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  1. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  2. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  3. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  4. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  5. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  6. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jim M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  7. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  8. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K.

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention. PMID:23552052

  9. Supporting Informed Decision Making in Prevention of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino MARTINS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and making the correct decision on the best health treatment or screening test option can become a difficult task. Therefore is important that the patients get all types of information appropriate to manage their health. Decision aids can be very useful when there is more than one reasonable option about a treatment or uncertain associated with screening tests. The decision aids tools help people to understand their clinical condition, through the description of the different options available. The purpose of this paper is to present the project “Supporting Informed Decision Making In Prevention of Prostate Cancer” (SIDEMP. This project is focused on the creation of a Web-based decision platform specifically directed to screening prostate cancer, that will support the patient in the process of making an informed decision

  10. Delivering prostate cancer prevention messages to the public: how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) effectively spread the word about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  11. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Shestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France. All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 29 patients underwent TURP 3 days before HIFU therapy; 2 69 did this 1 month before major surgery. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: 1 after ultrasound ablation, a urethral catheter was inserted for 10 days; 2 epicystostoma was applied, followed by its overlapping on day 3 postablation and spontaneous urination. The postoperative incidence of dysuria was estimated from subjective (complaints, voiding diary, and Inter-national Prostate Symptom Score and objective (uroflowmetry, small pelvic ultrasonography with determination of residual urine volume criteria.Results. In the patients who had undergone TURP one month before HIFU therapy, grades I–II urinary incontinence and urethral pros-tatic stricture occurred much less infrequently than in those who had undergone this maneuver 3 days prior to major surgery. Urinary in-continence and urethral prostatic stricture occurred 2-fold more frequently after TURP being carried out 3 days before HIFU therapy than after the urethral catheter being inserted. TURP performed one month before HIFU therapy showed no great difference in the incidence complications regardless of the type of bladder drainage.Conclusion. The short interval between TURP and HIFU therapy for PC increases the risk of postoperative dysuric events. The optimal time to perform TURP prior to HIFU therapy is 1 month.

  12. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Shestaev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France. All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 29 patients underwent TURP 3 days before HIFU therapy; 2 69 did this 1 month before major surgery. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: 1 after ultrasound ablation, a urethral catheter was inserted for 10 days; 2 epicystostoma was applied, followed by its overlapping on day 3 postablation and spontaneous urination. The postoperative incidence of dysuria was estimated from subjective (complaints, voiding diary, and Inter-national Prostate Symptom Score and objective (uroflowmetry, small pelvic ultrasonography with determination of residual urine volume criteria.Results. In the patients who had undergone TURP one month before HIFU therapy, grades I–II urinary incontinence and urethral pros-tatic stricture occurred much less infrequently than in those who had undergone this maneuver 3 days prior to major surgery. Urinary in-continence and urethral prostatic stricture occurred 2-fold more frequently after TURP being carried out 3 days before HIFU therapy than after the urethral catheter being inserted. TURP performed one month before HIFU therapy showed no great difference in the incidence complications regardless of the type of bladder drainage.Conclusion. The short interval between TURP and HIFU therapy for PC increases the risk of postoperative dysuric events. The optimal time to perform TURP prior to HIFU therapy is 1 month.

  13. [Economic and political aspects of prostate cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Zaleski, I

    2008-04-01

    Deciding on a health policy in practice means dedicating human and financial resources and prioritising spendings. The economic evaluation of prevention strategies attempts to establish a relationship between the medical benefit of prevention and its additional cost (or in some cases cost reduction) compared to no prevention. Decisions on reimbursing drugs, interventions or funding health programmes do not usually follow efficiency criteria which define economic rationality. Politics may for example decide to make prostate cancer a public health priority if mortality in a country or in some regions of the country appears to be excessively high. Economic rationality alone is not an appropriate factor on which to base a decision which may be purely political, reflecting the actual values of the society at a given point in time.

  14. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  15. Prevention of Prostate Cancer with Oleanane Synthetic Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in the TRAMP Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaohua; Deeb, Dorrah; Liu, Yongbo; Arbab, Ali S.; Divine, George W.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Gautam, Subhash C.

    2011-01-01

    2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), a synthetic analog of oleanolic acid, and its C28 methyl ester derivative (CDDO-Me), have shown potent antitumorigenic activity against a wide range of cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cells in vitro, and inhibited the development of liver and lung cancer in vivo. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of CDDO-Me in preventing the development and progression of prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. CDDO-Me inhibited the growth of murine TRAMPC-1 prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through the inhibition of antiapoptotic p-Akt, p-mTOR and NF-κB. Early intervention with CDDO-Me (7.5 mg/kg) initiated at five weeks of age for 20 wk inhibited the progression of the preneoplastic lesions (low-grade PIN and high-grade-PIN) to adenocarcinoma in the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) and ventral prostate (VP) lobes of TRAMP mice. Even delayed administration of CDDO-Me started at 12 wk of age for 12 wk inhibited the development of adenocarcimona of the prostate. Both early and late treatment with CDDO-Me inhibited the metastasis of tumor to the distant organs. Treatment with CDDO-Me inhibited the expression of prosurvival p-Akt and NF-κB in the prostate and knocking-down Akt in TRAMPC-1 tumor cells sensitized them to CDDO-Me. These findings indicated that Akt is a target for apoptoxicity in TRAMPC-1 cells in vitro and potentially a target of CDDO-Me for inhibition of prostate cancer in vivo

  16. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  17. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  18. Phytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, epigenetics, and prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Watson, Gregory; M Beaver, Laura; E Williams, David; H Dashwood, Roderick; Ho, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Follow-up studies have attributed this protective activity to the metabolic products of glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites produced by crucifers. The metabolic products of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, sulforaphane, and indole-3-carbinol respectively, have been the subject of intense investigation by cancer researchers. Sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol inhibit prostate cancer by both blocking initiation and suppressing prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Research has largely focused on the anti-initiation and cytoprotective effects of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol through induction of phases I and II detoxification pathways. With regards to suppressive activity, research has focused on the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol to antagonize cell signaling pathways known to be dysregulated in prostate cancer. Recent investigations have characterized the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol derivatives to modulate the activity of enzymes controlling the epigenetic status of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we will summarize the well-established, "classic" non-epigenetic targets of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, and highlight more recent evidence supporting these phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  19. Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in a High-Risk Screening Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David J.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ruth, Karen; Egleston, Brian L.; Chen, David Y.T.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Uzzo, Robert G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Clinical factors in addition to PSA have been evaluated to improve risk assessment for prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk calculator provides an assessment of prostate cancer risk based on age, PSA, race, prior biopsy, and family history. This study evaluated the risk calculator in a screening cohort of young, racially diverse, high-risk men with a low baseline PSA enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program. Patients and Methods Eligibility for PRAP include men ages 35-69 who are African-American, have a family history of prostate cancer, or have a known BRCA1/2 mutation. PCPT risk scores were determined for PRAP participants, and were compared to observed prostate cancer rates. Results 624 participants were evaluated, including 382 (61.2%) African-American men and 375 (60%) men with a family history of prostate cancer. Median age was 49.0 years (range 34.0-69.0), and median PSA was 0.9 (range 0.1-27.2). PCPT risk score correlated with prostate cancer diagnosis, as the median baseline risk score in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was 31.3%, versus 14.2% in patients not diagnosed with prostate cancer (p<0.0001). The PCPT calculator similarly stratified the risk of diagnosis of Gleason score ≥7 disease, as the median risk score was 36.2% in patients diagnosed with Gleason ≥7 prostate cancer versus 15.2% in all other participants (p<0.0001). Conclusion PCPT risk calculator score was found to stratify prostate cancer risk in a cohort of young, primarily African-American men with a low baseline PSA. These results support further evaluation of this predictive tool for prostate cancer risk assessment in high-risk men. PMID:19709072

  20. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  1. Prostate stromal cell telomere shortening is associated with risk of prostate cancer in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Christopher M; Gaonkar, Gaurav; Peskoe, Sarah B; Joshu, Corinne E; De Marzo, Angelo M; Lucia, M Scott; Goodman, Phyllis J; Lippman, Scott M; Thompson, Ian M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Meeker, Alan K

    2015-08-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleoproteins that help maintain chromosomal stability by inhibiting exonucleolytic degradation, prohibiting inappropriate homologous recombination, and preventing chromosomal fusions by suppressing double-strand break signals. We recently observed that men treated for clinically localized prostate cancer with shorter telomeres in their cancer-associated stromal cells, in combination with greater variation in cancer cell telomere lengths, were significantly more likely to progress to distant metastases, and die from their disease. Here, we hypothesized that shorter stromal cell telomere length would be associated with prostate cancer risk at time of biopsy. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed in normal-appearing stromal, basal epithelial, and luminal epithelial cells in biopsies from men randomized to the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Prostate cancer cases (N = 32) were either detected on a biopsy performed for cause or at the end of the study per trial protocol, and controls (N = 50), defined as negative for cancer on an end-of-study biopsy performed per trial protocol (e.g., irrespective of indication), were sampled. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between mean telomere length of the particular cell populations, cell-to-cell telomere length variability, and risk of prostate cancer. Men with short stromal cell telomere lengths (below median) had 2.66 (95% CI 1.04-3.06; P = 0.04) times the odds of prostate cancer compared with men who had longer lengths (at or above median). Conversely, we did not observe statistically significant associations for short telomere lengths in normal-appearing basal (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 0.86-5.39; P= 0 .10) or luminal (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.47-2.80; P = 0.77) cells. These findings suggest that telomere shortening in normal stromal cells is associated with prostate cancer risk. It is essential

  2. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  3. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Lewis SJ. Dietary supplements of soya flour lower serum testosterone concentrations and improve markers of oxidative stress in men. Eur J Clin Nutr...hormones in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Urology. 2004;64:510–5. 24. deVere White RW, Hackman RM, Soares SE, Beckett LA , Li Y, Sun B. Effects of a...Anderson KE. Increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrone but not 16alpha- hydroxyestrone in premenopausal women during a soya diet containing isoflavones

