significantly more likely to have reported risk behaviors for male partners. Our findings support universal offer of antenatal HIV testing and suggest that HIV prevention for women should focus on reducing risk of HIV acquisition within stable relationships. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HIV sexual transmission risks in the context of clinical care: a prospective study of behavioural correlates of HIV suppression in a community sample, Atlanta, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar; Merely, Cindy; Welles, Brandi; Pellowski, Jennifer; Kegler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health of people living with HIV and has the potential to reduce HIV infectiousness, thereby preventing HIV transmission. However, the success of ART for HIV prevention hinges on sustained ART adherence and avoiding sexually transmitted infections (STI). To determine the sexual behaviours and HIV transmission risks of individuals with suppressed and unsuppressed HIV replication (i.e., viral load). Assessed HIV sexual transmission risks among individuals with clinically determined suppressed and unsuppressed HIV. Participants were 760 men and 280 women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, USA, who completed behavioural assessments, 28-daily prospective sexual behaviour diaries, one-month prospective unannounced pill counts for ART adherence, urine screening for illicit drug use and medical record chart abstraction for HIV viral load. Individuals with unsuppressed HIV demonstrated a constellation of behavioural risks for transmitting HIV to uninfected sex partners that included symptoms of STI and substance use. In addition, 15% of participants with suppressed HIV had recent STI symptoms/diagnoses, indicating significant risks for sexual infectiousness despite their HIV suppression in blood plasma. Overall, 38% of participants were at risk for elevated sexual infectiousness and just as many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with non-HIV-infected partners. Implementation strategies for using HIV treatments as HIV prevention requires enhanced behavioural interventions that extend beyond ART to address substance use and sexual health that will otherwise undermine the potential preventive impact of early ART.

  15. Disassortative sexual mixing among migrant populations in The Netherlands: a potential for HIV/STI transmission?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, M. G.; Kramer, M. A.; Op de Coul, E. L. M.; van Leeuwen, A. P.; de Zwart, O.; van de Laar, M. J. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; Prins, M. [= Maria

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among large migrant groups in the Netherlands, we studied the associations between their demographic and sexual characteristics, in particular condom use, and their sexual mixing patterns with other ethnic groups.

  16. Scaling up Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Nigeria is scaling up prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV interventions to primary health care ... Of 10,289 women who had antenatal HIV test, 74 had positive results. ..... counselling and lack of reinforcement of contents.

  17. Sexual Violence Prevention in Indiana: Toward Safer, Healthier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…

  18. Sexual Violence Prevention through Bystander Education: An Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.

    2007-01-01

    The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…

  19. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...

  20. Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.

    2018-01-01

    Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.

  1. Possible non-sexual modes of transmission of human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Veena; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2017-03-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest vertical and horizontal modes of transmission of human papilloma virus (HPV), an established etiologic agent of cervical cancer. Infants, children, and adults can acquire both high-risk and low-risk infections by birth or by close contact even though HPV is mainly transmitted sexually. A thorough review of the literature was performed to assess the possible non-sexual modes of transmission of HPV. An electronic search of databases for review articles, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, and case reports on non-sexual modes of transmission among sexually unexposed women and children was carried out using search terms such as "human papilloma virus, HPV, transmission, horizontal transmission, vertical transmission, and fomites". Articles published between 1983 and 2015 were retrieved. Epidemiological and clinical data support various non-sexual modes of transmission especially at the time of birth and by close contact. Even though the role of fomites in the transmission of HPV is not well established, HPV-DNA positivity has been reported in transvaginal ultrasound probes and colposcopes after routine disinfection. Awareness needs to be spread among the public about alternate modes of transmission. For a proper understanding of the exact natural history of HPV infection acquired via the non-sexual route, long-term prospective studies need to be undertaken. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Proactive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Betty Jo; Popovich, Paula M.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a prototype training program using role theory as a framework for understanding sexual harassment in the workplace. Describes four phases of the program for employees, supervisors, and managers. (CH)

  3. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    5.4.3.2. Sexual Assault Examination Process (see Enclosure 6, Healthcare section) 5.4.3.3. Emergency Contraception /Sexually Transmitted...pregnancy, options for emergency contraception , and any necessary follow-up care and/or referral services. E3.2.7.2.3. Assessment for the need...and listen/engage in quiet support, as needed, and provide the victim appropriate emotional support resources. To the extent practicable, accommodate

  4. "Yes Means Yes:" A New Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Positive Sexuality Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…

  5. Sala de espera como estratégia de educação em saúde no campo da atenção às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis The waiting room as a health education strategy in the field of sexually transmitted diseases prevention and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Zambenedetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute uma experiência de sala de espera no âmbito da atenção às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis - DST, desenvolvida em um serviço especializado na atenção às DST, localizado em Porto Alegre-RS. O objetivo da sala de espera foi oferecer uma possibilidade de prevenção e educação em saúde, tendo por base uma abordagem participativa e problematizadora, buscando diferenciar-se da lógica prescritiva, centrada na transmissão de informação, hegemonicamente presente nos serviços de saúde. A atividade ocorreu diariamente, antecedendo a consulta médica de homens que procuravam o serviço para atendimento relacionado às DST. Entendida como uma atividade relativa ao campo de competências profissionais (Campos, 2002, foi coordenada por duplas de residentes multiprofissionais (Psicólogos, Nutricionistas, Enfermeiros e Assistentes Sociais. A abordagem da sala de espera utilizou-se das contribuições da prática do aconselhamento em HIV/Aids, buscando trabalhar com aspectos afetivos/emocionais, informativos e avaliação de riscos. Através de uma perspectiva problematizadora, buscou-se interrogar e colocar em análise as relações que as pessoas estabelecem com a sexualidade, as DST e o uso do preservativo. Esta intervenção propiciou maior acesso a informações (sobre as DST, insumos de prevenção, tratamento e testagem anti-HIV e discussão sobre aspectos relacionados às repercussões das DST na vida afetiva e sexual, reconfigurando o momento de espera em um momento de prevenção e educação em saúde.This article presents a waiting room experience developed in the scope of sexually transmitted diseases (STD prevention and care, developed at an STD specialized service, located in the city of Porto Alegre (Southern Brazil. The objective of the waiting room was to offer a possibility of prevention and health education, based on a participatory and problematizing approach, in an attempt to

  6. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae molecular typing for understanding sexual networks and antimicrobial resistance transmission: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Katy; Bolt, Hikaru; Croxford, Sara; Cole, Michelle; Harris, Simon; Field, Nigel; Hughes, Gwenda

    2018-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a significant global public health concern due to rising diagnoses rates and antimicrobial resistance. Molecular combined with epidemiological data have been used to understand the distribution and spread of NG, as well as relationships between cases in sexual networks, but the public health value gained from these studies is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to examine how molecular epidemiological studies have informed understanding of sexual networks and NG transmission, and subsequent public health interventions. Five research databases were systematically searched up to 31st March 2017 for studies that used sequence-based DNA typing methods, including whole genome sequencing, and linked molecular data to patient-level epidemiological data. Data were extracted and summarised to identify common themes. Of the 49 studies included, 82% used NG Multi-antigen Sequence Typing. Gender and sexual orientation were commonly used to characterise sexual networks that were inferred using molecular clusters; clusters predominantly of one patient group often contained a small number of isolates from other patient groups. Suggested public health applications included using these data to target interventions at specific populations, confirm outbreaks, and inform partner management, but these were mainly untested. Combining molecular and epidemiological data has provided insight into sexual mixing patterns, and dissemination of NG, but few studies have applied these findings to design or evaluate public health interventions. Future studies should focus on the application of molecular epidemiology in public health practice to provide evidence for how to prevent and control NG. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Practices That May Favor the Transmission of HIV in a Rural Community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, A J; Oladepo, O; Adeniyi, J D; Ches, W R

    1993-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have been documented as a primarily urban phenomenon in Nigeria. The risk of spread to rural communities, where the largest portion of the population still lives, exists. This article presents a qualitative research study that was designed to explore sexual practices in a rural Nigerian community that held potential risk for introducing HIV into the community and for enabling HIV transmission should an infected person enters local sexual networks, in the small town of Ago-Are, Oyo State. Seven key informant interviews, in-depth interviews and observations with five commercial sex workers (CSWs), and focus group discussions (FGD) with married and single male and female residents were held. CSWs were found to be the most likely route whereby HIV could enter the community, both because of their own mobility, being resident in the community on average only nine months, and because of the mobility of their main clients, migrant farm laborers and commercial drivers. This did not preclude local patronage, which was more discrete. Another possible point of entry for HIV was through casual sexual relations during ceremonies, holidays and festivals, when towns' people working in the large urban centers came home. Within the community, extramarital sexual relations were posited as a likely route for spread within the community. The continued existence of a taboo against sexual intercourse while a mother is breastfeeding, frequent informal divorces and a tendency toward polygamy were identified by FGD members as factors that encourage extra-marital sex. The strong role that social and religious associations play in the community was identified as an ideal mechanism for health education to prevent HIV/AIDS.

  9. The 'Antiretrovirals, Sexual Transmission Risk and Attitudes' (ASTRA study. Design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Speakman

    Full Text Available Life expectancy for people diagnosed with HIV has improved dramatically however the number of new infections in the UK remains high. Understanding patterns of sexual behaviour among people living with diagnosed HIV, and the factors associated with having condom-less sex, is important for informing HIV prevention strategies and clinical care. In addition, in view of the current interest in a policy of early antiretroviral treatment (ART for all people diagnosed with HIV in the UK, it is of particular importance to assess whether ART use is associated with increased levels of condom-less sex. In this context the ASTRA study was designed to investigate current sexual activity, and attitudes to HIV transmission risk, in a large unselected sample of HIV-infected patients under care in the UK. The study also gathered background information on demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and disease-related characteristics, and physical and psychological symptoms, in order to identify other key factors impacting on HIV patients and the behaviours which underpin transmission. In this paper we describe the study rationale, design, methods, response rate and the demographic characteristics of the participants. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending 8 UK HIV out-patient clinics in 2011-2012 were invited to participate in the study. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire, and their latest CD4 count and viral load test results were recorded. During the study period, 5112 eligible patients were invited to take part in the study and 3258 completed questionnaires were obtained, representing a response rate of 64% of eligible patients. The study includes 2248 men who have sex with men (MSM, 373 heterosexual men and 637 women. Future results from ASTRA will be a key resource for understanding HIV transmission within the UK, targeting prevention efforts, and informing clinical care of individuals

  10. Updates on adolescent dating and sexual violence prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Jones, Kelley A; McCauley, Heather L

    2018-05-09

    Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents. Studies have found sex category differences, with adolescent girls reporting more victimization than boys, particularly sexual violence. Sexual and gender minority youth also experience a higher prevalence of violence victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. Studies on risk factors include examinations of childhood adversities, exposure to sexually explicit material and substance use as well as the role of gender inequitable attitudes on violence perpetration. Recent prevention research includes examining the impact of bystander interventions and transforming gender norms. Recent ADV/ sexual violence research highlights both prevalence and modifiable risk and protective factors that may help reduce such violence. Practitioners caring for youth should consider ADV/ sexual violence when seeing patients (including those struggling with substance use and other behaviours that contribute to poor health) and not simply rely on screening tools to identify those suffering from ADV/ sexual violence.

  11. Women's beliefs about male circumcision, HIV prevention, and sexual behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Riess

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing.

  12. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rural Child Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, JoAnn; Murty, Susan A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature on rural child sexual abuse and treatment. Surveys providers in rural Washington treatment programs. Responses describe agency characteristics, services, delivery problems, and suggested solutions. Reports providers' perceptions of service quality and interagency cooperation. Cites as problems heavy caseloads, lack of staff, and…

  14. Sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission in sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.

  15. Exploring pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A; Scheinmann, Roberta; Verdesoto, Elizabeth; Gaydos, Charlotte; Bertisch, Maggie; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-11-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users. The study included two phases in February 2011-July 2012. In Phase I, customers purchasing EC from eight pharmacies in Manhattan received vouchers for free STI testing at onsite medical clinics. In Phase II, three Facebook ads targeted EC users to connect them with free home-based STI test kits ordered online. Participants completed a self-administered survey. Only 38 participants enrolled in Phase I: 90% female, ≤29 years (74%), 45% White non-Hispanic and 75% college graduates; 71% were not tested for STIs in the past year and 68% reported a new partner in the past 3 months. None tested positive for STIs. In Phase II, ads led to >45000 click-throughs, 382 completed the survey and 290 requested kits; 28% were returned. Phase II participants were younger and less educated than Phase I participants; six tested positive for STIs. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings. Collaborating with and training pharmacy and medical staff are key elements of service provision. Future research should explore how different permutations of expanding screening in non-traditional settings could improve testing uptake and detect additional STI cases.

  16. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... service delivery in the public health sector of South Africa .... professional nurse in charge of the PMTCT programme at ... 1. antenatal care (ANC) clients pre-test counselled for HIV ..... CD4, Cluster of differentiation; NVP, Nevirapine; PMTCT, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; DHIS, District.

  17. Preventing HIV transmission in chinese internal migrants: A behavioral approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liu (Xiaona); V. Erasmus (Vicky); X. Sun (Xinying); R. Cai (Rui); Y. Shi (Yuhui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a

  18. conference report prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of. HIV1 were presented at an evening satellite session. ... They complement other guidelines on treatment issued by the WHO and the 3 by 5 Initiative. ..... Further work on infant feeding and programmatic experiences added to the knowledge base.

  19. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Even though significant progress has been made in the roll-out and quality of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in South Africa, the quality of patient data recording remains a challenge. Objectives: To assess PMTCT data completeness and accuracy at primary healthcare ...

  20. Sexual transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Paiva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. Sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2, and chancroid. Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax, a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. Seminal fluid has been reported to increase HTLV replication and transmission, whereas male circumcision and neutralizing antibodies might have a protective effect. Recently, free virions were discovered in plasma, which reveals a possible new mode of HTLV replication. It is unclear how this discovery might affect the routes of HTLV transmission, particularly sexual transmission, because HTLV transmission rates are significantly higher from men to women than women to men.

  1. Knowledge and beliefs of international travellers about the transmission and prevention of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R; Lambert, G

    1992-02-01

    To measure the perceived risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among international travellers, to measure their knowledge of the transmission and prevention of HIV infection abroad and to identify some of the determinants of this knowledge. Survey. Travellers' immunization clinic providing mostly primary preventive care to international travellers. All clients aged 18 to 50 years seen at the clinic between Oct. 2 and Dec. 21, 1989, before their departure. Sixteen statements measured knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV infection. Standardized scales measured health beliefs. The response rate was 81% (331/409). Compared with other diseases AIDS was perceived to be associated with a low risk except by those travelling to countries with a high prevalence of AIDS. Most of the clients were found to have a good knowledge of HIV transmission to travellers, although some myths remained popular and some real routes of transmission, especially blood, remained underrated. In all, 70% of the subjects believed in the efficacy of condoms when used with local people, as compared with 79% when used with other tourists; this difference was greatest among travellers who perceived AIDS as being particularly severe but difficult to prevent. The determinants of the knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention were a high level of education, a mother tongue other than French, unmarried status, a high prevalence of AIDS at the destination, the duration of the trip and a high perceived risk of HIV infection. Counselling should teach travellers (a) not to underestimate their risk of HIV infection during their trip, (b) to decrease the risk of requiring health care in developing countries and (c) to rely on their own prudent sexual behaviour rather than on their assessment of the level of risk posed by the environment.

  2. The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents.

  4. Status of nosocomial tuberculosis transmission prevention in hospitals in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unahalekhaka, Akeau; Lueang-a-papong, Suchada; Chitreecheur, Jittaporn

    2014-03-01

    A national survey was conducted during July to September 2009 to determine tuberculosis (TB) prevention activities, problems, and support needed of Thai hospitals. Ninety-seven percent of hospitals established TB isolation policy, 96.3% provided guidelines for caring of TB patients, 95% and 91.8% provided prevention of TB transmission and environmental management guideline, and 92.6% established screening system for TB in the outpatient department (OPD). A half of hospitals had problems with isolation rooms and difficulties in screening TB cases in the OPD. Support needed included consultation on structure and ventilation systems, personnel training, national TB prevention, and TB screening guideline. Strengthening TB prevention activities, providing expert consultation, and national guidelines may help hospitals improve their TB prevention activities. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comprehensive Sexuality Education as a Primary Prevention Strategy for Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Madeline; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) represents a serious public health problem with high rates and numerous health consequences. Current primary prevention strategies to reduce SV perpetration have been shown to be largely ineffective-not surprisingly, since as others have pointed out current prevention largely fails to draw on existing knowledge about the characteristics of effective prevention. In this article, we examine the potential of K-12 comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), guided by the National Sexuality Education Standards (NSES), to be an effective strategy. Our discussion uses socioecological and feminist theories as a guide, examines the extent to which NSES-guided CSE could both meet the qualities of effective prevention programs and mitigate the risk factors that are most implicated in perpetration behavior, and considers the potential limitations of this approach. We suggest that sequential, K-12 program has potential to prevent the emergence of risk factors associated with SV perpetration by starting prevention early on in the life course. CSE has not yet been evaluated with SV perpetration behavior as an outcome, and this article synthesizes what is known about drivers of SV perpetration and the potential impacts of CSE to argue for the importance of future research in this area. The primary recommendation is for longitudinal research to examine the impact of CSE on SV perpetration as well as on other sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  7. Incoming College Students' Bystander Behaviors to Prevent Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…

  8. Sexual Violence Prevention: The Role of Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…

  9. Activating College Men to Prevent Sexual Violence: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. Candace

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…

  10. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  11. Finding Ways to Effectively Prevent Sexual Abuse by Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alisa; Tabachnick, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Youth with sexual behavior problems pose a complicated challenge to the society. Yet the society has succeeded in developing only a limited range of actions and attitudes to grapple with and prevent this problem. Very few of the social service and criminal justice systems have rallied to create compassionate models that not only address and…

  12. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  13. Preventing Sexual Harassment On-Campus: Policies and Practices for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben T.

    This booklet on sexual harassment on college campuses covers sexual harassment law, harassment prevention, protection from liability, and handling allegations. Chapter 1, "What Is Sexual Harassment?" defines the term and gives an overview of sexual harassment law. Chapter 2, "How Does Sexual Harassment Law Apply in Actual Situations?" illustrates…

  14. [Prevention of HIV transmission - what is desirable? What is feasible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar Pinzón, L C; Sweers, H

    2007-04-01

    On the basis of their aims, the Deutsche AIDS-Hilfe focuses on lifestyle-oriented structural prevention and health promotion as well as the continuously changing (social, cultural, sexual, medical, etc.) conditions. In doing so, they stress the collective responsibility of the local AIDS service organizations and of other agents involved in prevention as well as of policy, administration, economy and society. In the face of the modified perception of HIV infection, the disentanglement of sexuality from the "dictatorship of fear" and the growing individualization and differentiation in matters of risk management, it is necessary to enhance the life style and service orientation in prevention and health promotion, to enhance the utilization of all media available in the age of information, particularly the internet, and to convey clear(er) messages on new forms of risk management to ensure what has been achieved so far (compared to other European countries a low rate of newly diagnosed infections and a largely non-discriminatory attitude towards the people affected) and to gain substantial improvements.

  15. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J

    1999-10-01

    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  16. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  17. Sexually transmitted infections: prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denis; Dallabetta, Gina; Steen, Richard

    2004-02-01

    In the early 21st century, STI and HIV have been linked inextricably. Although the focus of this article is STI, some discussion on the diagnosis and management of individuals with HIV infection is necessary. The history of HIV diagnosis in the workplace is checkered. The authors have seen cases of prospective workers being subjected to HIV testing without their knowledge as part of a pre-employment medical examination. If the test came back positive, the men were told that they would not be employed without explanation. This approach is a breech of the human rights of the individual being tested and cannot be condoned. Any HIV testing must be done with the full and informed consent of the individual, with counseling given before and after testing to enable individuals with HIV infection to seek care and protect their families and to give individuals without HIV infection counseling on risk reduction. Men and women who present with an STI are at risk for HIV infection. With increasing options for management and secondary prevention, it is important to recognize people who are at risk. This identification should be done through HIV VCT. The location, funding, and supervision of VCT sites related to workplace populations should be a subject for serious debate. Although fears of mass layoffs after HIV testing largely have been unfounded, it is natural for workers to be fearful, unless there is a clearly articulated policy stating that the company observes and enforces nondiscriminatory practices. The workplace examples show that syndromic STI management, allied to comprehensive prevention programs, can have a genuine and measurable impact on STI prevalence. The potential interventions and partners are listed in Table 2. A community-based, randomized study in Tanzania showed that the institution of a well-managed STI syndromic management program can reduce HIV incidence by up to 40%, in the context of a rising HIV epidemic. Presumptive STI treatment for female sex

  18. Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections that may influence transmission of cell-associated HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Richard A

    2014-12-15

    Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are likely to influence the transmission of cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota (Nugent score 0-3) will likely inhibit transmission, especially female-to-male transmission. In contrast, polymicrobial microbiota (Nugent score 4-10), community state types IV-A and IV-B, and STIs will likely increase transmission of cell-associated HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  20. [Sexual responsibility: a key concept in the prevention of AIDS, abortion and adolescent pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, A

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 300,000 people have AIDS, and there are 50-100 infections for each case. Responsible sexual behavior is crucial for prevention, since sexual transmission is the principal route of contracting AIDS. The major causes of maternal mortality in the 15-39 year age group in Latin America are complications from induced abortion which is also responsible for 40% of global maternal mortality, i.e., 200,000 women die because of induced abortion complications out of 500,000 women who succumb to pregnancy- and birth-related caused annually. In the 1980s 38% of deaths in Chile were related to abortion of women who died in reproductive age. In developing countries almost 50% of hospital admissions occur because of abortion sequelae. Infant mortality is higher in 20-year old mothers giving birth compared with the 20-29 age group. 40,000 children are born/year in Chile to mothers 20. In 1980 these births made up 16.7% of all births. 45% of births of mothers 20 are illegitimate. These young mothers are often unprepared for the parental role: 80% of children hospitalized for malnutrition were children of adolescent mothers according to a survey. The Catholic Church's view opposing contraceptives and sexuality outside of marriage conflicts with contemporary opinion backed by mass media favoring sexuality as leading to personal enrichment and advocating contraception. More than 60% of boys and more than 30% of girls start sexual relations 20. Young people do not use contraceptives because of misinformation, difficulty in getting appropriate information, and male machismo. AIDS prevention mandate sex education stressing responsible sexuality with abstinence, condom use, and monogamy.

  1. A single-dose live-attenuated vaccine prevents Zika virus pregnancy transmission and testis damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chao; Muruato, Antonio E; Jagger, Brett W; Richner, Justin; Nunes, Bruno T D; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Xie, Xuping; Nunes, Jannyce G C; Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Kong, Wing-Pui; Pierson, Theodore C; Barrett, Alan D; Weaver, Scott C; Rossi, Shannan L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Graham, Barney S; Diamond, Michael S; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-09-22

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital abnormities or fetal demise. The persistence of Zika virus in the male reproductive system poses a risk of sexual transmission. Here we demonstrate that live-attenuated Zika virus vaccine candidates containing deletions in the 3' untranslated region of the Zika virus genome (ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV) prevent viral transmission during pregnancy and testis damage in mice, as well as infection of nonhuman primates. After a single-dose vaccination, pregnant mice challenged with Zika virus at embryonic day 6 and evaluated at embryonic day 13 show markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues. Vaccinated male mice challenged with Zika virus were protected against testis infection, injury, and oligospermia. A single immunization of rhesus macaques elicited a rapid and robust antibody response, conferring complete protection upon challenge. Furthermore, the ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV vaccine candidates have a desirable safety profile. These results suggest that further development of ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV is warranted for humans.Zika virus infection can result in congenital disorders and cause disease in adults, and there is currently no approved vaccine. Here Shan et al. show that a single dose of a live-attenuated Zika vaccine prevents infection, testis damage and transmission to the fetus during pregnancy in different animal models.

  2. Negotiating sexual safety in the era of biomedical HIV prevention: relationship dynamics among male couples using pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Jowanna; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Johnson, Blake E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Bazzi, Angela R

    2018-06-01

    Up to two-thirds of new cases of HIV transmission between gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in the USA are attributed to primary relationships. Understanding the relationship dynamics and sexual agreements of male-male couples can provide insight into HIV transmission patterns and prevention needs in this population. The daily use of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV, but its negotiation and use within social and intimate relationship contexts remain understudied. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 male couples (n = 40 men) in which at least one partner was either using or in the process of initiating PrEP. Congruent with a theoretical focus on social theories of relationships and negotiated risk, couples were interviewed about relationship dynamics, trust, communication and sexual health practices, including their perception and use of PrEP. Overall, we found that couples showed heightened trust and communication when establishing open, sexual agreements and demonstrated high awareness of sexual risks and health practices in the context of PrEP use. This study demonstrates how understanding relationship dynamics can better inform HIV prevention and sexual health promotion efforts for male couples at risk of HIV.

  3. Strong propensity for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in Vietnam: behavioural data and sexual network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Liljeros, Fredrik; Thanh, Hoang Huy; Thorson, Anna

    2014-01-15

    Survey data from men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities indicate ongoing and drastic increases in HIV prevalence. It is unknown which behavioural factors are most important in driving these epidemics. We aimed to analyse detailed sexual behaviour data among MSM in Vietnam and to model HIV transmission using improved assumptions on sexual network structure. Vietnam. Internet-using men who had ever had sex (any type) with a man, aged ≥18 years and living in Vietnam. The study was cross-sectional, population-based and performed in 2012, using online respondent-driven sampling. The Internet-based survey instrument was completed by 982 participants, of which 857 were eligible. Questions included sociodemography and retrospective sexual behaviour, including number of unprotected anal sex (UAS) acts per partner. Estimated basic reproductive number over 3 months as a function of transmission risk per UAS act; frequency distributions of number of UAS partners and UAS acts during last 3 months. 36% (CI 32% to 42%) reported UAS at least once during the last 3 months. 36% (CI 32% to 41%) had ever taken an HIV test and received the result. UAS partner numbers and number of UAS acts were both highly skewed and positively correlated. Using a weighted configuration model, taking into account partner numbers, frequency of UAS and their correlations, we estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) over 3 months. The results indicated rapid transmission over a wide range of values of per-act transmissibility. Men with multiple partners had unexpectedly high UAS frequency per partner, paired with low HIV testing rates. The study highlights the importance of collecting data on frequency of UAS acts and indicates the need to rapidly scale-up HIV prevention services and testing opportunities for MSM in Vietnam.

  4. 78 FR 20221 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... before it starts and ensuring victims get the support they need. Sexual violence is an affront to human... sexual assault nurse examiner programs and sexual assault response teams, helping States deliver justice... Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...

  5. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Nielsen, V.R.

    2008-01-01

    during the study period. In 79% of the cases, the woman knew her HIV status at the beginning of her pregnancy. The median CD4 count before delivery was 447 x 10(6)/l, and in 76% of the cases the HIV-RNA was ... breastfed. None of the children were infected during pregnancy, delivery or after birth. During the same period of time, 8 children were diagnosed with HIV in Denmark; they were born to mothers whose HIV infection was not diagnosed during pregnancy or delivery and therefore preventive treatment...... was not initiated. CONCLUSION: As long as preventive treatment strategies are followed, there is no transmission of HIV from mother to child, neither during pregnancy nor during or after birth Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/18...

  6. Nanotechnology and the Future of Condoms in the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S.; Simate, Geoffrey S.; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. Methods: We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. Results and Discussion: In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. Conclusions: A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs – including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases. PMID:29536957

  7. Opportunities for HIV Prevention Communication During Sexual Encounters with Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholou, Tiffiany M; Nanin, Jose; Drumhiller, Kathryn; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2017-01-01

    Conversations about HIV prevention before engaging in sex may result in safer sex practices and decreased HIV transmission. However, partner communication for HIV prevention has been understudied among black/African American men who have sex with men (BMSM), a group that is disproportionately affected by HIV. We explored and described encounters and perceptions about HIV prevention conversations among BMSM and their sex partner(s) in New York City. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with BMSM who reported sex with a man in the previous 3 months. Interviews were professionally transcribed; Nvivo was used for data analysis. Twenty-two BMSM were included in this analysis; median age = 29.1 years; 71.4% self-identified as MSM; 85.7% were ever HIV tested; and 52.6% reported no disclosure or discussion about HIV status with their previous sex partner. The main themes were: (1) missed opportunities for HIV prevention conversations (e.g., no HIV prevention conversations or HIV prevention conversations after sex had occurred); (2) barriers to HIV prevention conversations (e.g., being in the moment; not wanting to pause); (3) emotional thoughts after sex (e.g., feeling worried about possible HIV exposure); and (4) rethinking relationships and sexual health (e.g., changed sex practices by asking partners' HIV status before sex; started using condoms). These findings offer insight into HIV prevention conversations by BMSM around the time of or during sexual encounters and may inform and strengthen partner-level HIV prevention communication interventions for BMSM.

  8. Sexual transmission and propagation of SIV and HIV in resting and activated CD4+ T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Schuler, T.; Zupancic, M.; Wietgrefe, S.; Staskus, K. A.; Reimann, K. A.; Reinhart, T. A.; Rogan, M.; Cavert, W.; Miller, C. J.; Veazey, R. S.; Notermans, D.; Little, S.; Danner, S. A.; Richman, D. D.; Havlir, D.; Wong, J.; Jordan, H. L.; Schacker, T. W.; Racz, P.; Tenner-Racz, K.; Letvin, N. L.; Wolinsky, S.; Haase, A. T.

    1999-01-01

    In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in

  9. Lack of prion transmission by sexual or parental routes in experimentally infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Pritzkow, Sandra; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Soto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans as well as captive and wild animals. The mechanisms and routes governing the natural spread of prions are not completely understood and several hypotheses have been proposed. In this study, we analyzed the effect of gender in prion incubation period, as well as the possibility of prion transmission by sexual and parental contact using 263K infected hamsters as a model. Our results show that males have significantly longer incubation periods compared with females when exposed to the same quantity of infectious material. Importantly, no evidence of sexual or parental prion transmission was found, even 500 d after sexual contact or birth, respectively. Western blotting and PMCA were unable to detect sub-clinical levels of PrP(Sc) in experimental subjects, suggesting a complete absence of prion transmission by these routes. Our results show that sexual and parental transmission of prions does not occur in this model. It remains to be studied whether this conclusion is valid also for other prion strains and species.

  10. Sexual Transmission of XMRV: A Potential Infection Route

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Prachi; Rogers, Kenneth A.; Suppiah, Suganthi; Molinaro, Ross J.; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Hackett, John; Schochetman, Gerald; Klein, Eric A.; Silverman, Robert H.; Villinger, Fran?ois

    2011-01-01

    Although XMRV dissemination in humans is a matter of debate, the prostate of select patients seem to harbor XMRV, which raises questions about its potential route of transmission. We established a model of infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with XMRV. In spite of the intravenous inoculation, all infected macaques exhibited readily detectable XMRV signal in the reproductive tract of all 4 males and 1 female during both acute and chronic infection stages. XMRV showed explosive growth in th...

  11. Revealing a Hidden Curriculum of Black Women's Erasure in Sexual Violence Prevention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Sara Carrigan

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…

  12. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  13. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  14. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e procura da contracepção de emergência em farmácias e drogarias do município de São Paulo Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and acquisition of emergency contraception at pharmacies in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bastos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados aspectos da experiência do projeto de intervenção educativa voltado à prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (DST/Aids realizado com profissionais de farmácias e drogarias da área metropolitana de São Paulo. Discute-se a aquisição de contracepção de emergência como importante motivo de procura de farmácias e drogarias e seu uso como fonte de dúvidas para os profissionais. Concluiu-se que a intervenção educativa, realizada pelos profissionais nos estabelecimentos farmacêuticos, contribui na prevenção de DST/Aids, visto que o balcão de farmácia é meio frequentemente utilizado pela população na busca por orientação e indicação de produtos farmacêuticos, além de informações sobre saúde. Pode-se afirmar que é possível e indispensável a incorporação dessa estratégia educativa na prevenção de DST/Aids por estabelecimentos farmacêuticos, em situações cotidianas de risco ou preocupação com doenças presumíveis e com a gravidez por meio de proposição de condutas eficazes de saúde para a população. Extraíram-se lições sobre a experiência quanto à importância de ações de educação para jovens e para profissionais de farmácias em que se enfatizem os direitos sexuais e reprodutivos e a promoção do uso racional de fármacos.The present study discusses results of an educational intervention project directed at preventing sexually transmitted diseases and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/Aids, carried out with professionals from pharmacies in the metropolitan area of São Paulo (Brazil. The acquisition of emergency contraception was found to be an important reason for seeking help from pharmacies as well as a source of doubts for the professionals. Educational intervention carried out by the professionals at pharmaceutical establishments contributes toward the prevention of STD/Aids, as the population often uses

  15. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  16. Multiple ways to prevent transmission of paternal mitochondrial DNA for maternal inheritance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken; Sato, Miyuki

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA). In most sexually reproducing organisms, mtDNA is inherited maternally (uniparentally); this type of inheritance is thus referred to as 'maternal (uniparental) inheritance'. Recent studies have revealed various mechanisms to prevent the transmission of sperm-derived paternal mtDNA to the offspring, thereby ensuring maternal inheritance of mtDNA. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA degenerate almost immediately after fertilization and are selectively degraded by autophagy, which is referred to as 'allophagy' (allogeneic [non-self] organelle autophagy). In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, paternal mtDNA is largely eliminated by an endonuclease G-mediated mechanism. Paternal mitochondria are subsequently removed by endocytic and autophagic pathways after fertilization. In many mammals, including humans, paternal mitochondria enter fertilized eggs. However, the fate of paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA in mammals is still a matter of debate. In this review, we will summarize recent knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the prevention of paternal mtDNA transmission, which ensures maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Illumination of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 cycle reveals a sexual transmission route from females to males in laboratory mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie François

    Full Text Available Transmission is a matter of life or death for pathogen lineages and can therefore be considered as the main motor of their evolution. Gammaherpesviruses are archetypal pathogenic persistent viruses which have evolved to be transmitted in presence of specific immune response. Identifying their mode of transmission and their mechanisms of immune evasion is therefore essential to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against these infections. As the known human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus are host-specific and lack a convenient in vivo infection model; related animal gammaherpesviruses, such as murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68, are commonly used as general models of gammaherpesvirus infections in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral excretion or virus transmission of MHV-68 in laboratory mice population. In this study, we have used MHV-68 associated with global luciferase imaging to investigate potential excretion sites of this virus in laboratory mice. This allowed us to identify a genital excretion site of MHV-68 following intranasal infection and latency establishment in female mice. This excretion occurred at the external border of the vagina and was dependent on the presence of estrogens. However, MHV-68 vaginal excretion was not associated with vertical transmission to the litter or with horizontal transmission to female mice. In contrast, we observed efficient virus transmission to naïve males after sexual contact. In vivo imaging allowed us to show that MHV-68 firstly replicated in penis epithelium and corpus cavernosum before spreading to draining lymph nodes and spleen. All together, those results revealed the first experimental transmission model for MHV-68 in laboratory mice. In the future, this model could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses and could also allow the development of strategies that could prevent

  18. Prevention Strategies Against HIV Transmission: A Proactive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Antonio J; Miles, Jovan D; Mosley, Juan F; Smith, Lillian L; Prather, April S; Gurley, Marcus M; Phan, Linh D; Everton, Emily C

    2018-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now transformed into a manageable chronic condition. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven efficacious at controlling the disease progression. Based on compelling evidence, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. However, there are approximately 50 000 new cases of HIV in the United States each year. In this article, we review proactive methods to reduce the transmission of HIV, which include reinforcing patient education, gel-coated condoms that destroy HIV, HIV vaccinations, and adequately utilizing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Further development and consistent utilization of innovative prevention tools can significantly reduce the incidence of HIV infections regardless of HIV status.

  19. Ação educativa do enfermeiro na prevenção de doenças sexualmete transmissíveis: uma investigação a partir das adolescentes Acción educativa da enfermería en la prevención de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles: una investigación a partir de las adolescentes Educative action of nurse in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: an investigation with the adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Pinheiro Beserra

    2008-09-01

    qualitative research, with the objective to investigate the adolescents sexuality from the educative action of nurse in the prevention of Sexual Transmissible Diseases. It was done in a public school in Fortaleza Ceará with 10 girls aged between 14 and 16, from August to November, 2007. Five meetings were carried out, using the circle of culture and registered in the field diary through the observation and the participating observation. It was observed that girls consider the association of having sex to sexuality and they have little comprehension of the vulnerabilities that they were exposed to in an unprotected sexual act. It was observed that the execution of the circle of culture allowed them to explore and discuss about many subjects that involved their sexuality and it was also a moment to make actions of health education with the objective to prevent them from the risks.

  20. Assessment of topical microbicides to prevent HIV-1 transmission: concepts, testing, lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, David R; Kiser, Patrick F

    2013-09-01

    The development of topically applied products capable of preventing vaginal and rectal transmission of HIV-1 has been on-going for nearly 20 years. Despite this, only one clinical trial has demonstrated protection against sexual transmission of HIV-1 in women. This review covers the development of microbicides, also referred to as topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), through three stages. The first stage focused on nonspecific agents, including surfactants such as nonoxynol-9 (N-9), to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Unfortunately, N-9 enhanced susceptibility to sexual transmission of HIV-1 when evaluated for efficacy. Soon thereafter, other nonspecific agents (polyanions) were quickly moved into large efficacy trials. Due to a lack of coordination among investigators and funders, a large investment was made in a class of compounds shown ultimately to be ineffective, although poor adherence may have contributed to these findings. The second stage involved the assessment of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir, formulated as a vaginal gel, which was found to be modestly effective in a Phase IIb trial (CAPRISA-004) when dosed in a coitally-dependent manner. In another Phase IIb trial, VOICE (MTN-003), tenofovir gel was found to be ineffective when dosed once-daily in a coitally-independent manner. Based on pharmacokinetic data, it was concluded the participants were poorly adherent to this dosing regimen, leading to a lack of efficacy. Tenofovir gel is currently in a Phase III safety and efficacy trial in South Africa (FACTS-001), using the coitally-dependent dosing regimen employed in CAPRISA-004. We are now in the third stage of microbicide research. The antiretroviral drug dapivirine is currently in two Phase III safety and efficacy studies formulated as a vaginal ring. It is hoped that the once-monthly dosing regimen will lead to higher adherence than found in the VOICE study. It is now clear that product adherence could be the greatest challenge to demonstrating

  1. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  2. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwauche, C A; Akani, C I

    2006-06-01

    A cross--sectional behavioural survey undertaken amongst migrant oil-workers of an oil exploration outfit operating in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria with the aim of assessing the interplay of migrancy, high-risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission. A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key high - risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with a control cohort of 200. The prevalence of high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) amongst the migrant oil workers was found to be 7.7% while low-risk sexual behaviour (LRSB) was 92.3%. There was no record of HRSB in the control group. We did not also encounter any lesbian sexual orientation in this study. The distribution of HRSB amongst the migrant oil workers showed that the commonest variety was bisexuality (closet homosexuality) with 10(43.5%) followed by high-risk sexual behaviour 7(30.4%), while the least common was multiplicity of sexual partners with 6 (26.1%). Furthermore, majority of these individuals 19 (82.6%) were above the age of 35 years. The index of condom-use and acceptance was high. Here 14 (60.9%) found condom-use convenient while 13 (56.5%) regularly used the condom. This study confirms the existence of HRSB among migrant oil workers in the Niger delta. It is therefore advisable to focus interventionist and prevention programmes on this group which appear to be pivotal in the transmission and spread of HIV/AIDS in this environment.

  4. Empowerment evaluation with programs designed to prevent first-time male perpetration of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Rita K; Gibbs, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This special issue captures several threads in the ongoing evolution of sexual violence prevention. The articles that follow examine an empowerment evaluation process with four promising programs dedicated to preventing first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, as well as evaluation findings. Both the evaluation approach and the programs examined shed light on how sexual violence prevention can continue to be improved in the future.

  5. “Computerized Counseling Reduces HIV-1 Viral Load and Sexual Transmission Risk: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial”

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURTH, Ann E.; SPIELBERG, Freya; CLELAND, Charles M.; LAMBDIN, Barrot; BANGSBERG, David R.; FRICK, Pamela A.; SEVERYNEN, Anneleen O.; CLAUSEN, Marc; NORMAN, Robert G.; LOCKHART, David; SIMONI, Jane M.; HOLMES, King K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate a computerized intervention supporting antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV transmission prevention. Design Longitudinal RCT. Settings An academic HIV clinic and a community-based organization in Seattle. Subjects 240 HIV-positive adults on ART; 209 completed nine-month follow-up (87% retention). Intervention Randomization to computerized counseling or assessment-only, 4 sessions over 9 months. Main Outcome Measures HIV-1 viral suppression, and self-reported ART adherence, and transmission risks, compared using generalized estimating equations. Results Overall, intervention participants had reduced viral load (VL): mean 0.17 log10 decline, versus 0.13 increase in controls, p = 0.053, and significant difference in ART adherence baseline to 9 months (p = 0.046). Their sexual transmission risk behaviors decreased (OR = 0.55, p = 0.020), a reduction not seen among controls (OR = 1.1, p = 0.664), and a significant difference in change (p = 0.040). Intervention effect was driven by those most in need: among those with detectable virus at baseline (>30 copies/milliliter, n=89), intervention effect was mean 0.60 log10 VL decline versus 0.15 increase in controls, p=0.034. ART adherence at the final follow-up was 13 points higher among intervention participants versus controls, p = 0.038. Conclusions Computerized counseling is promising for integrated ART adherence and safer sex, especially for individuals with problems in these areas. This is the first intervention to report improved ART adherence, viral suppression, and reduced secondary sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:24384803

  6. Computerized counseling reduces HIV-1 viral load and sexual transmission risk: findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Spielberg, Freya; Cleland, Charles M; Lambdin, Barrot; Bangsberg, David R; Frick, Pamela A; Severynen, Anneleen O; Clausen, Marc; Norman, Robert G; Lockhart, David; Simoni, Jane M; Holmes, King K

    2014-04-15

    Evaluate a computerized intervention supporting antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV transmission prevention. Longitudinal randomized controlled trial. An academic HIV clinic and a community-based organization in Seattle. In a total of 240 HIV-positive adults on ART, 209 completed 9-month follow-up (87% retention). Randomization to computerized counseling or assessment only, 4 sessions over 9 months. HIV-1 viral suppression, and self-reported ART adherence and transmission risks, compared using generalized estimating equations. Overall, intervention participants had reduced viral load: mean 0.17 log10 decline, versus 0.13 increase in controls, P = 0.053, and significant difference in ART adherence baseline to 9 months (P = 0.046). Their sexual transmission risk behaviors decreased (odds ratio = 0.55, P = 0.020), a reduction not seen among controls (odds ratio = 1.1, P = 0.664), and a significant difference in change (P = 0.040). Intervention effect was driven by those most in need; among those with detectable virus at baseline (>30 copies/mL, n = 89), intervention effect was mean 0.60 log10 viral load decline versus 0.15 increase in controls, P = 0.034. ART adherence at the final follow-up was 13 points higher among intervention participants versus controls, P = 0.038. Computerized counseling is promising for integrated ART adherence and safer sex, especially for individuals with problems in these areas. This is the first intervention to report improved ART adherence, viral suppression, and reduced secondary sexual transmission risk behavior.

  7. Transmission of vaccinia virus, possibly through sexual contact, to a woman at high risk for adverse complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Maria A; Haile, Charles; Palabindala, Venkataraman; Barker, Naomi; Myers, Robert; Thompson, Ruth; Wilson, Lucy; Allan-Martinez, Frances; Montgomery, Jay; Monroe, Benjamin; Tack, Danielle; Reynolds, Mary; Damon, Inger; Blythe, David

    2013-12-01

    Severe adverse events, including eczema vaccinatum (EV), can result after smallpox vaccination. Persons at risk for EV include those with underlying dermatologic conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. We investigated a case of vaccinia infection, possibly acquired during sexual contact with a recently vaccinated military service member, in a female Maryland resident with atopic dermatitis. The U.S. Department of Defense's Vaccine Healthcare Centers Network (VHCN) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) worked in conjunction with the patient's physician and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) to confirm the diagnosis, ensure treatment, and prevent further transmission. Specimens collected from the patient were tested at the DHMH laboratories and were positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction for nonvariola orthopoxvirus. Testing at the CDC verified the presence of vaccinia-specific DNA signatures. Continuing spread of the patient's lesions led to the administration of vaccinia immune globulin and strict infection control measures to prevent tertiary transmission to vulnerable family members, also with atopic dermatitis. VHCN contacted the service member to reinforce vaccination site care and hygiene. This case underscores the importance of prevaccination education for those receiving the smallpox vaccine to protect contacts at risk for developing severe adverse reactions. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Modelling sexual transmission of HIV: testing the assumptions, validating the predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Fraser, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the role of mathematical models of sexual transmission of HIV: the methods used and their impact. Recent findings We use mathematical modelling of “universal test and treat” as a case study to illustrate wider issues relevant to all modelling of sexual HIV transmission. Summary Mathematical models are used extensively in HIV epidemiology to deduce the logical conclusions arising from one or more sets of assumptions. Simple models lead to broad qualitative understanding, while complex models can encode more realistic assumptions and thus be used for predictive or operational purposes. An overreliance on model analysis where assumptions are untested and input parameters cannot be estimated should be avoided. Simple models providing bold assertions have provided compelling arguments in recent public health policy, but may not adequately reflect the uncertainty inherent in the analysis. PMID:20543600

  9. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  10. When prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission fails: preventing pretreatment drug resistance in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inzaule, Seth C.; Hamers, Raph L.; Calis, Job; Boerma, Ragna; Sigaloff, Kim; Zeh, Clement; Mugyenyi, Peter; Akanmu, Sulaimon; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2018-01-01

    : The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV.

  11. Molecular tracing of sexual HIV type 1 transmission in the southwest border of China

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, L. L.; Vidal, Nicole; Fang, H.; Deng, W.; Chen, S.; Guo, W. Z.; Qin, C.; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Andrieu, J. M.; Lu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of HIV-1 was reported in heroin users in China in 1989, HIV-1 has spread steadily among injection drug users, leading to an exponential growth of nationwide outbreaks from 1998 to 2004. However, the impact of sexual transmission on outbreaks of HIV in China's general population is still unclear. Through a governmental HIV/AIDS surveillance program, an HIV serological study was conducted in volunteers between 1996 and 2005 in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of ...

  12. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na visão de idosos de uma Estratégia da Saúde da Família Prevención de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles según la óptica de ancianos de una Estrategia de Salud Familiar Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in the point of view of elderly clients of a Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Kullmann Cezar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o conhecimento de pessoas idosas sobre as ações preventivas para as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DSTs no contexto da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, envolvendo 94 pessoas idosas, idade ≥60 anos, adstritas à ESF na Serra Gaúcha. Os resultados apontam paridade na amostra para vida sexual ativa e predominância da atividade sexual com o mesmo parceiro. As pessoas idosas têm conhecimento de como evitar as DSTs, sendo enfático o uso de preservativos. A maioria relatou que não recebeu orientações da equipe da ESF; já os idosos que receberam, os mesmos declararam que a orientação teve o enfoque no preservativo. É necessário intensificar as ações e discussões em torno da sexualidade e DSTs, visando ao envelhecimento saudável.El objetivo de este trabajo fue la evaluación de conocimiento de personas mayores con respecto a acciones de prevención para enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en el contexto de la Estrategia Salud de la familia (ESF. Se trata de un estudio transversal con 94 personas con más de 60 años asociadas a ESF, en la Sierra Gaucha (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Los resultados demuestran paridad en relación a la vida sexual activa y predominancia de la vida sexual con la misma pareja. Los ancianos tienen conocimiento sobre las formas de evitar las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles y son enfáticos sobre el uso de preservativos. La mayoría relató que no recibió orientación del equipo de ESF; los que recibieron dijeron que las orientaciones tuvieron enfoque en el uso del preservativo. Es necesario intensificar las acciones y discusiones sobre la sexualidad y enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles pensando en la vejez saludable.The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of elderly people on preventive actions to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in the context of the Family Health Strategy (FHS. This is a cross

  13. An Ounce of Knowledge = a Pound of Deterrence: Preventing Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A "boilerplate" sexual harassment policy embedded in the district policy manual is insufficient. Schools need a comprehensive sexual harassment prevention program addressing authority, accountability, responsibility, and training. Since the vast majority of sexual harassment in schools is student-to-student, training efforts should not be limited…

  14. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  15. Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child in sub-Saharan Africa: modes of transmission and methods for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santmyire, B R

    2001-05-01

    The impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa on future mortality rates of infants, children, and mothers, life expectancy, and economic growth is profound. Vertical transmission of HIV, transmission from mother to child, is a major factor in the increasing rates of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Vertical transmission of HIV occurs in utero, intrapartum during labor and delivery, and postpartum during breast-feeding. Because of the large numbers of HIV-infected mothers in developing countries, the majority trials regarding prevention of vertical transmission of HIV have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, sub-Saharan Africa has become a human laboratory, which demonstrates both the successes and failures of preventative methods to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. This review summarizes the body of research dedicated to understanding the pathophysiology of vertical transmission of HIV and pharmacology of inhibition of vertical transmission of HIV. While many debate the ethics of conducting trials in developing countries where effective prevention modalities have been slow to be implemented for economic, social and political reasons, studies continue and researchers continue to discover therapies and preventative methods, which may reduce the future devastation of HIV both in sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the world.

  16. The combination of phylogenetic analysis with epidemiological and serological data to track HIV-1 transmission in a sexual transmission case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the linkage of HIV transmission from a man to a woman through unprotected sexual contact without disclosing his HIV-positive status.Combined with epidemiological information and serological tests, phylogenetic analysis was used to test the a priori hypothesis of HIV transmission from the man to the woman. Control subjects, infected with HIV through heterosexual intercourse, from the same location were also sampled. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the consensus gag, pol and env sequences obtained from blood samples of the man, the woman and the local control subjects. The env quasispecies of the man, the woman, and two controls were also obtained using single genome amplification and sequencing (SGA/S to explore the paraphyletic relationship by phylogenetic analysis.Epidemiological information and serological tests indicated that the man was infected with HIV-1 earlier than the woman. Phylogenetic analyses of the consensus sequences showed a monophyletic cluster for the man and woman in all three genomic regions. Furthermore, gag sequences of the man and woman shared a unique recombination pattern from subtype B and C, which was different from those of CRF07_BC or CRF08_BC observed in the local samples. These indicated that the viral sequences from the two subjects display a high level of similarity. Further, viral quasispecies from the man exhibited a paraphyletic relationship with those from the woman in the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML phylogenetic trees of the env region, which supported the transmission direction from the man to the woman.In the context of epidemiological and serological evidence, the results of phylogenetic analyses support the transmission from the man to the woman.

  17. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections for HIV prevention: end of the road or new beginning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized

  18. The question of the legal basis of prevention of sexual violence in the republic of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Kalguzhinova A.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the sources of legal regulation of sexual violence prevention as a kind of domestic violence. Analyzed the legal provisions regulating the concept, types, measures of prevention of domestic violence, the activities of the competent authorities.

  19. HIV-transmission knowledge, five-factor personality traits and psychopathy as determinants of risky sexual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kardum, Igor; Krapić, Nada

    2008-01-01

    On a sample of 203 males and 219 females the effects of HIV-transmission knowledge, five-factor personality traits and three components of psychopathy (antisocial behavior, interpersonal manipulation and impulsive thrill seeking) on overall risky sexual behaviors as well as risky sexual behaviors during previous month were explored by using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. The main hypothesis tested in this research is that psychopathy is an important predictor of risky sexual be...

  20. Sexual Partnership Patterns in Malawi: Implications for HIV/STI Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kimberly A.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Ghani, Azra C.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Price, Matthew A.; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Chilongozi, David A.; Martinson, Francis E. A.; Cohen, Myron S.; Miller, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Concurrent sexual partnerships are believed to play an important role in HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, but the contributions of concurrency to HIV and STI spread depend on the details of infectious periods and relationship patterns. To contribute to the understanding of sexual partnership patterns in this region, we estimated partnership lengths, temporal gaps between partners, and periods of overlap across partners at an STI clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods Participants underwent physical examinations and HIV tests, and responded to questionnaires about demographics and risk behaviors, including detailed questions about a maximum of 3 sexual partners in the previous 2 months. We calculated partnership length as the time between the first and most recent sexual contact with a partner, and gap length as the time between the most recent contact with one partner and the first contact with the next. We defined concurrent and consecutive partnerships as gap length≤0 days and gap length>0 days, respectively. Results The study population (n=183) had a mean partnership length of 858 days (median=176 days). Eighty-six percent reported 0 or 1 partner, 5% reported multiple consecutive partnerships, and 9% reported concurrency. Gaps between consecutive partnerships were short (mean=21 days), and overlaps across concurrent partners tended to be long (mean=246 days). Conclusions Multiple sexual partnerships were uncommon, and partnerships were long on average. Among those reporting multiple recent partners, both long-term concurrency and narrowly spaced consecutive partnerships could present substantial risk for efficient transmission of HIV and classical STIs. PMID:21301383

  1. Sex, condoms, gender roles, and HIV transmission knowledge among adolescents in León, Nicaragua: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R

    2007-09-01

    There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.

  2. Conceptualizing the Engaging Bystander Approach to Sexual Violence Prevention on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…

  3. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  5. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  6. [Sex education and prevention of sexual violence : Contributions to a differential-sensitive prevention of sexualised violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazlawik, Martin; Christmann, Bernd; Dekker, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Prevention of sexual violence against children and adolescents obtains high priority in educational contexts. This is due to the massive (possible) psychosocial impacts of sexual victimization as well as to the considerable prevalence rates that are reported in current studies. Preventive approaches are predominantly native to violence prevention and sex education where they are characterized by independent lines of tradition and positions. This contribution outlines their empirically largely unexplained relation with a focus on the history and development of the discourses of sex education. Diverging disciplinary attempts of positioning towards the prevention of sexual violence reveal an area of conflict between sex-positive and preventive educational objectives. A primacy of preventive contents is seen to be threatening a comprehensive sex education that emphasizes the positive aspects of sexuality. On the other hand, its standards are opposed to excluding and to tabooing sexual violence as a topic. Yet unfinished is therefore the search for a "third way" that might transfer the opposites of both approaches into integrative educational concepts. Unsettled questions about possible contributions of sex education to the prevention of sexual violence, and especially to which extent they are sensitive to difference are discussed based on international research and the theory of sex education.

  7. Abordagem nas doenças sexualmente transmissíveis Approach in sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis estão entre os problemas de saúde pública mais comuns em todo o mundo. Entre suas consequências estão a infertilidade feminina e masculina, a transmissão de mãe para filho, determinando perdas gestacionais ou doença congênita, e o aumento do risco para a infecção pelo HIV. Dessa forma, este guideline tem o objetivo de contribuir para melhorar a qualidade de atenção às pessoas com infecções sexualmente transmissíveis mais frequentes no Brasil, trazendo de forma didática e concreta o estado atual dos conhecimentos para os dermatologistas e médicos em geral que atuam no atendimento dessas pessoas e as principais recomendações para o diagnóstico e tratamento das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis mais recorrentes.Nowadays, sexually transmitted diseases are one of the most common public health issues. Among its consequences are the possibility of transmission from mother to baby - which may cause miscarriages and congenital disease, male and female infertility, and the increase of HIV infection risk. Therefore, the main goal of these guidelines is to contribute to the improvement of the treatment for sexually transmitted diseases patients by presenting to the medical community how today's science stands on the matter and also what the recommendation for diagnosing and treating a patient are.

  8. Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

    2014-11-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.

  9. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  10. Sexual transmission of a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, between conspecific insect vectors during mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder S Mann

    Full Text Available Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting, gram-negative bacterium transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB, one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of citrus. We investigated whether Las is transmitted between infected and uninfected D. citri adults during courtship. Our results indicate that Las was sexually transmitted from Las-infected male D. citri to uninfected females at a low rate (<4% during mating. Sexual transmission was not observed following mating of infected females and uninfected males or among adult pairs of the same sex. Las was detected in genitalia of both sexes and also in eggs of infected females. A latent period of 7 days or more was required to detect the bacterium in recipient females. Rod shaped as well as spherical structures resembling Las were observed in ovaries of Las-infected females with transmission electron microscopy, but were absent in ovaries from uninfected D. citri females. The size of the rod shaped structures varied from 0.39 to 0.67 µm in length and 0.19 to 0.39 µm in width. The spherical structures measured from 0.61 to 0.80 µm in diameter. This investigation provides convincing evidence that a plant pathogenic bacterium is sexually transmitted from male to female insects during courtship and established evidence that bacteria persist in reproductive organs. Moreover, these findings provide an alternative sexually horizontal mechanism for the spread of Las within populations of D. citri, even in the absence of infected host trees.

  11. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  12. The Western Danish Center for Prevention, Treatment and Research of Sexual Assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann-Hansen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims...... as the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to sexual assault. Multidisciplinary centers as WDSAC may be the strategy for preventing the serious disability of the posttraumatic stress disorder following sexual assault....

  13. Sex-specific allelic transmission bias suggests sexual conflict at MC1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret, Valérie; Gaigher, Arnaud; Simon, Céline; Goudet, Jérôme; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Sexual conflict arises when selection in one sex causes the displacement of the other sex from its phenotypic optimum, leading to an inevitable tension within the genome - called intralocus sexual conflict. Although the autosomal melanocortin-1-receptor gene (MC1R) can generate colour variation in sexually dichromatic species, most previous studies have not considered the possibility that MC1R may be subject to sexual conflict. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), the allele MC1RWHITE is associated with whitish plumage coloration, typical of males, and the allele MC1RRUFOUS is associated with dark rufous coloration, typical of females, although each sex can express any phenotype. Because each colour variant is adapted to specific environmental conditions, the allele MC1RWHITE may be more strongly selected in males and the allele MC1RRUFOUS in females. We therefore investigated whether MC1R genotypes are in excess or deficit in male and female fledglings compared with the expected Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Our results show an overall deficit of 7.5% in the proportion of heterozygotes in males and of 12.9% in females. In males, interannual variation in assortative pairing with respect to MC1R explained the year-specific deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, whereas in females, the deficit was better explained by the interannual variation in the probability of inheriting the MC1RWHITE or MC1RRUFOUS allele. Additionally, we observed that sons inherit the MC1RRUFOUS allele from their fathers on average slightly less often than expected under the first Mendelian law. Transmission ratio distortion may be adaptive in this sexually dichromatic species if males and females are, respectively, selected to display white and rufous plumages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sexual Risk Taking: For Better or Worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…

  15. Commercial Sexual Behaviors Among Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Western China: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwei; Jiang, Junjun; Su, Jinming; Liang, Bingyu; Deng, Wei; Huang, Jiegang; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Zang, Ning; Liao, Yanyan; Meng, Sirun; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Rural-to-urban migrants are at high risk of HIV infection. The goal of this survey was to explore the commercial sexual behavior and condom use among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. A cross-sectional survey on male rural-to-urban migrants in western China was conducted. Among all the subjects surveyed, 140 (7.4%) had commercial sexual behavior, which is associated with being aged older than 24 years, being of Han or other ethnic minorities, being divorced, separated, or widowed, having experienced drug abuse, having had heterosexual behavior, having had casual sexual partners, having had sex with a homosexual, and being from Xinjiang. A total of 31.4% of them never use condoms when buying sex. Not using condoms is associated with being from Chongqing, having a high school or above education, and having commercial sex monthly. Commercial sexual behavior and not using condoms are common among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Strategies and appropriate education should be developed to prevent HIV transmission due to high-risk sexual behaviors.

  16. Role of Religion in Preventing Youth Sexual Activity in Malaysia: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani

    2017-12-01

    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.

  17. Sexual Abuse Prevention Mobile Application (SAP_MobAPP) for Primary School Children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung Ja; Park, Kyung Min; Sung, Yunsick

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the effects of a sexual abuse prevention mobile application, SAP_MobAPP, for primary school children. Forty-five subjects were trained for 40 minutes once a week. The experimental group received education that utilized the SAP_MobAPP. Control group A received Web based sexual abuse prevention education, while control group B received textbook based sexual abuse prevention education. Effectiveness was verified through a survey on child sexual abuse recognition and avoidance skills administered before and after training. The SAP_MobAPP program improved recognition (awareness) and the child's skills to avoid child sexual abuse situations, and the effects were long-lasting. However, differences between groups were not statistically significant. This study developed a sexual abuse prevention application and verified its effectiveness. Awareness and skills to avoid child sexual abuse after app education increased immediately after training and four weeks later. The SAP_MobAPP could be used for sexual abuse prevention education in schools.

  18. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: the Georgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Kakabadze, Tea; Shermadini, Ketevan; Abutidze, Akaki; Karchava, Marika; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Badridze, Nino; Bokhua, Zaza; Asatiani, Tengiz

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to review experience in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in Georgia. PMTCT is one of the strategic priorities in Georgia. The first case of HIV infection in pregnant women was reported in 1999. Starting 2005 the National Programme on PMTCT became operational. One hundred sixteen HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centers operate throughout the country at antenatal clinics. According to the National PMTCT protocol, all first time attending pregnant women are offered Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT). Testing on HIV/AIDS is based on identification of HIV antibodies by screening method and all positive results are referred to the Infectious Diseases, AIDS and Clinical Immunology Research Center (IDACIRC) for the further investigation (confirmation by Western Blot assay) and further management. Data collection was made retrospectively, using information from IDACIRC National HIV/AIDS Data Base, VRF for the period 1999-2007. Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women availing VCT services in 2006 was 0.03%. As of December, 2007 total 69 pregnancies of 64 women were registered at the IDACIRC. Fifty eight women (90.6%) acquired infection through heterosexual contact. None of the HIV positive women reported intravenous injection of illicit drugs. The majority of the HIV infected pregnant women had one sexual partner (90.6%). Of children delivered by 51 positive partners 41(80%) were infected through injecting drugs intravenously and 10 (20%) persons through heterosexual contacts. Throughout the period 1999-2007 14 pregnant women received PMTCT services only partially. In 2 cases children were HIV-infected. In 12 pregnancies women received AZT in about the 28th week of pregnancy. No case of HIV transmission to child was recorded in this group. In 32 cases pregnant women received full prophylaxis therapy and all children were negative for HIV infection. Among 6 pregnant women admitted at IDACIRC later than

  19. Nurturing the Continuum of HIV Testing, Treatment and Prevention Matrix Cascade in Reducing HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S

    2017-11-01

    Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm 3 , HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may significantly reduce HIV and related illnesses. The author assumes that all HIV infected partners should be eligible for HIV treatment and care, irrespective of CD4 count. A second assumption is that high risk HIV negative partners have free access to continuum of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and other prevention packages. A literature review search was used to extract evidence-based ARVs-HIV treatment and prevention interventions among HIV positives and high risk partners respectively. Only articles published in English and indexed in journal nuclei were used for the study. The information was used to nurture understanding of HIV treatment and prevention approaches as well as HIV incidence multiplier effect among HIV serodiscordant partners. The imputed HIV incident reference was assumed at 1.2 per 100 person-years (2). This was based on the imputation that retention in care, adherence and other predetermined factors are functions of an effective health care delivery system. The model showed a reduced HIV transmission from 1.2 per 100 person-years to 1.032 per 100 person-years in 6 months. The average threshold period of HIV suppressed partners on ARVs to an undetectable level. The combined multiplier protective-effect probability of transmitting HIV from HIV positive partners on ARVs-suppressed viremic load to HIV negative partners on PrEP/PEP-prevention was detected at 86. The model showed a significant reduction in HIV incidence. Placing serodiscordant sexual partners in HIV treatment and prevention plays a significant role in reducing and controlling HIV infection. Therefore, the policy of enrolling all HIV positives

  20. 2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assault Prevention and Response-Related Responders (QSAPR). Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    and fewer indicated they serve DoD or Service contractors (6%) and/or military dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted by...Prevention and Response-Related Responders 19 | DMDC contractors and 13% have had military dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted...dependents under 18 years of age who were sexually assaulted by someone other than a parent or caregiver (e.g., another child, neighbor, coach, etc.; 3

  1. Concurrent sexual partnerships among married Zimbabweans – implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugweni E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Esther Mugweni,1 Stephen Pearson,2 Mayeh Omar2 1UCL Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, 2The Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Background: Concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role in sustaining the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. Married couples are at an increased risk of contracting HIV from sexual networks produced by concurrent sexual partnerships. Addressing these partnerships is an international HIV prevention priority. Methods: Our qualitative study presents the socioeconomic factors that contribute to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships among married people in Zimbabwe. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008 to understand the organizations of concurrent sexual partnerships. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results: Our study indicates that relationship dissatisfaction played a key role in the engagement of concurrent sexual partnerships. Depending on the source of the dissatisfaction, there were four possible types of concurrent sexual relationships that were formed: sex worker, casual partner, regular girlfriend or informal polygyny which was referred to as “small house”. These relationships had different levels of intimacy, which had a bearing on practicing safer sex. Participants described three characteristics of hegemonic masculinity that contributed to the sources of dissatisfaction leading to concurrent sexual activity. Similarly, various aspects of emphasized femininity were described as creating opportunities for the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. Economic status was also listed as a factor that contributed to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships. Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction was indicated as a contributing factor to the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. There were several

  2. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  3. Predictors of risky sexual behavior in African American adolescent girls: implications for prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K

    2002-09-01

    To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.

  4. Sexual Harassment Preventive/Protective Practices at U.S. Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Charles J.; Guziewicz, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey concerning thirteen recommended sexual harassment preventive/protective practices at U.S. colleges and universities. A majority of responding institutions had formal sexual harassment policies, offered counseling to student victims, and investigated all complaints. Relatively fewer schools provided student access to faculty…

  5. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  6. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  7. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  8. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  9. Predictors of sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study design was used to assess sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices among students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia, in 2009. Among 1 220 students eligible for the study, approximately 29% reported experience of sex (36.3% of the males and 9.3% of the females). Of the total sexually ...

  10. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  11. Preventing perinatal HIV transmission - nowisthe time to act!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been met with denial, procrastination and bungling. From a public health point of view this has been a disaster. Will we again miss the chance to act decisively when it comes to perinatal transmission? For African scientists to try to politicise criticism of placebo trials as intervention from the. West is wrong. Rather, they must ...

  12. how acceptable are the prevention of mother to child transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TRANSMISSION (PMTCT) OF HIV SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN A. SECONDARY HEALTH FACILITY IN ... of HIV were during pregnancy (86.0%) and from breastfeeding (86.0%). More than 80% knew that having good ..... The Role of HIV related stigma in utilisation of skilled childbirth services in rural ...

  13. Child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe: prevention strategies for social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and economic divides. Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long consequences and is a serious problem on individuals, families and societies. Social workers by nature of their work, intervene at the individual, family and societal level. This paper will explore the ...

  14. 2017 European guideline for the screening, prevention and initial management of hepatitis B and C infections in sexual health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Gary; Brockmeyer, Norbert; van de Laar, Thijs; Schellberg, Sven; Winter, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    This guideline updates the 2010 European guideline for the management of hepatitis B and C virus infections. It is primarily intended to provide advice on testing, prevention and initial management of viral hepatitis B and C for clinicians working in sexual health clinical settings in European countries. The guideline is in a new question and answer format based on clinical situations, from which population/intervention/comparison/outcome questions were formulated. Updates cover areas such as epidemiology, point-of-care tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C risk and 'chemsex', and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and hepatitis B. We have also included a short paragraph on hepatitis E noting there is no evidence for sexual transmission. The guideline has been prepared in accordance with the Europe protocol for production available at http://www.iusti.org/regions/europe/pdf/2017/ProtocolForProduction2017.pdf.

  15. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  16. Preventing School Employee Sexual Misconduct: An Outcome Survey Analysis of Making Right Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Glenn; Grant, Billie-Jo; Mueller, Jessica; Sonnich, Steve

    2018-05-30

    This treatment-only study examines the impact of Making Right Choices, an online course prevention program designed to promote the knowledge, awareness, and prevention of school employee sexual misconduct. The sample included 13,007 school employee participants who took the Making Right Choices course between May 6, 2011, and March 12, 2017, in California and New York. The 20-item measure, Preventing Misconduct Assessment, was administered to participants at the end of the online course; completion of the measure was voluntary. Descriptive statistics revealed that a large majority of participants reported increasing their knowledge and awareness of school employee sexual misconduct because of their participation in the Making Right Choices online course. This study yields important findings regarding the impact of a sexual misconduct prevention program and, specifically, the difference it may make for non-licensed school employees. These findings indicate that school employees are accepting of sexual misconduct training programs and rate them as having value.

  17. Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission: Predictors of Utilization & Future Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Martz, Tyler Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of highly efficacious antiretroviral drug regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), transmission rates remain higher than those achieved in clinical trials. Access to these efficacious drug regimens continues to expand rapidly in countries most affected by HIV. Such expansion is an important first step in dramatically reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission rates. However, beyond access to drug regimens, programs must also identify and...