  4. Preventing Prostate Cancer Metastasis by Targeting Exosome Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    extensive and painful metastasis of the bone. We proposed compare the impact of exosomes derived from advanced stage prostate cancer on bone stromal cells...The revised report including additional figures, tables, and text, is attached below. 1. INTRODUCTION Bone metastasis is a painful and often lethal...protein interacting protein 2 X*** BG PABPC1 poly (A) binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 X X Inf X PABPC3 poly (A) binding protein, cytoplasmic 3 X

  5. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  6. Dietary factors and epigenetic regulation for prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily; Beaver, Laura M; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2011-11-01

    The role of epigenetic alterations in various human chronic diseases has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of disease susceptibility. In the field of cancer research, e.g., genetic abnormalities/mutations historically were viewed as primary underlying causes; however, epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression without affecting DNA sequence are now recognized as being of equal or greater importance for oncogenesis. Methylation of DNA, modification of histones, and interfering microRNA (miRNA) collectively represent a cadre of epigenetic elements dysregulated in cancer. Targeting the epigenome with compounds that modulate DNA methylation, histone marks, and miRNA profiles represents an evolving strategy for cancer chemoprevention, and these approaches are starting to show promise in human clinical trials. Essential micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B-12, selenium, and zinc as well as the dietary phytochemicals sulforaphane, tea polyphenols, curcumin, and allyl sulfur compounds are among a growing list of agents that affect epigenetic events as novel mechanisms of chemoprevention. To illustrate these concepts, the current review highlights the interactions among nutrients, epigenetics, and prostate cancer susceptibility. In particular, we focus on epigenetic dysregulation and the impact of specific nutrients and food components on DNA methylation and histone modifications that can alter gene expression and influence prostate cancer progression.

  7. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  9. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  10. Does tadalafil prevent erectile dysfunction in patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Incrocci (Luca)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA recently published paper addressed the interesting topic of prevention of erectile dysfunction (ED) with tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) in patients undergoing radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. [1]Tadalafil 5 mg or placebo was

  11. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  13. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  14. Targeting Th17-IL-17 Pathway in Prevention of Micro-Invasive Prostate Cancer in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Cunningham, David M; Huang, Feng; Ma, Lin; Burris, Thomas P; You, Zongbing

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development and progression of human cancers including prostate cancer. The exact role of the inflammatory Th17-IL-17 pathway in prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the importance of Th17 cells and IL-17 in a Pten-null prostate cancer mouse model. The Pten-null mice were treated by Th17 inhibitor SR1001 or anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody from 6 weeks of age up to 12 weeks of age. For SR1001 treatment, the mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice a day with vehicle or SR1001, which was dissolved in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution. All mice were euthanized for necropsy at 12 weeks of age. For IL-17 antibody treatment, the mice were injected intravenously (i.v.) once every two weeks with control IgG or rat anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody, which was dissolved in PBS. The injection time points were at 6, 8, and 10 weeks old. All mice were analyzed for the prostate phenotypes at 12 weeks of age. We found that either SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treatment decreased the formation of micro-invasive prostate cancer in Pten-null mice. The SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated mouse prostates had reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced angiogenesis, as well as reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. By assessing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, we found that SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated prostate tissues had weaker EMT phenotype compared to the control treated prostates. These results demonstrated that Th17-IL-17 pathway plays a key role in prostate cancer progression in Pten-null mice. Targeting Th17-IL-17 pathway could prevent micro-invasive prostate cancer formation in mice. Prostate 77:888-899, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  16. Plasma tocopherols and risk of prostate cancer in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanes, Demetrius; Till, Cathee; Klein, Eric A; Goodman, Phyllis J; Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Taylor, Philip R; Parnes, Howard L; Gaziano, J Michael; Song, Xiaoling; Fleshner, Neil E; Brown, Powel H; Meyskens, Frank L; Thompson, Ian M

    2014-09-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed higher prostate cancer incidence in men supplemented with high-dose α-tocopherol. We, therefore, examined whether presupplementation plasma α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol was associated with overall or high-grade prostate cancer. A stratified case-cohort sample that included 1,746 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed through June 2009 and a subcohort of 3,211 men was derived from the SELECT trial of 35,533 men. Plasma was collected at entry from 2001 to 2004, and median follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0-7.9 years). Incidence of prostate cancer as a function of plasma α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and supplementation with α-tocopherol or selenomethionine was estimated by the hazard ratio (HR). Plasma γ-tocopherol was not associated with prostate cancer. Men with higher α-tocopherol concentrations seemed to have risk similar to that of men with lower concentrations [overall HR for fifth (Q5) vs. first quintile (Q1), 1.21; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.88-1.66; P-trend = 0.24; in the trial placebo arm, Q5 HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.44-1.62; P-trend = 0.66]. We found a strong positive plasma α-tocopherol association among men receiving the trial selenomethionine supplement [Q5 HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.29-3.22; P-trend = 0.005]. A positive plasma α-tocopherol-prostate cancer association also seemed limited to high-grade disease (Gleason grade, 7-10; overall Q5 HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.13-2.24; P-trend = 0.001; among men receiving selenomethionine, Q5 HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.32-3.40; P-trend = 0.0002). Our findings indicate that higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations may interact with selenomethionine supplements to increase high-grade prostate cancer risk, suggesting a biologic interaction between α-tocopherol and selenium itself or selenomethionine. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Association between variants in genes involved in the immune response and prostate cancer risk in men randomized to the finasteride arm in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Danyelle A; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J; Tangen, Catherine M; Santella, Regina M; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L; Leach, Robin J; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S Lilly; Thompson, Ian M; Lucia, M Scott; Lippman, Scott M; Parnes, Howard L; Isaacs, William B; De Marzo, Angelo M; Drake, Charles G; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    We reported that some, but not all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in select immune response genes are associated with prostate cancer, but not individually with the prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) placebo arm. Here, we investigated whether these same SNPs are associated with risk of lower- and higher-grade prostate cancer in men randomized to finasteride, and with prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation among controls. Methods A total of 16 candidate SNPs in IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12(p40), IFNG, MSR1, RNASEL, TLR4, and TNFA and 7 tagSNPs in IL10 were genotyped in 625 white prostate cancer cases, and 532 white controls negative for cancer on an end-of-study biopsy nested in the PCPT finasteride arm. We used logistic regression to estimate log-additive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for age and family history. Minor alleles of rs2243250 (T) in IL4 (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.08, P-trend = 0.03), rs1800896 (G) in IL10 (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.96, P-trend = 0.02), rs2430561 (A) in IFNG (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.74; P-trend = 0.04), rs3747531 (C) in MSR1 (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.95; P-trend = 0.03), and possibly rs4073 (A) in IL8 (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.64-1.01, P-trend = 0.06) were associated with higher- (Gleason 7-10; N = 222), but not lower- (Gleason 2-6; N = 380) grade prostate cancer. In men with low PSA (prostate cancer, distributions of IL10 haplotypes did not differ, except possibly between higher-grade cases and controls among those with low PSA (P = 0.07). We did not observe an association between the studied SNPs and intraprostatic inflammation in the controls. In the PCPT finasteride arm, variation in genes involved in the immune response, including possibly IL8 and IL10 as in the placebo arm, may be associated with prostate cancer, especially higher-grade disease, but not with intraprostatic

  18. [The touched masculinity: a discussion about the digital rectal exam for prostate cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Romeu; do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira; Rebello, Lúcia Emília Figueiredo de Sousa; de Araújo, Fábio Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the meanings attributed to the digital rectal exam, seeking to problematize questions underlying the masculine discourse on the basis of aspects of the hegemonic masculinity model. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 men in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 2004. Among the main results is the idea that the digital rectal exam is something that violates an interdicted space, something that compromises the current understanding of masculinity, shall say, the digital rectal exam does not only affect the prostate, it also affects the masculinity, puts it to shame. We conclude that for understanding and problematizing the questions related to the prostate cancer prevention in special, and to the question of taking care of oneself from the masculine perspective in general, we need to consider the structural and symbolic aspects that underlie these questions.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Provides Added Value to the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator for Patients With Estimated Risk of High-grade Prostate Cancer Less Than or Equal to 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Weaver, John K; Shetty, Anup S; Vetter, Joel M; Andriole, Gerald L; Strope, Seth A

    2017-04-01

    To determine the added value of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator. Between January 2012 and December 2015, 339 patients underwent prostate MRI prior to biopsy at our institution. MRI was considered positive if there was at least 1 Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 or 5 MRI suspicious region. Logistic regression was used to develop 2 models: biopsy outcome as a function of the (1) Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator alone and (2) combined with MRI findings. When including all patients, the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with and without MRI models performed similarly (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.74 and 0.78, P = .06). When restricting the cohort to patients with estimated risk of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) prostate cancer ≤10%, the model with MRI outperformed the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial alone model (AUC = 0.69 and 0.60, P = .01). Within this cohort of patients, there was no significant difference in discrimination between models for those with previous negative biopsy (AUC = 0.61 vs 0.63, P = .76), whereas there was a significant improvement in discrimination with the MRI model for biopsy-naïve patients (AUC = 0.72 vs 0.60, P = .01). The use of prostate MRI in addition to the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator provides a significant improvement in clinical risk discrimination for patients with estimated risk of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) prostate cancer ≤10%. Prebiopsy prostate MRI should be strongly considered for these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relationship between Statins and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reporting our findings. 2007-2009 Testosterone Supplementation for Men with Sarcopenia NIH, U01AGO14369/CFDA Site-PI, $100,000 This randomized...controlled clinical trial was designed to investigate whether testosterone gel could increase muscle strength among men with sarcopenia and low...Lagiou P et al (2000) Lifestyle factors and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels among elderly men. Eur J Cancer Prev 9:173–178 13. Gapstur SM, Kopp P

  1. Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1712-6. 2. Adhami VM, Siddiqui IA, Syed DN, Lall RK, Mukhtar H. Oral infusion of pomegranate fruit ...and fungi , and is also known for its non-toxic, non-immunogenic properties (23). It has already been used as a pharmaceutical excipient, a weight loss...component EGCG and perceived toxicity associated with its long-term use affect its clinical outcome (36,37). This study suggests a different

  2. New Strategy for Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    combination in prostate cancer chemoprevention. Emodin is a phytochemical that has been shown to induce AR degradation (18). We hypothesize that the...Since the induction of PSA screening , the majority of the prostate cancers diagnosed are asymptomatic, early-stage, small volume diseases. Current

  3. Prostate Cancer Prevention by Sulforaphane, a Novel Dietary Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhen, Yu

    2008-01-01

    ...) as a novel histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor and explore the mechanism of SFN protection against prostate cancer, different stage of prostate cancerous cells were treated with 15muM or 30 muM SFN and harvest 48hr later for MTT assay...