  18. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boveé, Lian; Whelan, Jane; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; van Dam, Alje P.; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school

  19. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV guidelines: Nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV guidelines: Nurses' views at four primary ... lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count. ... Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

  20. Sexual risk reduction for HIV-infected persons: a meta-analytic review of "positive prevention" randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lu; Wang, Na; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Prevention intervention trials have been conducted to reduce risk of sexual transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but the findings were inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate overall efficacy of prevention interventions on unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse (UVAI) among PLWHA from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RCTs of prevention interventions among PLWHA published as of February 2012 were identified by systematically searching thirteen electronic databases. The primary outcome was UVAI. The difference of standardized mean difference (SMD) of UVAI between study arms, defined as effect size (ES), was calculated for each study and then pooled across studies using standard meta-analysis with a random effects model. Lower likelihood of UVAI was observed in the intervention arms compared with the control arms either with any sexual partners (mean ES: -0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32, -0.11) or with HIV-negative or unknown-status sexual partners (mean ES and 95% CI: -0.13 [-0.22, -0.04]). Short-term efficacy of interventions with ≤ 10 months of follow up was significant in reducing UVAI (1-5 months: -0.27 [-0.45, -0.10]; 6-10 months: -0.18 [-0.30, -0.07]), while long-term efficacy of interventions was weaker and might have been due to chance (11-15 months: -0.13 [-0.34, 0.08]; >15 months: -0.05 [-0.43, 0.32]). Our meta-analyses confirmed the short-term impact of prevention interventions on reducing self-reported UVAI among PLWHA irrespective of the type of sexual partner, but did not support a definite conclusion on long-term effect. It is suggested that booster intervention sessions are needed to maintain a sustainable reduction of unprotected sex among PLWHA in future risk reduction programs.

  1. Recombinant IgA Is Sufficient To Prevent Influenza Virus Transmission in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Christopher W.; Rahmat, Saad; Krause, Jens C.; Eggink, Dirk; Albrecht, Randy A.; Goff, Peter H.; Krammer, Florian; Duty, J. Andrew; Bouvier, Nicole M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    A serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer of 40 or greater is thought to be associated with reduced influenza virus pathogenesis in humans and is often used as a correlate of protection in influenza vaccine studies. We have previously demonstrated that intramuscular vaccination of guinea pigs with inactivated influenza virus generates HAI titers greater than 300 but does not protect vaccinated animals from becoming infected with influenza virus by transmission from an infected cage mate. Only guinea pigs intranasally inoculated with a live influenza virus or a live attenuated virus vaccine, prior to challenge, were protected from transmission (A. C. Lowen et al., J. Virol. 83:2803–2818, 2009.). Because the serum HAI titer is mostly determined by IgG content, these results led us to speculate that prevention of viral transmission may require IgA antibodies or cellular immune responses. To evaluate this hypothesis, guinea pigs and ferrets were administered a potent, neutralizing mouse IgG monoclonal antibody, 30D1 (Ms 30D1 IgG), against the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) virus hemagglutinin and exposed to respiratory droplets from animals infected with this virus. Even though HAI titers were greater than 160 1 day postadministration, Ms 30D1 IgG did not prevent airborne transmission to passively immunized recipient animals. In contrast, intramuscular administration of recombinant 30D1 IgA (Ms 30D1 IgA) prevented transmission to 88% of recipient guinea pigs, and Ms 30D1 IgA was detected in animal nasal washes. Ms 30D1 IgG administered intranasally also prevented transmission, suggesting the importance of mucosal immunity in preventing influenza virus transmission. Collectively, our data indicate that IgG antibodies may prevent pathogenesis associated with influenza virus infection but do not protect from virus infection by airborne transmission, while IgA antibodies are more important for preventing transmission of influenza viruses. PMID:23698296

  2. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM), and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heternormative culture, and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. 79 MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger st...

  3. The costs and benefits of Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalappa, Chaitra; Stover, John; Shaffer, Nathan; Mahy, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Most countries follow WHO 2010 guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV using either Option A or B for women not yet eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both of these approaches involve the use of antiretrovirals during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Some countries have adopted a new strategy, Option B+, in which HIV-positive pregnant women are started immediately on ART and continued for life. Option B+ is more costly than Options A or B, but provides additional health benefits. In this article, we estimate the additional costs and effectiveness of Option B+. We developed a deterministic model to simulate births, breastfeeding, and HIV infection in women in four countries, Kenya, Zambia, South Africa, and Vietnam that differ in fertility rate, birth interval, age at first birth, and breastfeeding patterns, but have similar age at HIV infection. We estimated the total PMTCT costs and new child infections under Options A, B, and B+, and measured cost-effectiveness as the incremental PMTCT-related costs per child infection averted. We included adult sexual transmissions averted from ART, the corresponding costs saved, and estimated the total incremental cost per transmission (child and adult) averted. When considering PMTCT-related costs and child infections, Option B+ was the most cost-effective strategy costing between $6000 and $23 000 per infection averted compared with Option A. Option B+ averted more child infections compared with Option B in all four countries and cost less than Option B in Kenya and Zambia. When including adult sexual transmissions averted, Option B+ cost less and averted more infections than Options A and B.

  4. Leukodepletion Filters for Prevention of Transfusion Transmission Of Leishmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    living in an area of endemicity in southern France. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37(6):1953-1957 18 Hillyer CD, Emmens RK, Zago -Novaretti M , Berkman EM...Kostmann R, Barr M , Bengtsson E, Garnham PCC, Hult G: Kala-azar transferred by exchange blood transfusions in two Swedish infants. Proceedings of the...Dabadie A, Guiguen C, Roussey M : Visceral leishmaniasis in an infant in Brittany: Discussion on the modes of transmission outside of the endemic

  5. A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K; Massetti, Greta M; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003).

  6. A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003). PMID:29606897

  7. Shifting the paradigm in Oregon from teen pregnancy prevention to youth sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.

  8. Gender differences in heterosexual college students' conceptualizations and indicators of sexual consent: implications for contemporary sexual assault prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.

  9. Engineering a segmented dual-reservoir polyurethane intravaginal ring for simultaneous prevention of HIV transmission and unwanted pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T Clark

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic and its impact on women prompt the investigation of prevention strategies to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV. Long-acting drug delivery systems that simultaneously protect womenfrom sexual transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancy could be important tools in combating the pandemic. We describe the design, in silico, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dual-reservoir intravaginal ring that delivers the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir and the contraceptive levonorgestrel for 90 days. Two polyether urethanes with two different hard segment volume fractions were used to make coaxial extruded reservoir segments with a 100 µm thick rate controlling membrane and a diameter of 5.5 mm that contain 1.3 wt% levonorgestrel. A new mechanistic diffusion model accurately described the levonorgestrel burst release in early time points and pseudo-steady state behavior at later time points. As previously described, tenofovir was formulated as a glycerol paste and filled into a hydrophilic polyurethane, hollow tube reservoir that was melt-sealed by induction welding. These tenofovir-eluting segments and 2 cm long coaxially extruded levonorgestrel eluting segments were joined by induction welding to form rings that released an average of 7.5 mg tenofovir and 21 µg levonorgestrel per day in vitro for 90 days. Levonorgestrel segments placed intravaginally in rabbits resulted in sustained, dose-dependent levels of levonorgestrel in plasma and cervical tissue for 90 days. Polyurethane caps placed between segments successfully prevented diffusion of levonorgestrel into the tenofovir-releasing segment during storage.Hydrated rings endured between 152 N and 354 N tensile load before failure during uniaxial extension testing. In summary, this system represents a significant advance in vaginal drug delivery technology, and is the first in a new class of long-acting multipurpose prevention drug delivery systems.

  10. Policies and protocols for preventing transmission of HIV infection in oral health care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Rudolph, M J

    2002-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitutes an unparalleled public health challenge. The unique nature of most oral health procedures, instrumentation and patient-care settings requires specific strategies and protocols aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV/AIDS between oral health care providers and patients, as well as between patients themselves. The present study investigated the level of information and training about protocols and policies for preventing the transmission of HIV/AIDS in oral health care settings in South Africa. The data collection techniques utilised available information, in-depth interviews and an open-ended questionnaire. The respondents were 20 purposively selected key informants who were senior officers for HIV/AIDS programmes and/or oral health organisations. Sixteen (80%) of the respondents reported that there were no existing oral health policies on HIV/AIDS in their health care institutions or organisations. None of the interviewees knew of any specific protocols on HIV/AIDS in the oral health care setting that emanated from South Africa. In addition, none of the dental professional associations had established an infection control committee or a support system for members who might become infected with HIV and develop AIDS. Territorial boundaries existed between sectors within the medical disciplines, as well as between the medical and oral health disciplines. Numerous general impediments were identified, such as prejudice, denial and fear, inadequate training and/or information about the infection, lack of representation and resources for policy planning, a lack of interest from the business sector, and approaching HIV/AIDS in the workplace as a 'one-time issue' Other obstacles identified included unemployment, poverty, illiteracy, disempowerment of women and inadequate communication of policies to service providers. Additional issues raised included the migrant labour systeM, complexities of language and culture

  11. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and

  12. The Moral Imperative to Prevent Sexual Harassment on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Frank H. T.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses sexual harassment on college campuses. Focuses on harassing behavior that stems from power relationships and harassing behavior among peers. Describes how Cornell University is addressing these problems. (ABL)

  13. prevention decreased sexual risk behaviour after the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-01

    Dec 1, 2006 ... After ethics approval was sought from the Human Research and Ethics Committee of ... It is essential to assess the effects on sexual risk behaviour. Design and setting. .... infectious, which is the correct scientific response. One.

  14. Relações afetivo-sexuais e prevenção contra infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e aids entre mulheres do município de Vitória - ES Rrelaciones afectivo-sexuales y prevención contra infecciones sexualmente transmisibles y sida entre mujeres del municipio de Vitoria-ES Sexual relationships and infections sexually transmitted and aids prevention among women in Vitória-ES, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Mattos Amorim; Ângela Nobre de Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Objetivou-se conhecer como mulheres vivenciam a prevenção de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) e aids em suas relações afetivo-sexuais. Foram realizados dois grupos de discussão e 12 entrevistas individuais com mulheres na faixa etária de 20 a 35 anos. Um grupo foi composto por cinco participantes com ensino fundamental ou médio (Grupo1) e o outro, por sete participantes com ensino superior completo ou incompleto (Grupo2). Apenas três participantes faziam uso consistente do preservat...

  15. Associations Between Fathers' and Sons' Sexual Risk in Rural Kenya: The Potential for Intergenerational Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Ali M; Green, Eric P; Puffer, Eve S

    2017-08-01

    Despite high rates of HIV in areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and men's role in driving the epidemic, little is known about whether or how sexual risk-both behaviors and beliefs-may be passed down through generations of males. This study examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and sex-related beliefs of adolescent males and those of their male caregivers in Kenya, as well as the potential moderating effects of parenting characteristics and father-son relationship quality. Cross-sectional linear regression analysis was applied to baseline data from a trial of a family- and church-based intervention for families in rural Kenya that followed a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design. Our subsample consisted of 79 male caregiver and son (aged 10-16 years) dyads. Results demonstrated a direct relationship between fathers' and sons' sex-related beliefs that was not moderated by parenting or quality of father-son relationship. Parenting/relationship characteristics did moderate the relationship between fathers' and sons' sexual behavior; if fathers did not engage in high-risk sex and exhibited more positive parenting/higher relationship quality, their sons were less likely to be sexually active. Among fathers having high-risk sex, parenting was unrelated to sons' behavior except at very high levels of positive parenting/relationship quality; at these levels, sons were actually more likely to have had sex. Findings support recommendations to include male caregivers in youth HIV prevention efforts, potentially by targeting fathers' parenting strategies and their individual risk. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of sexually transmissible infections in the era of multiplexed molecular diagnostics: a primary care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Kedem, Ron; Ophir, Nimrod; Shental, Omri; Keller, Nathan; Amit, Sharon

    2018-04-30

    Background: Data regarding sexually transmissible infections (STI) often originate from STI clinics, screening programs or laboratory-based studies, thus are biased for specific risk groups or lack clinical details. This real-life observational study presents sample data of most young adult Israeli population by exploiting the centralised diagnostic and documentation platforms resulting from a mandatory military service at the age of 18 years for both genders. Methods: All STI diagnoses of Israeli Defence Forces soldiers during a 6-month period were reviewed. Patients with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) (major-STI) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) (equivocal STI) were compared with STI-negative controls. Results: Sexually transmissible infection positivity rates (n=2816) were as follows: CT 6.6%; MG 1.9%; NG 0.7%; TV 0.5%; UU 15.7%; UP 28.2%; and MH 6.2%. The CT+MG coinfection rate was 4.1%, yet CT+NG coinfections were rare (≈0.5%). More than half of the patients with ureaplasmas and/or MH were treated; 40% of them were recommended partner treatment. Most antibiotics were prescribed to patients with equivocal infections. Classic STI symptoms in males were linked to major-STI and UU, while females were asymptomatic or presented non-specific symptoms. Conclusions: The judicious use of antibiotics in the era of antimicrobial resistance necessitates re-evaluating the significance of equivocal pathogen detection and reporting (MH, UU, UP). Likewise, universal empiric treatment for NG should be reconsidered in light of its low rates in non-high-risk groups. Conversely, a high MG rate, a pathogen with potential resistance to common STI protocols, requires evaluation of guidelines adequacy.

  17. Novel approaches to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion among Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2014-08-01

    The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission.

  18. Effects of a brief pilot sexual harassment prevention workshop on employees' knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Cody; Kramer, Alaina; Woolman, Kendra; Staecker, Emma; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol

    2013-10-01

    Administrators from three workplaces were interested in conducting evidence-based sexual harassment prevention training for their employees, but they could devote little time during the workday to the training. A pilot program to evaluate the use of a 1-hour workshop that followed best practice recommendations and adult learning principles using job-related scenarios was designed. Participants' overall sexual harassment prevention knowledge scores significantly increased from before to after the workshop and were significantly higher after the workshop than those of a control group. The majority of participants also perceived that their workplaces were committed to employees understanding the sexual harassment policy, and that the workplace would seriously investigate claims and take corrective action. Even a brief workshop covering essential content using adult learning principles can be effective in sexual harassment prevention knowledge acquisition. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children. Interim final rule (IFR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-24

    This IFR proposes standards and procedures to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children (UCs) in ORR's care provider facilities. DATES: This IFR is effective on December 24, 2014. ORR care provider facilities must be in compliance with this IFR by June 24, 2015 but encourages care provider facilities to be in compliance sooner, if possible. HHS will work with facilities to implement and enforce the standards contained in this rule. Comments on this IFR must be received on or before February 23, 2015.

  20. Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massougbodji Achille

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp. IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during pregnancy – regardless of whether the woman is infected or not. The drug is administered under supervision during antenatal care visits. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is the drug currently recommended by the WHO. While SP-IPTp seems an adequate strategy, there are many issues still to be explored to optimize it. This paper reviewed data on IPTp efficacy and discussed how to improve it. In particular, the determination of both the optimal number of doses and time of administration of the drug is essential, and this has not yet been done. As both foetal growth and deleterious effects of malaria are maximum in late pregnancy women should particularly be protected during this period. Monitoring of IPTp efficacy should be applied to all women, and not only to primi- and secondigravidae, as it has not been definitively established that multigravidae are not at risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. In HIV-positive women, there is an urgent need for specific information on drug administration patterns (need for higher doses, possible interference with sulpha-based prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. Because of the growing level of resistance of parasites to SP, alternative drugs for IPTp are urgently needed. Mefloquine is presently one of the most attractive options because of its long half life, high efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa and safety during pregnancy. Also, efforts should be made to increase IPTp coverage by improving the practices of health care workers, the motivation of women and their perception of malaria complications in pregnancy. Because IPTp

  1. Vaccine preventable viral diseases and risks associated with waterborne transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Maria Ruggeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.

  2. Linearity and Nonlinearity in HIV/STI Transmission: Implications for the Evaluation of Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Chesson, Harrell W.; Crosby, Richard A.; Layde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission was used to examine how linearity or nonlinearity in the relationship between the number of unprotected sex acts (or the number of sex partners) and the risk of acquiring HIV or a highly infectious STI (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia) affects the utility of sexual…

  3. [Adolescent tuberculosis; a challenge and opportunity to prevent community transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, Adriana; Simó, Sílvia; Rozas, Librada; Deyà-Martínez, Àngela; Barrabeig, Irene; Gené, Amadéu; Fortuny, Clàudia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents may present with adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including cavity disease in upper lobes and smear-positive sputum, which involves a significant transmission risk for social and family contacts. A retrospective (2007-2012) observational study of a case series of TB was conducted in children and adolescents (12 years at diagnosis are compared. The series consisted of 124 patients (56.5% males, median age: 4.0 years). In half of the cases, the patient was of immigrant origina and TB was diagnosed after clinical-radiological suspicion, intra-thoracic disease being the most common (91.9%). Cultures yielded positive results in one third of cases (37.9%) and isolates were sensitive to oral first-line anti-TB agents in 100%. Median (interquartile range) duration of treatment was 6 (6-9) months, directly observed therapy was needed in 10 patients, and there was a satisfactory outcome after treatment in 98.4%. Among adolescents, TB was more prevalent in females (63.2%) and immigrant patients (68.4%), comorbidity at diagnosis and lung cavity forms were more common, and the source case was identified only in 21.1% of the patients. Adult-type pulmonary TB is common among adolescents, may be associated with underlying medical conditions, and is often diagnosed late, posing a significant transmission risk to the community. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-reported proclivity to harass as a moderator of the effectiveness of sexual harassment-prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, L A; Doverspike, D

    2001-02-01

    The interaction between the likelihood of males engaging in sexual harassment and the effectiveness of a 1-hr. sexual harassment-prevention training was explored in a laboratory study. An interaction of scores on the Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale and training condition for 90 undergraduate men was found, such that sexual harassment-prevention training had a small negative effect on the attitudes of males with a high proclivity to harass.

  5. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  6. Strategies for Modifying Sexual Behavior for Primary and Secondary Prevention of HIV Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines models for health education and community interventions targeted at reducing human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 transmission. Notes significant gains made with regard to sexual practices among homosexual and bisexual men in some acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epicenters. Stresses need for more programs to address other high-risk…

  7. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  8. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM) and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heteronormative culture and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. Seventy-nine MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro themes-audience, location, and community representation-emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages.

  9. Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

  10. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  11. Theoretical Implications of Gender, Power, and Sexual Scripts for HIV Prevention Programs Aimed at Young, Substance-Using African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mandy; Granado, Misha; Stotts, Angela

    2017-12-01

    HIV continues to be a major public health problem for African-American (AA) women, and the burden of new cases to our society is significant because each case is at risk of infecting others. Substance use worsens the risk of HIV transmission to AA women. We provide specific recommendations to move the concept of tailoring HIV prevention interventions for substance users forward by focusing on young, sexually active, substance-using AA women and applying a culturally relevant revision to existing theoretical frameworks to include the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Gender and Power. We encourage use of these theories to guide adaptation of interventions to demonstrate efficacy within this hard-to-reach population. Consistent use of theories designed to exploit powerlessness and sexual scripts as barriers to adoption of protective sexual behaviors has potential to permeate sexual and substance use networks among African-Americans. This recommendation is being made because this theoretical framework has not been used in HIV prevention interventions targeting young, sexually active, substance-using AA women.

  12. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien C Tully

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU, we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic "signatures" within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission.

  13. 78 FR 20443 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ..., ``Operational Contract Support (OCS),'' December 20, 2011 found at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf... injuries internal or external, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, or psychological distress... injury. Emergency care. Emergency medical care includes physical and emergency psychological medical...

  14. Prevention of sexual harassment in the workplace and educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Beth A

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to working to ensure that workplaces and educational settings in which pediatricians spend time are free of sexual harassment. The purpose of this statement is to heighten awareness and sensitivity to this important issue, recognizing that institutions, clinics, and office-based practices may have existing policies.

  15. Communication Training as a Prevention to Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia

    Although illegal, sexual harassment is frequent in the American workplace and extremely disruptive and costly to employees and employers alike. Most organizational responses to the problem have been hard line, short term, after-the-fact measures that inform, threaten, or discipline employees. What is needed, however, is a training program with an…

  16. Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…

  17. Prevention of sexual harassment in the medical setting applying Inoculation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an examination of how Inoculation Theory can be applied in the prevention of sexual harassment in the medical setting. The basic tenet of the theory is the study of the processes through which we withstand and oppose attitude transformation during social interactions that may influence or change our attitudes. More importantly, this paper analyzes sexual harassment as a pervasive phenomenon in the medical setting. As such, it defines what sexual harassment is, explains the prevalence of sexual harassment between the physician and the patient, describes some of the general studies conducted in medical settings, provides a case scenario of doctor-patient sexual harassment, and identifies some key consequences to doctors, patients, and society.

  18. Preventing child sexual abuse: parents' perceptions and practices in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-11-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  19. Identifying Resilience Resources for HIV Prevention Among Sexual Minority Men: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Eva N; Banks, Regina J; Marks, Amy K; Pantalone, David W

    2017-10-01

    Most HIV prevention for sexual minority men and men who have sex with men targets risk behaviors (e.g., condom use) and helps sexual minority men. We reviewed PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE, references, and Listservs for studies including sexual minority men with 1+ HIV risk factor (syndemics): childhood sexual abuse, partner abuse, substance abuse, or mental health symptoms. From 1356 articles screened, 20 articles met inclusion criteria. Across the articles, we identified and codified 31 resilience resources: socioeconomic (e.g., employment), behavioral coping strategies (e.g., mental health treatment), cognitions/emotions (e.g., acceptance), and relationships. Resilience resources were generally associated with lower HIV risk; there were 18 low-risk associations, 4 high-risk associations, 8 non-significant associations). We generated a set of empirically based resilience variables and a hypothesis to be evaluated further to improve HIV prevention.

  20. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, C; Stoolmiller, M; Nelson, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors evaluated a coeducational program for teenagers on preventing sexual coercion in dating situations. Students examined individual and social attitudes underlying coercive sexual behavior and learned communication skills aimed at preventing or dealing with unwanted sexual advances. Instruction was enhanced by video and an interactive video "virtual date." Outcomes were assessed using sexual attitude scales with a sample of 458 high school students. Student health education classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control condition. Findings, based on a latent variable model of differential effectiveness, showed that students in the treatment group with initial coercive attitude scores at or above the mean benefited significantly more than students with the same range of scores in the control group.

  1. Conhecimentos e atitudes de adolescentes de uma escola pública sobre a transmissão sexual do HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Patriota Chaves

    Full Text Available Os objetivos da pesquisa foram descrever conhecimentos sobre a transmissão do HIV/AIDS e analisar o comportamento sexual e atitudes frente ao uso do preservativo entre adolescentes. Pesquisa exploratória realizada, em 2009, com 234 adolescentes de uma escola em Fortaleza-CE. Utilizou-se questionário semiestruturado e escala de Likert. Os resultados mostraram que 46,6% da amostra já haviam iniciado a vida sexual; 40,7% e 29,5% não usaram preservativo na primeira nem na última relação sexual respectivamente, em decorrência de diversos motivos como não ter o preservativo no momento (27,3%; uso de pílula anticoncepcional (15,2% e confiança no(a parceiro(a (15,2%. Os adolescentes apresentaram dúvidas sobre a transmissão do HIV. As mulheres se mostraram mais favoráveis ao uso do preservativo do que os homens. Conclui-se que o início da vida sexual precoce, as dúvidas sobre a transmissão do HIV e a não utilização efetiva do preservativo são alguns dos fatores que compõem a vulnerabilidade dos jovens.

  2. Date palm sap collection: exploring opportunities to prevent Nipah transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-06-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where NiV outbreaks have occurred since 2001. Gachhis reported that bats pose a challenge to successful collection of quality sap, because bats drink and defecate into the sap which markedly reduces its value. They know some methods to prevent access by bats and other pests but do not use them consistently, because of lack of time and resources. Further studies to explore the effectiveness of these methods and to motivate gachhis to invest their time and money to use them could reduce the risk of human Nipah infection in Bangladesh.

  3. Sexual Partnership Patterns Among South African Adolescent Girls Enrolled in HPTN [corrected] 068: Measurement Challenges and Implications for HIV/STI Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nadia L; Powers, Kimberly A; Hughes, James P; MacPhail, Catherine L; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Patel, Eshan U; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of sexual partnership durations, gaps between partnerships, and overlaps across partnerships are important for understanding sexual partnership patterns and developing interventions to prevent transmission of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, a validated, optimal approach for estimating these parameters, particularly when partnerships are ongoing, has not been established. We assessed 4 approaches for estimating partnership parameters using cross-sectional reports on dates of first and most recent sex and partnership status (ongoing or not) from 654 adolescent girls in rural South Africa. The first, commonly used, approach assumes all partnerships have ended, resulting in underestimated durations for ongoing partnerships. The second approach treats reportedly ongoing partnerships as right-censored, resulting in bias if partnership status is reported with error. We propose 2 "hybrid" approaches, which assign partnership status to reportedly ongoing partnerships based on how recently girls last had sex with their partner. We estimate partnership duration, gap length, and overlap length under each approach using Kaplan-Meier methods with a robust variance estimator. Median partnership duration and overlap length varied considerably across approaches (from 368 to 1024 days and 168 to 409 days, respectively), but gap length was stable. Lifetime prevalence of concurrency ranged from 28% to 33%, and at least half of gap lengths were shorter than 6 months, suggesting considerable potential for HIV/STI transmission. Estimates of partnership duration and overlap lengths are highly dependent on measurement approach. Understanding the effect of different approaches on estimates is critical for interpreting partnership data and using estimates to predict HIV/STI transmission rates.

  4. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.

  5. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.

  7. Factores psicosociales y culturales en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual Psychosocial and cultural factors in the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gogna

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata de las dimensiones psicosociales y culturales de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Sobre la base de resultados de una investigación cualitativa realizada entre hombres y mujeres de sectores populares (jóvenes y adultos en el Gran Buenos Aires, la autora discute cómo las nociones legas acerca de las ETS (sus síntomas, vías de transmisión, consecuencias y las normas culturales sobre el comportamiento sexual y las relaciones de género afectan la habilidad de las personas para considerarse en riesgo y/o adoptar conductas de prevención. También se discuten las implicancias de estos hallazgos en términos de estrategias apropiadas para promover conductas de cuidado de la salud sexual y reproductiva.The article deals with the psychosocial and cultural dimensions of sexually transmitted diseases. Based on results from a qualitative study with lower-class males and females (young and adult from a neighbourhood in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the author discusses how lay beliefs (about symptoms, transmission, consequences and norms regarding sexual matters and gender relations affect people's ability to consider themselves at risk and/or adopt preventive behaviors. Implications of research results for the design of culturally appropriate strategies to promote sexual and reproductive health are also provided.

  8. Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infections through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a history of achievements and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S

    2012-08-15

    HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) began when both data on HIV prevalence and the toolbox of interventions for prevention of sexual transmission were relatively limited. PEPFAR's early focus was on scaling-up information, education, and communication programs that included messaging on abstinence for youth and faithfulness primarily through nongovernmental organizations, including faith-based organizations. Additional activities included condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing. In epidemics concentrated within key populations, PEPFAR's prevention efforts focused on a minimum package of services including outreach, information, education, and communication programs, STI treatment (where appropriate), and condom promotion and distribution. As more epidemiological data became available and with experience gleaned in these early efforts, the need for tailored and flexible approaches became evident. The next iteration of prevention efforts still emphasized behavioral interventions, but incorporated a sharper focus on key epidemic drivers, especially multiple partners; a data-driven emphasis on high transmission areas and populations, including prevention with people living with HIV; and a more strategic and coordinated approach at the national level. Recently, the paradigm for prevention efforts has shifted yet again. Evidence that biomedical interventions such as male circumcision, treatment for prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission, and treatment itself could lead to declines in incidence has refocused PEPFAR's prevention portfolio. New guidance on sexually transmitted HIV focuses on combination prevention, emphasizing biomedical, behavioral and structural approaches. Landmark speeches by the President and the Secretary of State and new ambitious targets for PEPFAR point toward a new goal: an AIDS-free generation.

  9. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  10. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijster, G.P.A. de; Felten, H.; Kok, G.; Kocken, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual

  11. Knowledge and beliefs of international travellers about the transmission and prevention of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Allard, R; Lambert, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the perceived risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among international travellers, to measure their knowledge of the transmission and prevention of HIV infection abroad and to identify some of the determinants of this knowledge. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Travellers' immunization clinic providing mostly primary preventive care to international travellers. PARTICIPANTS: All clients aged 18 to 50 years seen at the clinic between Oct. 2 and Dec. 21, 1989, before...

  12. Moderno love: sexual role-based identities and HIV/STI prevention among men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse; Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks.

  13. Moderno Love: Sexual Role-Based Identities and HIV/STI Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks. PMID:22614747

  14. Preventing drug use among sexual-minority youths: findings from a tailored, web-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Thom, Bridgette; Schinke, Steven Paul; Hopkins, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    Rates of drug use among sexual-minority youths are disproportionately high. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. This study developed and tested a web-based drug abuse prevention program for sexual-minority youths. A sample (N = 236) of sexual-minority youths was recruited via Facebook. Online, all youths completed pretests; youths randomly assigned to the intervention received a 3-session prevention program; and all youths completed posttest and 3-month follow-up measurements. At 3-month follow-up and compared to youths in the control arm, intervention-arm youths reported less stress, reduced peer drug use, lower rates of past 30-day other drug use, and higher coping, problem solving, and drug-use refusal skills. Outcome data suggest the potential of tailored intervention content to address sexual-minority youths' drug use rates and related risk factors. Moreover, study procedures lend support to the feasibility of using the Internet to recruit sexual-minority youths, collect data, and deliver intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission outcomes in the private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission outcomes in the private sector in central Durban. ... Median viral loads and CD4 counts were 11 391 copies/ml and 426 cells/μl, respectively. Eighty-six women ... Article Metrics ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Sexual behavior, risk perception, and HIV transmission can respond to HIV antiviral drugs and vaccines through multiple pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Tully; Monica Cojocaru; Chris T. Bauch

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for HIV and significant progress in developing prophylactic HIV vaccines. The simplest theories of counterproductive behavioral responses to such interventions tend to focus on single feedback mechanisms: for instance, HAART optimism makes infection less scary and thus promotes risky sexual behavior. Here, we develop an agent based, age-structured model of HIV transmission, risk perception, and partner selection in a...

  17. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Campbell, Mary S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Mullins, James I [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Hughes, James P [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wong, Kim G [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Raugi, Dana N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Scrensen, Stefanie [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  18. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K

    2013-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may

  19. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M Frerichs

    Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally

  20. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  1. Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): The Evolution of Sexual Violence Prevention and the Urgency for Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…

  2. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  3. Utilizing Peer Education Theater for the Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2014-01-01

    To address the widespread problem of sexual assault, many colleges and universities are providing primary prevention education programs. Although a number of such programs exist and appear in the literature (for review see Vladutiu, Martin, & Macy, 2011), the role of peer education theater offers a unique approach. Peer education has been…

  4. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  5. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  6. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  7. Sexual Agreement Classifications for Gay and Bisexual Men and Implications for Harm Reduction HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolenski, Derek J.; Morgan, Richard; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevention educators frequently encourage gay and bisexual men (GBM) to negotiate condom use prior to sexual engagement. Identifying groups of GBM based on their presexual agreements can aid efforts to tailor interventions. Using cross-sectional data from 1,188 GBM who reported having sex with a nonprimary sex partner in the 90 days prior to…

  8. What Would You Do? Strategies for Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Hoffman, Melanie Lowe; McMahon, Sheila M.; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2013-01-01

    Bystander education is an increasingly utilized strategy for addressing sexual assault prevention and intervention on U.S. college campuses. Given the paramount importance of peers among college students, what types of pro-social bystander interventions do students themselves deem feasible in the campus context? Drawing on self-reports from…

  9. Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Margot; Edelaar, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of a Dutch sexual abuse prevention program, "Right for Security," for elementary school children (ages 8 to 12) found differences in short-term and long-term effects. In the long run, children thought refusing to cooperate with the intruder more feasible and younger children showed less social anxiousness. However, the oldest…

  10. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of the "Playing the Game" Sexual Assault Prevention Theatre Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of a one-time sexual assault prevention theatre performance against a similar content video performance and a non-intervention control group. Methods: Using the College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, four-hundred ninety-seven students provided matched pairs data for analysis. Results: At a…

  12. E-dating, identity and HIV prevention: theorising sexualities, risk and network society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Bolding, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    This paper addresses how London gay men use the internet to meet sexual partners, or for e-dating. Based on qualitative interviews conducted face-to-face or via the internet, this research develops an account of how information technologies mediate the negotiation of identity and risk in connection with sexual practice. E-dating itself is a bricolage, or heterogeneous DIY practice of internet-based-communication (IBC). A central aspect of IBC is "filtering" in and out prospective e-dates based on the images and texts used to depict sexual identities. Interpretations and depictions of personal HIV risk management approaches in IBC are framed by the meanings of different identities, such as the stigma associated with being HIV positive. This paper argues for a sexualities perspective in a theory of network society. Further, HIV prevention in e-dating can potentially be addressed by considering the interplay of the HIV prevention imperatives associated with different HIV serostatus identities. There is a case for encouraging more explicit IBC about risk in e-dating and incorporating the expertise of e-daters in prevention activity. There is also a need to rethink traditional conceptions of risk management in HIV prevention to make space for the risk management bricolage of network society.

  13. Korean clinical practice guidelines for preventing the transmission of infections in hemodialysis facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayne Cho Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving hemodialysis are vulnerable to infectious diseases due to their impaired immunity and high risk of exposure to pathogens. To protect patients, staff, and visitors from potential infections, each hemodialysis unit should establish and follow standard infection control and prevention measures. Therefore, clinical practice guidelines were developed by a working group of nephrologists and infection control specialists to provide evidence-based guidance for dialysis physicians and nurses, with the aim of preventing infection transmission and controlling infection sources in hemodialysis facilities. The areas of infection control covered by these guidelines include standard precautions, isolation strategies, vascular access, water treatment, cleaning/disinfecting/sterilizing, and vaccination. This special report summarizes the key recommendations from the Korean clinical practice guidelines for preventing the transmission of infections in hemodialysis facilities.

  14. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases. The potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB) propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC) confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  15. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  16. Reviewing the Focus: A Summary and Critique of Child-Focused Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2016-10-26

    Due to the high incidence, and widespread detrimental health consequences, of child sexual abuse (CSA), effective prevention remains at the forefront of public and mental health research, prevention and intervention agendas. To date much of the focus of prevention has been on school-based education programs designed to teach children skills to evade adult sexual advances, and disclose past or ongoing abuse. Evaluation of sexual abuse prevention programs demonstrate their effectiveness in increasing children's knowledge of CSA concepts and protection skills, but little is known about their effects on children's capacity to prevent abuse. Moreover, concerns persist about the unintended side-effects for young children such as anxiety, worry and wariness of touch. This paper summarizes the recent history of CSA prevention and the critique of child-focused protection programs in order to demonstrate the need to compliment or replace these programs by focusing more on protectors in the children's ecology, specifically parents, in order to create safer environments in which abuse is less likely to occur. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Opportunities: Parenting, Programs, and the Reduction of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell

    2018-02-01

    To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.

  18. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis prevents vaginal transmission of HIV-1 in humanized BLT mice.