  4. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.

  5. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  6. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  7. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  8. Pomegranate-Extract Pill in Preventing Tumor Growth in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    PSA Level Less Than or Equal to Fifteen; PSA Level Less Than Ten; Stage I Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer AJCC v7

  9. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  10. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences.

  11. Naked DNA Immunization for Prevention of Prostate Cancer in a Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mincheff, Milcho

    2003-01-01

    ...: H-PSMA-T, R-"PSMA"-T, H-PSA, H-PSA-T, H-PAP-T and R"PSMA"-S. Preliminary studies using the Copenhagen rat tumor prostate model showed uniform tumor development in rats that were injected subcutaneously with 100 000 AT3B-lPSMA,PSA cells...

  12. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  13. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  14. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  15. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  16. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  17. Prevention of Post-Radiotherapy Failure in Prostate Cancer by Vitamin D

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2005-01-01

    .... We propose to have prostate cancer patients who have already undergone radiation treatment take a non-toxic chemopreventive agent A SYNTHETIC FORM OF VITAMIN D, 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D5 for two years...

  18. What Prevents Men Aged 40-64 Years from Prostate Cancer Screening in Namibia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangmennaang, J.; Mkandawire, P.; Luginaah, I.

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of evidence demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer in SSA, relatively little is known about the underlying factors surrounding the low levels of testing for the disease in the context of this region. Using Namibia Demographic Health Survey dataset (NDHS, 2013), we examined the factors that influence men’s decision to screen for prostate cancer in Namibia. Methods. We use complementary log-log regression models to explore the determinants of screening for prostate cancer. We also corrected for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity that may affect screening behaviours at the cluster level. Results. The results show that health insurance coverage (OR = 2.95, ) is an important predictor of screening for prostate cancer in Namibia. In addition, higher education and discussing reproductive issues with a health worker (OR = 2.02, P = 0.05) were more likely to screening for prostate cancer. Conclusions. A universal health insurance scheme may be necessary to increase uptake of prostate cancer screening. However it needs to be acknowledged that expanded screening can have negative consequences and any allocation of scarce resources towards screening must be guided by evidence obtained from the local context about the costs and benefits of screening.

  19. Tomato-based food products for prostate cancer prevention: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsueh-Li; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Wan, Lei; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2010-09-01

    Evidence derived from a vast array of laboratory studies and epidemiological investigations have implicated diets rich in fruits and vegetables with a reduced risk of certain cancers. However, these approaches cannot demonstrate causal relationships and there is a paucity of randomized, controlled trials due to the difficulties involved with executing studies of food and behavioral change. Rather than pursuing the definitive intervention trials that are necessary, the thrust of research in recent decades has been driven by a reductionist approach focusing upon the identification of bioactive components in fruits and vegetables with the subsequent development of single agents using a pharmacologic approach. At this point in time, there are no chemopreventive strategies that are standard of care in medical practice that have resulted from this approach. This review describes an alternative approach focusing upon development of tomato-based food products for human clinical trials targeting cancer prevention and as an adjunct to therapy. Tomatoes are a source of bioactive phytochemicals and are widely consumed. The phytochemical pattern of tomato products can be manipulated to optimize anticancer activity through genetics, horticultural techniques, and food processing. The opportunity to develop a highly consistent tomato-based food product rich in anticancer phytochemicals for clinical trials targeting specific cancers, particularly the prostate, necessitates the interactive transdisciplinary research efforts of horticulturalists, food technologists, cancer biologists, and clinical translational investigators.

  20. The Potential Role of Lycopene for the Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Nina Pauline; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Champ, Simon; Feldthusen, Jesper; Clements, Judith; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2013-01-01

    Lycopene is a phytochemical that belongs to a group of pigments known as carotenoids. It is red, lipophilic and naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, with tomatoes and tomato-based products containing the highest concentrations of bioavailable lycopene. Several epidemiological studies have linked increased lycopene consumption with decreased prostate cancer risk. These findings are supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that lycopene not only enhances the antioxidant response of prostate cells, but that it is even able to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and decrease the metastatic capacity of prostate cancer cells. However, there is still no clearly proven clinical evidence supporting the use of lycopene in the prevention or treatment of prostate cancer, due to the only limited number of published randomized clinical trials and the varying quality of existing studies. The scope of this article is to discuss the potential impact of lycopene on prostate cancer by giving an overview about its molecular mechanisms and clinical effects. PMID:23857058

  1. Decrease in Prostate Cancer Testing Following the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Berkowitz, Zahava; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-01-01

    To assess changes of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing following recent US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) prostate cancer screening recommendations using 2005 to 2013 National Health Interview Survey data. We calculated the percentage of PSA testing among men ≥40 years by age group and age-adjusted race for each survey year. Differences between years were assessed with linear contrasts after combining all years' data. The overall percentage of PSA testing was highest in 2008 and decreased significantly in 2013. Compared with 2008, each age group had significantly lower screening percentages in 2013, especially men ≥75 years old (-14.0% points; P testing percentages were highest in 2008 and decreased significantly in 2013. Only white men had a significantly lower percentage in 2013 than in 2010. Significant declines in PSA testing from 2008 to 2013 in men ≥75 years old may reflect the impact of the 2008 USPSTF recommendations. While the cause of the decreases in PSA testing between 2010 and 2013 among men aged 50 to 74 years old and white men is unknown, the decreases may suggest the early effects of the 2012 recommendations. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  2. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality

  3. Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Joshua J; Weyrich, Meghan S; Durbin, Shauna; Liu, Yu; Bang, Heejung; Melnikow, Joy

    2018-05-08

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US men. To systematically review evidence on prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, treatments for localized prostate cancer, and prebiopsy risk calculators to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Registries and Databases from July 1, 2011, through July 15, 2017, with a surveillance search on February 1, 2018. English-language reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of screening; cohort studies reporting harms; RCTs and cohort studies of active localized cancer treatments vs conservative approaches (eg, active surveillance, watchful waiting); external validations of prebiopsy risk calculators to identify aggressive cancers. One investigator abstracted data; a second checked accuracy. Two investigators independently rated study quality. Prostate cancer and all-cause mortality; false-positive screening results, biopsy complications, overdiagnosis; adverse effects of active treatments. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for treatment harms. Sixty-three studies in 104 publications were included (N = 1 904 950). Randomization to PSA screening was not associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer mortality in either a US trial with substantial control group contamination (n = 76 683) or a UK trial with low adherence to a single PSA screen (n = 408 825) but was associated with significantly reduced prostate cancer mortality in a European trial (n = 162 243; relative risk [RR], 0.79 [95% CI, 0.69-0.91]; absolute risk reduction, 1.1 deaths per 10 000 person-years [95% CI, 0.5-1.8]). Of 61 604 men screened in the European trial, 17.8% received false-positive results. In 3 cohorts (n = 15 136), complications requiring hospitalization occurred in 0.5% to 1.6% of men undergoing biopsy after abnormal screening findings. Overdiagnosis was estimated to occur in 20.7% to 50

  4. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  5. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  7. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  8. Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program" will be presented by Folakemi Odedina, PhD Professor, Pharmacotherapy & Translational Research and Director, UF Health Cancer Center Cancer Health Disparities at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy in Orlando, FL. Date: March 13, 2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI

  9. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process...your prostate cancer grows) 7 Cryotherapy (process to freeze and destroy prostate tissue) 8 Chemotherapy (use of anti- cancer drugs) 9 Any other...and attitudes concerning prostate cancer and preventative measures. Prostate Cancer Questionnaire IRB1012# – Version 3 08/01/08 33 Now, I

  10. On cribriform prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kweldam, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...

  11. Mechanism of Prostate Cancer Prevention by Down-Regulation of the GH/IGF Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    androgen ablation can reverse the course of the prostate cancer and this has formed the foundation of therapy for decades. Invariably, however, castrate...to be independent of GH. The serum used in laboratories around the world is non-primate serum (e.g., bovine, equine or porcine). The GHs derived

  12. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us About the Prostate Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors Prostate Cancer Prevention ... that connects to the anus. Ultrasound of the prostate Prostate Zones The prostate is divided into several ...

  13. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the 'Restore' Study" will be presented by B.R. Simon Rosser, PhD, MPH, Professor of the Division of Epidemiology & Community Health and Director of HIV/STI Intervention & Prevention Studies at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis,

  14. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  15. Overtreatment of prostate cancer may be prevented by extended pelvic lymphadenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Stenfeldt, Katrine; Christensen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    difference in preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score or clinical stage between the two cohorts of patients. The mean operative time was 95 min. (range 75-140 min.) for e-PLND and 82 min. (range 30-145 min.) for L-PLND (p = 0.03). N1 was found in 18 (41%) and six (17%) in e-PLND versus L......OBJECTIVE: Pelvic lymphadenectomy remains the gold standard for providing a diagnosis of lymph node metastasis (N1) in prostate cancer patients who may be candidates for curatively intended radiotherapy (RT). The limited lymphadenectomy technique (L-PLND) provides removal of only a minority...... of lymph nodes within the expected regions of lymph node drainage of the prostate. We describe our extended lymphadenectomy (e-PLND) and the pathological outcome with a modified template as described by Briganti and compare it with L-PLND. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 44 patients...