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    Paul W Denton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, vaginal transmission now accounts for more than half of newly acquired HIV-1 infections. Despite the urgency to develop and implement novel approaches capable of preventing HIV transmission, this process has been hindered by the lack of adequate small animal models for preclinical efficacy and safety testing. Given the importance of this route of transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of humanized mice to intravaginal HIV-1 infection.We show that the female reproductive tract of humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ T and other relevant human cells, rendering these humanized mice susceptible to intravaginal infection by HIV-1. Effects of HIV-1 infection include CD4+ T cell depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT that closely mimics what is observed in HIV-1-infected humans. We also show that pre-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs is a highly effective method for preventing vaginal HIV-1 transmission. Whereas 88% (7/8 of BLT mice inoculated vaginally with HIV-1 became infected, none of the animals (0/5 given pre-exposure prophylaxis of emtricitabine (FTC/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF showed evidence of infection (Chi square = 7.5, df = 1, p = 0.006.The fact that humanized BLT mice are susceptible to intravaginal infection makes this system an excellent candidate for preclinical evaluation of both microbicides and pre-exposure prophylactic regimens. The utility of humanized mice to study intravaginal HIV-1 transmission is particularly highlighted by the demonstration that pre-exposure prophylaxis can prevent intravaginal HIV-1 transmission in the BLT mouse model.

  19. Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Series of Case Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Paxton, William A.; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Cornelissen, Marion; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has recently emerged as sexual transmitted infection among (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV-positive but not HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). We present 4 case reports showing that HIV-infection is not an absolute prerequisite for sexual HCV transmission in

  20. Young people in Bogota, Colombia develop their own strategies to prevent risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M

    1996-01-01

    Although the government of Colombia moved in 1993 to mandate sexuality education in primary and secondary schools, nongovernmental organizations have worked in this area for more than two decades. Notable has been the work of one such organization, the Colombian Human and Social Development Foundation, among youth from a marginal, underserved area of Bogota that houses approximately 27,000 adolescents. The project uses a peer approach to relate the values of responsibility, tolerance, and self-determination to the prevention of risky sexual behaviors. At the onset, 15 youth leaders from the local school identified strategies for raising the topic of sexuality to their peers: suggestion boxes, school radio programs, educational materials such as murals and pamphlets, workshops, board games with sexuality-related themes, and community involvement. Suggestion box submissions revealed that sixth and seventh graders wanted to know about puberty-related events, while older students were interested in the effects of masturbation on health and appearance and the association between premarital sexual activity and one's reputation. In an 18-month period, close to 9000 community residents were reached with program materials and 1798 adolescents participated in group meetings. Among the gains observed have been correction of misinformation, a broader view of sexuality, the capacity for independent thought, and self-pride.

  1. Sexual partnership patterns among South African adolescent girls enrolled in HPTN 068: measurement challenges and implications for HIV/STI transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nadia L.; Powers, Kimberly A.; Hughes, James P.; MacPhail, Catherine L.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Patel, Eshan U.; Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimates of sexual partnership durations, gaps between partnerships, and overlaps across partnerships are important for understanding sexual partnership patterns and developing interventions to prevent transmission of HIV/STIs. However, a validated, optimal approach for estimating these parameters, particularly when partnerships are ongoing, has not been established. Methods We assessed four approaches for estimating partnership parameters using cross-sectional reports on dates of first and most recent sex and partnership status (ongoing or not) from 654 adolescent girls in rural South Africa. The first, commonly used, approach assumes all partnerships have ended, resulting in underestimated durations for ongoing partnerships. The second approach treats reportedly ongoing partnerships as right-censored, resulting in bias if partnership status is reported with error. We propose two “hybrid” approaches, which assign partnership status to reportedly ongoing partnerships based on how recently girls last had sex with their partner. We estimate partnership duration, gap length, and overlap length under each approach using Kaplan-Meier methods with a robust variance estimator. Results Median partnership duration and overlap length varied considerably across approaches (from 368 to 1,024 days and 168 to 409 days, respectively), but gap length was stable. Lifetime prevalence of concurrency ranged from 28% to 33%, and at least half of gap lengths were shorter than 6 months, suggesting considerable potential for HIV/STI transmission. Conclusion Estimates of partnership duration and overlap lengths are highly dependent on measurement approach. Understanding the effect of different approaches on estimates is critical for interpreting partnership data and utilizing estimates to predict HIV/STI transmission rates. PMID:26462185

  2. What is the benefit of the biomedical and behavioral interventions in preventing HIV transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kuchenbecker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.

  3. Ethics and Issues of Secondary Prevention Efforts in Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, Kieran F; Merdian, Hannah L; Perkins, Derek E; Kettleborough, Danielle

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i.e., within media, public, politics). The article outlines these areas, highlighting participant perspectives on risk-enhancing and mitigating factors for each domain.

  4. An Online Bystander Intervention Program for the Prevention of Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Anne; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2015-07-01

    Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.

  5. A 3-Component Approach Incorporating Focus Groups in Strategic Planning for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.

  6. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  7. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  8. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Evaluating HIV Prevention Programs: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibodies as Biomarker for Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults in Resource-Poor Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Behling

    Full Text Available Measuring effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions is challenged by bias when using self-reported knowledge, attitude or behavior change. HIV incidence is an objective marker to measure effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, however, because new infection rates are relatively low, prevention studies require large sample sizes. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is similarly transmitted and more prevalent and could thus serve as a proxy marker for sexual risk behavior and therefore HIV infection.HSV-2 antibodies were assessed in a sub-study of 70,000 students participating in an education intervention in Western Province, Kenya. Feasibility of testing for HSV-2 antibodies was assessed comparing two methods using Fisher's exact test. Three hundred and ninety four students (aged 18 to 22 years were randomly chosen from the cohort and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of these, 139 students were tested for HSV-2 with ELISA and surveyed for sexual risk behavior and 89 students were additionally tested for HSV-2 with a point-of-contact (POC test.Prevalence rates were 0.5%, 1.8%, 0.3% and 2.3% for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 3.4 % as measured by POC test (n=89 and 14.4 % by ELISA (n=139. Specificity of the POC test compared with ELISA was 100%, and the sensitivity only 23.1%. Associations between self-reported sexual behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown.Associations between self-reported sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown, probably due to social bias in interviews since its transmission is clearly linked. HSV-2 antibody testing is feasible in resource-poor settings and shows higher prevalence rates than other sexually transmitted diseases thus representing a potential biomarker for evaluation of HIV prevention interventions.

  10. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  11. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission outcomes in the private sector in central Durban

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    Shakira M Cassim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programme in the central region of Ethekweni Metro, KwaZulu-Natal (Durban central area, was investigated. Data for all HIV-exposed infants from eight private paediatric practices seen between January 2004 and June 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. One hundred and one black African infants were born to 100 HIV-positive women of average age 30 years. Median viral loads and CD4 counts were 11 391 copies/ml and 426 cells/μl, respectively. Eighty-six women received HAART and 5 had no prophylaxis. Of the 92 infants tested, 2 were HIV positive, giving a transmission rate of 2.2%. Both their mothers had received suboptimal prophylaxis, and if they are excluded, the transmission rate falls to less than 1%, a rate consistent with those in the developed world.

  12. Sexual behavior, risk perception, and HIV transmission can respond to HIV antiviral drugs and vaccines through multiple pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Stephen; Cojocaru, Monica; Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for HIV and significant progress in developing prophylactic HIV vaccines. The simplest theories of counterproductive behavioral responses to such interventions tend to focus on single feedback mechanisms: for instance, HAART optimism makes infection less scary and thus promotes risky sexual behavior. Here, we develop an agent based, age-structured model of HIV transmission, risk perception, and partner selection in a core group to explore behavioral responses to interventions. We find that interventions can activate not one, but several feedback mechanisms that could potentially influence decision-making and HIV prevalence. In the model, HAART increases the attractiveness of unprotected sex, but it also increases perceived risk of infection and, on longer timescales, causes demographic impacts that partially counteract HAART optimism. Both HAART and vaccination usually lead to lower rates of unprotected sex on the whole, but intervention effectiveness depends strongly on whether individuals over- or under-estimate intervention coverage. Age-specific effects cause sexual behavior and HIV prevalence to change in opposite ways in old and young age groups. For complex infections like HIV—where interventions influence transmission, demography, sexual behavior and risk perception—we conclude that evaluations of behavioral responses should consider multiple feedback mechanisms. PMID:26507957

  13. Sexual transmission-risk behaviour among HIV-positive persons: a multisite study using social action theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen M; Dawson Rose, Carol; Phillips, J Craig; Holzemer, William L; Webel, Allison R; Nicholas, Patrice; Corless, Inge B; Kirksey, Kenn; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Voss, Joachim; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Portillo, Carmen; Johnson, Mallory O; Brion, John; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Nokes, Kathleen; Reid, Paula; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Chen, Wei-Ti

    2017-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviour was explored and described using Social Action Theory. The sexual transmission of HIV is complex and multi-factorial. Social Action Theory provides a framework for viewing self-regulation of modifiable behaviour such as condom use. Condom use is viewed within the context of social interaction and interdependence. Cross-sectional survey. Self-report questionnaire administered to adults living with HIV/AIDS, recruited from clinics, service organizations and by active outreach, between 2010 - 2011. Having multiple sex partners with inconsistent condom use during a 3-month recall period was associated with being male, younger age, having more years of education,substance use frequency and men having sex with men being a mode of acquiring HIV. In addition, lower self-efficacy for condom use scores were associated with having multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use. Social Action Theory provided a framework for organizing data from an international sample of seropositive persons. Interventions for sexually active, younger, HIV positive men who have sex with men, that strengthen perceived efficacy for condom use, and reduce the frequency of substance use, may contribute to reducing HIV-transmission risk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Successful prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant in Brazil using a multidisciplinary team approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie A. Nogueira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the HIV vertical transmission rate (VTR and associated risk factors by use of zidovudine and infant care education in Brazil. METHODS: Since 1995, a prospective cohort of HIV infected pregnant women has been followed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A multidisciplinary team was established to implement the best available strategy to prevent maternal-infant HIV transmission. Patients with AIDS or low CD4 and high viral load received anti-retroviral drugs in addition to zidovudine. Children were considered infected if they had 2 positive PCR-RNA tests between 1 and 4 months of age, or were HIV antibody positive after 18 months. Education regarding infant treatment and use of formula instead of breast feeding was provided. RESULTS: Between 1995 and August, 2000, HIV status was determined for 145 infants. Compliance with intra-partum treatment, infant treatment and use of formula was 88.2%. Intra-partum zidovudine treatment was completed in 134/145 (92.6% of patients; 88.1% had rupture of membranes 4 hours were associated with increased HIV transmission. CONCLUSION: HIV vertical transmission in Brazil was reduced to a level similar to other countries with the most effective prevention programs using a multidisciplinary team approach. A high level of compliance for use of anti-retroviral drugs, the provision of health education to mothers, and use of formula for all exposed infants.

  15. Successful prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant in Brazil using a multidisciplinary team approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Susie A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the HIV vertical transmission rate (VTR and associated risk factors by use of zidovudine and infant care education in Brazil. METHODS: Since 1995, a prospective cohort of HIV infected pregnant women has been followed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A multidisciplinary team was established to implement the best available strategy to prevent maternal-infant HIV transmission. Patients with AIDS or low CD4 and high viral load received anti-retroviral drugs in addition to zidovudine. Children were considered infected if they had 2 positive PCR-RNA tests between 1 and 4 months of age, or were HIV antibody positive after 18 months. Education regarding infant treatment and use of formula instead of breast feeding was provided. RESULTS: Between 1995 and August, 2000, HIV status was determined for 145 infants. Compliance with intra-partum treatment, infant treatment and use of formula was 88.2%. Intra-partum zidovudine treatment was completed in 134/145 (92.6% of patients; 88.1% had rupture of membranes 4 hours were associated with increased HIV transmission. CONCLUSION: HIV vertical transmission in Brazil was reduced to a level similar to other countries with the most effective prevention programs using a multidisciplinary team approach. A high level of compliance for use of anti-retroviral drugs, the provision of health education to mothers, and use of formula for all exposed infants.

  16. Shock to the System: Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Child Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Wilson

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of introducing a new HIV/AIDS service, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), on overall quality of prenatal and postnatal care. My results suggest that local PMTCT introduction in Zambia may have actually increased all cause child mortality in the short term. There is some evidence that vaccinations may have declined in the short term in association with local PMTCT introduction, suggesting that the new service may have partly crowded out ex...

  17. Does discussing sexually transmissible infections or HIV with a parent increase condom use among young women using other contraceptive methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Heather; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Young people may be more likely to use condoms if they discuss sexual risks with their parents. However, no previous study has examined whether discussing sexual risks with a parent is differently associated with condom use among women using and not using other contraceptive methods. Using weighted data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we examined condom use at last sex among 1206 sexually active unmarried women aged 15-24 years. Using logistic regression, we examined the association between condom use and discussing sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with parents before the age of 18 years, adjusted for women's characteristics (age, ethnicity, income and condom use at first sex). We estimated the predicted probability of condom use by whether women discussed STIs with parents, stratified by use of other contraceptive methods. Overall, 53% of women used condoms at last sex. Among 564 women using other contraceptives, 42% used condoms, versus 64% of 642 women not using other contraceptive methods (P<0.01). After adjustment for covariates, the predicted probability of condom use among women using other contraceptives was 47% among women who discussed STIs with their parents (v. 31% of those not discussing STIs; P<0.01). Among women not using other contraceptives, the predicted probability of condom use remained 64% regardless of whether they discussed STIs with their parents. Young women who use other contraceptive methods are less likely to use condoms, but discussing STIs with parents is associated with increased condom use among these women.

  18. Combined evaluation of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected pregnant women and infant HIV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiahong; Yeganeh, Nava; Camarca, Margaret; Morgado, Mariza G.; Watts, D. Heather; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy Maria; Bryson, Yvonne J.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moye, Jack; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Dickover, Ruth; Mirochnick, Mark; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. Methodology Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV. Infant HIV infection was determined by serial HIV DNA PCR testing. Maternal syphilis was tested by VDRL and confirmatory treponemal antibodies. Results A total of 899 mother-infant pairs were evaluated. Over 30% had at least one of the following infections (TP, CT, NG, and/or CMV) detected at the time of delivery. High rates of TP (8.7%), CT (17.8%), NG (4%), and CMV (6.3%) were observed. HIV MTCT was 9.1% (n = 82 infants). HIV MTCT was 12.5%, 10.3%, 11.1%, and 26.3% among infants born to women with CT, TP, NG or CMV respectively. Forty-two percent of HIV-infected infants were born to women with at least one of these 4 infections. Women with these infections were nearly twice as likely to have an HIV-infected infant (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.0), particularly those with 2 STIs (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.5–7.7). Individually, maternal CMV (aOR 4.4 1.5–13.0) and infant congenital CMV (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.2–7.8) but not other STIs (TP, CT, or NG) were associated with an increased risk of HIV MTCT. Conclusion HIV-infected pregnant women identified during labor are at high risk for STIs. Co-infection with STIs including CMV nearly doubles HIV MTCT risk. CMV infection appears to confer the largest risk of HIV MTCT. Trial registration NCT00099359. PMID:29304083

  19. Additional recommendations to reduce sexual and drug abuse-related transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    Previous US Public Health Service recommendations pertaining to sexual, IV drug abuse, and perinatal transmission of human-T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) have been published. Reduction of sexual and IV transmission of HTLV-III/LAV should be enhanced by using available serologic tests to give asymptomatic, infected individuals in high-risk groups the opportunity to know their status so they can take appropriate steps to prevent the further transmission of this virus. Since the objective of these additional recommendations is to help interrupt transmission by encouraging testing and counseling among persons in high-risk groups, careful attention must be paid to maintaining confidentiality and to protecting records from any unauthorized disclosure. The ability of health departments to assure confidentiality, and the public confidence in that ability, are crucial to efforts to increase the number of persons requesting such testing and counseling. Persons at increased risk of HTLV-III/LAV infection include: homosexual and bisexual men; present or past IV drug abusers; persons with clinical or laboratory evidence of infection, such as those with signs or symptoms compatible with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC); persons born in countries where heterosexual transmission is thought to play a major role; male or female prostitutes and their sex partners; sex partners of infected persons or persons at increased risk; all persons with hemophilia who have received clotting-factor products; and newborn infants of high-risk or infected mothers. Recommendations include: community health education programs should be aimed at members of high-risk groups to increase knowledge of AIDS, to facilitate behavioral changes to reduce risks of HTLV-III/LAV infection, and encourage voluntary testing and counseling; counseling and voluntary serologic testing for HTLV-III/LAV should be routinely offered to

  20. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a nonsystematic review of policy evidence for STD prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact STD prevention through social determinants of health. We also describe potential policy opportunity in these areas. It should be noted that we found gaps in policy evidence for some areas; thus, additional research would be useful for public health policy interventions for STD prevention.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with a clinical history of sexual transmission of HIV-1 from a single donor reveals transmission of highly distinct variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClure Myra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1, a successful vaccine will need to cope with the variability of transmissible viruses. Human hosts infected with HIV-1 potentially harbour many viral variants but very little is known about viruses that are likely to be transmitted, or even if there are viral characteristics that predict enhanced transmission in vivo. We show for the first time that genetic divergence consistent with a single transmission event in vivo can represent several years of pre-transmission evolution. Results We describe a highly unusual case consistent with a single donor transmitting highly related but distinct HIV-1 variants to two individuals on the same evening. We confirm that the clustering of viral genetic sequences, present within each recipient, is consistent with the history of a single donor across the viral env, gag and pol genes by maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo based phylogenetic analyses. Based on an uncorrelated, lognormal relaxed clock of env gene evolution calibrated with other datasets, the time since the most recent common ancestor is estimated as 2.86 years prior to transmission (95% confidence interval 1.28 to 4.54 years. Conclusion Our results show that an effective design for a preventative vaccine will need to anticipate extensive HIV-1 diversity within an individual donor as well as diversity at the population level.

  2. Evaluations of Sexual Assault Prevention Programs in Military Settings: A Synthesis of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Prisock, Kara; Borsari, Brian; Kazemi, Donna M

    2018-03-01

    The prevention of sexual assault (SA) in the U.S. military is a significant priority. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to a literature search that identified research evaluating SA prevention programs conducted within military settings. Only six studies published between 2005 and 2016 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Studies demonstrated high heterogeneity in the: (1) conceptual framework of the prevention approach; (2) target population and timing of administration; (3) study recruitment methods; (4) methodological design; (5) method of delivery, program dosage and theory of change; and (6) outcome administration and efficacy. Scientific rigor according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine was also variable. Several gaps in the research base were identified. Specifically, research evaluating SA prevention programs have only been conducted among U.S. Army and U.S. Navy samples. Most studies did not examine whether program participation was associated with reductions in rates of sexual violence. Studies also lacked utilization of a long-term follow-up period. Additionally, studies did not reflect the types of SA prevention programs currently being implemented in military settings. Taken together, further research is needed to enhance the evidence base for SA prevention in the military, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches currently being conducted with service members.

  3. Beyond sexual desire and curiosity: sexuality among senior high school students in Papua and West Papua Provinces (Indonesia) and implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarsvitri, Wienta; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Neeman, Teresa; Oktavian, Antonius

    2011-10-01

    When it comes to sexuality and norms, young Indonesians are becoming more open. Concern about this is related to the rapid increase in HIV prevalence in Indonesia, especially in Papua and West Papua Provinces. While much research has been conducted among youth who have left school, little is known about senior high school students' sexuality and sexual practices in these provinces. Using qualitative and quantitative data, we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexuality, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion among 1082 Year 11 students from 16 senior high schools in both provinces. Findings suggest that around 38.3% of students reported having had sexual intercourse and 36.5% of these having had their first sexual encounter before they were 15 years old. Furthermore, contraceptive use among sexually active students was very low. Around 32% of female students who reported having had sexual intercourse also reported having an unintended pregnancy and the majority of them had had unsafe abortions. The paper points to the implications of students' high-risk sexual behaviours for HIV prevention.

  4. Predicting Improvement After a Bystander Program for the Prevention of Sexual and Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Palm Reed, Kathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Although evidence suggests that bystander prevention programs are promising interventions for decreasing sexual violence and dating violence on college campuses, there have been no studies to date evaluating moderators of bystander program effectiveness. The current study evaluates whether different demographic characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors at pretest predict change over a 6-month follow-up for students who participated in a bystander prevention program. Participants in the three assessments (pretest, posttest, 6-month follow-up) included 296 college students who were mandated to attend a bystander program during their first year orientation. Analyses showed that with few exceptions, the bystander program worked best for students who were most at risk given their pretest demographics and levels of attitudes condoning dating violence and sexual violence, bystander efficacy, and bystander behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of suggestions for future research. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Knowledge of HIV serodiscordance, transmission, and prevention among couples in Durban, South Africa.

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    William Kilembe

    Full Text Available Couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT significantly decreases HIV transmission within couples, the largest risk group in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is not currently offered in most HIV testing facilities. To roll out such an intervention, understanding locale-specific knowledge barriers is critical. In this study, we measured knowledge of HIV serodiscordance, transmission, and prevention before and after receipt of CVCT services in Durban.Pre- and post-CVCT knowledge surveys were administered to a selection of individuals seeking CVCT services.Changes in knowledge scores were assessed with McNemar Chi-square tests for balanced data and generalized estimating equation methods for unbalanced data.The survey included 317 heterosexual black couples (634 individuals who were primarily Zulu (87%, unemployed (47%, and had at least a secondary level education (78%. 28% of couples proved to be discordant. Only 30% of individuals thought serodiscordance between couples was possible pre-CVCT compared to 95% post-CVCT. One-third thought there was at least one benefit of CVCT pre-CVCT, increasing to 96% post-CVCT. Overall, there were positive changes in knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention. However, many respondents thought all HIV positive mothers give birth to babies with AIDS (64% pre-CVCT, 59% post-CVCT and that male circumcision does not protect negative men against HIV (70% pre-CVCT, 67% post-CVCT.CVCT was well received and was followed by improvements in understanding of discordance, the benefits of joint testing, and HIV transmission. Country-level health messaging would benefit from targeting gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, vertical transmission, and male circumcision.

  6. Plan to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Assault of Military Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Kenyon, S. (1996). "Honey, we don’t do men": Gender stereotypes and the provision of services to sexually assaulted males . Journal of Interpersonal... males is limited. The Department is now working to increase research-informed, gender -specific prevention techniques that address male specific...needs of male survivors. The Department will conduct further evaluation of gender -specific needs to determine if additional gender -specific training or

  7. Community-level Moderators of a School-Based Childhood Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Last program compared to a waitlist control condition. Knowledge gains from pre- to post-interv...

  8. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, William J.; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A.; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation.

  9. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour for preventing HIV infection in workers in occupational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Olumuyiwa; Verbeek, Jos H; Rasanen, Kimmo; Heikkinen, Jarmo; Isotalo, Leena K; Mngoma, Nomusa; Ruotsalainen, Eija

    2011-12-07

    The workplace provides an important avenue to prevent HIV. To evaluate the effect of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV on high risk sexual behavior when delivered in an occupational setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up until March 2011 and CINAHL, LILACS, DARE, OSH Update, and EPPI database up until October 2010. Randomised control trials (RCTs) in occupational settings or among workers at high risk for HIV that measured HIV, sexual transmitted diseases (STD), Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), or risky sexual behaviour. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We pooled studies that were similar. We found 8 RCTs with 11,164 participants but one study did not provide enough data. Studies compared VCT to no VCT and education to no intervention and to alternative education.VCT uptake increased to 51% when provided at the workplace compared to a voucher for VCT (RR=14.0 (95% CI 11.8 to16.7)). After VCT, self-reported STD decreased (RR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.73)) but HIV incidence (RR=1.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.7)) and unprotected sex (RR=0.71 (0.48 to 1.06)) did not decrease significantly. .Education reduced STDs (RR = 0.68 (95%CI 0.48 to 0.96)), unprotected sex (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD)= -0.17 (95% CI -0.29 to -0.05), sex with a commercial sex worker (RR = 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) but not multiple sexual partners (Mean Difference (MD) = -0.22 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.08) nor use of alcohol before sex (MD = -0.01 (95% CI of -0.11 to 0.08). Workplace interventions to prevent HIV are feasible. There is moderate quality evidence that VCT offered at the work site increases the uptake of testing. Even though this did no lower HIV-incidence, there was a decrease in self-reported sexual transmitted diseases and a decrease in risky sexual behaviour. There is low quality evidence that educational interventions decrease sexually

  10. Low pH immobilizes and kills human leukocytes and prevents transmission of cell-associated HIV in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markham Richard B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both cell-associated and cell-free HIV virions are present in semen and cervical secretions of HIV-infected individuals. Thus, topical microbicides may need to inactivate both cell-associated and cell-free HIV to prevent sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS. To determine if the mild acidity of the healthy vagina and acid buffering microbicides would prevent transmission by HIV-infected leukocytes, we measured the effect of pH on leukocyte motility, viability and intracellular pH and tested the ability of an acidic buffering microbicide (BufferGel® to prevent the transmission of cell-associated HIV in a HuPBL-SCID mouse model. Methods Human lymphocyte, monocyte, and macrophage motilities were measured as a function of time and pH using various acidifying agents. Lymphocyte and macrophage motilities were measured using video microscopy. Monocyte motility was measured using video microscopy and chemotactic chambers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC viability and intracellular pH were determined as a function of time and pH using fluorescent dyes. HuPBL-SCID mice were pretreated with BufferGel, saline, or a control gel and challenged with HIV-1-infected human PBMCs. Results Progressive motility was completely abolished in all cell types between pH 5.5 and 6.0. Concomitantly, at and below pH 5.5, the intracellular pH of PBMCs dropped precipitously to match the extracellular medium and did not recover. After acidification with hydrochloric acid to pH 4.5 for 60 min, although completely immotile, 58% of PBMCs excluded ethidium homodimer-1 (dead-cell dye. In contrast, when acidified to this pH with BufferGel, a microbicide designed to maintain vaginal acidity in the presence of semen, only 4% excluded dye at 10 min and none excluded dye after 30 min. BufferGel significantly reduced transmission of HIV-1 in HuPBL-SCID mice (1 of 12 infected compared to saline (12 of 12 infected and a control gel (5 of 7 infected. Conclusion These

  11. Challenges and Strategies for Prevention of Multidrug-Resistant Organism Transmission in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumyati, Ghinwa; Stone, Nimalie D; Nace, David A; Crnich, Christopher J; Jump, Robin L P

    2017-04-01

    Nursing home residents are at high risk for colonization and infection with bacterial pathogens that are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We discuss challenges and potential solutions to support implementing effective infection prevention and control practices in nursing homes. Challenges include a paucity of evidence that addresses MDRO transmission during the care of nursing home residents, limited staff resources in nursing homes, insufficient infection prevention education in nursing homes, and perceptions by nursing home staff that isolation and contact precautions negatively influence the well being of their residents. A small number of studies provide evidence that specifically address these challenges. Their outcomes support a paradigm shift that moves infection prevention and control practices away from a pathogen-specific approach and toward one that focuses on resident risk factors.

  12. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior.

  13. The utility of the new generation of humanized mice to study HIV-1 infection: transmission, prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment

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    Rowan Mark R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Substantial improvements have been made in recent years in the ability to engraft human cells and tissues into immunodeficient mice. The use of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs leads to multi-lineage human hematopoiesis accompanied by production of a variety of human immune cell types. Population of murine primary and secondary lymphoid organs with human cells occurs, and long-term engraftment has been achieved. Engrafted cells are capable of producing human innate and adaptive immune responses, making these models the most physiologically relevant humanized animal models to date. New models have been successfully infected by a variety of strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1, accompanied by virus replication in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the male and female reproductive tracts, and the brain. Multiple forms of virus-induced pathogenesis are present, and human T cell and antibody responses to HIV-1 are detected. These humanized mice are susceptible to a high rate of rectal and vaginal transmission of HIV-1 across an intact epithelium, indicating the potential to study vaccines and microbicides. Antiviral drugs, siRNAs, and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy strategies have all been shown to be effective at reducing viral load and preventing or reversing helper T cell loss in humanized mice, indicating that they will serve as an important preclinical model to study new therapeutic modalities. HIV-1 has also been shown to evolve in response to selective pressures in humanized mice, thus showing that the model will be useful to study and/or predict viral evolution in response to drug or immune pressures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings reported to date on all new humanized mouse models (those transplanted with human HSCs in regards to HIV-1 sexual transmission, pathogenesis, anti-HIV-1 immune responses, viral evolution, pre- and post

  14. Encountering Gender: Resisting a Neo-Liberal Political Rationality for Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…

  15. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

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    Merdekios B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infection in children. The objective of this study was to assess PMTCT services by examining knowledge about reducing vertical transmission among pregnant women. Methods: A multistaged sampling institution-based survey was conducted in 113 pregnant women in Arba Minch. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntary counseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1% had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal educational level had a statistical association with income (P < 0.001 and voluntary counseling and testing for pregnant women (P < 0.05. Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination. Conclusion: In the area studied, intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV is failing to reach its goal. This is an alarming discovery requiring quick reconsideration and strengthening of preventive strategies at all levels. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, pregnant women, Ethiopia

  16. Looking Ahead Toward Community-Level Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten; Valle, Linda Anne

    2018-01-01

    The Division of Violence Prevention within CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control recently undertook a systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence (SV) perpetration. This review identified the lack of community-level strategies to prevent SV as a critical gap in the literature. Community-level strategies function by modifying the characteristics of settings (e.g., schools, workplaces, neighborhoods) that increase the risk for violence victimization and perpetration. Identification of evidence-based strategies at the community level would allow implementation of ecologic approaches to SV prevention with a greater potential for reducing the prevalence of SV perpetration. The field will face several challenges in identifying and evaluating the effectiveness of promising community-level strategies to prevent SV. These challenges include limited knowledge of community-level and societal-level risk factors for SV, a lack of theoretical or empirical guidance in the SV literature for identification of promising community-level approaches, and challenges in evaluating SV outcomes at the community level. Recognition of these challenges should guide future research and foster dialogue within the SV prevention field. The development and evaluation of community-level approaches to SV prevention represent a vital and logical next step toward the implementation of effective, multilevel prevention efforts and a population-level reduction in the prevalence of SV. PMID:22185587

  17. Computational modeling of interventions and protective thresholds to prevent disease transmission in deploying populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Colleen; Peace, Angela; Everett, Rebecca; Allegri, Buena; Garman, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Military personnel are deployed abroad for missions ranging from humanitarian relief efforts to combat actions; delay or interruption in these activities due to disease transmission can cause operational disruptions, significant economic loss, and stressed or exceeded military medical resources. Deployed troops function in environments favorable to the rapid and efficient transmission of many viruses particularly when levels of protection are suboptimal. When immunity among deployed military populations is low, the risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks increases, impacting troop readiness and achievement of mission objectives. However, targeted vaccination and the optimization of preexisting immunity among deployed populations can decrease the threat of outbreaks among deployed troops. Here we describe methods for the computational modeling of disease transmission to explore how preexisting immunity compares with vaccination at the time of deployment as a means of preventing outbreaks and protecting troops and mission objectives during extended military deployment actions. These methods are illustrated with five modeling case studies for separate diseases common in many parts of the world, to show different approaches required in varying epidemiological settings.

  18. Computational Modeling of Interventions and Protective Thresholds to Prevent Disease Transmission in Deploying Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel are deployed abroad for missions ranging from humanitarian relief efforts to combat actions; delay or interruption in these activities due to disease transmission can cause operational disruptions, significant economic loss, and stressed or exceeded military medical resources. Deployed troops function in environments favorable to the rapid and efficient transmission of many viruses particularly when levels of protection are suboptimal. When immunity among deployed military populations is low, the risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks increases, impacting troop readiness and achievement of mission objectives. However, targeted vaccination and the optimization of preexisting immunity among deployed populations can decrease the threat of outbreaks among deployed troops. Here we describe methods for the computational modeling of disease transmission to explore how preexisting immunity compares with vaccination at the time of deployment as a means of preventing outbreaks and protecting troops and mission objectives during extended military deployment actions. These methods are illustrated with five modeling case studies for separate diseases common in many parts of the world, to show different approaches required in varying epidemiological settings.

  19. Behavioral Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancies: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A

    2016-05-01

    Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceptions about sexual abstinence and knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention among in-school adolescents in a western Nigerian city

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    Fayemi Mojisola M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females, selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79% abstained compared with the females (98%. Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative

  1. «La vida alegre». How Important is Condom Used for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PINTOR HOLGUÍN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Action takes place in Spain in the mid?eighties (1987 with the change in Spanish society and the appearance of the first cases of AIDS in our country. From a comical sight, the adventures of a dermatologist particularly interested on sexually transmitted diseases prevention; especially in patients with risk behaviors, such as homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts injecting. The entire film revolves around the importance of condom use in preventing all sexually transmitted diseases.

  2. Prevention of Risky Sexual Behaviour through the Formation of Psychological Readiness to Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysko A.A.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world there are tendencies of early entering into sexual relations and simultaneous withdrawal of the age of marriage, an increase in the number of early pregnancies and abortions among minors. Existing programs for the prevention of risky sexual behavior are ineffective, since they are one-time, narrowly focused. The author presents the results of an experiment on the prevention of risky sexual behavior in adolescents based on the formation of their ideas of parenting and child-parent relations, and through the prism of this topic, allowing to build an image of reproductive behavior in the present and future. The program is designed taking into account the psychology of modern adolescents, in accordance with the principles of awareness and responsibility, is based on a restorative approach and resource approach to the formation of psychological readiness for parenthood M.E. Lantsburg. The program for the development of psychological preparedness for parenting in adolescents has two targets: the nearest: preventing adolescent pregnancy and reducing its negative consequences in the event of an early pregnancy, and strategic - preparing for the planning and birth of the coveted child in the future. The results prove that the adolescents' views about the family depend both on the experiences they experienced in their own childhood and on the trends in the social and political space discussed in this topic. The study showed that adolescents' views on sexual relations, family and parenthood can be purposefully influenced through a program based on the knowledge of age-related psychology, resource and recovery approaches and using interactive methods of teaching relevant to this age group.

  3. Sexual Behaviors, Experiences of Sexual Violence, and Substance Use among Women Who inject Drugs: Accessing Health and Prevention Services in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Vargas, Erika M; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Mowatt, Rasul; Otero-Cruz, Ilia M; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) face numerous gender-specific health risks, which increase their susceptibility to adverse outcomes, including violence. There is a need for research on female PWID to capture their unique experiences and understand behavioral and gender-based differences. This study aimed to understand which drug use and sexual behaviors are the most prevalent among female PWID accessing health services in Puerto Rico and to gather preliminary information on those individuals' experiences of sexual violence. Utilizing a transformative theoretical perspective, a mixed-methods study was conducted with a sample of 90 Puerto Rican women who reported recent (past 12 months) injection drug use (IDU) This manuscript focused on Phase 1, in which participants completed an interviewer-administered survey eliciting information about sexual behaviors, drug use, experiences of sexual violence, and access to healthcare services. Phase 2 involved an in-depth interview focused on sexual health and access to healthcare services. Female PWID were found to engage in a variety of sexual behaviors throughout their lifespans and at their most recent sexual events. There were significant differences across age groups for participants, those being time of most recent sexual event (p = 0.007), partner's sex (p = 0.039), relationship with partner (p = 0.023), contraception method used (p = 0.057), and reports of partner orgasm (p = 0.055). Over half of all participants reported having experienced sexual violence in their lifetime. This study extends the literature on PWID in Puerto Rico by underscoring the diversity of female PWID sexual experiences and needs while illustrating how those experiences are often mediated by drug use. The findings highlight the need for further research on female PWID in Puerto Rico to better develop programs that include sexual violence prevention as part of future interventions for this population.

  4. Current Perspectives on Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to provide an update on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis by drawing upon some important basic concepts and reviewing the most recent literature on the diagnosis and treatment of syphilis in pregnancy. New technologies, such as automated and point-of-care immunologic tests, are shifting some paradigms, which will certainly be further investigated in the forthcoming years. This is the time to carefully evaluate traditional as well as new strategies to prevent congenital syphilis. Adverse outcomes of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis can be prevented with antenatal screening and penicillin therapy, which proved to have an excellent cost-benefit ratio even in populations with a low prevalence of syphilis. However, syphilis epidemiology is influenced by socioeconomic and cultural factors, and major challenges are faced by poor and developing countries in which the severity of the problem is extremely alarming. On the other hand, the emergence of new technologies has raised doubts about the best algorithm to be used when proper laboratory resources are available. Conditions are quite heterogeneous across populations, and some procedures should not be generalized while there is no evidence that supports some changes and while in-depth studies about local conditions are not conducted. Official organizations need to be alert in order to avoid isolated decisions and ensure that evidence-based guidelines be used in the management of syphilis in pregnancy. PMID:27081586

  5. Recent progress in immune-based interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Yegor; Jani, Ilesh; Graham, Barney S; Cunningham, Coleen K; Mofenson, Lynne M; Musoke, Philippa M; Permar, Sallie R; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    Globally, 150,000 new paediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occurred in 2015. There remain complex challenges to the global elimination of paediatric HIV-1 infection. Thus, for the global community to achieve elimination of new paediatric HIV-1 infections, innovative approaches need to be explored. Immune-based approaches to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) may help fill some of the remaining gaps and provide new opportunities to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Immune-based interventions to prevent MTCT of HIV-1 may include paediatric HIV vaccines and passive immunization approaches. Recent discoveries providing evidence of robust immune responses to HIV in infants open new and exciting prospects for paediatric HIV vaccines. Moreover, successful vaccination of infants has a different set of requirements than vaccination of adults and may be easier to achieve. Proof-of-concept has been established over the last two decades that passively administered HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibody (mAbs) can prevent chimeric simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) transmission to newborn nonhuman primates. There has been tremendous progress in isolating and characterizing broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV, and clinical testing of these antibodies for treatment and prevention in both infants and adults is a major effort in the field. Immune-based interventions need to be actively explored as they can provide critically important tools to address persistent challenges in MTCT prevention. It is a pivotal time for the field with active discussions on the best strategy to further reduce HIV infection of infants and accomplish the World Health Organization Fast-Track 2030 goals to eliminate new paediatric HIV infections. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  6. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: Updated Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape in efforts to ameliorate post assault distress. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address this problem, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1) video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault. PMID:17275198

  7. Sexuality, gendered identities and exclusion: the deployment of proper (hetero)sexuality within an HIV-prevention text from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée

    2010-05-01

    HIV prevention discourses concern lives, the protection of bodily rights and people's active involvement in the policies and programmes that affect them. HIV prevention discourses also create lives, relying upon the deployment of normative sexual identities at the same time as they invite complex and fluid youth identities to embody the norms of prevention. This paper examines a particular HIV prevention text that is available to teachers in the Western Cape province of South Africa to support the implementation of the national Life Orientation programme. Rather than considering this text as a neutral 'scaffold' upon which teachers and students add cultural meanings, it is important to interrogate the ways in which texts rely upon and reiterate particular discursive constructions of the youth sexual subject. This paper argues that the text deploys a particular discursive framework in order to construct a 'normal' (and hetero) sexuality that validates, rather than questions, social constructions of masculine privilege within heterosexuality. This is achieved through the deployment of a scientific expertise of sexuality; the mobilisation of a valued hetero/homosexual binary to create a 'safe' heterosexuality; the normalisation of bourgeois sexuality through the ideology of marriage; and the naturalisation of heterosexual masculine and feminine identities.

  8. Advertising sexual health services that provide sexually transmissible infection screening for rural young people - what works and what doesn't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Deepa G; Fuller, Candice A; Cummings, Rosey; Tomnay, Jane E; Chung, Mark; Chen, Marcus; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hocking, Jane S; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-09-01

    'TESTme' is a sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening service for Victorian young people living in rural areas. We evaluated the effectiveness of advertising for this service over an 11-month pilot period. The advertising that was used included websites, a Facebook page, posters, flyers, business cards, wrist bands and professional development sessions for health nurses that occurred throughout the pilot period. We also used once-off methods including advertisements in newspapers, student diaries and short messages to mobile phones. Twenty-eight clients had a consultation through TESTme. Twenty found the service through health professionals, six through the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) web page, one through the Facebook page and one through the student diary. The total direct costs incurred by the centre for advertising were $20850. The advertising cost per client reached for each advertising method was $26 for health professionals, $80 for the MSHC web advertisement, $1408 for Facebook and $790 for the student diary. Other advertising methods cost $12248 and did not attract any clients. Advertising STI health services for rural young people would be best to focus on referrals from other health services or health care websites.

  9. Efficacy of malaria prevention during pregnancy in an area of low and unstable transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Clarke, Siân E; Hutchison, Coll L.

    2011-01-01

    -randomised placebo-controlled trial involving 5775 women of all parities examined the effect of IPTp, ITNs alone, or ITNs used in combination with IPTp on maternal anaemia and low birth weight (LBW) in a highland area of southwestern Uganda. The overall prevalence of malaria infection, maternal anaemia and LBW...... services was observed. With ITNs offering a number of advantages over IPTp, yet showing comparable efficacy, we discuss why ITNs could be an appropriate preventive strategy for malaria control during pregnancy in areas of low and unstable transmission....

  10. Stakeholders’ perceptions on factors influencing male involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services in Blantyre, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Nyondo, Alinane Linda; Chimwaza, Angela Faith; Muula, Adamson Sinjani

    2014-01-01

    Background Male Involvement (MI) in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services is essential in a patriarchal society where men are decision makers of the household. Male partners have a role in the woman’s risk of acquiring HIV, uptake of HIV testing and participation in Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) prevention programmes. Although MI is important for uptake of PMTCT interventions, it remains low in Africa. The purpose of this s...

  11. Contraceptive Use Effectiveness and Pregnancy Prevention Information Preferences Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt-Vinti, Heather D; Thompson, Erika L; Griner, Stacey B

    2018-04-14

    Previous research shows that sexual minority women have higher rates of unintended pregnancy than heterosexual women, but has not considered the wide range of contraceptive method effectiveness when exploring this disparity. We examine contraceptive use effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information among college women across sexual orientation identity as a risk factor for unintended pregnancy. Using the National College Health Assessment Fall-2015 dataset, restricted to women who reported engaging in vaginal sex and not wanting to be pregnant (N = 6,486), logistic regression models estimated the odds of contraceptive method effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information by sexual orientation. Most women (57%) reported using a moderately effective contraceptive method (e.g., pill, patch, ring, shot) at last vaginal sex. Compared with heterosexual women, bisexual (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.62), lesbian (aOR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.06), pansexual/queer (aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-.56) and other (aOR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) women were significantly less likely to have used a moderately effective method compared with no method. Only 9% of the sample used a highly effective method; asexual (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92) and lesbian (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20) women were significantly less likely than heterosexual women to have used these methods. Pansexual/queer and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to desire pregnancy prevention information. Several groups of sexual minority women were less likely than heterosexual women to use highly or moderately effective contraceptive methods, putting them at increased risk for unintended pregnancy, but desired pregnancy prevention information. These findings bring attention to the importance of patient-centered sexual and reproductive care to reduce unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published

  12. Knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a longitudinal study of young women from 16-23 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson-Ellström, A; Milsom, I

    2002-10-01

    To describe knowledge and attitudes regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the same women followed longitudinally for 7 years from teenage years to early adulthood, and to relate the findings to sexual behaviour. A face to face interview and a questionnaire were completed by 79 young women when they were 16, 18, and 23 years old. The questionnaire, testing knowledge about the mode of transmission and prevention of STD, gave a total score of correct answers varying between 44% and 64%, with less knowledge about human papilloma (HPV) and herpes viruses than about chlamydia. Awareness of the possibility of asymptomatic transmission was low. The highest scores were obtained at the age of 18 years. Experience of many partners, a history of STD, smoking, and more frequent use of alcohol were associated with a higher level of knowledge. Knowledge was fairly good and consistent, but was more often incorrect regarding viral infections and the possibility of asymptomatic transmission, and in total did not ensure an adequate protective behaviour. A higher level of knowledge was associated with a more risky behaviour, indicating that information was best received by those who could identify with the problem.

  13. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A.; Ross, Jonathan D. C.; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation.N. gonorrhoeae,C. trachomatis(including lymphogranuloma

  14. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoveller Jean A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS. We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4% were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0% reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4% reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07. Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14 and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18. Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81. Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings.

  15. Male migration and risky sexual behavior in rural India: is the place of origin critical for HIV prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saggurti Niranjan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of male migrants in India indicate that those who are infected with HIV are spreading the epidemic from high risk populations in high prevalence areas to populations in low prevalence areas. In this context, migrant men are believed to initiate and have risky sexual behaviors in places of destination and not in places of origin. The paucity of information on men's risky sexual behaviors in places of origin limits the decision to initiate HIV prevention interventions among populations in high out-migration areas in India. Methods A cross-sectional behavioral survey was conducted among non-migrants, returned migrants (with a history of migration, and active (current migrants in rural areas across two districts with high levels of male out-migration: Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh and Azamgarh district in Uttar Pradesh. Surveys assessed participant demographics, migration status, migration history, and sexual behavior along the migration routes, place of initiation of sex. District-stratified regression models were used to understand the associations between migration and risky sexual behaviors (number of partners, condom use at last sex and descriptive analyses of migrants' place of sexual initiation and continuation along migration routes. Results The average age at migration of our study sample was 19 years. Adjusted regression analyses revealed that active migrants were more likely to engage in sex with sex workers in the past 12 months (Prakasam: 15 percent vs. 8 percent; adjusted odds ratio (aOR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.4; Azamgarh: 19 percent vs.7 percent; aOR=4.0, 95% CI 2.4-6.6 as well as have multiple (3+ sex partners (Prakasam: 18 percent vs. 9 percent; aOR=2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.2; Azamgarh: 28 percent vs. 21 percent; aOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0 than non-migrants. Contrary to popular belief, a high proportion of active and returned migrants (almost 75 percent of those who had sex initiated sex at the place of

  16. Prevention of sexually transmitted infections using mobile devices and ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besoain, Felipe; Perez-Navarro, Antoni; Caylà, Joan A; Aviñó, Constanza Jacques; de Olalla, Patricia García

    2015-05-03

    Advances in the development of information and communication technologies have facilitated social interrelationships, but also sexual contacts without appropriate preventive measures. In this paper, we will focus on situations in which people use applications to meet sexual partners nearby, which could increase their chance of exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI). How can we encourage users to adopt preventive measures without violating their privacy or infringing on the character of the application? To achieve the goal of preventing STI, we have used the design and creation methodology and have developed a prototype software package. This prototype follows the RESTful services principles and has two parts: an Android OS application with emphasis on ubiquitous computing and designed according to General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP), and a server with a web page. To choose the preventive messages, we performed a test in 17 men who have sex with men (MSM). Our software sends preventive notifications to users when it detects situations such as the activation of particular applications on their smartphones, or their proximity to areas with a high probability of intercourse (hot zones). The underlying idea is the same as that for warning messages on cigarette packets, since users read the message just when they are going to smoke. The messages used have been selected from a list that has been rated by the users themselves. The most popular message is "Enjoy sex and enjoy life. Do not expose yourself to HIV". The user is unaware of the software, which runs in the background. Ubiquitous computing may be useful for alerting users with preventive and educational messages. The proposed application is non-intrusive because: 1) the users themselves decide to install it and, therefore, users' privacy rights are preserved; 2) it sends a message that helps users think about taking appropriate preventive measures; and 3) it works in the

  17. Interventions for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission: protocol of an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariki, Windy Mariane Virenia; Ota, Erika; Mori, Rintaro; Wiysonge, Charles S; Horvath, Hacsi; Read, Jennifer S

    2017-06-21

    Various interventions to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV have been investigated and implemented. A number of systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of interventions for the prevention of MTCT of HIV reported antiretroviral prophylaxis, caesarean section before labour and before ruptured membranes, and complete avoidance of breastfeeding were efficacious for preventing MTCT of HIV. Recent WHO guidelines recommend lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women for treatment of the woman's own HIV infection and for prevention of MTCT of HIV. Therefore, the objective of this overview is to evaluate the currently available systematic reviews of interventions for preventing MTCT of HIV, and to identify the current best evidence-based interventions for reducing the risk of MTCT of HIV. We will include only peer-reviewed systematic reviews of randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of interventions for preventing MTCT of HIV that target both HIV-infected women and children aged 2 years and younger born to HIV-infected women. We will search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE. We will assess review eligibility, the methodological quality of included systematic reviews using A Measurement Tool to Assess The Systematic Reviews and will extract data, comparing our results and resolving discrepancies by consensus. Finally, we will independently assess the certainty of the evidence using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Ethics approval is not required. We will publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal and present at conferences, which will inform future research and will be useful for healthcare managers, administrators and policymakers to guide resource allocation decisions and optimisation of interventions to prevent the MTCT of HIV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  18. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Kamali

    Full Text Available HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  19. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial results, it is important that issues related to delivery, implementation and further research are also discussed. As a part of the ongoing discussion, in June 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored a Planning for PrEP conference with stakeholders to review expected trial results, outline responsible educational approaches, and develop potential delivery and implementation strategies. The conference reinforced the need for continued and sustained dialogue to identify where PrEP implementation may fit best within an integrated HIV prevention package. This paper identifies the key action points that emerged from the Planning for PrEP meeting. PMID:20624303

  20. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  1. An interactive multimedia program to prevent HIV transmission in men with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jennifer; Clark, Khaya; Sarno, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy of a computer-based interactive multimedia HIV/AIDS prevention program for men with intellectual disability (ID) was examined using a quasi-experimental within-subjects design. Thirty-seven men with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The pretest and posttest instruments assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge (high-risk fluids, HIV transmission, and condom facts) and condom application skills. All outcome measures showed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest, with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, a second study was conducted with twelve service providers who work with men with ID. Service providers reviewed the HIV/AIDS prevention program, completed a demographics questionnaire, and a program satisfaction survey. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability).

  2. [Parental aptitude to prevent child sexual abuse after a participatory education intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda-Almaraz, Martha Alicia; Higareda-Almaraz, Enrique; Higareda-Almaraz, Irma Reyna; Barrera-de León, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Llamas, Meynardo Alonso; Benites-Godínez, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the aptitude of parents regarding the educational impact of equity education for children to prevent child sexual abuse using participatory strategies. Quasi-experimental design. Ninety-two parents with children in preschool were included in the study. The parents were given a course using participatory educational strategies for one hour daily over a period of 20 days. Prior to the course, a group of experts in child education and sexology prepared a questionnaire with 20 sentences. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare intergroup differences We found statistically significant differences in the parents' responses before and after the educational intervention, with a median (range) of 10(2-12)/18(6-20), pchild sexual abuse. Thus, it is imperative to continue evaluating different educational strategies.

  3. 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonism reverses and prevents fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J; Pulicicchio, Claudine; Malberg, Jessica E; Andree, Terrance H; Stack, Gary P; Hughes, Zoë A; Schechter, Lee E; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon

    2009-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant treatment continues to be a major compliance issue for antidepressant therapies. 5-HT(1A) antagonists have been suggested as beneficial adjunctive treatment in respect of antidepressant efficacy; however, the effects of 5-HT(1A) antagonism on antidepressant-induced side-effects has not been fully examined. The present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of acute or chronic treatment with 5-HT(1A) antagonists to alter chronic fluoxetine-induced impairments in sexual function. Chronic 14-d treatment with fluoxetine resulted in a marked reduction in the number of non-contact penile erections in sexually experienced male rats, relative to vehicle-treated controls. Acute administration of the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-101405 resulted in a complete reversal of chronic fluoxetine-induced deficits on non-contact penile erections at doses that did not significantly alter baselines. Chronic co-administration of the 5-HT(1A) antagonists WAY-100635 or WAY-101405 with fluoxetine prevented fluoxetine-induced deficits in non-contact penile erections in sexually experienced male rats. Moreover, withdrawal of WAY-100635 from co-treatment with chonic fluoxetine, resulted in a time-dependent reinstatement of chronic fluoxetine-induced deficits in non-contact penile erections. Additionally, chronic administration of SSA-426, a molecule with dual activity as both a SSRI and 5-HT(1A) antagonist, did not produce deficits in non-contact penile erections at doses demonstrated to have antidepressant-like activity in the olfactory bulbectomy model. Taken together, these data suggest that 5-HT(1A) antagonist treatment may have utility for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.

  4. Disposable gendine antimicrobial gloves for preventing transmission of pathogens in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Ruth; Rosenblatt, Joel; Jiang, Ying; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of organisms by contact of gloves with surfaces following contact with a pathogen source has been recognized as an important vector for pathogenesis of health care-associated infections. In these cases, the gloves protect the wearer from contact with the pathogenic organisms; however, this personal protection can facilitate the wearer unwittingly becoming a carrier of the pathogens from one location to another. A novel gendine (combination of chlorhexidine and gentian violet) antiseptic coating for the external surface of the glove was developed as a potential intervention to prevent this mode of transmission. We characterized the ability of the coating to rapidly kill bacterial and fungal pathogens within 1 minute of contact with the glove surface. The International Organization of Standardization 22196 concentrated inoculum contact testing methodology was followed. The gendine-coated gloves were able to fully eradicate multidrug-resistant organisms included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterocci, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing. In addition, Candida albicans, Candida glabarata, and 2 pathogenic Escherichia coli strains commonly associated with invasive gastroenteritis were also fully eradicated within 1 minute of contact. The gendine coating did not adversely impact the finish or integrity of the disposable gloves. The highly efficacious gendine-coated antimicrobial gloves potentially provide an additional means of protection against horizontal transmission of common pathogens in a hospital setting. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel role for APOBEC3: Susceptibility to sexual transmission of murine acquired immunodeficiency virus (mAIDS) is aggravated in APOBEC3 deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background APOBEC3 proteins are host factors that restrict infection by retroviruses like HIV, MMTV, and MLV and are variably expressed in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic, and epithelia cells. Previously, we showed that APOBEC3 expressed in mammary epithelia cells function to limit milk-borne transmission of the beta-retrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus. In this present study, we used APOBEC3 knockout mice and their wild type counterpart to query the role of APOBEC3 in sexual transmission of LP-BM5 MLV – the etiological agent of murine AIDs (mAIDs). Results We show that mouse APOBEC3 is expressed in murine genital tract tissues and gametes and that genital tract tissue of APOBEC3-deficient mice are more susceptible to infection by LP-BM5 virus. APOBEC3 expressed in genital tract tissues most likely plays a role in decreasing virus transmission via the sexual route, since mice deficient in APOBEC3 gene have higher genitalia and seminal plasma virus load and sexually transmit the virus more efficiently to their partners compared to APOBEC3+ mice. Moreover, we show that female mice sexually infected with LP-BM5 virus transmit the virus to their off-spring in APOBEC3-dependent manner. Conclusion Our data indicate that genital tissue intrinsic APOBEC3 restricts genital tract infection and limits sexual transmission of LP-BM5 virus. PMID:22691411

  6. “The pleasure is better as I’ve gotten older”: Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Older Women Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and wellbeing of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n=50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n=2,052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50–69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women’s sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression and habitual condomless sex with long term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women. PMID:27220311

  7. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Levine, Alexandra M; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E

    2017-05-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.

  8. Imported Zika Virus in a European City: How to Prevent Local Transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Millet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: On February 1st 2016 the WHO declared the Zika Virus (ZIKV infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. The huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of Aedes albopictus in Barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the first ZIKV cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented to avoid autochthonous transmission.Methods: An observational cross-sectional population-based study in Barcelona, Spain was performed.An analysis of the socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mosquito control activities of the ZIKV cases detected between January 1st and December 2016 was carried out using a specific ZIKV epidemiological survey of the Barcelona Public Health Agency.Results: A total of 118 notifications of possible ZIKV infections were received, and 44 corresponded to confirmed cases in Barcelona residents.Amongst these, the median age was 35 years and 57% were women. All cases were imported, 48% were Spanish-born and 52% foreign-born. Dominican Republic was the most visited country amongst foreign-born patients and Nicaragua amongst Spanish-born. The most frequent symptoms were exanthema, fever, and arthralgia. Among the 24 diagnosed women, 6 (25% were pregnant. There was one case of microcephaly outside Barcelona city. Entomological inspections were done at the homes of 19 cases (43.2% of the total and in 34 (77.3% public spaces. Vector activity was found in one case of the 44 confirmed cases, and 134 surveillance and vector control were carried out associated to imported ZIKV cases. In all cases prevention measures were recommended to avoid mosquito bites on infected cases.Conclusion: Epidemiological and entomological surveillance are essential for the

  9. Preventing the transmission of mitochondrial DNA disorders using prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Hubert J M; Sallevelt, Suzanne C E H; Dreesen, Jos C F M; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; de Coo, Irenaeus F M

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are among the most common inborn errors of metabolism; at least 15% are caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which occur de novo or are maternally inherited. For familial heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations, the mitochondrial bottleneck defines the mtDNA mutation load in offspring, with an often high or unpredictable recurrence risk. Oocyte donation is a safe option to prevent the transmission of mtDNA disease, but the offspring resulting from oocyte donation are genetically related only to the father. Prenatal diagnosis (PND) is technically possible but usually not applicable because of limitations in predicting the phenotype. For de novo mtDNA point mutations, recurrence risks are low and PND can be offered to provide reassurance regarding fetal health. PND is also the best option for female carriers with low-level mutations demonstrating skewing to 0% or 100%. A fairly new option for preventing the transmission of mtDNA diseases is preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), in which embryos with a mutant load below a mutation-specific or general expression threshold of 18% can be transferred. PGD is currently the best reproductive option for familial heteroplasmic mtDNA point mutations. Nuclear genome transfer and genome editing techniques are currently being investigated and might offer additional reproductive options for specific mtDNA disease cases. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. "Make Sure You're Not Getting Yourself in Trouble:" Building Sexual Relationships and Preventing Sexual Violence at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R

    2017-10-01

    Sexual violence continues to present a problem on college campuses nationwide and among members of the U.S. military. This study attended to patterns of response in how students (cadets) at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) discussed sexual and romantic relationships, both potential and actual, in order to examine how, if at all, they enact their sexuality-related values. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze semistructured interviews with three male and three female cadets from each of the 4 years of the undergraduate program, in which they are intended to become "leaders of character" who will serve as Army officers. Findings indicated limitations in cadets' access to developing and implementing sexuality-related skills within this context. Cadets' fear and distrust erected barriers to their pursuing their desires; the ways in which cadets avoided getting in trouble for sexual harassment or sexual assault shifted responsibility from a potential perpetrator onto a potential victim; and cadets were caught in dilemmas regarding romantic relationships as sources of both emotional support and social stigma. These findings have implications for promoting gender equity and for preventing sexual violence at this institution and at others like it, including both university campuses and other military settings.

  11. Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis c transmission through donor blood and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chechetkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of organizational aspects of preventing the transmission of hepatitis C virus with donor blood and its components.Materials and methods. An activity of the blood service establishments in Russia for the prevention of HCV infection through transfusion of blood and its components on the basis of the analysis of sectoral statistical surveys was studied.Results. The frequency of detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors and its components during 2009–2013 decreased by more than 1,5 times. The percentage of donors who have identified markers of hepatitis C virus was significantly different in different regions: from 0,51% to 1,36%. The activity of the blood service implemented method of plasma quarantine resulting annually rejected from 0,32% to 0,23% as a result of the identified markers of HCV. Pathogen inactivated plasma volume increased in 3 times, the platelet concentrate in 3,2 times.Conclusion. To ensure the safety of donated blood and its components in the blood service effectively the modern technology use for to prevention transmission of the HCV: quarantine of plasma, donor selection and development, inactivation of pathogens. The degree of implementation in practice of nonpaid voluntary blood transfusions significantly increased and is characterized by regional features in recent years .

  12. Nanoformulations of Rilpivirine for Topical Pericoital and Systemic Coitus-Independent Administration Efficiently Prevent HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Abhijit A.; Long, Julie M.; Nochii, Tomonori; Belshan, Michael; Shibata, Annemarie; Vincent, Heather; Baker, Caroline E.; Thayer, William O.; Kraus, Guenter; Lachaud-Durand, Sophie; Williams, Peter; Destache, Christopher J.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. Currently, multiple efforts to prevent HIV transmission are based on pre-exposure prophylaxis with various antiretroviral drugs. Here, we describe two novel nanoformulations of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine for pericoital and coitus-independent HIV prevention. Topically applied rilpivirine, encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles, was delivered in a thermosensitive gel, which becomes solid at body temperature. PLGA nanoparticles with encapsulated rilpivirine coated the reproductive tract and offered significant protection to BLT humanized mice from a vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge. A different nanosuspension of crystalline rilpivirine (RPV LA), administered intramuscularly, protected BLT mice from a single vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge one week after drug administration. Using transmitted/founder viruses, which were previously shown to establish de novo infection in humans, we demonstrated that RPV LA offers significant protection from two consecutive high-dose HIV-1 challenges one and four weeks after drug administration. In this experiment, we also showed that, in certain cases, even in the presence of drug, HIV infection could occur without overt or detectable systemic replication until levels of drug were reduced. We also showed that infection in the presence of drug can result in acquisition of multiple viruses after subsequent exposures. These observations have important implications for the implementation of long-acting antiretroviral formulations for HIV prevention. They provide first evidence that occult infections can occur, despite the presence of sustained levels of antiretroviral drugs. Together, our results demonstrate that topically- or systemically administered rilpivirine offers significant coitus-dependent or coitus-independent protection from HIV infection. PMID:26271040

  13. Multipurpose prevention technologies for sexual and reproductive health: mapping global needs for introduction of new preventive products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelar, Erin; Polis, Chelsea B; Essam, Timothy; Looker, Katharine J; Bruni, Laia; Chrisman, Cara J; Manning, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, women face sexual and reproductive health (SRH) risks including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) combine protection against two or more SRH risks into one product. Male and female condoms are the only currently available MPT products, but several other forms of MPTs are in development. We examined the global distribution of selected SRH issues to determine where various risks have the greatest geographical overlap. We examined four indicators relevant to MPTs in development: HIV prevalence, herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence (HSV-2), human papillomavirus prevalence (HPV) and the proportion of women with unmet need for modern contraception. Using ArcGIS Desktop, we mapped these indicators individually and in combination on choropleth and graduated symbol maps. We conducted a principal components analysis to reduce data and enable visual mapping of all four indicators on one graphic to identify overlap. Our findings document the greatest overlapping risks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and we specify countries in greatest need by specific MPT indication. These results can inform strategic planning for MPT introduction, market segmentation and demand generation; data limitations also highlight the need for improved (non-HIV) STI surveillance globally. MPTs are products in development with the potential to empower women to prevent two or more SRH risks. Geographic analysis of overlapping SRH risks demonstrates particularly high need in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study can help to inform strategic planning for MPT introduction, market segmentation and demand generation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HIV prevention and transmission myths among heterosexually active adults in low-income areas of South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dano W; Lalota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Forrest, David W; Lieb, Spencer; Liberti, Thomas M

    2012-04-01

    Misconceptions about HIV transmission and prevention may inhibit individuals' accurate assessment of their level of risk. We used venue-based sampling to conduct a cross-sectional study of heterosexually active adults (N = 1,221) within areas exhibiting high poverty and HIV/AIDS rates in Miami-Dade and Broward counties in 2007. Two logistic regression analyses identified correlates of holding inaccurate beliefs about HIV transmission and prevention. Belief in incorrect HIV prevention methods (27.2%) and modes of transmission (38.5%) was common. Having at least one incorrect prevention belief was associated with being Hispanic compared to white (non-Hispanic), being depressed, and not knowing one's HIV status. Having at least one incorrect transmission belief was associated with being younger, heavy alcohol use, being depressed, not having seen a physician in the past 12 months, and not knowing one's HIV status. Among low-income heterosexuals, HIV prevention and transmission myths are widespread. Debunking them could have HIV prevention value.

  15. Impact of Heterogeneity in Sexual Behavior on Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Transmission with Test-and-Treat Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Rozhnova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The WHO's early-release guideline for antiretroviral treatment (ART of HIV infection based on a recent trial conducted in 34 countries recommends starting treatment immediately upon an HIV diagnosis. Therefore, the test-and-treat strategy may become more widely used in an effort to scale up HIV treatment and curb further transmission. Here we examine behavioural determinants of HIV transmission and how heterogeneity in sexual behaviour influences the outcomes of this strategy. Using a deterministic model, we perform a systematic investigation into the effects of various mixing patterns in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM, stratified by partner change rates, on the elimination threshold and endemic HIV prevalence. We find that both the level of overdispersion in the distribution of the number of sexual partners and mixing between population subgroups have a large influence on endemic prevalence before introduction of ART and on possible long term effectiveness of ART. Increasing heterogeneity in risk behavior may lead to lower endemic prevalence levels, but requires higher coverage levels of ART for elimination. Elimination is only feasible for populations with a rather low degree of assortativeness of mixing and requires treatment coverage of almost 80% if rates of testing and treatment uptake by all population subgroups are equal. In this case, for fully assortative mixing and 80% coverage endemic prevalence is reduced by 57%. In the presence of heterogeneity in ART uptake, elimination is easier to achieve when the subpopulation with highest risk behavior is tested and treated more often than the rest of the population, and vice versa when it is less. The developed framework can be used to extract information on behavioral heterogeneity from existing data which is otherwise hard to determine from population surveys.

  16. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2015-04-16

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds

  17. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  18. Interventions for preventing late postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Tara; Madi, Banyana C; Iuppa, Irene M; Kennedy, Gail E; Rutherford, George; Read, Jennifer S

    2009-01-21

    Worldwide, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) represents the most common means by which children acquire HIV infection. Efficacious and effective interventions to prevent in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV infection have been developed and implemented. However, a large proportion of MTCT of HIV occurs postnatally, through breast milk transmission. The objectives of this systematic review were to collate and assess the evidence regarding interventions to decrease late postnatal MTCT of HIV, and to determine the efficacy of such interventions in decreasing late postnatal MTCT of HIV, increasing overall survival, and increasing HIV-free survival. Electronic searches were undertaken using PubMed, EMBASE and other databases for 1980-2008. Hand searches of reference lists of pertinent reviews and studies, as well as abstracts from relevant conferences, were also conducted. Experts in the field were contacted to locate any other studies. The search strategy was iterative. Randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy of interventions to prevent MTCT of HIV through breast milk were included in the analysis. Other trials and intervention cohort studies with relevant data also were included, but only when randomization was not feasible due to the nature of the intervention (i.e., infant feeding modality). Data regarding HIV infection status and vital status of infants born to HIV-infected women, according to intervention, were extracted from the reports of the studies. Six randomized clinical trials and one intervention cohort study were included in this review. Two trials addressed the issue of shortening the duration of (or eliminating) exposure to breast milk. In a trial of breastfeeding versus formula feeding, formula feeding was efficacious in preventing MTCT of HIV (the cumulative probability of HIV infection at 24 months was 36.7% in the breastfeeding arm and 20.5% in the formula arm [p = 0.001]), but the

  19. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  20. What public school teachers teach about preventing pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D; Silverman, J

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  2. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  3. Development and Testing of Intervention Model for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention on Primary School Children in Padang City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Neherta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children increased in many regions in Indonesia, both in cities and in desa. Keadaan is also happening in the city of Padang, where cases of sexual violence against children is increasing from year to year. Therefore, necessary one model to be able to do primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish a model of promotion and prevention interventions that can be used as primary prevention of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City. Material & Methods: The method was combining qualitative and quantitative research. The population of this study was the teachers and students within amount of ten elementary schools in the Padang City with 170 sample of people. Result: The model of intervention through Minangkabau language songs can enhance children's knowledge and assertiveness toward primary prevention of sexual violence. Conclusion: "Neherta" Model is a promotion and prevention interventions model of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City.