  16. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  17. Prostate Cancer Prevention by Sulforaphane, a Novel Dietary Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    experimental design to use the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma Model for Prostate cancer (TRAMP) model. The experiments are conducing at the OHSU by our...Toxicology, Oregon State University Thesis title: Antimutagenic potency of wheat grain and berry extracts in vitro and anticarcinogenecity of... wheat grain in vivo 1994 B.S. Ecology and Environmental Biology, Nankai University, P.R. China. Professional positions 2007 – present Postdoctoral

  18. Targeting androgen receptor and JunD interaction for prevention of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Kegel, Stacy J; Church, Dawn R; Schmidt, Joseph S; Reuter, Quentin R; Saphner, Elizabeth L; Basu, Hirak S; Wilding, George

    2014-05-01

    Multiple studies show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Previously, we reported an induction of Spermidine/Spermine N(1) -Acetyl Transferase (SSAT) by androgen-activated androgen receptor (AR)-JunD protein complex that leads to over-production of ROS in PCa cells. In our current research, we identify small molecules that specifically block AR-JunD in this ROS-generating metabolic pathway. A high throughput assay based on Gaussia Luciferase reconstitution was used to identify inhibitors of the AR-JunD interaction. Selected hits were further screened using a fluorescence polarization competitor assay to eliminate those that bind to the AR Ligand Binding Domain (LBD), in order to identify molecules that specifically target events downstream to androgen activation of AR. Eleven molecules were selected for studies on their efficacy against ROS generation and growth of cultured human PCa cells by DCFH dye-oxidation assay and DNA fluorescence assay, respectively. In situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA), SSAT promoter-luciferase reporter assay, and western blotting of apoptosis and cell cycle markers were used to study mechanism of action of the lead compound. Selected lead compound GWARJD10 with EC(50) 10 μM against ROS production was shown to block AR-JunD interaction in situ as well as block androgen-induced SSAT gene expression at IC(50) 5 μM. This compound had no effect on apoptosis markers, but reduced cyclin D1 protein level. Inhibitor of AR-JunD interaction, GWARJD10 shows promise for prevention of progression of PCa at an early stage of the disease by blocking growth and ROS production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S.; Aparicio, Ana M.; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequ...

  20. The Role of Estrogen Receptor β in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Panagiotis F; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the main molecular tool regulating growth and function of the prostate gland, estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is involved in the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and numerous antiproliferative actions on prostate cancer cells. However, ERβ splice variants have been associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression mechanisms. ERβ is promising as an anticancer therapy and in the prevention of prostate cancer. Herein, we review the re...

  1. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348

  2. Current opinions on chemotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptak, J.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men. Because of the long latency period of prostate cancer, and the economic burden and morbidity associated with its treatment, there is a strong rationale for interventions to reduce the risk of developing this malignancy. The terms „prevention“ or „chemo prevention“ refers to efforts to prevent or delay the development of cancer by taking medicines, vitamins or other agents. There are many agents that may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. It requires careful study of the agents in specific populations to determine whether risk is reduced, magnitude of the risk reduction and the spectrum of side effects associated with the agent. The ideal preventive agent will not significantly alter quality of life, is inexpensive, safe, well tolerated, and effective. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in the field of prostate cancer prevention. (author)

  3. Epigenetics in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S; Aparicio, Ana M; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a "normal" epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  4. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  5. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  6. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  7. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  8. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  9. Prevention of Gynecomastia and Breast Pain Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Tamoxifen or Radiotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godoi; Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine, in a meta-analysis, whether gynecomastia and breast pain rates in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are reduced if treated with prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) or tamoxifen (TMX). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing RT or TMX with observation for men with prostate cancer using ADT. Results: Six RCTs (three RT trials and three TMX trials, N = 777 patients total) were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs comparing RT vs. observation showed a significant reduction in the incidence of gynecomastia and breast pain rates in patients treated with RT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.37, p < 0.0001, and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, p < 0.0001, respectively). Use of RT resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 29.4% and 19.9%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.4 and 5 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Pooled results from trials comparing TMX vs. observation showed a statistical benefit for breast pain and gynecomastia in favor of TMX arms (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02-0.08, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.0-0.14, p < 0.00001). TMX resulted in an ARR = 64.1% and 47.6%, with an NNT of 1.56 and 2.1 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Considering adverse effects, TMX was 6 times more adverse effects than RT. Conclusions: Our data have shown that both TMX and RT prevented gynecomastia and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Although TMX was two times more effective in preventing gynecomastia, RT should represent an effective and safe treatment option, to take into account mainly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or thrombotic diathesis.

  10. Prevention of Gynecomastia and Breast Pain Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Tamoxifen or Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo; Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godói; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, in a meta-analysis, whether gynecomastia and breast pain rates in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are reduced if treated with prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) or tamoxifen (TMX). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing RT or TMX with observation for men with prostate cancer using ADT. Results: Six RCTs (three RT trials and three TMX trials, N = 777 patients total) were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs comparing RT vs. observation showed a significant reduction in the incidence of gynecomastia and breast pain rates in patients treated with RT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12–0.37, p < 0.0001, and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20–0.57, p < 0.0001, respectively). Use of RT resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 29.4% and 19.9%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.4 and 5 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Pooled results from trials comparing TMX vs. observation showed a statistical benefit for breast pain and gynecomastia in favor of TMX arms (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02–0.08, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.0–0.14, p < 0.00001). TMX resulted in an ARR = 64.1% and 47.6%, with an NNT of 1.56 and 2.1 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Considering adverse effects, TMX was 6 times more adverse effects than RT. Conclusions: Our data have shown that both TMX and RT prevented gynecomastia and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Although TMX was two times more effective in preventing gynecomastia, RT should represent an effective and safe treatment option, to take into account mainly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or thrombotic diathesis.

  11. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  12. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  14. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The incidence ...

  15. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  16. Activation of Retinoid X Receptors by Phytanic Acid and Docohexaenoic Acid: Role in the Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Xiao-Han

    2005-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, both phytanic acid and DHA inhibited the growth of Pc-3 and LNCaP cells. Phytanic acid and retinoic acid synergistically inhibited the growth of both of these prostate cancer cell lines...

  17. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  18. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  19. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  20. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  1. Saposin C promotes survival and prevents apoptosis via PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-Jin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to androgens, growth factors are also implicated in the development and neoplastic growth of the prostate gland. Prosaposin is a potent neurotrophic molecule. Homozygous inactivation of prosaposin in mice has led to the development of a number of abnormalities in the male reproductive system, including atrophy of the prostate gland and inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and Akt in prostate epithelial cells. We have recently reported that prosaposin is expressed at a higher level by androgen-independent (AI prostate cancer cells as compared to androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells or normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that a synthetic peptide (prosaptide TX14A, derived from the trophic sequence of the saposin C domain of prosaposin, stimulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion and activated the MAPK signaling pathway in prostate cancer cells. The biological significances of saposin C and prosaposin in prostate cancer are not known. Results Here, we report that saposin C, in a cell type-specific and dose-dependent manner, acts as a survival factor, activates the Akt-signaling pathway, down-modulates caspase-3, -7, and -9 expression and/or activity, and decreases the cleaved nuclear substrate of caspase-3 in prostate cancer cells under serum-starvation stress. In addition, prosaptide TX14A, saposin C, or prosaposin decreased the growth-inhibitory effect, caspase-3/7 activity, and apoptotic cell death induced by etoposide. We also discovered that saposin C activates the p42/44 MAP kinase pathway in a pertussis toxin-sensitive and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K /Akt-dependent manner in prostate cancer cells. Our data also show that the anti-apoptotic activity of saposin C is at least partially mediated via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion We postulate that as a mitogenic, survival, and anti-apoptotic factor for prostate cancer cells

  2. The antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, prevents side-effects incurred by prostate cancer irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 240,000 new cases reported annually in the United States. Due to early detection and advances in therapies, more than 90% of patients will survive 10 years post diagnosis and treatment. Radiation is a treatment option often used to treat localized disease; however, while radiation is very effective at killing tumor cells, normal tissues are damaged as well. Potential side-effects due to prostate cancer-related radiation therapy include bowel inflammation, erectile dysfunction, urethral stricture, rectal bleeding and incontinence. Currently, radiation therapy for prostate cancer does not include the administration of therapeutic agents to reduce these side effects and protect normal tissues from radiation-induced damage. In the current study, we show that the small molecular weight antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, protects normal tissues from radiation-induced damage in the lower abdomen in rats. Specifically, MnTE-2-PyP protected skin, prostate, and testes from radiation-induced damage. MnTE-2-PyP also protected from erectile dysfunction, a persistent problem regardless of the type of radiation techniques used because the penile neurovascular bundles lay in the peripheral zones of the prostate, where most prostate cancers reside. Based on previous studies showing that MnTE-2-PyP, in combination with radiation, further reduces subcutaneous tumor growth, we believe that MnTE-2-PyP represents an excellent radioprotectant in combination radiotherapy for cancer in general and specifically for prostate cancer.

  3. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...