  4. Attitudes toward opioid substitution therapy and pre-incarceration HIV transmission behaviors among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia: implications for secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachireddy, Chethan; Bazazi, Alexander R; Kavasery, Ravi; Govindasamy, Sumathi; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2011-07-01

    Pre-incarceration HIV transmission behaviors and current attitudes toward opioid substitution therapy (OST) among HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia have important implications for secondary HIV prevention efforts. In June 2007, 102 HIV-infected male prisoners within 6 months of community-release were anonymously surveyed in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Nearly all subjects (95%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Overall, 66% of participants reported sharing needles, and 37% reported unprotected sex in the 30 days prior to incarceration. During this period, 77% reported injection drug use, with 71% injecting daily and 65% injecting more than one substance. Injection of buprenorphine (28%), benzodiazepines (28%) and methamphetamines (49%) was reported. Nearly all (97%) of those reporting unprotected sex did so with someone not known to be HIV-infected. While 51% believed that opioid substitution therapy (OST) would be helpful, only 33% believed they needed it to prevent relapse after prison release. Most participants (70%) expressed interest in learning more about OST. Those reporting the highest injection risks were more likely to believe OST would be helpful (pMalaysia is crucial to reduce community HIV transmission after release. Effectively reducing HIV risk associated with opioid injection will require OST expansion, including social marketing to improve its acceptability and careful monitoring. Access to sterile injection equipment, particularly for non-opioid injectors, and behavioral interventions that reduce sexual risk will also be required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Upper-room ultraviolet light and negative air ionization to prevent tuberculosis transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roderick Escombe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutional tuberculosis (TB transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air.For 535 consecutive days, exhaust air from an HIV-TB ward in Lima, Perú, was passed through three guinea pig air-sampling enclosures each housing approximately 150 guinea pigs, using a 2-d cycle. On UV-off days, ward air passed in parallel through a control animal enclosure and a similar enclosure containing negative ionizers. On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304 of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303 by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307 by UV lights (both p < 0.0001 compared with the control group. TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304 of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303 by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307 by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group. Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001 and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001. Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p = 0.055 and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p = 0.02. An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of TB infection and 51% of TB

  6. Risk Factors for Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhommerig, Joost W.; Lambers, Femke A. E.; Schinkel, Janke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Arends, Joop E.; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Lauw, Fanny N.; Brinkman, Kees; Gras, Luuk; Rijnders, Bart J. A.; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Prins, Maria; Molenkamp, R.; Mutschelknauss, M.; Nobel, H. E.; Reesink, H. W.; van der Valk, M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Brinkman, K.; Kwa, D.; van der Meche, N.; Toonen, A.; Vos, D.; van Broekhuizen, M.; Lauw, F. N.; Mulder, J. W.; Arends, J. E.; van Kessel, A.; de Kroon, I.; Boonstra, A.; van der Ende, M. E.; Hullegie, S.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de laar, T. J. W.; Gras, L.; Smit, C.; van der Veldt, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, incidence of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection has increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To date, few case-control and cohort studies evaluating HCV transmission risk factors were conducted in this

  7. Prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV: Urgent need to be addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti J Debnath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An estimated 430,000 children were newly infected with HIV in 2008, over 90% of them through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Without intervention, the risk of MTCT ranges from 20% to 45% as per the World Health Organization (WHO. Aim: To find the uptake of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT services during pregnancy. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ethical approval and informed consent was taken. Uptake of PPTCT services by the mother was obtained in 222 pregnancies. This was compared with the HIV status of children born to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages. Results: In 25.7% pregnancies, the mothers were tested for HIV. One child was born was to a mother who had tested HIV negative in pregnancy. In 50% of the mother-child pairs, both mother and child received PPTCT. Where both the mother and child received PPTCT, only 13.3% children born were HIV positive as against 40% children who were HIV positive where neither mother nor the child had received PPTCT. Conclusion: Uptake of PPTCT services was low. In countries like India where the chances of parent to child transmission of HIV are likely to be more than in developed countries due to breastfeeding practices, the uptake of PPTCT services should be maximized to decrease the burden of pediatric HIV because even a single pediatric HIV infection counts. All the pregnant women need to be voluntarily tested twice for HIV in pregnancy, in which the second test for HIV may be in late pregnancy.

  8. Role of trade-off between sexual and vertical routes for evolution of pathogen transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernhauerová, V.; Berec, Luděk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2015), s. 23-36 ISSN 1874-1738 Grant - others:Masaryk University(CZ) MUNI/A/0849/2012 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adaptive dynamics * frequency-dependent transmission * infectious disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.085, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12080-014-0234-8

  9. Preventing Airborne Disease Transmission: Review of Methods for Ventilation Design in Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Rogak, Steven N.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Green, Sheldon I.

    2011-01-01

    Health care facility ventilation design greatly affects disease transmission by aerosols. The desire to control infection in hospitals and at the same time to reduce their carbon footprint motivates the use of unconventional solutions for building design and associated control measures. This paper considers indoor sources and types of infectious aerosols, and pathogen viability and infectivity behaviors in response to environmental conditions. Aerosol dispersion, heat and mass transfer, deposition in the respiratory tract, and infection mechanisms are discussed, with an emphasis on experimental and modeling approaches. Key building design parameters are described that include types of ventilation systems (mixing, displacement, natural and hybrid), air exchange rate, temperature and relative humidity, air flow distribution structure, occupancy, engineered disinfection of air (filtration and UV radiation), and architectural programming (source and activity management) for health care facilities. The paper describes major findings and suggests future research needs in methods for ventilation design of health care facilities to prevent airborne infection risk. PMID:22162813

  10. Sexual risk during pregnancy and postpartum periods among HIV-infected and -uninfected South African women: Implications for primary and secondary HIV prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Davey, Dvora; Farley, Elise; Gomba, Yolanda; Coates, Thomas; Myer, Landon

    2018-01-01

    HIV acquisition in pregnancy and breastfeeding contributes significantly toward pediatric HIV infection. However, little is known about how sexual behavior changes during pregnancy and postpartum periods which will help develop targeted HIV prevention and transmission interventions, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant and postpartum women in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviewers collected survey data on demographic, sexual behaviors, and alcohol use among pregnant and post-partum women. We report descriptive results of sexual behavior by trimester and postpartum period, and results of multivariable logistic regression stratified by pregnancy status. We enrolled 377 pregnant and postpartum women (56% pregnant, 40% HIV-infected). During pregnancy, 98% of women reported vaginal sex (8% anal sex, 44% oral sex) vs. 35% and 88% during the periods 0-6 and 7-12 months postpartum, respectively (p1 partner in the past 12-months compared to postpartum women (18% vs. 13%, respectively, p6-months postpartum (13 mean sex acts in first trimester; 17 mean sex acts >6-months postpartum). Pregnant women had increased odds of reporting condomless sex at last sex (aOR = 2.96;95%CI = 1.84-4.78) and ever having condomless sex in past 3-months (aOR = 2.65;95%CI = 1.30-5.44) adjusting for age, HIV status, and sex frequency compared to postpartum women. We identified that sexual behaviors and risk behaviors were high and changing during pregnancy and postpartum periods, presenting challenges to primary and secondary HIV prevention efforts, including PrEP delivery to pregnant and breastfeeding women.

  11. Role of male partners in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission

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    Osoti A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Osoti,1–3 Hannah Han,4 John Kinuthia,1,5 Carey Farquhar3,4,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIC Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, Kenya; 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: There is emerging evidence that in resource-limited settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden, male partner involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT is associated with improved uptake of effective interventions and infant HIV-free survival. There is also increasing evidence that male partner involvement positively impacts non-HIV related outcomes, such as skilled attendance at delivery, exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of effective contraceptives, and infant immunizations. Despite these associations, male partner involvement remains low, especially when offered in the standard antenatal clinic setting. In this review we explore strategies for improving rates of antenatal male partner HIV testing and argue that the role of male partners in PMTCT must evolve from one of support for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women to one of comprehensive engagement in prevention of primary HIV acquisition, avoidance of unintended pregnancies, and improved HIV-related care and treatment for the HIV-infected and uninfected women, their partners, and children. Involving men in all components of PMTCT has potential to contribute substantially to achieving virtual elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission; promoting partner-friendly programs and policies, as well as pursuing research into numerous gaps in knowledge identified in this review, will help drive this process. Keywords: male involvement, limited-resource settings

  12. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the utility of a train-the-trainer model for dissemination of sexual violence prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Christine; Rabago, Jina; Reynolds, Jasmine; Gates, Kalani; Yanagida, Evie; Baker, Charlene

    2018-06-01

    Rates of childhood sexual abuse are unacceptably high, with potentially long-lasting consequences for those who have been victimized. Currently, there are a number of sexual violence prevention programs that have been developed to lower rates of victimization, increase awareness, and connect victims with resources. Within this area of research, there has been less focus on effective methods of program dissemination. For example, school-based sexual violence prevention programs have had positive outcomes; however, little is known about how these programs are disseminated. The train-the-trainer model of dissemination utilizes master trainers to equip others to implement programs, thereby allowing more adults to teach and subsequently more children to receive the program. This study used survey data from teachers and other school personnel (n = 127) to analyze the utility of a train-the-trainer model of dissemination for a sexual violence prevention program in the state of Hawai'i. Through responses of people who were trained to implement the program (59.8% of whom did implement), aspects of the training, the program itself, and factors affecting whether a person implemented the program were explored. Results suggest that time spent in training, job position, and time in that position predicted whether a person trained to implement the sexual violence prevention program followed through with teaching the program to students. Additionally, 54.7% of people who did implement the program had at least one student disclose sexual violence to them, indicating the importance of sexual violence prevention programming and dissemination of these programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transmission of chimeric HIV by mating in conventional mice: prevention by pre-exposure antiretroviral therapy and reduced susceptibility during estrus

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    Eran Hadas

    2013-09-01

    Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases worldwide. The current approach to investigate HIV heterosexual transmission in animals involves application of virus stock to the vaginal surface, a method that does not reproduce the physiological conditions of vaginal intercourse that influence the rate of transmission. We have previously described efficient infection of conventional mice using EcoHIV/NL4-3 and EcoHIV/NDK, chimeric HIV molecular clones constructed to express all HIV structural and regulatory genes except envelope, which is replaced by a rodent-tropic envelope gene. Here we investigated whether EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice transmit virus to females during coitus, and the sensitivity of this transmission to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the estrus state. Our general approach was to allow mating between EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice and uninfected females for 1–7 nights. At 1–6 weeks after mating, mice were euthanized and virus burdens were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR amplification of HIV RNA or DNA in peritoneal macrophages, inguinal lymph node cells, spleen cells or vas deferens, or by ELISA for antibodies to HIV Gag. We found that 70–100% of female mice mated to EcoHIV/NDK-infected males acquired infection. Pericoital treatment of females with either 2′,3′-dideoxcytidine (ddC or tenofovir largely prevented their EcoHIV/NDK infection by mating (P<0.05 and P<0.003, respectively. In males, T cells were dispensable for virus transmission. The rate of EcoHIV/NDK sexual transmission to females in estrus declined sharply (P=0.003 but their infection by injection was unaffected, indicating that the local environment in the female reproductive tract influences susceptibility to HIV. We conclude that this system of EcoHIV/NDK transmission during mouse mating reproduces key features of heterosexual transmission of HIV in humans and can be used to investigate its biology and control.

  15. Candida transmission and sexual behaviors as risks for a repeat episode of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Barbara D; Zazove, Philip; Pierson, Carl L; Gorenflo, Daniel W; Horrocks, Julie

    2003-12-01

    To assess associations between female and male factors and the risk of recurring Candida vulvovaginitis. A prospective cohort study of 148 women with Candida vulvovaginitis and 78 of their male sexual partners was conducted at two primary care practices in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area. Thirty-three of 148 women developed at least one further episode of Candida albicans vulvovaginitis within 1 year of follow-up. Cultures of Candida species from various sites of the woman (tongue, feces, vulva, and vagina) and from her partner (tongue, feces, urine, and semen) did not predict recurrences. Female factors associated with recurrence included recent masturbating with saliva (hazard ratio 2.66 [95% CI 1.17-6.06]) or cunnilingus (hazard ratio 2.94 [95% CI 1.12-7.68]) and ingestion of two or more servings of bread per day (p vulvovaginitis.

  16. Looking upstream to prevent HIV transmission: can interventions with sex workers alter the course of HIV epidemics in Africa as they did in Asia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, R. van der; Hontelez, J.A.; Veraart, A.; White, R.G.; Vlas, S.J. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High rates of partner change in 'upstream' sex work networks have long been recognized to drive 'downstream' transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used a stochastic microsimulation model (STDSIM) to explore such transmission dynamics in a generalized African HIV

  17. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Health Transformation among College Student Educators in an Arts-Based HIV Prevention Intervention: A Qualitative Cross-Site Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Shannon L.; Taboada, Arianna; Merino, Yesenia; Heitfeld, Suzanne; Gordon, Robert J.; Gere, David; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the sexual health change process experienced by 26 college student sexual health educators from three geographic regions of the United States who participated in a multisite arts-based sexual health prevention program. We conducted eight focus groups and used a phenomenological approach to analyze data. We drew from social cognitive…

  19. Antibodies to plant-produced Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage protein Pfs25 exhibit transmission blocking activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrance, C.E.; Chichester, J.A.; Musiychuk, K.; Shamloul, M.; Rhee, A.; Manceva, S.D.; Jones, R.M.; Mamedov, T.; Sharma, S.; Mett, V.; Streatfield, S.J.; Roeffen, W.F.G.; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Sauerwein, R.W.; Wu, Y.; Muratova, O.; Miller, L.; Duffy, P.; Sinden, R.; Yusibov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal mosquito-borne disease caused by a protozoan parasite. Each year, it is estimated that over one million people are killed by malaria, yet the disease is preventable and treatable. Developing vaccines against the parasite is a critical component in the fight

  20. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  1. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil Información de los maestros sobre la transmisión y la prevención de las hepatitis virales en el Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Gaze

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5% from Belém, 123 (34.2% from Natal and 156 (43.3% from Rio de Janeiro. Cultural differences in knowledge were identified using a questionnaire to classify, according to semantic content, categories of transmission and preventive practices. Responses were scored as right or wrong. Data were tabulated and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 and open answers were classified according to semantic content. Comparison of the answer frequencies between cities was done through the chi-square test. RESULTS: Transmission category (TC (n=837 answers and prevention category (PC (n=771 answers "food-and waterborne" transmission items were the most frequently mentioned (40%. For TC, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "bloodborne" (16%, "inadequate knowledge" (9%, "possible causes of hepatic disease" (9%, and "sexual transmission" (7% answers. For PC items, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "general aspects of prevention" (13%, "immunization" (9%, "quality of health services" (8% and "sexual prevention" (5% items. "Right" scores for transmission mechanisms and prevention practices varied from zero to 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that investments should be made to disseminate appropriate knowledge on VH prevention, mainly addressing sexual transmission and intravenous drug use.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los conocimientos y prácticas de profesores escolares en la prevención de hepatitis viral. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en tres ciudades de Brasil, de agosto a noviembre de 1999. La muestra estuvo constituida por 360 sujetos: 334 mujeres y 26 hombres, 81 (22.5% de Belém, 123 (34.2% de Nataly 156 (43.3% de Río de Janeiro. Se

  2. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W

    2007-07-18

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased

  3. A pilot randomized trial to prevent sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors starting adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Pragati; Brewster, Abenaa M; Baum, George P; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-08-01

    A randomized pilot trial evaluated the hypothesis that early intervention lessens sexual dysfunction in the first year on aromatase inhibitors. A secondary aim was comparing the efficacy of two vaginal moisturizers. Fifty-seven postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer starting aromatase inhibitors were randomized to three treatment groups. All received a handout on managing sexual and other side effects. The Usual Care group received no additional therapy. The Active Treatment groups received a 6-month supply of a vaginal moisturizer (hyaluronic acid-based in Active Group-H and prebiotic in Active Group-P) and a vaginal lubricant and dilator, plus access to an educational website and phone coaching. Questionnaires completed at baseline, 6, and 12 months included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R), and a menopausal symptom scale. Forty-nine women (86%) provided follow-up data. Mean age was 59 and 77% were non-Hispanic Caucasian. Sexual function was impaired at baseline, but remained stable over 12 months for all groups. The combined active treatment group had less dyspareunia (P = 0.07) and sexual distress (P = 0.02) at 6 months than the Usual Care group. At 6 months, the Active-H group improved significantly more than the Active-P group on FSFI total score (P = 0.04). Sexual counseling helped women maintain stable sexual function on aromatase inhibitors. Active intervention resulted in better outcomes at 6 months. This promising pilot trial suggests a need for more research on preventive counseling to maintain sexual function during aromatase inhibitor treatment.

  4. Child Sexual Abuse, Baby Gender, and Intergenerational Psychic Transmission: An Exploratory, Projective Psychoanalytic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tychey, Claude; Vandelet, Elena; Laurent, Mélanie; Lighezzolo-Alnot, Joelle; Prudent, Cécile; Evrard, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article is to present a French psychoanalytic model of how and to what extent the sequellae of sexual abuse by a male during a girl's childhood are transmitted to the next generation, as a function of the gender of the abused mother's children. The authors conducted a qualitative exploratory study based on the longitudinal follow-up of a woman who had two boys and a girl. They focused on the impact of two general sequellae: separation anxiety and negativity-disqualification of the paternal and/or male figures. From the methodological standpoint, they used a clinical interview to assess the mother, and a projective tool, a storytelling test, to assess the child's personality using content analysis. The results confirm both the merits of the theoretical framework and the relevance of the projective methodology for grasping sequellae transmitted to the child. The sequellae turned out to be markedly different for the two baby genders: rejection for the male, overprotection and ghostly encryption for the female. Avenues for using this tool and model in future quantitative, comparative studies are suggested.

  5. Inuit women's stories of strength: informing Inuit community-based HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jenny R

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data. Community-based participatory research principles informed the design of the study, ensuring participants were involved in all stages of the project. Nine storytelling sessions took place with 21 Inuit women aged 18-61 years. Storytelling sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and Atlas.ti aided in the organization of the data for collaborative thematic analysis within three participatory analysis sessions with 13 of the participating women. From the storytelling and analysis sessions, five major themes emerged: (a) the way it used to be, (b) change, (c) family, (d) intimate relationships and (e) holistic strategies. Participating women emphasized that HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming needs to take a holistic, community-wide, family-focused and youth-centred approach within their communities. Participants identified several important determinants of sexual health and shared ideas for innovative approaches they believe will work as prevention efforts within their communities. This article specifically focuses on key characteristics of programming aimed at STI and HIV prevention and sexual health promotion that were identified throughout participants' stories. This study has provided a narrative to complement the epidemiological data that highlight the urgent need for prevention programming.

  6. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  7. Proactive infection control measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Tai, Josepha Wai-Ming; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; So, Simon Yung-Chun; Ng, Wing-Chun; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngan; Leung, Sally Sau-Man; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Felix Hon-Wai; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    The study describes a proactive infection control approach to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and tests if this approach is effective for controlling multiple-drug resistant organisms in a nonendemic setting. In response to the increasing prevalence of VRE in Hong Kong since 2011, we adopted a multifaceted assertive approach in our health care network. This included active surveillance culture, extensive contact tracing, directly observed hand hygiene in conscious patients before they received meals and medications, stringent hand hygiene and environmental cleanliness, and an immediate feedback antimicrobial stewardship program. We report the occurrence of VRE outbreaks in our hospital after institution of these measures and compared with the concurrent occurrence in other public hospitals in Hong Kong. Between July 1, 2011 and November 13, 2013, VRE was identified in 0.32% (50/15,851) of admission episodes by active surveillance culture. The risk of VRE carriage was three times higher in patients with a history of hospitalization outside our hospital networks in the past 3 months (0.56% vs. 0.17%; p = 0.001) compared with those who were not. Extensive contact tracing involving 3277 patient episodes was performed in the investigation for the 25 VRE index patients upon whom implementation of contact precautions was delayed (more than 48 hours of hospitalization). One episode of VRE outbreak was identified in our hospital network, compared with the 77 VRE outbreaks reported in the other hospital networks (controls) without these proactive infection control measures. Our multifaceted assertive proactive infection control approach can minimize the nosocomial transmission and outbreak of VRE in a nonendemic area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. [Consensus statement on monitoring of HIV: pregnancy, birth, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo Rodríguez, Rosa; Muñoz Galligo, Eloy; Iribarren, José Antonio; Domingo Pedrol, Pere; Leyes García, María; Maiques Montesinos, Vicente; Miralles Martín, Pilar; Noguera Julian, Antoni; Ocampo Hernández, Antonio; Péres Bares, María Lourdes; López Rojano, Marta; Suy Franch, Anna; Viñuela Beneitez, María Carmen; González Tomé, María Isabel

    2014-05-01

    The main objective in the management of HIV-infected pregnant women is prevention of mother-to-child transmission; therefore, it is essential to provide universal antiretroviral treatment, regardless of CD4 count. All pregnant women must receive adequate information and undergo HIV serology testing at the first visit. We assembled a panel of experts appointed by the Secretariat of the National AIDS Plan (SPNS) and the other participating Scientific Societies, which included internal medicine physicians with expertise in the field of HIV infection, gynecologists, pediatricians and psychologists. Four panel members acted as coordinators. Scientific information was reviewed in publications and conference reports up to November 2012. In keeping with the criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2levels of evidence were applied to support the proposed recommendations: the strength of the recommendation according to expert opinion (A, B, C), and the level of empirical evidence (I, II, III). This approach has already been used in previous documents from SPNS. The aim of this paper was to review current scientific knowledge, and, accordingly, develop a set of recommendations regarding antiretroviral therapy (ART), regarding the health of the mother, and from the perspective of minimizing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), also taking into account the rest of the health care of pregnant women with HIV infection. We also discuss and evaluate other strategies to reduce the MTCT (elective Cesarean, child's treatment…), and different aspects of the topic (ARV regimens, their toxicity, monitoring during pregnancy and postpartum, etc.). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission in HIV audit in Xhosa clinic, Mahalapye, Botswana

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    Stephane Tshitenge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mahalapye district health management team (DHMT conducts regular audits to evaluate the standard of services delivered to patients, one of which is the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT programme. Xhosa clinic is one of the facilities in Mahalapye which provides a PMTCT programme.Aim: This audit aimed to identify gaps between the current PMTCT clinical practice in Xhosa clinic and the Botswana PMTCT national guidelines.Setting: This audit took place in Xhosa clinic in the urban village of Mahalapye, in the Central District of Botswana.Methods: This was a retrospective audit using PMTCT Xhosa clinic records of pregnant mothers and HIV-exposed babies seen from January 2013 to June 2013.Results: One hundred and thirty-three pregnant women registered for antenatal care. Twenty-five (19% knew their HIV-positive status as they had been tested before their pregnancy or had tested HIV positive at their first antenatal clinic visit. More than two-thirds of the 115 pregnant women (69% were seen at a gestational age of between 14 and 28 weeks. About two-thirds of the pregnant women (67% took antiretroviral drugs. Of the 44 HIV-exposed infants, 39 (89% were HIV DNA PCR negative at 6 weeks. Thirty-two (73% children were given cotrimoxazole prophylaxis between 6 and 8 weeks.Conclusion: The PMTCT programme service delivery was still suboptimal and could potentially increase the mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Daily monitoring mechanism to track those eligible could help to close the gap.

  10. A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Preventing Transmission of Scabies in Pesantren Darul Fatwa, Jatinangor

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    Mahirah Binti Mohd Yusof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scabies is caused by infestation and sensitization of Sarcoptess cabiei and is an endemic in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Several factors in the disease transmission are overcrowded living conditions, poor personal hygiene, unhealthy behaviors and population density. Pesantren is a spesific name for an educational Islamic institution in Indonesia and which w could be one of the risk factors of the transmission the disease. Most of the students (santri are staying at the institution for a long time. The objective of this study was to know the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of santri in preventing scabies. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 45 santri in Pesantren Darul Fatwa in Jatinangor during September–December 2012. A questionnaire was set up consisting of questions about age, sex, basic knowledge, attitude, and practice of preventing the transmission of scabies. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution. Results: The level of knowledge and attitude of the respondents to prevent the transmission of scabies were good, meanwhile the level of practice was moderate. There were still questions that could not be answer by the respondents those were the etiology (31.1%, the cut off chain of transmission (40%, and how to prevent scabies (37.8%. Not washing the towel, changing the bed linen and pillow case every 2 weeks were the less good practice performed by the respondents. Conclusions: The knowledge and attitude towards the prevention of transmission of scabies are good while the practices are moderate. A further study with more sample size should be carried out including enviromental assessment.

  11. Sexual seroadaptation: lessons for prevention and sex research from a cohort of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeff McConnell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surveillance data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs and behavioral characteristics identified in studies of the risk of seroconversion are often used as to track sexual behaviors that spread HIV. However, such analyses can be confounded by "seroadaptation"--the restriction of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI, especially unprotected insertive UAI, to seroconcordant partnerships. METHODS: We utilized sexual network methodology and repeated-measures statistics to test the hypothesis that seroadaptive strategies reduce the risk of HIV transmission despite numerous partnerships and frequent UAI. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort study of HIV superinfection including 168 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM, we found extensive seroadaptation. UAI was 15.5 times more likely to occur with a positive partner than a negative one (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1-26.4. Receptive UAI was 4.3 times more likely in seroconcordant partnerships than with negative partners (95% CI, 2.8-6.6, but insertive UAI was 13.6 times more likely with positives (95% CI, 7.2-25.6. Our estimates suggest that seroadaptation reduced HIV transmissions by 98%. CONCLUSION: Potentially effective HIV prevention strategies, such as seroadaptation, have evolved in communities of MSM before they have been recognized in research or discussed in the public health forum. Thus, to be informative, studies of HIV risk must be designed to assess seroadaptive behaviors rather than be limited to individual characteristics, unprotected intercourse, and numbers of partners. STI surveillance is not an effective indicator of trends in HIV incidence where there are strong patterns of seroadaptation.

  12. 2014 Department of Defense Report of Focus Groups on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    views of sexual harassment and sexual assault at their base/ installation, but they do not portray a statistical report on incidence rates or...assaulted them. But not the other way around.” (E1-E4 Male ) – “I believe that a sexist attitude leads to sexual harassment , which leads to sexual ...were designed to better understand howrecent changes in sexual assault policies and programs have impacted military members and their workplace

  13. (InVisibilidade do género na sexualidade juvenil: propostas para uma nova concepção sobre a educação sexual e a prevenção de comportamentos sexuais de risco Gender (invisibility in juvenile sexuality: proposals for a new conception about sexual education and prevention against risky sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pretendemos mostrar como o género é um conceito determinante e imprescindível quando se trabalham as questões da sexualidade juvenil, particularmente quando se aborda a sexualidade das jovens adolescentes. A literatura feminista tem alertado para a continuidade dos discursos de vitimização, de medo e de moralidade que continuam a servir, em muitos casos e em muitos países, para justificar conteúdos de programa de educação sexual nas escolas e de campanhas de prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, essencialmente sobre o HIV. Contudo, depois de analisar esses discursos, nota-se claramente a ausência de um discurso emancipador sobre a sexualidade feminina adolescente. Apesar da epidemia do HIV e de o número crescente de mulheres heterossexuais (de todas as faixas etárias, das mais jovens às mais idosas a serem infectadas implicar a necessidade de uma atenção redobrada, esse problema não pode justificar discursos reguladores e tradicionais da sexualidade feminina. São necessários novos discursos emancipadores e de empowerment das jovens adolescentes, de responsabilização de jovens do sexo masculino pelas questões da reprodução e da construção de um projecto igualitário e, ao mesmo tempo, de programas e de campanhas informadas pelo conhecimento existente relativamente às questões do género e à assimetria entre os sexos na vivência da sexualidade.In this article we intend to show how gender is a determining and indispensable concept when juvenile sexual issues are discussed; particularly when we approach the adolescent female sexuality. The feminist literature has been alerting us for the discourse on victimization, fear and morality which, in many cases and in many countries, still justifies contents of sexual education programs in schools and campaigns for prevention against sexually transmissible diseases, especially HIV. However, after analyzing those speeches, it is very clear that they

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School Teenagers towards HIV Transmission and Prevention in Rural and Urban Areas of Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Annamaria; Muwonge, Mathias M; Mugisha, Danny; Aturwanaho, Dickens; Kasangaki, Arabat; Bbosa, Godfrey S

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has remained a challenge in Uganda among adolescent despite the ABC strategy used globally to prevent HIV infection. The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban schools of central Uganda. A cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews was used to collect data from adolescents in secondary schools in Kampala and Buikwe districts. Eight schools were randomly selected with 4 schools in each district. A total of 245 students from schools were recruited in the study with 120 and 125 students from urban Kampala and rural Buikwe district schools respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The results were expressed as percentages in a 2 × 2 tables. The mean age of the participants was 15.9 ± 2.5 years. Results showed that 95.1% participants had knowledge on HIV/AIDS in both urban and rural schools and 27.4% knew all the modes of HIV transmission. About 83.7% knew the ABC strategy for HIV prevention and 37.6% would talk about HIV/AIDS mainly with friends. For HIV cure, 62.0% of study participants reported non-cure and 24.9% were not sure. The remaining 13.1% of the study participants in both urban and rural schools reported that HIV can be cured. And the modes of curing HIV that were mentioned by participants included spiritual healing, transmitting it to others through sexual intercourse and that antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs can cure it as well as that it can be cured abroad. About 65.7% of participants reported recognition of one with HIV/ AIDS and by having red lips, being sickly; weight loss, skin rash and being very rich were mentioned. About 39.2% of the study participants mentioned that they cannot get infected with HIV and can't contract HIV at all and 18.4% believed that chances of getting HIV infection were high. On perception and attitude on condoms and their use, participants reported that it is

  15. Violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of sexually transmissible infection rates: the consistent state-level correlation between violent crime and reported sexually transmissible infections in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-11-01

    Numerous social determinants of health are associated with violent crime rates and sexually transmissible infection (STI) rates. This report aims to illustrate the potential usefulness of violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of STI rates. For each year from 1981 to 2010, we assessed the strength of the association between the violent crime rate and the gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) rate (number of total reported cases per 100?000) at the state level. Specifically, for each year, we calculated Pearson correlation coefficients (and P-values) between two variables (the violent crime rate and the natural log of the gonorrhoea rate) for all 50 states and Washington, DC. For comparison, we also examined the correlation between gonorrhoea rates, and rates of poverty and unemployment. We repeated the analysis using overall syphilis rates instead of overall gonorrhoea rates. The correlation between gonorrhoea and violent crime was significant at the P<0.001 level for every year from 1981 to 2010. Syphilis rates were also consistently correlated with violent crime rates. In contrast, the P-value for the correlation coefficient exceeded 0.05 in 9 of the 30 years for the association between gonorrhoea and poverty, and in 17 of the 30 years for that between gonorrhoea and unemployment. Because violent crime is associated with many social determinants of STIs and because it is consistently associated with STI rates, violent crime rates can be a useful proxy for the social determinants of health in statistical analyses of STI rates.

  16. Prevention of Congenital Transmission of Malaria in Sub-Saharan African Countries: Challenges and Implications for Health System Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Osungbade, Kayode O.; Oladunjoye, Olubunmi O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Review of burden of congenital transmission of malaria, challenges of preventive measures, and implications for health system strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), Biomed central, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database were reviewed. Results. The prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 0 to 23%. Diagnosis and existing preventive measures are constantly hindered by weak health systems and sociocultural issues. WHO ...

  17. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse within the Family System: Guidelines for an Educational Social Group Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilo, Daniel Tuelo

    2018-02-28

    Children have the right to be brought up in safe environments. However, this right is often infringed by people who are supposed to provide love, care, and protection to children. These people can include biological fathers, step-fathers, brothers, cousins, aunts, mothers, and uncles. Violation of children takes place in a variety of ways, however, for the purpose of this paper, the focus is on child sexual abuse within the family system. A literature review is adopted as the methodology for the discussions in this paper. The purpose of this paper is firstly to demonstrate that child sexual abuse happens within the family system in South Africa, and secondly, to argue that the prevention of child sexual abuse should start within the family system and this can be achieved by conducting educational social group work sessions on child sexual abuse with the family members.

  18. Risco e prevenção do HIV/Aids: uma perspectiva biográfica sobre os comportamentos sexuais em Portugal Risk-taking and HIV/Aids prevention: a biographical approach to sexual behavior in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Aboim

    2012-01-01

    factors on condom use and prevention behavior. Our results indicate that sexual biographies are more important in explaining the prevalence of condom use with different sexual partners. On the other hand, fear of infection and information on HIV transmission seem to influence the cognitive mobilization of prevention strategies and change of sexual behavior. However, condom use is still more dependent on sexual life pattern and interaction with sexual partners.

  19. Sexual Behavior and Vaginal Practices During Pregnancy and Postpartum: Implications for HIV Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Drake, Alison L; Matemo, Daniel; Unger, Jennifer A; McClelland, Raymond S; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-02-01

    Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying. Among 1252 women enrolled, 78.4% were married (of whom 15.1% were in polygamous unions), 1.4% had a known HIV-infected partner, and 33.6% had a partner of unknown HIV status. At enrollment, 58.5% reported sex in the past month (94.3% unprotected) and 4.5% reported forced sex. Odds of unprotected sex at enrollment was >11-fold higher in married than in unmarried women (P < 0.001) and lower among women who reported partners of unknown HIV status or HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected partners. Median time to postpartum resumption of sex was 7 weeks (interquartile range 4-12). Prevalence of unprotected sex in the past week increased from 6.6% to 60.0% between 2 and 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing was reported by 60.1% of women at enrollment and prevalence remained stable postpartum; vaginal drying was reported by 17.9% at enrollment and decreased to 6.1% at 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing and drying were associated with forced sex. High rates of unknown partner HIV status, polygamy, and less frequent condom use among pregnant/postpartum women underscore the need for female-controlled HIV prevention interventions. Vaginal washing and drying may present challenges to microbicide use.