  4. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  5. [Chances and risks of prevention in elderly people for the three major cancers: breast-, prostate- and colorectal cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G F

    2006-06-01

    The big three, breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal carcinoma are the most frequent malignancies world wide and also typical tumors of advanced age. Therefore the question to screen and how to screen for these tumors in the elderly is the main question for reduction of the total cancer burden and mortality in all western countries. BREAST CANCER (BC): The age related risk of BC increases from 1 : 2,500 at age 30+ to > 1 : 10 at age 80. Nevertheless, most of the national BC-Screening-Programs stop at age 60 or earlier. Therefore the majority of all advanced i. e. T (4) stages of BC are found in women age > 60. Frequently it is suggested that age related comorbidity should eliminate the benefit of treatment. Recently two longitudinal studies have clearly shown that correct standard treatment is as effective in elderly as in younger individuals. Mammography (MG) has been shown to reduce mortality of BC significantly with best results for specificity and sensitivity at age 70+. PROSTATE CANCER (PC): The screening situation of PC is quite different to BC, because risk profiles are poorly defined and the benefit of radical prostatectomy is not clearly demonstrated in the early non symptomatic stages of PC. At the other side watchful waiting leads to an elevated frequency of incontinence and enuresis as well. Two studies are now under progress and may possibly change the situation; but the final results are expected 2005-2008 at the earliest. Therefore an assisted individual decision making is the only recommendation at this time. COLORECTAL CANCER (CC): Risk groups are clearly defined. Risk of the elderly (> 60) is the average risk. The incidence increases from informed about complication rates of colonoscopy during the screening programs. There is a lack of data according accuracy of barium enema, virtual colonoscopy and genetic stool test in comparison to colonoscopy in combination with fecal occult blood test (FOBT). And adherence to screening is

  6. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  7. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  8. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  9. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  10. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  11. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  12. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  13. Prostate cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Vita; Silva, Joao L. F.; Srougi, Miguel; Nesrallah, Adriano

    1999-01-01

    The transperineal brachytherapy with 125 I/Pd 103 seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy

  14. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  15. Biorepository for Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the largest prostate cancer prevention trial ever undertaken, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) has assembled a substantial biorepository of specimens. To help make SELECT resources available to a wider research community, NCI and the Southwest Oncology Group are developing a plan for prostate cancer biology and nutritional science and

  16. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  17. Internet-Based Education for Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    cells. n Hormone therapy: Certain hormones are given or removed. This helps to keep cancer cells from growing. n Cryotherapy : A special probe is placed...are many other diseases that are more deadly than prostate cancer . Talk to your doctor about how to prevent them. n As a result, most men with...prostate cancer ranks 5th, behind heart disease, lung cancer , stroke, and emphysema. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Canter for Health

  18. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  19. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  20. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  1. Paclitaxel-loaded iron platinum stealth immunomicelles are potent MRI imaging agents that prevent prostate cancer growth in a PSMA-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor RM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Robert M Taylor,1,2 Laurel O Sillerud1,31Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2New Mexico Cancer Nanoscience and Microsystems Training Center, 3UNM Cancer Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USABackground and methods: Problems with the clinical management of prostate cancer include the lack of both specific detection and efficient therapeutic intervention. We report the encapsulation of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs and paclitaxel in a mixture of polyethyleneglycolated, fluorescent, and biotin-functionalized phospholipids to create multifunctional SIPP-PTX micelles (SPMs that were conjugated to an antibody against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA for the specific targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and treatment of human prostate cancer xenografts in mice.Results: SPMs were 45.4 ± 24.9 nm in diameter and composed of 160.7 ± 22.9 µg/mL iron, 247.0 ± 33.4 µg/mL platinum, and 702.6 ± 206.0 µg/mL paclitaxel. Drug release measurements showed that, at 37°C, half of the paclitaxel was released in 30.2 hours in serum and two times faster in saline. Binding assays suggested that PSMA-targeted SPMs specifically bound to C4-2 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and released paclitaxel into the cells. In vitro, paclitaxel was 2.2 and 1.6 times more cytotoxic than SPMs to C4-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours of incubation, respectively. After 72 hours of incubation, paclitaxel and SPMs were equally cytotoxic. SPMs had MRI transverse relaxivities of 389 ± 15.5 Hz/mM iron, and SIPP micelles with and without drug caused MRI contrast enhancement in vivo.Conclusion: Only PSMA-targeted SPMs and paclitaxel significantly prevented growth of C4-2 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, mice injected with PSMA-targeted SPMs showed significantly more paclitaxel and platinum in tumors, compared with nontargeted SPM-injected and paclitaxel-injected mice.Keywords: iron platinum, MRI

  2. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  3. Diet and prostate cancer - a holistic approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Philippa J; Katz, Aaron E

    2011-10-01

    There is now increasing evidence from epidemiologic surveys and from laboratory, intervention, and case-control studies that diet and lifestyle plays a crucial role in prostate cancer biology and tumorigenesis. This applies to both the development and progression of prostate cancer, although in many cases the specific initiating factors in the diet are poorly understood. Conversely, many nutrients and herbs also show significant promise in helping to treat prostate cancer by slowing progression and reducing recurrence, ultimately reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality from the disease. Furthermore for all grades of prostate cancer, nutritional interventions complement conventional treatment to improve response and quality of life. Slowing or even reversing the progression of, high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia [HGPIN]). with chemo-preventative agents could be the best primary defense against prostate cancer, preventing it from occurring in the first place. The information given in this review about prostate cancer chemoprevention summarizes the key evidence for the role of different dietary components and their effect on prostate cancer prevention and progression. Most nutritional chemoprevention agents also have the added benefit of being beneficial for the cardiovascular system, bone health and for the prevention of other cancers.

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  5. Prostate cancer and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Katz, Matthew S; Langford, Aisha; Byrne, Nataliya; Ciprut, Shannon

    2018-04-11

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain - particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

  6. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  7. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  9. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  10. Other biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for detecting prostate cancer since 1994. Although it is the best cancer biomarker available, PSA is not perfect. It lacks both the sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect the presence of prostate cancer. None of the PSA thresholds currently in use consistently identify patients with prostate cancer and exclude patients without cancer. Novel approaches to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer and predict the course of the disease are needed. Additional methods for detecting prostate cancer have been evaluated. Despite the discovery of many new biomarkers, only a few have shown some clinical value. These markers include human kallikrein 2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, early prostate cancer antigen, PCA3, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and glutathione S-transferase pi hypermethylation. We review the reports on biomarkers for prostate cancer detection, and their possible role in the clinical practice.

  11. The Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer and Its Prevention: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Riza Perdana

    2016-11-01

    Numerous epidemiologic studies have linked PCa risk to various factors, i.e. age, ethnicity, family history, insulin like-growth factors, lifestyle, diet, environmental and occupational exposures. The results of epidemiological, In vivo, in vitro, and early clinical studies suggested that selected dietary products and supplementation may play a role in PCa prevention. More studies are still needed to explore and find the risk factors and preventive methods of PCa development. It is important for clinician to ellaborate these informations for education to lower PCa risks and prevent PCa.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- Is a Potent Target for Prevention and Treatment in Human Prostate and Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Matsuyama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR- is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR- plays a role in both adipocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis. Up to date, PPAR- is expressed in various cancer tissues, and PPAR- ligand induces growth arrest of these cancer cells. In this study, we examined the expression of PPAR- in prostate cancer (PC and testicular cancer (TC by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and we also examined the effect of PPAR- ligand in these cells by MTT assay, hoechest staining, and flow cytometry. PPAR- expression was significantly more extensive and intense in malignant tissues than in normal tissues. PPAR- ligand induced the reduction of malignant cell viability through apoptosis. These results demonstrated that the generated PPAR- in PC and TC cells might play an important role in the tumorigenesis. PPAR- may become a new target in the treatment of PC and TC.

  13. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  14. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  15. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  16. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  17. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  18. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  19. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  20. Prevention of Post-Radiotherapy Failure in Prostate Cancer by Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    cur- 55. Mitchell MF, Hittelman WN, Hong WK et al. The natural history cumin , a chemo preventive agent, in patients with high-risk or of cervical...chromosomal DNA loops during oxidative stress . Genes & Dev 13:1553-1560. 16 1999 Chen AY, Choy H and Rothenberg ML. DNA topoisomerase I-targeting drugs as

  1. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  2. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  3. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors. ... The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid ...

  4. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Broyles, Dennis L; Wei, John T; Sanda, Martin; Klee, George; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W; Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; Catalona, William J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the use of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a continuous variable in multivariable risk assessment for aggressive prostate cancer in a large multicentre US study. The study population included 728 men, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 2-10 ng/mL and a negative digital rectal examination, enrolled in a prospective, multi-site early detection trial. The primary endpoint was aggressive prostate cancer, defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. First, we evaluated whether the addition of PHI improves the performance of currently available risk calculators (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC] risk calculators). We also designed and internally validated a new PHI-based multivariable predictive model, and created a nomogram. Of 728 men undergoing biopsy, 118 (16.2%) had aggressive prostate cancer. The PHI predicted the risk of aggressive prostate cancer across the spectrum of values. Adding PHI significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators for aggressive disease. A new model was created using age, previous biopsy, prostate volume, PSA and PHI, with an area under the curve of 0.746. The bootstrap-corrected model showed good calibration with observed risk for aggressive prostate cancer and had net benefit on decision-curve analysis. Using PHI as part of multivariable risk assessment leads to a significant improvement in the detection of aggressive prostate cancer, potentially reducing harms from unnecessary prostate biopsy and overdiagnosis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  6. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  7. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles T., Jr

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  8. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  9. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  10. Prevention of acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis by balsalazide: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahraus, Christopher D.; Bettenhausen, Doug Phar; Malik, Uzma M.B.B.S.; Sellitti, Marguerite; St Clair, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A common complication of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis (RIPS), for which a multitude of therapies have been tried. The 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA), which are traditionally used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, have been tested; however, all but one prior randomized attempt to limit or prevent RIPS with 5-ASA-type agents have failed. We sought to evaluate balsalazide, a new 5-ASA drug, for its potential to prevent or limit RIPS in patients undergoing RT for carcinoma of the prostate, as a representative sample of pelvic RT patients. Balsalazide has a unique delivery system in that 99% of ingested drug is delivered to and activated in the colon, a higher yield than all other oral agents currently available in this class. Furthermore, it lacks the antigenic sulfa moiety present in sulfasalazine, the only other 5-ASA with demonstrated benefit in this setting. Thus, it was deemed an ideal candidate for preventing or limiting RIPS. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included prostate cancer patients, American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage T1-3, M0 being treated with external beam radiotherapy in University of Kentucky Department of Radiation Medicine. Between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2004, 27 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were administered 2250 mg of balsalazide or an identical-appearing placebo twice daily beginning 5 days before RT and continuing for 2 weeks after completion. Toxicities were graded weekly according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria v. 2.0 for each of the following: proctitis, diarrhea, dysuria, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. A symptom index was formulated for each toxicity consisting of the toxicity's numeric grade multiplied by the number of days it was experienced, and summed for each grade experienced throughout the course of RT. Results: With the exception of nausea or vomiting, seen in 3 patients on balsalazide and 2 on placebo

  11. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  12. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  13. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...... in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer....