  20. Web 2.0 Tools in the Prevention of Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lorente, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2018-03-22

    The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. ©María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  1. Zidovudine for the prevention of vertical HIV transmission: a decision analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, D J; Owen, J; Goldenberg, R L; Vermund, S H

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of maternal-neonatal zidovudine (ZDV) administration for the prevention of vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission against the potential risks of drug-induced complications in uninfected children. A decision analysis model was created with use of a Markov cohort simulation, for evaluating both survival and quality of life for two hypothetical cohorts of HIV-exposed neonates: one with in utero and neonatal exposure to preventive ZDV therapy and the other not exposed. The model included the probability of congenital HIV infection with and without ZDV treatment (estimates derived from AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 076), the yearly probability of death with and without congenital HIV infection, a range of probabilities of adverse effects from ZDV use, and a range of ages in life when any adverse effect would manifest. In a series of scenarios, the impact of different estimates for the quality-of-life decrement from any adverse ZDV effect in HIV-uninfected children was assessed, and threshold values for this estimate were established, i.e., critical values below which withholding ZDV would be the preferred choice. Across a wide range of estimates for multiple contingencies, ZDV use was associated with a greater number of quality-adjusted life years than was non-use. Only in implausible, pessimistic scenarios (i.e., a high incidence of profound adverse effects beginning early in life) would withholding ZDV be the rational choice for an asymptomatic HIV-infected pregnant woman.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Intimate partner violence and HIV-positive women's non-adherence to antiretroviral medication for the purpose of prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampanda, Karen M

    2016-03-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) depends critically on HIV-positive women's adherence to antiretroviral drugs during and after pregnancy. Adherence among pregnant and breastfeeding women remains a challenge across sub-Saharan Africa. Power dynamics within couples, such as intimate partner violence, has largely been neglected in research regarding PMTCT adherence. This study aims to determine if there is a relationship between intimate partner violence and non-adherence to PMTCT. In 2014, using a verbally administered cross-sectional survey at a large public health clinic in Lusaka, Zambia, 320 HIV-positive postpartum women, who were currently married or living with a man, provided information on their drug adherence during and after pregnancy, as well as relationship dynamics. Adherence was defined as the woman reporting she took or gave to the infant at least 80% of prescribed medication doses. Experiencing intimate partner violence was associated with decreased odds of adherence to PMTCT during and after pregnancy. Different forms of violence affected PMTCT adherence differentially. Physical violence had a less pronounced effect on non-adherence than emotional and sexual violence. A dose-response relationship between intimate partner violence and non-adherence was also observed. Intimate partner violence is associated with non-adherence to PMTCT during and after pregnancy, which deserves increased attention in the effort to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic administration of antiretrovirals prior to exposure prevents rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Denton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for mucosal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission could reduce new infections among targeted high-risk populations including discordant couples, injection drug users, high-risk women and men who have sex with men. Targeted antiretroviral PrEP could be particularly effective at slowing the spread of HIV-1 if a single antiretroviral combination were found to be broadly protective across multiple routes of transmission. Therefore, we designed our in vivo preclinical study to systematically investigate whether rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission can be blocked by antiretrovirals administered systemically prior to HIV-1 exposure. We performed these studies using a highly relevant in vivo model of mucosal HIV-1 transmission, humanized Bone marrow/Liver/Thymus mice (BLT. BLT mice are susceptible to HIV-1 infection via three major physiological routes of viral transmission: vaginal, rectal and intravenous. Our results show that BLT mice given systemic antiretroviral PrEP are efficiently protected from HIV-1 infection regardless of the route of exposure. Specifically, systemic antiretroviral PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prevented both rectal (Chi square = 8.6, df = 1, p = 0.003 and intravenous (Chi square = 13, df = 1, p = 0.0003 HIV-1 transmission. Our results indicate that antiretroviral PrEP has the potential to be broadly effective at preventing new rectal or intravenous HIV transmissions in targeted high risk individuals. These in vivo preclinical findings provide strong experimental evidence supporting the potential clinical implementation of antiretroviral based pre-exposure prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  4. School-Based Education Programs for the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…

  5. Evaluation of a Youth-Led Program for Preventing Bullying, Sexual Harassment, and Dating Aggression in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy; Schnoll, Jessica; Simkins-Strong, Emily; Pepler, Debra; MacPherson, Alison; Weiser, Jessica; Moran, Michelle; Jiang, Depeng

    2015-01-01

    Although youth-led programs (YLP) have been successful in many areas of public health, youth leadership is rarely used in the prevention of peer aggression. A YLP to reduce bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression was compared experimentally with the board-mandated usual practice (UP). Four middle schools in an urban Canadian school…

  6. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  7. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  8. College Students' Perceptions of the Importance of Sexual Assault Prevention Education: Suggestions for Targeting Recruitment for Peer-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…

  9. HIV drug resistance in infants increases with changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lisa K; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Kwon, Eun H; Gondwe, Clement; West, John T; Kankasa, Chipepo; Ndongmo, Clement B; Wood, Charles

    2017-08-24

    The objectives of this study were to determine HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) prevalence in Zambian infants upon diagnosis, and to determine how changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) drug regimens affect drug resistance. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples from infants in the Lusaka District of Zambia, obtained during routine diagnostic screening, were collected during four different years representing three different PMTCT drug treatment regimens. DNA extracted from dried blood spot samples was used to sequence a 1493 bp region of the reverse transcriptase gene. Sequences were analyzed via the Stanford HIVDRdatabase (http://hivdb.standford.edu) to screen for resistance mutations. HIVDR in infants increased from 21.5 in 2007/2009 to 40.2% in 2014. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance increased steadily over the sampling period, whereas nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance and dual class resistance both increased more than threefold in 2014. Analysis of drug resistance scores in each group revealed increasing strength of resistance over time. In 2014, children with reported PMTCT exposure, defined as infant prophylaxis and/or maternal treatment, showed a higher prevalence and strength of resistance compared to those with no reported exposure. HIVDR is on the rise in Zambia and presents a serious problem for the successful lifelong treatment of HIV-infected children. PMTCT affects both the prevalence and strength of resistance and further research is needed to determine how to mitigate its role leading to resistance.

  10. Transmission-Blocking Antibodies against Mosquito C-Type Lectins for Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2014-01-01

    C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden. PMID:24550728

  11. Stigma associated with sexually transmissible infection testing in an online testing environment: examining the perspectives of youth in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy M; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Background Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Youth came from a diverse set of sociodemographic backgrounds and most (n=46, 65%) had previously accessed STI testing in clinic-based settings. Participants' perceptions pointed to the benefits of online testing for reducing the external stigma despite the potential persistence of internalised stigma. Notions of hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity were also present in the participants' descriptions of the role of gender in accessing online STI testing. Online STI testing could potentially ameliorate the experiences of participants in regards to the stigma associated with STI testing; however, participants' internalised feelings of shame and stigma around testing for STI may continue to persist. Our findings underscore the need to revisit and re-evaluate existing STI testing services to provide less anxiety-inducing testing environments for youth.

  12. Community event-based outreach screening for syphilis and other sexually transmissible infections among gay men in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Phillip J; Knight, Vickie; Bourne, Christopher; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; Allan, Warwick; McNulty, Anna M

    2013-08-01

    Objectives Increased testing frequency is a key strategy in syphilis control, but achieving regular testing is difficult. The objective of this study is to describe a sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing outreach program (the Testing Tent) at a gay community event. Gay men attending the testing tent in 2010-11 completed a computer-assisted self-interview and were screened for STIs. Clinical, demographic, behavioural and diagnostic data were compared with gay men attending a clinic-based service during 2009. The Testing Tent was marketed on social media sites and data were extracted on the number of times the advertisements were viewed. Staffing, laboratory, marketing and venue hire expenses were calculated to estimate the cost of delivering the service. Ninety-eight men attended the Testing Tent. They were older (median age: 42 years v. 30 years; Pfacilities are an acceptable option and are accessed by gay men requiring regular testing, and may be an important addition to traditional testing environments.

  13. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sexual education, gender ideology, and youth sexual empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs.

  15. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, William J; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A; Binson, Diane

    2013-06-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention.

  16. The project “D.E.A.Th. by Eros to Thanatos AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases”. A multimedia exhibition as a means of prevention of sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2010-09-01

    individual affected by a sexually contracted disease. Only 46% (pre and post tests recognized at risk groups such as “drug addicts”, homosexuals and heterosexuals. Eight hundred university students participated in Survey 3. The sample had good knowledge about HIV transmission and the AIDS disease and 93% of respondents knew how to avoid infection. They identified drug users and homosexuals as the most prone to infection to HIV, while awareness of infection risk among heterosexuals was less marked. Despite its importance, awareness of condom use was worrying as only 44.2% reported to always one.

    Conclusions: The exhibition can be considered as an effective prevention tool for new knowledge acquisition but not for the modification of behaviours already present. Even in this study, it looks like the long-term effects, in populations who have had health education interventions with the models of behavioural change, are not sufficiently protective . Therefore, it is necessary to intensify efforts to broadly apply the most effective models of self empowerment in order to change risk behaviours.

  17. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  18. Retrospective evaluation of Project Envision: A community mobilization pilot program to prevent sexual violence in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing family transmission of anxiety: Feasibility RCT of a brief intervention for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; Ewing, Donna; Dash, Suzanne; Hughes, Zoe; Thompson, Ellen J; Hazell, Cassie M; Field, Andy P; Startup, Helen

    2018-03-25

    Children of anxious parents are at high risk of anxiety disorders themselves. The evidence suggests that this is due to environmental rather than genetic factors. However, we currently do little to reduce this risk of transmission. There is evidence that supporting parenting in those with mental health difficulties can ameliorate this risk. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a new one-session, group-based, preventive parenting intervention for parents with anxiety disorders. Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial. A total of 100 parents with anxiety disorders, recruited from adult mental health services in England (and child aged 3-9 years), were randomized to receive the new intervention (a 1-day, group workshop), or to treatment as usual. Children's anxiety disorder and anxiety symptoms were assessed to 12 months by outcome assessors who were blind to group allocation. Exploratory analyses were conducted on an intention to treat basis, as far as possible. A total of 51 participants were randomized to the intervention condition and 49 to the control condition (82% and 80% followed to 12 months, respectively). The attendance rate was 59%, and the intervention was highly acceptable to parents who received it. The RCT was feasible, and 12-month follow-up attrition rates were low. Children whose parents were in the control condition were 16.5% more likely to have an anxiety disorder at follow-up than those in the intervention group. No adverse events were reported. An inexpensive, light-touch, psycho-educational intervention may be useful in breaking the intergenerational cycle of transmission of anxiety disorders. A substantive trial is warranted. Anxiety disorders run in families, but we currently do little to help anxious parents to raise confident children. A brief group workshop was highly acceptable to such parents and was very inexpensive to run. Children of parents who took part in the brief intervention were 16.5% less

  20. Prevention of rectal SHIV transmission in macaques by daily or intermittent prophylaxis with emtricitabine and tenofovir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gerardo García-Lerma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of an effective vaccine, HIV continues to spread globally, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to limit its transmission. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with antiretroviral drugs could prove to be an effective intervention strategy if highly efficacious and cost-effective PrEP modalities are identified. We evaluated daily and intermittent PrEP regimens of increasing antiviral activity in a macaque model that closely resembles human transmission.We used a repeat-exposure macaque model with 14 weekly rectal virus challenges. Three drug treatments were given once daily, each to a different group of six rhesus macaques. Group 1 was treated subcutaneously with a human-equivalent dose of emtricitabine (FTC, group 2 received orally the human-equivalent dosing of both FTC and tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (TDF, and group 3 received subcutaneously a similar dosing of FTC and a higher dose of tenofovir. A fourth group of six rhesus macaques (group 4 received intermittently a PrEP regimen similar to group 3 only 2 h before and 24 h after each weekly virus challenge. Results were compared to 18 control macaques that did not receive any drug treatment. The risk of infection in macaques treated in groups 1 and 2 was 3.8- and 7.8-fold lower than in untreated macaques (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively. All six macaques in group 3 were protected. Breakthrough infections had blunted acute viremias; drug resistance was seen in two of six animals. All six animals in group 4 that received intermittent PrEP were protected.This model suggests that single drugs for daily PrEP can be protective but a combination of antiretroviral drugs may be required to increase the level of protection. Short but potent intermittent PrEP can provide protection comparable to that of daily PrEP in this SHIV/macaque model. These findings support PrEP trials for HIV prevention in humans and identify promising PrEP modalities.

  1. The childcare panopticon: guidelines for preventing child sexual abuse and wrongful allegations of child sexual abuse in Danish childcare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Else-Marie Buch; Larsen, Per Lindsø; Munk, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the first research study of guidelines in Danish childcare institutions for protecting children against sexual abuse (CSA), and staff against wrongful allegations of CSA. Worldwide, it represents one of few empirical studies of the unintended consequences of contemporary soc...

  2. Predictors of sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the total sexually active respondents, 67.1% had begun sexual activity while still in secondary school. For the previous 12-month period, 42.1% said they did not use condoms during the last sexual encounter, 46.1% of the males claimed having had sex with 'bar ladies,' and 39% said they had an active symptom of a ...

  3. Factors Associated with Male Partner Involvement in Programs for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlagabo G. Matseke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Male partner involvement (MPI can contribute to the success of programs aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. However, the definition and measures of MPI differ according to context. This study utilized secondary cross-sectional data to investigate the prevalence and determinants of MPI among 463 male partners of HIV-infected pregnant women in rural South Africa. Results indicated that 44.1% of male partners reported involvement in most or all specified male partner involvement activities (i.e., scores of 7 to 9. Descriptive, correlation and multiple linear-regression analyses were conducted. Positive predictors of MPI included relationship status, own HIV status, awareness of female partner’s positive HIV status, female partner’s desire to have more children, having family planning discussions with provider, condom use to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and partner reasoning skills. Negative predictors included partner verbal aggression. Overall, although MPI is low, the study underlines important information that could be used to develop interventions aimed at improving maternal and infant health in PMTCT programs in South Africa.

  4. Community-level moderators of a school-based childhood sexual assault prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness. Participants were 1177 students (46% White, 26% African American, 15% Hispanic, 4% Asian American, 6% Other) in grades 1 through 6 from 14 public schools in Tennessee. Multilevel models accounting for the nesting of children within schools revealed large effect sizes for the intervention versus control across all knowledge domains (d's ranged from 1.56 to 2.13). The effectiveness of the program was moderated by mean per capita income and rates of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the community. Intervention effects were stronger for youth living in lower as compared to higher income counties, and for youth attending schools in counties with lower as compared to higher abuse/neglect rates. Child characteristics (sex, race) did not moderate intervention effects. This research identified two community-level factors that predicted the effectiveness of a CSA education and prevention program designed to improve children's knowledge of personal safety skills. School-based CSA prevention programs may require modification for communities with higher rates of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The German Dunkelfeld project: a pilot study to prevent child sexual abuse and the use of child abusive images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till

    2015-02-01

    Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. A review of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of parasitic origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fore a now recognized mode of transmissionsexual contact. This in turn has led to giardiasis being classified as a sexually transmitted disease by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. This review identifies its occurrence mainly in homosexual populations of the developed world ...

  7. The contribution of family planning towards the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hladik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFR worldwide. We compared the effects of antiretroviral (ARV prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT to that of existing family planning (FP use and estimated the burden of pediatric HIV disease due to unwanted fertility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the demographic software Spectrum, a baseline mathematical projection to estimate the current pediatric HIV burden in Uganda was compared to three hypothetical projections: 1 without ARV-PMTCT (to estimate the effect of ARV-PMTCT, 2 without contraception (effect of existing FP use, 3 without unwanted fertility (effect of unmet FP needs. Key input parameters included HIV prevalence, ARV-PMTCT uptake, MTCT probabilities, and TFR. We estimate that in 2007, an estimated 25,000 vertical infections and 17,000 pediatric AIDS deaths occurred (baseline projection. Existing ARV-PMTCT likely averted 8.1% of infections and 8.5% of deaths. FP use likely averted 19.7% of infections and 13.1% of deaths. Unwanted fertility accounted for 21.3% of infections and 13.4% of deaths. During 2008-2012, an estimated 131,000 vertical infections and 71,000 pediatric AIDS deaths will occur. The projected scale up of ARV-PMTCT (from 39%-57% may avert 18.1% of infections and 24.5% of deaths. Projected FP use may avert 21.6% of infections and 18.5% of deaths. Unwanted fertility will account for 24.5% of infections and 19.8% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Existing FP use contributes as much or more than ARV-PMTCT in mitigating pediatric HIV in Uganda. Expanding FP services can substantially contribute towards PMTCT.

  8. Towards safe injection practices for prevention of hepatitis C transmission in South Asia: Challenges and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Butt, Zahid Ahmad; Mahmood, Bushra; Altaf, Arshad

    2016-07-07

    To summarize the available information about injection use and its determinants in the South Asian region. We searched published and unpublished literature on injection safety in South Asia published during 1995-2016 using the keywords "injection" "unsafe injection" and "immunization injection" and combined these with each of the countries and/or their respective states or provinces in South Asia. We used a standardized questionnaire to abstract the following data from the articles: the annual number of injections per capita, the proportion of injections administered with a reused syringe or needle, the distribution of injections with respect to prescribers and providers and determinants of injection use. Although information is very limited for certain countries (i.e., Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka), healthcare injection use is very common across South Asia, with cross-country rates ranging from 2.4 to 13.6 injections/person/year. Furthermore, recent studies show that 5% to 50% of these injections are provided with reused syringes, thus creating potential to transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Qualified and unqualified practitioners, especially in the private sector, are the major drivers behind injection use, but patients also prefer injections, especially among the rural, poor or uneducated in certain countries. According to available data, Pakistan and India have recently taken steps towards achieving safe injection. Potential interventions include the introduction of reuse prevention devices, and patient-, community- and patient/community and provider-centered interventions to change population and practitioner behavior. Injection use is common in South Asian countries. Multilevel interventions aiming at patients, providers and the healthcare system are needed to reduce injection use and reuse.

  9. Strategies to Prevent MRSA Transmission in Community-Based Nursing Homes: A Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Lydecker, Alison; Mody, Lona; Mullins, C Daniel; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the costs of 3 MRSA transmission prevention scenarios compared with standard precautions in community-based nursing homes. DESIGN Cost analysis of data collected from a prospective, observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Care activity data from 401 residents from 13 nursing homes in 2 states. METHODS Cost components included the quantities of gowns and gloves, time to don and doff gown and gloves, and unit costs. Unit costs were combined with information regarding the type and frequency of care provided over a 28-day observation period. For each scenario, the estimated costs associated with each type of care were summed across all residents to calculate an average cost and standard deviation for the full sample and for subgroups. RESULTS The average cost for standard precautions was $100 (standard deviation [SD], $77) per resident over a 28-day period. If gown and glove use for high-risk care was restricted to those with MRSA colonization or chronic skin breakdown, average costs increased to $137 (SD, $120) and $125 (SD, $109), respectively. If gowns and gloves were used for high-risk care for all residents in addition to standard precautions, the average cost per resident increased substantially to $223 (SD, $127). CONCLUSIONS The use of gowns and gloves for high-risk activities with all residents increased the estimated cost by 123% compared with standard precautions. This increase was ameliorated if specific subsets (eg, those with MRSA colonization or chronic skin breakdown) were targeted for gown and glove use for high-risk activities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:962-966.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes of the third year medical students in a university about sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Akça

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The passage from childhood to adulthood is the period when health habits and sexual behaviors start to form. Thus, the topics of sexual health and reproductive health should be approached with priority during this period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of students of the medical faculty with respect to sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods.Methods: The questionnaire that contains 23 headings created by the researchers after relevant literature reviews was administered to the third-semester students of the Izmir Katip Celebi University Medical Faculty in face-to-face interviews after obtaining their verbal consent. The study data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 demo software bundle. Conditions in which the p-value was under 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Results: The mean age of the students that participated in the study (n=104 was 21.88 ± 1.9 years of age, 51% (n=53 of the students were female, and 49.0% (n=51 were male. Among the students, 93% stated that they had received education about preventing pregnancy. Two of the  most well-known prevention methods by the participants were condoms in 99.0% (n=103 and oral contraceptives in 95.2% (n=99. The rate of correct answers given about all of the risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (sex workers, polygamy, homosexuality, being sexually active, substance addiction was 22.1% (n=23.Conclusion: Identifying the level of knowledge in the youth about STDs in early periods, determining the services they require, cooperating with related institutions to review the adequacy of information online, and educating youth about STDs are important in preventing these diseases and also in the treatment of existing diseases before they lead to more problems.

  11. Neglect, Sexual Abuse, and Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence During Childhood Predicts Later Life Violent Attitudes Against Children Among Kenyan Women: Evidence of Intergenerational Risk Transmission From Cross-Sectional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Hindman, Andrea; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley; Ackerman Porter, Katherine; Raimer, Ben G

    2017-01-01

    Violence against children, including corporal punishment, remains a global concern. Understanding sources of support for corporal punishment within cultures, and the potential for intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment, is essential for policy-development and community engagement to protect children. In this study, we use data from a cross-section of women in Meru County, Kenya ( n = 1,974) to profile attitudes toward violence against children using the Velicer Attitudes Towards Violence-Child subscale. We find reported histories of sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, and witnessing interpersonal violence during childhood predict more violent attitudes toward children in adulthood. The pathway between these forms of child maltreatment and violent attitudes is significantly mediated by family function, perceived stress, and attitudes toward violence against women. Interventions to prevent sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and promote attachments between parents and children may benefit future generations in this population. Furthermore, secondary prevention of the effects of these childhood adversities may require development of social support, improving family function and challenging violent attitudes against women.

  12. Making Pono Choices: a collaborative approach to developing a culturally responsive teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections prevention curriculum in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaseri, Holly; Uehara, Denise; Roberts, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    The overall extent of evidence-based culturally responsive health education programs targeting ethnic minority groups in Hawai'i is limited. The few that do exist were adapted from models developed with other majority ethnic groups in mind and may not always be appropriate for Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander youth (Okamoto et al. in J Alcohol Drug Educ 54(1):56-75, 2010; Helm and Baker in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 20(2):131-149, 2011; Po'a-Kekuawela et al. in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 18(3):242-258, 2009). The need for a culturally responsive, evidence-based health curriculum is clear considering the large disparities reported among Hawaiian youth in health, academic achievement, and other identified risk factors. School-based health interventions are an opportunity not only to improve the physical well being of students, but also to increase their ability to learn and succeed in school. The University of Hawai'i at Manoa-Center on Disability Studies (UH-CDS) received a highly competitive grant from the US Office of Adolescent Health to develop a teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention curriculum for Hawai'i middle school youth. The authors will detail a collaborative process that led to a culturally responsive sexual health curriculum for middle school youth designed to meet the rigorous standards of an evidenced-based review and more importantly reduce teen pregnancies and STI transmission.

  13. Moving Forward by Looking Back: Reflecting on a Decade of CDC's Work in Sexual Violence Prevention, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Yee, Sue Lin; Lang, Karen; Spivak, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) within CDC's Injury Center engaged an external panel of experts to review and evaluate its research and programmatic portfolio for sexual violence (SV) prevention from 2000 to 2010. This article summarizes findings from the review by highlighting DVP's key activities and accomplishments during this period and identifying remaining gaps in the field and future directions for SV prevention. DVP's SV prevention work in the 2000s included (1) raising the profile of SV as a public health problem, (2) shifting the field toward a focus on the primary prevention of SV perpetration, and (3) applying the public health model to SV research and programmatic activities. The panel recommended that DVP continue to draw attention to the importance of sexual violence prevention as a public health issue, build on prior investments in the Rape Prevention and Education Program, support high-quality surveillance and research activities, and enhance communication to improve the link between research and practice. Current DVP projects and priorities provide a foundation to actively address these recommendations. In addition, DVP continues to provide leadership and guidance to the research and practice fields, with the goal of achieving significant reductions in SV perpetration and allowing individuals to live to their full potential. PMID:23140201

  14. Moving forward by looking back: reflecting on a decade of CDC's work in sexual violence prevention, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Simon, Thomas R; Basile, Kathleen C; Yee, Sue Lin; Lang, Karen; Spivak, Howard

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) within CDC's Injury Center engaged an external panel of experts to review and evaluate its research and programmatic portfolio for sexual violence (SV) prevention from 2000 to 2010. This article summarizes findings from the review by highlighting DVP's key activities and accomplishments during this period and identifying remaining gaps in the field and future directions for SV prevention. DVP's SV prevention work in the 2000s included (1) raising the profile of SV as a public health problem, (2) shifting the field toward a focus on the primary prevention of SV perpetration, and (3) applying the public health model to SV research and programmatic activities. The panel recommended that DVP continue to draw attention to the importance of sexual violence prevention as a public health issue, build on prior investments in the Rape Prevention and Education Program, support high-quality surveillance and research activities, and enhance communication to improve the link between research and practice. Current DVP projects and priorities provide a foundation to actively address these recommendations. In addition, DVP continues to provide leadership and guidance to the research and practice fields, with the goal of achieving significant reductions in SV perpetration and allowing individuals to live to their full potential.

  15. Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M

    2013-12-01

    Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk

  16. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Background The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. Objective The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. Methods We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. Results With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Conclusions Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. PMID:28446420

  17. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Almeida, Paulo César de; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-08-18

    to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. validar texto educativo no contexto das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis para pessoas com deficiência visual para torná-lo acessível a essa população. estudo de validação, em ambiente virtual. Coleta de dados de maio a setembro de 2012, por meio da utilização dos e-mails eletrônicos dos sujeitos, compostos por sete especialistas em conteúdo na temática, através de instrumento próprio. Análise ocorreu com base nas considerações dos especialistas sobre os Objetivos, Estrutura e Apresentação e Relevância. nos blocos de Objetivos e Estrutura e Apresentação, 77 (84,6%) e 48 (85,7%) eram totalmente adequados ou adequados, respectivamente. No bloco de Relevância, os itens 3.2 - Permite transferência e generalização da aprendizagem, e 3.5 - Mostra aspectos necessários para informar a família, revelaram índices de concordância ruins de 0,42 e 0,57, respectivamente. Após a análise, o texto foi

  18. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Body Safety Training for Young Children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak Tunc, Gulseren; Gorak, Gulay; Ozyazicioglu, Nurcan; Ak, Bedriye; Isil, Ozlem; Vural, Pinar

    2018-06-01

    The "Body Safety Training Program" is an education program aimed at ensuring children are informed about their body and acquire self-protection skills. In this study, a total of 83 preschoolers were divided into experimental and control groups; based on a power analysis, 40 children comprised the experimental group, while 43 children comprised the control group. The "Body Safety Training Programme" was translated into Turkish and content validity was determined regarding the language and cultural appropriateness. The "What If Situations Test" (WIST) was administered to both groups before and after the training. Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Variance Analysis, and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were used to compare between the groups and the Spearman correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the relationship between the dependent and independent variable. The differences between the pretest and posttest scores for the subscales (appropriate recognition, inappropriate recognition, say, do, tell, and reporting skills), and the personal safety questionnaire (PSQ) score means for the children in the experimental group were found to be statistically significant (p Body Safety Training programme" is effective in increasing the child sexual abuse prevention and self-protection skills in Turkish young children.

  19. Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men Who Also Report Having Sex With Transgender Partners: Analysis of HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Grace Chela; Young, Alicia; Krakauer, Chloe; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Cummings, Vanessa; Mayer, Kenneth; Koblin, Beryl

    2017-10-01

    HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN 061) study data of Black MSM were analyzed to determine characteristics associated with having transgender sexual partners (TGP) and the association of having TGP with sexual risk. Of 1,449 cisgender MSM, 343(24%) reported also having TGP. MSM with TGP were more likely to be older, have a sexual orientation other than homosexual, have a history of incarceration, or have insufficient funds for necessities, but less likely to be HIV positive or report sex with men to health care providers. MSM with TGP were 3.67 times more likely to recently have 5+ new partners and 2.02 times more likely to report 6+ condomless sexual acts. Since MSM with TGP reported not disclosing sex with men to health care providers, these men may need tailored HIV prevention and care. Future studies should examine differing sexual risks MSM take with sexual partners with different gender identities.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johri Mira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although highly effective prevention interventions exist, the epidemic of paediatric HIV continues to challenge control efforts in resource-limited settings. We reviewed the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. This article presents syntheses of evidence on the costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of HIV MTCT strategies for LMICs from the published literature and evaluates their implications for policy and future research. Methods Candidate studies were identified through a comprehensive database search including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and EconLit restricted by language (English or French, date (January 1st, 1994 to January 17th, 2011 and article type (original research. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of interventions to prevent or reduce HIV MTCT were eligible for inclusion. We searched article bibliographies to identify additional studies. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and extracted data from studies retained for review. Study quality was appraised using a modified BMJ checklist for economic evaluations. Data were synthesised in narrative form. Results We identified 19 articles published in 9 journals from 1996 to 2010, 16 concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Collectively, the articles suggest that interventions to prevent paediatric infections are cost-effective in a variety of LMIC settings as measured against accepted international benchmarks. In concentrated epidemics where HIV prevalence in the general population is very low, MTCT strategies based on universal testing of pregnant women may not compare well against cost-effectiveness benchmarks, or may satisfy formal criteria for cost-effectiveness but offer a low relative value as compared to competing interventions to improve population health. Conclusions and Recommendations Interventions to prevent HIV MTCT are compelling on economic

  1. Delivery Unit Costs for Antiretroviral Treatment and Prevention of Mother-to-Child-Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galárraga, Omar; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Coulibaly, Ibrahima; Viisainen, Kirsi; Medina-Lara, Antonieta; Korenromp, Eline L.

    2013-01-01

    Background As antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV/AIDS is scaled-up globally, information on per-person costs is critical to improve efficiency in service delivery and maximize coverage and health impact. Objective To review studies on delivery unit costs for adult and pediatric ART provision per-patient-year, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions per mother-infant pair screened or treated, in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Systematic review of English, French and Spanish publications from 2001 to 2009, reporting empirical costing that accounted for at least antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, laboratory testing and personnel. Expenditures were analyzed by country income level and cost component. All costs were standardized to 2009 US dollars. Results Analyses covered 29 eligible, comprehensive costing studies. In the base case, in low-income countries (LIC), median, ART cost per patient-year was $792 (mean: $839, range: $682-$1089); for lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), the median was $932 (mean: $1246, range: $156-$3904); and for upper-middle-income countries (UMIC) the median was $1454 (mean: $2783, range: $1230-$5667). ARV drugs were largest component of overall ART cost in all settings (62%, 50% and 47% in LIC, LMIC and UMIC respectively). Out of 26 ART studies, 14 report which drug regimes were used, and only one study explicitly reported second line treatment costs. The second cost driver was laboratory cost in LIC and LMIC (14% and 19.5%) whereas it was personnel costs in UMIC (26%). Two studies specified the types of laboratory tests costed, and three studies specifically included above-facility-level personnel costs. Three studies reported detailed PMTCT costs, and two studies reported on pediatric ART. Conclusions There is a paucity of data on the full ART and PMTCT delivery unit costs, in particular for low-and middle-income countries. Heterogeneity in activities costed and insufficient detail regarding

  2. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boveé Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only

  3. Integrating prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs to improve uptake: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorainne Tudor Car

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review to assess the effect of integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV interventions compared to non- or partially integrated services on the uptake in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We searched for experimental, quasi-experimental and controlled observational studies in any language from 21 databases and grey literature sources. RESULTS: Out of 28 654 citations retrieved, five studies met our inclusion criteria. A cluster randomized controlled trial reported higher probability of nevirapine uptake at the labor wards implementing HIV testing and structured nevirapine adherence assessment (RRR 1.37, bootstrapped 95% CI, 1.04-1.77. A stepped wedge design study showed marked improvement in antiretroviral therapy (ART enrolment (44.4% versus 25.3%, p<0.001 and initiation (32.9% versus 14.4%, p<0.001 in integrated care, but the median gestational age of ART initiation (27.1 versus 27.7 weeks, p = 0.4, ART duration (10.8 versus 10.0 weeks, p = 0.3 or 90 days ART retention (87.8% versus 91.3%, p = 0.3 did not differ significantly. A cohort study reported no significant difference either in the ART coverage (55% versus 48% versus 47%, p = 0.29 or eight weeks of ART duration before the delivery (50% versus 42% versus 52%; p = 0.96 between integrated, proximal and distal partially integrated care. Two before and after studies assessed the impact of integration on HIV testing uptake in antenatal care. The first study reported that significantly more women received information on PMTCT (92% versus 77%, p<0.001, were tested (76% versus 62%, p<0.001 and learned their HIV status (66% versus 55%, p<0.001 after integration. The second study also reported significant increase in HIV testing uptake after integration (98.8% versus 52.6%, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Limited, non-generalizable evidence supports the effectiveness of integrated PMTCT programs. More research measuring coverage and

  4. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission into maternal health services in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in facilities providing services for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and reproductive health (RH) in Senegal. The survey, conducted from August through November, 2014, comprised five parts : a literature review to assess the place of this integration in the health policies, standards, and protocols in effect in Senegal; an analysis by direct observation of attitudes and practices of 25 healthcare providers at 5 randomly-selected obstetrics and gynecology departments representative of different levels of the health pyramid; a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes of 10 providers about the integration of PMTCT services into MNCH/RH facilities; interviews to collect the opinions of 70 clients, including 16 HIV-positive, about the quality of PMTCT services they received; and a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and opinions of 14 policy-makers/managers of health programs focusing on mothers and children about this integration. The literature review revealed several constraints impeding this integration : the policy documents, standards, and protocols of each of the programs involved do not clearly indicate the modalities of this integration; the programs are housed in two different divisions while the national Program against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus reports directly to the Prime Minister; program operations remains generally vertical; the resources for the different programs are not sufficiently shared; there is no integrated training module covering integrated management of pregnancy and delivery; and supervision for each of the different programs is organized separately.The observation of the providers supporting women during pregnancy, during childbirth, and in the postpartum period, showed an effort to integrate PMTCT into the MNCH/RH services delivered daily to clients. But this desire is hampered by many

  5. [Educational intervention for preventing unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases among teenagers in the city of Toledo, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas Pérez, Sonsoles; Fernández Martínez, Beatriz; Méndez Muñoz, Paloma; León Martín, M Teresa; Fábrega Alarcón, Carmen; Villarín Castro, Alejandro; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Oscar; de Quirós Lorenzana, Rodrigo Bernaldo; Fortuny Tasias, Ana; López de Castro, Francisco; Fernández Rodríguez, Olga

    2005-01-01

    No-one doubts the need of effectively providing teenagers with information about birth control and sexually-transmitted diseases. This study is aimed at evaluating the results of an educational intervention related to these matters. Before-and-after study of an educational intervention (based on lectures and handing out documentation) without a control group. A questionnaire was passed out before and after the intervention to assess changes in knowledge and attitudes of the 4th-year Compulsory Secondary Education students at five schools in Toledo. The questionnaire was answered by 238 of the 268 students. The average age was 15.59. A total of 54.66% were females. In all, 24.03% had had some sexual relation. The birth control method used most often was the condom (98.24%). The girls more refuse more unprotected relations (76.5% vs. 48.6%; pbirth control methods and AIDS transmission and a more positive attitude regarding HIV.

  6. A Thematic Analysis of the Impact of MY MASCULINITY HELPS as a Tool for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, Marc A; Conley, Abigail H; Foster, Dominique; Clark, Cory W

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of an educational documentary, MY MASCULINITY HELPS ( MMH), as a sexual violence prevention tool. MMH is a short (i.e., 31 min) educational documentary that explores the role of African American men and boys in the prevention of sexual violence. Participants ( N = 88) completed an electronic, qualitative questionnaire after viewing the documentary and data collected were analyzed and interpreted using thematic analysis. Findings from the study highlighted the power of documentary film to impact knowledge, beliefs, social norms related to masculinity and the role of African American men as allies, empowerment, and commitment to action. Implications of MMH as a prosocial bystander behavior intervention and educational tool are discussed.

  7. Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory in the Analysis of Preventive Behaviors to Address Biopsychosocial Impacts of Sexual Violence Among Street Children in YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Intan Noor Khalifah; Argyo Demartoto; Harsono Salimo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Street children are at high risk of sexual violence. Necessary measures should be undertaken to address deleterious biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyze the preventive behaviors to address biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence among street children in Yogyakarta using Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory.Subjects and Method: This study was qualitative descriptive with phenomenology approach. The key informants for this study included Hea...

  8. Prevention de la transmission mere enfant du VIH/SIDA au Chu de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La transmission Mère Enfant du VIH/SIDA est le mode de contamination essentielle des enfants dans les pays en développement. Objectif : Evaluer les résultats de la Prévention de la Transmission Mère-Enfant (PTME) du VIH au CHU-Kara. Méthode: Il s'est agi d'une étude rétrospective descriptive de juillet 2005 à Juin ...