  14. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  15. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Ch; Papassava, M; Golias, Ch; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide although the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies published, it was observed that high consumption of meat, alcohol and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. Specifically, alcohol use, and particularly heavy use, may cause cancers of liver, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity, with risks for the aero-digestive cancers. Moderate use among women has been related with increases in breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal environment and in parallel, containing chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), may alter tumor cell growth. In this mini review, the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk is analyzed.

  16. Low-dose irradiation for controlling prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among North American men and the second leading cause of death in those aged 65 and over. The American Cancer Society recommends testing those over age 50 who are expected to live at least 10 years, even though the ability of early detection to decrease prostate cancer mortality has not been demonstrated. So controversy exists about the appropriateness of screening because of the considerable economic and social burden of diagnosing and treating prostate cancer, coupled with the projected large increase in the number of new cases as the population ages. This very important public health issue could be addressed at low cost by total-body low-dose irradiation therapy to stimulate the patient's own defences to prevent and control most cancers, including prostate cancer, with no symptomatic side effects. (author)

  17. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  18. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Difference in Association of Obesity With Prostate Cancer Risk Between US African American and Non-Hispanic White Men in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Schenk, Jeannette M; Etzioni, Ruth; Arnold, Kathryn B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Ian M; Lucia, M Scott; Kristal, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    African American men have the highest rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Understanding underlying reasons for this disparity could identify preventive interventions important to African American men. To determine whether the association of obesity with prostate cancer risk differs between African American and non-Hispanic white men and whether obesity modifies the excess risk associated with African American race. Prospective study of 3398 African American and 22,673 non-Hispanic white men who participated in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (2001-2011) with present analyses completed in 2014. Total, low-grade (Gleason score American men and a corresponding 1453, 898, and 441 cases in non-Hispanic white men, respectively. Although not associated with risk among non-Hispanic white men, BMI was positively associated with an increase in risk among African American men (BMI, American race increased from 28% (HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 0.91-1.80]) among men with BMI less than 25 to 103% (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.38-2.98]) among African American men with BMI at least 35 (P for trend = .03). Body mass index was inversely associated with low-grade prostate cancer risk within non-Hispanic white men (BMI, American men (BMI, American men, although the increase may be larger within African American men, albeit the racial interaction was not statistically significant (BMI, Obesity is more strongly associated with increased prostate cancer risk among African American than non-Hispanic white men and reducing obesity among African American men could reduce the racial disparity in cancer incidence. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of obesity in African American and non-Hispanic white men.

  20. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Development and external multicenter validation of Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium prostate cancer risk calculator for initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Xue, Wei; Ye, Zhangqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Substantial differences exist in the relationship of prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level between Western and Asian populations. Classic Western risk calculators, European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, were shown to be not applicable in Asian populations. We aimed to develop and validate a risk calculator for predicting the probability of PCa and high-grade PCa (defined as Gleason Score sum 7 or higher) at initial prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Urology outpatients who underwent initial prostate biopsy according to the inclusion criteria were included. The multivariate logistic regression-based Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium Risk Calculator (CPCC-RC) was constructed with cases from 2 hospitals in Shanghai. Discriminative ability, calibration and decision curve analysis were externally validated in 3 CPCC member hospitals. Of the 1,835 patients involved, PCa was identified in 338/924 (36.6%) and 294/911 (32.3%) men in the development and validation cohort, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that 5 predictors (age, logPSA, logPV, free PSA ratio, and digital rectal examination) were associated with PCa (Model 1) or high-grade PCa (Model 2), respectively. The area under the curve of Model 1 and Model 2 was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.771-0.831) and 0.826 (95% CI: 0.796-0.857), respectively. Both models illustrated good calibration and substantial improvement in decision curve analyses than any single predictors at all threshold probabilities. Higher predicting accuracy, better calibration, and greater clinical benefit were achieved by CPCC-RC, compared with European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in predicting PCa. CPCC-RC performed well in discrimination and calibration and decision curve analysis in external validation compared

  2. Diet and dietary supplement intervention trials for the prevention of prostate cancer recurrence: a review of the randomized controlled trial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Cheri L; de Boer, Johan G; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2008-12-01

    We review the effect of diet and dietary supplement interventions on prostate cancer progression, recurrence and survival. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify diet and dietary supplement intervention studies in men with prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen or prostate specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate serum biomarker of prostate cancer recurrence and/or survival. Of the 32 studies identified 9 (28%) were randomized controlled trials and the focus of this review. In these studies men had confirmed prostate cancer and elevated or increasing prostate specific antigen. Only 1 trial included men with metastatic disease. When body mass index was reported, men were overweight or obese. A significant decrease in prostate specific antigen was observed in some studies using a low fat vegan diet, soy beverage or lycopene supplement. While not often reported as an end point, a significant increase in prostate specific antigen doubling time was observed in a study on lycopene supplementation. In only 1 randomized controlled trial in men undergoing orchiectomy was a survival end point of fewer deaths with lycopene supplementation reported. A limited number of randomized controlled trials were identified in which diet and dietary supplement interventions appeared to slow disease progression in men with prostate cancer, although results vary. Studies were limited by reliance on the surrogate biomarker prostate specific antigen, sample size and study duration. Well designed trials are warranted to expand knowledge, replicate findings and further assess the impact of diet and dietary supplement interventions on recurrence and treatment associated morbidities.

  3. Synergistic interaction of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis on prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  5. Prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosli, Hisham A.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies revealed that there are variations in the geographic and ethnic distribution of cancer of prostate (CaP) gland. This cancer varies drmatically between being very common in black American men, to rare in Asian and Chinese men. Genetic, familial predisposition and environmental factors in addition to methods of cancer detection and reporting contribute to these variations. Prostate cancer is the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world yet stands first in USA where resources allow large epidemiological studies. The health policy makers take major decisions such as mass population screening according to data derived from such studies that include information on disease specific mortality rates and incidence rates for each of ethnic sub-population living in USA. Untill now we do not have similr information in KSA; therefore the policy decisions should consider the possibility of the difference in situations since genetic, familial and environmetal conditions are different.Our current local data indicates that prostate cancer occurs at lower incidence rate than western countries. The objective of this article is to provide all the available information on the different aspects of CaP gland in KSA. A second more important objective is to attract the attention of future expectations that need preparation since the possibility of disease prevention does exist. (author)

  6. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  7. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  8. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  9. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  10. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    .69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.91, N = 8) and cancer mortality (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.93, N = 6) associated with higher selenium exposure. Gender-specific subgroup analysis provided no clear evidence of different effects in men and women (P value 0.47), although cancer incidence was lower in men (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05, N = 6) than in women (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77, N = 2). The most pronounced decreases in risk of site-specific cancers were seen for stomach, bladder and prostate cancers. However, these findings have limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity that complicate interpretation of the summary statistics. Some studies suggested that genetic factors may modify the relation between selenium and cancer risk-a hypothesis that deserves further investigation. In RCTs, we found no clear evidence that selenium supplementation reduced the risk of any cancer (risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.17, two studies, N = 4765) or cancer-related mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.32, two studies, N = 18,698), and this finding was confirmed when the analysis was restricted to studies with low risk of bias. The effect on prostate cancer was imprecise (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.14, four studies, N = 19,110), and when the analysis was limited to trials with low risk of bias, the interventions showed no effect (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14, three studies, N = 18,183). The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer was increased (RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.17, three studies, N = 1900). Results of two trials-the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT) and the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Trial (SELECT)-also raised concerns about possible increased risk of type 2 diabetes, alopecia and dermatitis due to selenium supplements. An early hypothesis generated by NPCT that individuals with the lowest blood selenium levels at baseline could reduce their risk of cancer, particularly of prostate cancer, by increasing selenium intake has not been

  11. Male pattern baldness and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, M; Saliou, M; De Rycke, Y; Hemery, C; Henni, M; Bachaud, J M; Thiounn, N; Cosset, J M; Giraud, P

    2011-08-01

    Androgens play a role in the development of both androgenic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, and prostate cancer. We set out to study if early-onset androgenic alopecia was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. A total of 669 subjects (388 with a history of prostate cancer and 281 without) were enrolled in this study. All subjects were asked to score their balding pattern at ages 20, 30 and 40. Statistical comparison was subsequently done between both groups of patients. Our study revealed that patients with prostate cancer were twice as likely to have androgenic alopecia at age 20 [odds ratio (OR) 2.01, P = 0.0285]. The pattern of hair loss was not a predictive factor for the development of cancer. There was no association between early-onset alopecia and an earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer or with the development of more aggressive tumors. This study shows an association between early-onset androgenic alopecia and the development of prostate cancer. Whether this population can benefit from routine prostate cancer screening or systematic use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as primary prevention remains to be determined.

  12. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  13. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  14. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  15. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Materials and Methods: Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. Results: BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. Conclusion: The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  17. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    investigated site-specific cancers, investigators provided little evidence of any effect of selenium supplementation. Two RCTs with 19,009 participants indicated that colorectal cancer was unaffected by selenium administration (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.43), as were non-melanoma skin cancer (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.30 to 4.42; 2 studies, 2027 participants), lung cancer (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.50; 2 studies, 19,009 participants), breast cancer (RR 2.04, 95% CI 0.44 to 9.55; 1 study, 802 participants), bladder cancer (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.52; 2 studies, 19,009 participants), and prostate cancer (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 4 studies, 18,942 participants). Certainty of the evidence was high for all of these cancer sites, except for breast cancer, which was of moderate certainty owing to imprecision, and non-melanoma skin cancer, which we judged as moderate certainty owing to high heterogeneity. RCTs with low risk of bias suggested increased melanoma risk.Results for most outcomes were similar when we included all RCTs in the meta-analysis, regardless of risk of bias. Selenium supplementation did not reduce overall cancer incidence (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.14; 5 studies, 21,860 participants) nor mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.32; 2 studies, 18,698 participants). Summary RRs for site-specific cancers showed limited changes compared with estimates from high-quality studies alone, except for liver cancer, for which results were reversed.In the largest trial, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Trial, selenium supplementation increased risks of alopecia and dermatitis, and for participants with highest background selenium status, supplementation also increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. RCTs showed a slightly increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with supplementation. A hypothesis generated by the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial - that individuals with low blood selenium levels could reduce their risk of cancer (particularly prostate cancer) by

  18. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (pprostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  19. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  20. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  1. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Bridget F; Lee, W Robert

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, salvage treatment, or for palliation of advanced disease. Herein we briefly discuss the indications, results, and complications associated with brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, when used as monotherapy and in combination with each other or androgen deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    are linked to clinical and outcome data and supported by an informatics infrastructure . In this 2nd year of operation the University of Washington...REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) Standard Form 298...informatics infrastructure . Keywords Biorepository, prostate cancer, patient derived xenografts, rapid autopsy, biomarkers. Accomplishments The

  3. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan;73(2):169-75. doi: 10.1002/pros.22552. Epub 2012 Jun 21. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Nakagawa H. Prostate cancer genomics by high-throughput technologies: genome-wide association study and sequencing analysis. Endocr ...

  4. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  5. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    receptor is no longer essential for survival, collectively termed androgen pathway independent prostate cancer (APIPC) (Nelson, 2012). A subset of these...Reciprocal feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer . Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17;19(5):575-86. Chen J, Li...2005a). The androgen receptor and signal-transduction pathways in hormone-refractory prostate cancer . Part 1: Modifications to the androgen receptor

  6. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  7. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  8. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  9. Utilization of bone densitometry for prediction and administration of bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases receiving antiandrogen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Abby; Khan, Muhammad A; Gujja, Swetha; Govindarajan, Rangaswmy

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are recommended to have baseline and serial bone densitometry and receive bisphosphonates. The purpose of this community population study was to assess the utilization of bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. A cohort study of men aged 65 years or older with non-metastatic incident diagnoses of prostate cancer was obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-linked Medicare claims between 2004 and 2008. Claims were used to assess prescribed treatment of ADT, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonates. A total of 30,846 incident prostate cancer cases receiving ADT and aged 65 years or older had no bone metastases; 87.3% (n=26,935) on ADT did not receive either bone densitometry or bisphosphonate therapy. Three percent (n=931) of the cases on ADT received bisphosphonate therapy without ever receiving bone densitometry, 8.8% (n=2,702) of the cases on ADT received bone densitometry without receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, while nearly 1% (0.90%, n=278) of the cases on ADT received both bone densitometry and bisphosphonates. Analysis showed treatment differed by patient characteristics. Contrary to the recommendations, bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy are underutilized in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer

  10. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...... and quanticization of cytosolic and nuclear ERs. In the BPH group, ERs were detected once in the prostate and prostatic urethra in the nuclear and cytosol, and additionally in the prostatic urethra in the cytosol fraction in three cases. In all cases, ER content was low, ranging from 10-15 fmol/mg protein. In the PC...

  11. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of SNOMED codes were identified. A computer algorithm was developed to transcode SNOMED codes into an analyzable format including procedure (eg, biopsy, transurethral resection, etc), diagnosis, and date of diagnosis. For validation, ~55,000 pathological reports were manually reviewed. Prostate-specific...... antigen, vital status, causes of death, and tumor-node-metastasis classification were integrated from national registries. RESULTS: Of the 161,525 specimens from 113,801 males identified, 83,379 (51.6%) were sets of prostate biopsies, 56,118 (34.7%) were transurethral/transvesical resections......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  12. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Archana; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies

  13. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  14. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Bengi, E-mail: bengur0@yahoo.com [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasdelen, Neslihan [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yencilek, Faruk [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Alp, Turgut [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, Zeynep [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Albayrak, M. Selami [Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulug, Aziz M. [Yeditepe University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Guermen, A. Nevzat [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  15. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Bengi; Tasdelen, Neslihan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer; Alp, Turgut; Firat, Zeynep; Albayrak, M. Selami; Ulug, Aziz M.; Guermen, A. Nevzat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  16. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  17. Role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szollosi Attila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

  18. Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Anderson A, Yang GY, Arbeit JM, and Auborn KJ. Indole- 3-carbinol prevents cervical cancer in human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) transgenic mice...signaling is prevalent in many cancers, most notably colorectal cancer; however their role in prostate cancer is becoming increasingly appreciated...condition 2 gives no background bands. F) Schematic of human PSA promoter and or β-catenin binding sites (TBE). G-H) Target specific PCR for PSA (G) or

  19. The androgen receptor malignancy shift in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Ben T; Pal, Sumanta K; Bolton, Eric C; Jones, Jeremy O

    2018-05-01

    Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) are necessary for the development, function, and homeostatic growth regulation of the prostate gland. However, once prostate cells are transformed, the AR is necessary for the proliferation and survival of the malignant cells. This change in AR function appears to occur in nearly every prostate cancer. We have termed this the AR malignancy shift. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the AR malignancy shift, including the DNA-binding patterns that define the shift, the transcriptome changes associated with the shift, the putative drivers of the shift, and its clinical implications. In benign prostate epithelial cells, the AR primarily binds consensus AR binding sites. In carcinoma cells, the AR cistrome is dramatically altered, as the AR associates with FOXA1 and HOXB13 motifs, among others. This shift leads to the transcription of genes associated with a malignant phenotype. In model systems, some mutations commonly found in localized prostate cancer can alter the AR cistrome, consistent with the AR malignancy shift. Current evidence suggests that the AR malignancy shift is necessary but not sufficient for transformation of prostate epithelial cells. Reinterpretation of prostate cancer genomic classification systems in light of the AR malignancy shift may improve our ability to predict clinical outcomes and treat patients appropriately. Identifying and targeting the molecular factors that contribute to the AR malignancy shift is not trivial but by doing so, we may be able to develop new strategies for the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Clinical survey of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Satoh, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Honda, Masahito; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment trends and outcomes for prostate cancer in our hospital were reported. A total of 482 patients with prostate cancer treated in our hospital between January, 1990 and December, 2004. The age distribution was from 51 to 99 years-old, with the mean age of 72.9 years-old at onset. The number of prostate cancer patients, especially asymptomatic patients with prostatic specific antigen (PSA) elevation, have increased recently. As for the clinical stage, 92 cases (19.1%), 238 cases (49.4%), 48 cases (10.0%) and 104 cases (21.6%) were stage A, B, C and D, respectively. 425 cases (88.2%) received some form of endocrine therapy. Retropubic prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy was performed in 77 and 57 cases, respectively all cases. The cause-specific 5-year survival rate of the 482 cases was 79.7%, comprising 100% for stage A1, 96.8% for stage A2, 89.4% for stage B, 79.9% for stage C and 42.9% for stage D. The cause-specific 5-year survival was significantly better in the latter patients (1997-2004) than the former patients (1990-1996) in stage C (p=0.0226), D (p=0.0448). In stage C patients, the retropubic prostatectomy (with endocrine therapy) group, increased in the latter period and showed longer cause-specific 5-year survival than the endocrine therapy group (p=0.0027). In stage D2 patients, chemo-endocrine therapy with etoposide (VP-16), adriamycin (ADM) and cisplatin (CDDP) refractory and cause-specific 5-year survival was longer than endocrine therapy alone (p=0.0467, P=0.0381). Our results suggest that retropubic prostatectomy with endocrine therapy and chemo-endocrine therapy are useful for stage C and D prostate cancer patients, respectively. (author)

  1. Prioritizing genes associated with prostate cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Logothetis, Christopher J; Sircar, Kanishka; Zhao, Hongya; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M; Gorlova, Olga Y; Troncoso, Patricia; Pettaway, Curtis A; Byun, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    The genetic control of prostate cancer development is poorly understood. Large numbers of gene-expression datasets on different aspects of prostate tumorigenesis are available. We used these data to identify and prioritize candidate genes associated with the development of prostate cancer and bone metastases. Our working hypothesis was that combining meta-analyses on different but overlapping steps of prostate tumorigenesis will improve identification of genes associated with prostate cancer development. A Z score-based meta-analysis of gene-expression data was used to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development. To put together different datasets, we conducted a meta-analysis on 3 levels that follow the natural history of prostate cancer development. For experimental verification of candidates, we used in silico validation as well as in-house gene-expression data. Genes with experimental evidence of an association with prostate cancer development were overrepresented among our top candidates. The meta-analysis also identified a considerable number of novel candidate genes with no published evidence of a role in prostate cancer development. Functional annotation identified cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and cell motility as the top functions associated with prostate cancer development. We identified 10 genes--CDC2, CCNA2, IGF1, EGR1, SRF, CTGF, CCL2, CAV1, SMAD4, and AURKA--that form hubs of the interaction network and therefore are likely to be primary drivers of prostate cancer development. By using this large 3-level meta-analysis of the gene-expression data to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development, we have generated a list of candidate genes that may be a useful resource for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer development

  2. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Poppel, Hein; Tombal, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  3. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  4. Prostate Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancers are often adenocarcinomas. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is often present in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Find evidence-based information on prostate cancer including treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  5. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  6. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  7. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... stroma in eight cases and in the glandular epithelium in one. In four cases ERs were seen in the prostatic stroma and in the glandular epithelium. In the prostatic urethra, ERs were found in 19 cases located in the urothelium, lamina propria and/or periurethral glands. In the PC group, ERs were...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  8. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration......-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion...

  9. Imaging Primary Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2004-01-01

    ... and androgen independent prostate cancer xenografted mice. Specific Aims: (1) Design, synthesize, and characterize positrori emitting bombesin analogs, labeled with copper-64 or fluorine-I 8; (2...

  10. Prostate cancer risk and recurrence: the role of nutrition and clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Western countries. Knowledge on prostate cancer aetiology is required for identification of high-risk groups, optimization of treatment strategies, and development of prevention programs. The aim of this thesis

  11. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  12. Punctuated evolution of prostate cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Sylvan C; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W; Berger, Michael F; Gabriel, Stacey B; Golub, Todd R; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A; Garraway, Levi A

    2013-04-25

    The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term "chromoplexy," frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  14. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment.

  15. Surveillance after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, S.; Rio, E.; Clement-Colmou, K.; Bouchot, O.; Rigaud, J.