  9. High prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus type 2 among homosexual men is caused by sexual transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D.; Hovenkamp, E.; Dukers, N. H.; Renwick, N.; Kersten, M. J.; Goudsmit, J.; Coutinho, R. A.; Miedema, F.; van Oers, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection is highly prevalent among homosexual men, the prevalence of EBV type 2 was studied among homosexual and heterosexual white men who were at high and low risk for sexually transmitted diseases; these data were correlated with sexual

  10. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  11. Suggested Methods for Preventing Core Saturation Instability in HVDC Transmission Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Ian

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis a study of the HVDC related phenomenon core saturation instability and methods to prevent this phenomenon is performed. It is reason to believe that this phenomenon caused disconnection of the Skagerrak HVDC link 10 August 1993. Internationally, core saturation instability has been reported at several HVDC schemes and thorough complex studies of the phenomenon has been performed. This thesis gives a detailed description of the phenomenon and suggest some interesting methods to prevent the development of it. Core saturation instability and its consequences can be described in a simplified way as follows: It is now assumed that a fundamental harmonic component is present in the DC side current. Due to the coupling between the AC side and the DC side of the HVDC converter, a subsequent second harmonic positive-sequence current and DC currents will be generated on the AC side. The DC currents will cause saturation in the converter transformers. This will cause the magnetizing current to also have a second harmonic positive-sequence component. If a high second harmonic impedance is seen from the commutation bus, a high positive-sequence second harmonic component will be present in the commutation voltages. This will result in a relatively high fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage. If the fundamental frequency impedance at the DC side is relatively low the fundamental component in the DC side current may become larger than it originally was. In addition the HVDC control system may contribute to the fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage, and in this way cause a system even more sensitive to core saturation instability. The large magnetizing currents that eventually will flow on the AC side cause large zero-sequence currents in the neutral conductors of the AC transmission lines connected to the HVDC link. This may result in disconnection of the lines. Alternatively, the harmonics in the large magnetizing currents may cause

  12. How Community and Peer Perceptions Promote College Students' Pro-Social Bystander Actions to Prevent Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L; Rizzo, Andrew J; Bencosme, Yamilex; Cares, Alison C; Moynihan, Mary M

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of sexual violence crimes on U.S. college campuses is prompting institutions of higher education to increasingly invest in centers to support survivors and programs to prevent the violence before it happens. Understanding bystanders to sexual violence and what may motivate them to step in and help is a promising prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to understand how potential active bystanders' (first-year college students) perceptions of community (including a sense of one's influence in the community and positive peer norms for helping) and individual beliefs about self (including sense of responsibility and self-efficacy) affect their self-reports of performing bystander behavior to address sexual violence risks. Participants were 948 students at two different universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, mostly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. Regression and path analysis quantitative results suggest that individual-level characteristics may mediate some of the impact that community-level norms and perceptions have on bystander outcomes, explaining some of the mixed findings in previous research. Prevention strategies should work to change community norms and perceptions of mattering and perceptions of community influence in addition to the more traditional focus on individual-level violence specific attitudes.

  13. The limitations of 'Black MSM' as a category: Why gender, sexuality, and desire still matter for social and biomedical HIV prevention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G; Parker, Caroline; Wilson, Patrick A; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    The USA faces disproportionate and increasing HIV incidence rates among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). New biomedical technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been developed to address their HIV risk. Very little consideration, however, has been given to the diversity obscured by 'BMSM' as a category, to how this diversity relates to men's sexual partnering strategies, or to the relevance of these issues for new HIV prevention methods. We conducted a community-based ethnography from June 2013 to May 2014 documenting factors that affect the acceptance of and adherence to PrEP among BMSM. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM and 17 community stakeholders, and participant observation. To demonstrate the diversity of social identities, we present a taxonomy of indigenous categories organised along the axes of sexual identity, sexual positioning, and gender performance. We analyse how HIV prevention strategies, such as PrEP, may be more effective if programmes consider how gender, sexuality, and sexual desire shape sexual partnering strategies. This article underlines the importance of attending to the diversity of sexual and social subjectivities among BMSM, of bringing the study of sexuality back into HIV prevention, and of integrating biomedical prevention approaches into community-based programmes.

  14. Children's Response to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: A Study of the Spiderman Comic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1987-01-01

    Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)

  15. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  16. Preparing to Prevent: Conflict-Related Sexual Violence Mitigation Scenario-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-26

    violent acts of a sexual nature, including rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, mutilation, indecent...marginalization, barriers to economic and political participation, forced prostitution , indentured status, genital mutilation, forced marriages...a sustainable economy . Regardless of their primary intended purpose, patrols and other operations should reduce vulnerabilities and threats related

  17. A case of sexual abuse by a traditional faith healer: are there potential preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.

  18. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  19. Sexual Safety Planning as an HIV Prevention Strategy for Survivors of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jill; Núñez, Ana; Spencer, Susan; Wolf, Judith; Robertson-James, Candace

    2016-06-01

    Victims of domestic violence (DV) are not only subject to physical and emotional abuse but may also be at increased risk for less recognized dangers from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Because of the close link between DV and sexual risk, women need to be educated about the consequences of acquiring a life-threatening sexually transmitted infection, risk reduction measures, and how to access appropriate HIV services for diagnosis and treatment. It is therefore critical for DV workers to receive sufficient training about the link between DV and HIV risk so that sexual safety planning can be incorporated into activities with their clients in the same way as physical safety plans. In this article, we discuss how the Many Hands Working Together project provides interactive training for workers in DV and DV-affiliated agencies to increase their knowledge about HIV and teach sexual safety planning skills to achieve HIV risk reduction.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mother-to-child transmission and prevention: successes and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, M; Scarlatti, G

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that an additional 370 000 new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occurred in children in 2009, mainly through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Intrapartum transmission contributes to approximately 20-25% of infections, in utero transmission to 5-10% and postnatal transmission to an additional 10-15% of cases. MTCT accounts for only a few hundred infected newborns in those countries in which services are established for voluntary counselling and testing of pregnant women, and a supply of antiretroviral drugs is available throughout pregnancy with recommendations for elective Caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding. The single-dose nevirapine regimen has provided the momentum to initiate MTCT programmes in many resource-limited countries; however, regimens using a combination of antiretroviral drugs are needed also to effectively reduce transmission via breastfeeding. 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. Project Date SMART: a Dating Violence (DV) and Sexual Risk Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls with Prior DV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J; Joppa, Meredith; Barker, David; Collibee, Charlene; Zlotnick, Caron; Brown, Larry K

    2018-05-01

    This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing dating violence and sexual risk behavior in a sample of adolescent girls (ages 14-17) with prior exposure to physical dating violence (DV). One hundred and nine girls were randomly assigned to Date SMART (Skills to Manage Aggression in Relationships for Teens) or a Knowledge-only (KO) comparison group. Both intervention arms consisted of six, weekly 2-h sessions and one "booster" session 6 weeks later. Based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapy, the Date SMART intervention was designed to target common underlying skills deficits linked to both DV and sexual risk behavior in adolescent females: depression, self-regulation deficits, and interpersonal skills deficits. Assessments were administered at four time points (baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months). The Date SMART group was effective as reducing sexual DV involvement across the 9-month follow-up period. Both groups evidenced clinically meaningful reductions in physical, emotional, and digital DV involvement, total time in dating relationships, as well as reductions in depression. Findings indicate that delivering a DV and sexual risk prevention intervention to DV-affected adolescent girls is feasible and well-received. Furthermore, a skills-based approach that addresses the co-occurrence of DV and sexual risk behavior may be particularly useful for promoting reductions of sexual DV among high-risk adolescent girls. A future, large-scale trial with an inactive comparison condition is needed to evaluate the efficacy of Date SMART further. Clinical Trials, NCT01326195, and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  2. Preventing Sexual Violence Through Bystander Intervention: Attitudes, Behaviors, Missed Opportunities, and Barriers to Intervention Among Australian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Rachel; Cale, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities. Promisingly, students reported high levels of intentions to intervene in situations where there was a risk of sexual violence and reported relatively few missed opportunities to do so when these situations did occur. Intervention behaviors varied by important demographic characteristics such as gender, age, attitudes toward sexual violence, and the nature of the situation. Younger female students, with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, who had previously engaged in bystander intervention behaviors were more likely to report intentions to intervene in future risky situations, and female international students reported fewer missed opportunities for intervention. The most common barrier to intervention for identified missed opportunities was a failure to recognize situations as having a potential risk for sexual violence, and students were most likely to intervene in situations when the opportunity to help a friend in distress arose. This study provides some preliminary empirical evidence about bystander intervention against sexual violence among Australian university students, and identifies unique contexts for intervention and what current barriers to intervention may be.

  3. Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission Prevención de la transmisión perinatal de HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S. Duran

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the impact of strategies to reduce HIV-1 vertical transmission on a cohort of pregnant women and evaluate toxicity related to antiretroviral (ARV therapy and prevalence of birth defects. In this observational, retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study, we have reviewed the data base and clinical charts from a cohort of 351 pregnant women with HIV infection admitted to a public hospital in Buenos Aires from April 1994 to August 2003. Eighty percent of women were infected by sexual transmission. Diagnosis of HIV infection was performed before pregnancy in 38.5% of cases; 241 patients received some kind of ARV therapy, combined therapy was administered in 123 of cases. The overall transmission rate was 9.6%, and antiretroviral therapy was the most significant factor associated with the transmission rate. HIV transmission odds were 0.04 for any ARV treatment versus no therapy. No cases of HIV transmission were observed among women given combination ARV therapy. More prevalent secondary effects associated to ARV therapy were anemia, hypercholesterolemia, increase of ALP and hypertrigliceridemia. In conclusion, antiretroviral therapy, particularly combined ARV therapy, irrespective of type of delivery, was associated with a reduced risk of HIV transmission without an increase in toxicity or incidence of congenital abnormalities in the short-term.En este estudio se describe el impacto de las estrategias implementadas para reducir la trasmisión vertical de HIV en una cohorte de mujeres embarazadas. Se evaluó, también, la toxicidad relacionada a la terapia antirretroviral y la prevalencia de malformaciones congénitas. Se revisaron, retrospectivamente, las historias clínicas y la base de datos de 351 mujeres embarazadas, con infección por HIV, admitidas en un hospital público de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, entre abril de 1994 y agosto de 2003. Se obtuvieron datos completos de 351 pacientes. El 80% de las mujeres adquirieron la

  4. A systems biology approach to predictive developmental neurotoxicity of a larvicide used in the prevention of Zika virus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine; Taboureau, Olivier; Grandjean, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The need to prevent developmental brain disorders has led to an increased interest in efficient neurotoxicity testing. When an epidemic of microcephaly occurred in Brazil, Zika virus infection was soon identified as the likely culprit. However, the pathogenesis appeared to be complex, and a larvi......The need to prevent developmental brain disorders has led to an increased interest in efficient neurotoxicity testing. When an epidemic of microcephaly occurred in Brazil, Zika virus infection was soon identified as the likely culprit. However, the pathogenesis appeared to be complex...... the potential developmental neurotoxicity, and we applied this method to examine the larvicide pyriproxyfen widely used in the prevention of Zika virus transmission. Our computational model covered a wide range of possible pathways providing mechanistic hypotheses between pyriproxyfen and neurological disorders...

  5. The Effects of Peer Education on The Behaviors Regarding HIV/AIDS Transmission Prevention Among Street Children in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Meilianingsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All adolescents are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, including street children. The behaviors of street children are much influenced by their peers. Peer education can enhance knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and skills and empower children to be responsible for protecting the health of themselves and their peers (Wahyuni, 2012. This study aims to determine the effects of peer health education on the HIV/AIDS Preventive Behaviors of Street Children in Bandung City in 2015. The research employed a quasi-experimental method with the pre-post-test control group design. The sample was 26 people for the treatment group and 26 people for the control group, respectively, taken with purposive sampling technique. Interventions began with peer educator training and then the peer educators provided health education on HIV/AIDS transmission prevention through small group discussions for 2 days. The data in this study were not normally distributed. The paired or dependent data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test, while the unpaired or independent data using Mann-Whitney test. The results of the research show that peer health education had effects on the knowledge and attitudes of the street children (p values 0.00 and 0.00, respectively; however, there was no effect of peer health education on the actions regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among the street children (p value 0.09. Hence, it is advisable to conduct health promotion with peer health education method in an effort of increasing knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among street children that is sustainable and integrated with the existing programs at puskesmas (Community Health Center.

  6. The knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention among Chinese children with hearing loss in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Buyi; Chen, Jingqi; Jin, Yichen; Zhang, Wenjing; Feng, Yanan; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of any child sexual abuse (CSA) experience before the age of 16 years ranges from 10.2 to 35.2% in China, 1-5 but there has been no research so far exploring the level of awareness of CSA prevention and self-protection skills among Chinese children with hearing loss. The school based survey examines the CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills in Chinese children with hearing loss. Fifty-one students (30 boys, 21 girls) from 10 to 16 years old participated in the study. Children's CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills were tested by using anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was mainly designed based on previous Chinese CSA research questionnaires, the Personal Safety Questionnaire, and the 'What If' Situations Test (WIST). There were ten questions assessing the knowledge of CSA but none of the children could correctly answer all and seventy percent of the students could not answer more than five questions correctly. Only three students got the maximum skills score. If sexual abuse occurs, about fifty two percent of the children would report it to trusted adults and most of them would report it to their relatives. Girls received significantly higher scores than boys. Chinese children with hearing loss lack knowledge regarding child sexual abuse and the way to protect themselves. There is an urgent need to develop CSA prevention programs in the school for children with hearing loss in China. Parental training and parent-child interaction on CSA prevention should be developed and promoted as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive prevention: reducing HIV transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalichman, Seth C

    2005-01-01

    ... of New South Wales, Australia Rise Goldstein, Center for HIV Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services, Department of Psychiatry University of California, Los Angeles Lauren K. Gooden,...

  8. Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Autonomy and Postpartum STD Prevention Among Young Couples: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S

    2018-03-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. Sexual Activity Without Condoms and Risk of HIV Transmission in Serodifferent Couples When the HIV-Positive Partner Is Using Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodger, Alison J.; Cambiano, Valentina; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro; Collins, Simon; van Lunzen, Jan; Corbelli, Giulio Maria; Estrada, Vicente; Geretti, Anna Maria; Beloukas, Apostolos; Asboe, David; Viciana, Pompeyo; Gutiérrez, Félix; Clotet, Bonaventura; Pradier, Christian; Gerstoft, Jan; Weber, Rainer; Westling, Katarina; Wandeler, Gilles; Prins, Jan M.; Rieger, Armin; Stoeckle, Marcel; Kümmerle, Tim; Bini, Teresa; Ammassari, Adriana; Gilson, Richard; Krznaric, Ivanka; Ristola, Matti; Zangerle, Robert; Handberg, Pia; Antela, Antonio; Allan, Sris; Phillips, Andrew N.; Lundgren, Jens; Pompeyo, V.; Trastoy, M.; Palacio, R.; Gutiérrez, F.; Masiá, M.; Padilla, S.; Robledano, C.; Clotet, B.; Coll, P.; Peña, J.; Estrada, V.; Rodrigo, M.; Santiago, E.; Rivero, A.; Antela, A.; Losada, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the rate of

  10. Sexual Activity Without Condoms and Risk of HIV Transmission in Serodifferent Couples When the HIV-Positive Partner Is Using Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodger, Alison J; Cambiano, Valentina; Bruun, Tina

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ra...

  11. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the use of IMCI guidelines in children presenting with diarrhea at Ghindae Hospital. Methods: The ... guidelines, the rates of vertically transmission of HIV/. AIDS has been decimated to less ... to assess the effect of PMTCT by comparing the data before the start of PMTCT in ...

  12. Dual and triple therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine outcomes of pregnant women and their infants at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa, where dual and triple therapy to reduce HIV vertical transmission have been used since 2004 despite national guidelines recommending simpler regimens. Method. We retrospectively examined records of all ...

  13. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; J. Webb; J. Hogge; T. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Unfortunately, no studies address the question of...

  14. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; T. Wallace; J. Hogge

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Vegetation clearance standards for overhead...

  15. Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne D; Diaz, Rafael M; Flanders, William D; Goodman, Michael; Hill, Andrew N; Holtgrave, David; Malow, Robert; McClellan, William M

    2008-07-16

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk for HIV infection. Program planners and policy makers need descriptions of interventions and quantitative estimates of intervention effects to make informed decisions concerning prevention funding and research. The number of intervention strategies for MSM that have been examined with strong research designs has increased substantially in the past few years. 1. To locate and describe outcome studies evaluating the effects of behavioral HIV prevention interventions for MSM.2. To summarize the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing unprotected anal sex.3. To identify study characteristics associated with effectiveness.4. To identify gaps and indicate future research, policy, and practice needs. We searched electronic databases, current journals, manuscripts submitted by researchers, bibliographies of relevant articles, conference proceedings, and other reviews for published and unpublished reports from 1988 through December 2007. We also asked researchers working in HIV prevention about new and ongoing studies. Studies were considered in scope if they examined the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing risk for HIV or STD transmission among MSM. We reviewed studies in scope for criteria of outcome relevance (measurement of at least one of a list of behavioral or biologic outcomes, e.g., unprotected sex or incidence of HIV infections) and methodologic rigor (randomized controlled trials or certain strong quasi-experimental designs with comparison groups). We used fixed and random effects models to summarize rate ratios (RR) comparing intervention and control groups with respect to count outcomes (number of occasions of or partners for unprotected anal sex), and corresponding prevalence ratios (PR) for dichotomous outcomes (any unprotected anal sex vs. none). We used published formulas to convert effect sizes and their variances for count and dichotomous outcomes where necessary. We accounted

  16. Executive summary of the Consensus Statement on monitoring HIV: pregnancy, birth, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo Rodríguez, Rosa; Muñoz Galligo, Eloy; Iribarren, José Antonio; Domingo Pedrol, Pere; Leyes García, María; Maiques Montesinos, Vicente; Miralles Martín, Pilar; Noguera Julian, Antoni; Ocampo Hernandez, Antonio; Peres Bares, María Lourdes; López Rojano, Marta; Suy Franch, Anna; Viñuela Beneitez, M Carmen; González Tomé, María Isabel

    2014-05-01

    The main objective in the management of HIV-infected pregnant women is prevention of mother-to-child transmission; therefore, it is essential to provide universal antiretroviral treatment, regardless of CD4 count. All pregnant women must receive adequate information and undergo HIV serology testing at the first visit. If the serological status is unknown at the time of delivery, or in the immediate postpartum, HIV serology testing has to be performed as soon as possible. In this document, recommendations are made regarding the health of the mother and from the perspective of minimizing mother-to-child transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Social support, self-esteem and depression: Relationship with risk for sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS y el VIH son importantes problemas de salud que afectan a los adolescentes. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones entre depresión, autoestima, apoyo social percibido y el riesgo en las relaciones sexuales en función del sexo. En este estudio ex post facto participaron 1.005 adolescentes de ambos sexos, de edades comprendidas los 14 y 18 años. Los adolescentes cumplimentaron en las aulas de los centros de enseñanza secundaria un conjunto de cuestionarios que evaluaban depresión, autoestima, apoyo social percibido, conducta sexual y aspectos sociodemográficos. Los resultados mostraron que en los varones, la autoestima predecía un mayor riesgo vaginal, la depresión se relacionaba con un mayor riesgo sexual vaginal, anal y oral y el apoyo percibido de la familia predecía un menor riesgo vaginal y anal. En mujeres, se halló que la autoestima se asociaba con un menor riesgo en el sexo anal y el apoyo percibido de los amigos predecía un menor riesgo sexual anal y oral. Se destaca la importancia de la familia y los amigos en la prevención de las ITS/VIH así como la consideración de las diferencias sexuales.

  18. 'With the best of reasons': cervical cancer prevention policy and the suppression of sexual risk factor information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V; Gavey, N

    1999-05-01

    Cervical cancer is a very common but largely preventable cancer. Despite considerable medical knowledge of risk and even causal factors, possible social-behavioural strategies for the primary prevention of cervical cancer have rarely been explored as a viable addition to cervical screening. We examine key policy documents and interview 18 key informants on cervical cancer prevention in New Zealand. Using a discourse analytic approach we identify and discuss two discourses (which we have labelled 'protectionism' and 'right to know') which inform positions on whether or not women should be provided with information regarding sexual risk factors for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer prevention policy in New Zealand, which largely reflects a protectionist discourse, suppresses sexual risk factor information and focuses exclusively on cervical screening. The right to know discourse informs an alternative position, which contends that women have a right to be informed about risk factors. We discuss these positions in relation to questions about women's rights, the principle of informed choice, and attempts to judge what is in women's 'best interests.'

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV-1 transmission in France (1999-2014) and impact of targeted prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Essat, Asma; Frange, Pierre; Smith, Davey M; Delaugerre, Constance; Barin, Francis; Ghosn, Jade; Pialoux, Gilles; Robineau, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Goujard, Cécile; Meyer, Laurence; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-21

    Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from individuals with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) enrolled in France in the ANRS PRIMO C06 cohort over 15 years. Sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, biological and pol sequence data from 1356 patients were collected between 1999 and 2014. Network analysis was performed to infer genetic relationships, i.e. clusters of transmission, between HIV-1 sequences. Bayesian coalescent-based methods were used to examine the temporal and spatial dynamics of identified clusters from different regions in France. We also evaluated the use of network information to target prevention efforts. Participants were mostly Caucasian (85.9%) and men (86.7%) who reported sex with men (MSM, 71.4%). Overall, 387 individuals (28.5%) were involved in clusters: 156 patients (11.5%) in 78 dyads and 231 participants (17%) in 42 larger clusters (median size: 4, range 3-41). Compared to individuals with single PHI (n = 969), those in clusters were more frequently men (95.9 vs 83%, p turnaround time for sample processing, targeting prevention efforts based on phylogenetic monitoring may be an efficient way to deliver prevention interventions but would require near real time targeted interventions on the identified index cases and their partners.

  20. 'Men who use the Internet to seek sex with men': Rethinking sexuality in the transnational context of HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymanov, R; Huang, Y-T

    2016-01-01

    MISM (i.e. men who use the Internet to seek sex with men) has emerged in public health literature as a population in need of HIV prevention. In this paper, we argue for the importance of rethinking the dominant notions of the MISM category to uncover its ethnocentric and heteronormative bias. To accomplish this, we conducted a historical, epistemological and transnational analysis of social sciences and health research literature (n = 146) published on MISM between 2000 and 2014. We critically unravel the normative underpinnings of 'westernised' knowledge upon which the MISM category is based. We argue that the essentialist approach of Western scholarship can homogenise MISM by narrowly referring to behavioural aspects of sexuality, thereby rendering multiple sexualities/desires invisible. Furthermore, we argue that a Eurocentric bias, which underlies the MISM category, may hinder our awareness of the transnational dynamics of sexual minority communities, identities, histories and cultures. We propose the conceptualisation of MISM as hybrid cultural subjects that go beyond transnational and social boundaries, and generate conclusions about the future of the MISM category for HIV prevention and health promotion.

  1. Engendering healthy masculinities to prevent sexual violence: Rationale for and design of the Manhood 2.0 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Culyba, Alison J; Feliz, Nayck B; Anderson, Heather; Torres, Irving; Zelazny, Sarah; Bamwine, Patricia; Boateng, Adwoa; Cirba, Benjamin; Detchon, Autumn; Devine, Danielle; Feinstein, Zoe; Macak, Justin; Massof, Michael; Miller-Walfish, Summer; Morrow, Sarah Elizabeth; Mulbah, Paul; Mulwa, Zabi; Paglisotti, Taylor; Ripper, Lisa; Ports, Katie A; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Garg, Aapta; Kato-Wallace, Jane; Pulerwitz, Julie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-05-23

    Violence against women and girls is an important global health concern. Numerous health organizations highlight engaging men and boys in preventing violence against women as a potentially impactful public health prevention strategy. Adapted from an international setting for use in the US, "Manhood 2.0" is a "gender transformative" program that involves challenging harmful gender and sexuality norms that foster violence against women while promoting bystander intervention (i.e., giving boys skills to interrupt abusive behaviors they witness among peers) to reduce the perpetration of sexual violence (SV) and adolescent relationship abuse (ARA). Manhood 2.0 is being rigorously evaluated in a community-based cluster-randomized trial in 21 lower resource Pittsburgh neighborhoods with 866 adolescent males ages 13-19. The comparison intervention is a job readiness training program which focuses on the skills needed to prepare youth for entering the workforce, including goal setting, accountability, resume building, and interview preparation. This study will provide urgently needed information about the effectiveness of a gender transformative program, which combines healthy sexuality education, gender norms change, and bystander skills to interrupt peers' disrespectful and harmful behaviors to reduce SV/ARA perpetration among adolescent males. In this manuscript, we outline the rationale for and evaluation design of Manhood 2.0. Clinical Trials #: NCT02427061. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 20499 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... greatest risk of rape and sexual assault, and many victims, male and female, first experience abuse during... depression, fear, and suicidal feelings in the months and years following an assault, and some face health...

  3. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Climate DEOCS 4.1 Construct Validity Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIC INITIATIVES Directed by Dr. Daniel P. McDonald, Executive Director 366...address an Unrestricted Report of sexual assault and the extent to which leadership would support victims and encourage their recovery. A healthy... leadership can help mitigate potential re-traumatization and may encourage other victims of sexual assault to make a report. The response climate

  4. Report to the President of the United States on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    mature, responsible, and trustworthy personnel to serve as unit SARCs and SAPR VAs. The Department created the D-SAACP Commander’s Guide107 to... trustworthy means to access support while maintaining confidentiality. Summary: Reports of sexual assault increased by 8% from FY13 to FY14. Report to...occurrences during FY14. Case 1 Continental United States: Victim reported being sexually assaulted by Subject after a night of celebrating with her

  5. Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carmel; Tunney, Michael; Bradley, Marie C

    2013-11-19

    Nursing homes for older people provide an environment likely to promote the acquisition and spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), putting residents at increased risk of colonisation and infection. It is recognised that infection prevention and control strategies are important in preventing and controlling MRSA transmission. To determine the effects of infection prevention and control strategies for preventing the transmission of MRSA in nursing homes for older people. In August 2013, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE (In-process and Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, Web of Science and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) website. Research in progress was sought through Current Clinical Trials, Gateway to Reseach, and HSRProj (Health Services Research Projects in Progress). All randomised and controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of infection prevention and control interventions in nursing homes for older people were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently reviewed the results of the searches. Another review author appraised identified papers and undertook data extraction which was checked by a second review author. For this third update only one study was identified, therefore it was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 32 nursing homes evaluated the effect of an infection control education and training programme on MRSA prevalence. The primary outcome was MRSA prevalence in residents and staff, and a change in infection control audit scores which measured adherence to infection control standards. At the end of the 12 month study, there was no change in MRSA

  6. Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carmel; Smith, Michael; Tunney, Michael; Bradley, Marie C

    2011-12-07

    Nursing homes for older people provide an environment likely to promote the acquisition and spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), putting residents at increased risk of colonisation and infection. It is recognised that infection prevention and control strategies are important in preventing and controlling MRSA transmission. To determine the effects of infection prevention and control strategies for preventing the transmission of MRSA in nursing homes for older people. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched May 27th, 2011). We also searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1950 to April Week 2 2011), OVID MEDLINE (In-process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, April 26th 2011) Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 16), EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to April 21st 2011), DARE (1992 to 2011, week 16), Web of Science (1981 to May 2011), and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) website (1988 to May 2011). Research in progress was sought through Current Clinical Trials (www.controlled-trials.com), Medical Research Council Research portfolio, and HSRPRoj (current USA projects). All randomised and controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of infection prevention and control interventions in nursing homes for older people were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently reviewed the results of the searches. Another review author appraised identified papers and undertook data extraction which was checked by a second review author. For this second update only one study was identified, therefore it was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 32 nursing homes evaluated the effect of an infection control education and training programme on MRSA prevalence. The primary outcome was MRSA prevalence in residents and staff, and a change in infection

  7. Evaluation of 4 weeks' neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis as a component of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in a resource-rich setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, Wendy

    2011-05-01

    In resource-rich settings, universal adoption of a 4- rather than 6-week neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis regimen could reduce toxicity and results in cost savings, provided prevention of mother-to-child transmission program effectiveness is not compromised.

  8. Dengue knowledge in indoor dengue patients from low socioeconomic class; etiology, symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, N.; Ahmed, W.; Seetlani, N.K.; Farhat, S.

    2018-01-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as an emerging public health issue during last decade bearing significant morbidity and economic burden particularly in third world countries. Current study aims to assess various domains of knowledge of indoor dengue patients. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Medicine dept. Rawal Institute of Health Sciences Islamabad and BBH Rawalpindi over 6 months. One hundred and twenty-five adult indoor confirmed cases of dengue from lower socioeconomic class were included after ethical approval. The 25-item dengue knowledge questionnaire including aetiology, symptoms, modes of transmission and prevention of dengue was filled. Results: Among 125 cases (77% males and 23% females), mean age was 30+-13 years. Mean knowledge score was 11+-5 points; with excellent knowledge in 6%, good knowledge (22%), moderate knowledge (23%), fair knowledge (34%) and poor knowledge (17%). Mosquito being a vector of dengue was identified by 78%, with peak time in afternoon (48%). Symptoms identified include fever (95%), headache (55%), muscle pain (44%), rash (33%), retro-orbital pain (32%), joint pains (28%) and abdominal pain (18%). Flies and ticks aren't the vectors of dengue according to 61% and 74% respectively, special mosquito is vector (54%), i.e., Aedes Aegypti (18%) that breeds in standing water (53%). Preventive measures identified were netting (56%), insecticide sprays (54%), covering water containers (38%), removing standing water (36%), mosquito repellents (17%), cutting down bushes (22%) and pouring chemicals in standing water (18%). Conclusion: Our patients from lower socioeconomic class, though aware of vector and mode of transmission, have insufficient knowledge of prevention and vector control measures. There is need to strengthen dengue awareness through community based programs, social media, schools and health care centres for high risk people well before the expected epidemic season about mode of transmission

  9. Cascade of access to interventions to prevent HIV mother to child transmission in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine S. Pires Araujo

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Access to the full package of interventions for the prevention of HIV vertical transmission was low, with no significant trend of improvement over the years. The vertical transmission rates observed were higher than those found in reference services in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro and in the richest regions of the country.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in pregnancy: a review of the guidelines for preventing mother-to-child transmission in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwa, Iskandar; Khong, Su Yen

    2012-12-01

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) is a devastating consequence of HIV infection during pregnancy and is largely preventable. Evidence-based interventions such as universal antenatal screening, provision of antiretroviral therapy, delivery by elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding have ensured that the rates of MTCT remain low in Malaysia. This review discusses the most recent advances in the management of HIV infection in pregnancy with emphasis on antiretroviral treatment strategies and obstetric care in a middle income country.

  11. Dutch guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of highly resistant microorganisms (HRMO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans-Vandenbergh, M.F.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Voss, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hospitals are faced with the increasingly rapid emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. US and European guidelines on the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals were, until recently, mainly directed at methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In

  12. Knowledge and perception of young adults in Nigeria on effectiveness of condom use in prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Fulton, John

    2017-04-01

    Although sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global health problem affecting every region of the world, the higher prevalence and mortality rate of STIs in developing countries of the world, like Nigeria, make them serious public health issues in this region. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and perception of young adults in Nigeria on the role of condom (both male and female condoms) as a preventive measure against STIs during heterosexual and homosexual intercourse. Data was collected from participants selected from the northern and southern Nigeria using self-administered questionnaire specifically designed for this study. Knowledge of condom efficacy in STI prevention was satisfactory. However, knowledge and practice of the correct use of condom was poor. Only 47.1% of the 102 participants in this study reported correct condom use of wearing condoms before staring intercourse and removing condoms after ejaculation. As a strategy to include the experiences, knowledge and perception of men who have sex with men, this study asked the question on condom use during anal sex. Only 24.4% of the male participants indicated they have never had anal sex while for females, the percentage was more than half (53.5%). Condom use during anal sex was low with only 20.6% of participants reporting condom use during anal sex. Negative perceptions about condom use - such as that condom use promotes sexual promiscuity, and not using condoms with steady sexual partners - were significant in this study. Also, condom use errors were common in this study. There is a wide gap in knowledge of correct condom use in this population. There is need for interventions that address the issue of condom use during anal and same-sex sexual intercourse in this population.

  13. Importance of Women's Relative Socioeconomic Status within Sexual Relationships in Communication about Safer Sex and HIV/STI Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-06-01

    The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention.

  14. Cost Analysis of an Intervention to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Chowers

    Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia.We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel.An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600.A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country.

  15. Cost Analysis of an Intervention to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowers, Michal; Carmeli, Yehuda; Shitrit, Pnina; Elhayany, Asher; Geffen, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia. We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel. An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600. A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country.

  16. Persistence of ZIKV-RNA in the cellular fraction of semen is accompanied by a surrogate-marker of viral replication. Diagnostic implications for sexual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biava, Mirella; Caglioti, Claudia; Castilletti, Concetta; Bordi, Licia; Carletti, Fabrizio; Colavita, Francesca; Quartu, Serena; Nicastri, Emanuele; Iannetta, Marco; Vairo, Francesco; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Taglietti, Fabrizio; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Lalle, Eleonora

    2018-01-01

    As asymptomatic infections represent 80% of ZIKV-infected individuals, sexual transmission is a rising concern. Recent studies highlighted a preferential association of ZIKV with the cellular fraction (CF) of different specimen types. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of ZIKV-RNA in different body fluids, focusing on semen specimens to assess the ZIKV-RNA content in either the unfractionated sample, its CF or seminal plasma (SP). In addition, to establish if the presence of ZIKV genome was associated with active virus replication, we measured the levels of negative-strand ZIKV-RNA. ZIKV total-RNA was detected in blood, urine and unfractionated semen, and neg-RNA in semen CF and SP samples longitudinally collected from two ZIKV-positive men followed at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani", Italy. In both patients, ZIKV total-RNA was detected in CF with ct values always lower than in the corresponding unfractionated samples, and was observed even in the CF from negative unfractionated semen samples. In Patient 2, neg-RNA was also detected in CF, suggesting ongoing viral replication. Our results demonstrate higher clinical sensitivity of CF as compared to whole semen testing, emphasizing the need to extend ZIKV-RNA testing to CF, to rule out virus presence and the possible risk of sexual transmission.

  17. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools' curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before ...

  18. Programme potential for the prevention of and response to sexual violence among female refugees: a literature review.

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    Robbers, Gianna Maxi Leila; Morgan, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Continuing international conflict has resulted in several million people seeking asylum in other countries each year, over half of whom are women. Their reception and security in overburdened camps, combined with limited information and protection, increases their risk and exposure to sexual violence (SV). This literature review explores the opportunities to address SV against female refugees, with a particular focus on low-resource settings. A systematic literature review of articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Databases including Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature from key refugee websites were searched. Studies were reviewed for quality and analysed according to the framework outlined in the UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence against Refugees. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 studies addressed prevention, 14 studies response and 8 addressed both. There are limited numbers of rigorously evaluated SV prevention and response interventions available, especially in the context of displacement. However, emerging evidence shows that placing a stronger emphasis on programmes in the category of engagement/participation and training/education has the potential to target underlying causes of SV. SV against female refugees is caused by factors including lack of information and gender inequality. This review suggests that SV interventions that engage community members in their design and delivery, address harmful gender norms through education and advocacy, and facilitate strong cooperation between stakeholders, could maximise the efficient use of limited resources.

  19. An exploratory study of Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality: Implications for sex education and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smerecnik Chris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1 discussions were polarized, 2 opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3 the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality.

  20. Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

    2000-0