    2011-01-01

    Follow-up after prostate cancer radiotherapy aims at detecting local or metastatic relapse, as well as long-term toxicity, requiring adapted treatments. Several scientific societies have published guidelines including clinical, biological and imaging recommendations. More data suggest a role for aggressive salvage therapy in case of local failure following radiotherapy. An adequate follow-up is required for the sake of patients' safety, i.e. to a posteriori validate dose constraints and radiation technique in each radiotherapy department. (authors)

  16. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  17. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  18. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-05-01

    Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients.

  19. Cytogenetics of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Konig (Josee)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn mosl Weslern counlries, proslale cancer (PC) is a common malignancy. In Ihe United Siaies cancer slatistics of 1994, PC has Ihe highesl incidence rale and is Ihe Ihird cause of cancer dealhs [Boring el al '94J. In Ihe Nelherlands, which lakes Ihe ninlh place on Ihe IIsl of PC

  20. Exploring prostate cancer literacy and family cancer awareness in college students: getting ahead of the curve in cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa C; McClain, Jasmyne

    2013-12-01

    Cancer literacy and family cancer experiences have not been widely researched from the perspective of young adults. This study examined health literacy related to prostate cancer and family cancer awareness among a sample of 146 male and female college students. Results supported conventional wisdom that males would be more knowledgeable about the anatomical location of the prostate as compared to females. More notably, across the sample participants had limited knowledge of comprehensive prostate cancer screening but were generally aware of the prostate specific antigen blood test, as well as age and diet as risk factors for prostate cancer. Emerging associations between sexual health history and prostate cancer risk were not widely known by the sample as a whole and perceived availability of prostate health education in college was low. Finally, gender differences in family communication about cancer and racial differences in the number of family members with cancer were observed, which could have implications for perpetuating existing gender and racial gaps in health literacy and cancer awareness. A lifespan approach to cancer education research is suggested to identify ways to promote lifelong learning about cancer, promote prevention behaviors and informed screening in young adulthood, and beyond and better prepare adults to face a family or personal cancer diagnosis should that occur in the future.

  1. The diet as a cause of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William G; Demarzo, Angelo M; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic prostate inflammation and prostate cancer have reached epidemic proportions among men in the developed world. Animal model studies implicate dietary carcinogens, such as the heterocyclic amines from over-cooked meats and sex steroid hormones, particularly estrogens, as candidate etiologies for prostate cancer. Each acts by causing epithelial cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response that can evolve into a chronic or recurrent condition. This milieu appears to spawn proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) lesions, a type of focal atrophy that represents the earliest of prostate cancer precursor lesions. Rare PIA lesions contain cells which exhibit high c-Myc expression, shortened telomere segments, and epigenetic silencing of genes such as GSTP1, encoding the π-class glutathione S-transferase, all characteristic of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer. Subsequent genetic changes, such as the gene translocations/deletions that generate fusion transcripts between androgen-regulated genes (such as TMPRSS2) and genes encoding ETS family transcription factors (such as ERG1), arise in PIN lesions and may promote invasiveness characteristic of prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Lethal prostate cancers contain markedly corrupted genomes and epigenomes. Epigenetic silencing, which seems to arise in response to the inflamed microenvironment generated by dietary carcinogens and/or estrogens as part of an epigenetic "catastrophe" affecting hundreds of genes, persists to drive clonal evolution through metastatic dissemination. The cause of the initial epigenetic "catastrophe" has not been determined but likely involves defective chromatin structure maintenance by over-exuberant DNA methylation or histone modification. With dietary carcinogens and estrogens driving pro-carcinogenic inflammation in the developed world, it is tempting to speculate that dietary components associated with decreased prostate cancer risk, such as intake of

  2. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  3. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  4. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun Jin; Cho, Gyung Goo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast- enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer

  5. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  6. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  7. Leveraging the Family Influence of Women in Prostate Cancer Efforts Targeting African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, O N; Rutherford, C A; Witherspoon, S F

    2017-08-25

    Incidence rate of prostate cancer among African American (AA) men is 1.6 times that in White men. Prevention efforts in this population have typically been through faith-based organizations and barber shops, with a few including significant others. Culturally, women are known to have a strong influence in the AA family. The current study assessed prostate cancer knowledge and explored perceptions on the roles of women in prostate cancer prevention. To assess prostate cancer knowledge, a 25-item questionnaire was administered to convenience samples of AA women (n = 297) and men (n = 199). Four focus groups were conducted to explore perceptions on the role of women in prostate cancer prevention. Men had a higher mean score (13.2; max of 25) than women (11.4) for knowledge of prostate cancer. For the men, higher knowledge scores were associated with having a family member diagnosed with prostate cancer and likelihood to engage healthcare providers about prostate cancer (p men to seek regular primary care. This affords men opportunities for dialog with healthcare providers about prostate cancer and informed decision making regarding screening.

  8. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  9. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  10. Staging of prostate cancer: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejos, J.; Alvarez, C.; Mariluis, C.; Paganini, L.; González, C.; De Luca, S.; Dieguez, A.; Villaronga, A.

    2013-01-01

    In our country prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in older men. An accurate staging is very important to establish treatment strategies.This article presents the 7th edition TNM staging system for prostate cancer, effective January 1, 2010. This has undergone major changes over the 6th edition. (authors) [es

  11. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stelloo (Suzan); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.); J. de Jong (Jeroen); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); G.W. Jenster (Guido); L. Wessels (Lodewyk); A.M. Bergman (Andries); W. Zwart (Wilbert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer

  12. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, I.J. de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by

  13. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  14. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years. The GLOBOCAN project showed that prostate cancer was the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men worldwide in 2012. This trend has been growing even in Asian countries, where the incidence had previously been low. However, the accuracy of data about incidence and mortality as a result of prostate cancer in some Asian countries is limited. The cause of this increasing trend is multifactorial. One possible explanation is changes in lifestyles due to more Westernized diets. The incidence is also statistically biased by the wide implementation of early detection systems and the accuracy of national cancer registration systems, which are still immature in most Asian countries. Mortality rate decreases in Australia, New Zealand and Japan since the 1990s are possibly due to the improvements in treatment and/or early detection efforts employed. However, this rate is increasing in the majority of other Asian countries. Studies of latent and incidental prostate cancer provide less biased information. The prevalence of latent and incidental prostate cancer in contemporary Japan and Korea is similar to those in Western countries, suggesting the influence of lifestyle changes on carcinogenesis. Many studies reported evidence of both congenital and acquired risk factors for carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. Recent changes in the acquired risk factors might be associated with the increasing occurrence of prostate cancer in Asian countries. This trend could continue, especially in developing Asian countries. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  16. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.......Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer....

  17. Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer

  18. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-11-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.

  19. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An open, randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial comparing the efficacy of two tamoxifen schedules in preventing gynaecomastia induced by bicalutamide monotherapy in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedognetti, Davide; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Conti, Giario; Francesca, Francesco; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Canclini, Luca; Gallucci, Michele; Aragona, Francesco; Di Tonno, Pasquale; Cortellini, Pietro; Martorana, Giuseppe; Lapini, Alberto; Boccardo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Bicalutamide monotherapy is a valuable option for prostate cancer (PCa) patients who wish to avoid the consequences of androgen deprivation; however, this treatment induces gynaecomastia and mastalgia in most patients. Tamoxifen is safe and effective in preventing breast events induced by bicalutamide monotherapy without affecting antitumor activity, but possible interference between bicalutamide and tamoxifen remains a matter of concern. To reduce the exposure to tamoxifen, we considered the putative advantages of weekly administration. To compare the efficacy of two different schedules of tamoxifen in preventing breast events. Toxicity, prostate-specific antigen behaviour, and sexual-functioning scores were also evaluated. This was a noninferiority trial. From December 2003 to February 2006, 80 patients with localised/locally advanced or biochemically recurrent PCa who were also candidates for bicalutamide single therapy were randomised to receive two different schedules of tamoxifen: daily (n=41) and weekly (n=39). Median follow-up was 24.2 mo. Daily bicalutamide (150 mg) plus daily tamoxifen 20mg continuously (daily group) or the same but with tamoxifen at 20mg weekly after the first 8 wk of daily treatment (weekly group). Three patients in the weekly group and one in the daily group were discontinued for adverse events. For gynaecomastia, we used ultrasonography. For mastalgia and sexual functioning, we used questionnaires. Gynaecomastia developed in 31.7% of patients in the daily group and in 74.4% of patients in the weekly group (p<0.0001), and it was more severe in patients who switched to weekly tamoxifen (p=0.001). Mastalgia occurred in 12.2% and 46.1% of patients, respectively (p=0.001). There were no major differences among treatment schedules relative to sexual functioning scores and incidence and severity of adverse events. No differences between groups in PSA behaviour and disease progression have been detected so far. This study demonstrated that

  1. A small molecule inhibitor of ETV1, YK-4-279, prevents prostate cancer growth and metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Rahim

    Full Text Available The erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequences (ETS family of transcription factors consists of a highly conserved group of genes that play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. Chromosomal translocations fusing ETS factors to promoters of androgen responsive genes have been found in prostate cancers, including the most clinically aggressive forms. ERG and ETV1 are the most commonly translocated ETS proteins. Over-expression of these proteins in prostate cancer cells results in a more invasive phenotype. Inhibition of ETS activity by small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel method for the treatment of prostate cancer.We recently demonstrated that the small molecule YK-4-279 inhibits biological activity of ETV1 in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion in-vitro. Here, we present data from an in-vivo mouse xenograft model. SCID-beige mice were subcutaneously implanted with fusion-positive LNCaP-luc-M6 and fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors. Animals were treated with YK-4-279, and its effects on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis were evaluated. YK-4-279 treatment resulted in decreased growth of the primary tumor only in LNCaP-luc-M6 cohort. When primary tumors were grown to comparable sizes, YK-4-279 inhibited tumor metastasis to the lungs. Expression of ETV1 target genes MMP7, FKBP10 and GLYATL2 were reduced in YK-4-279 treated animals. ETS fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were unresponsive to the compound. Furthermore, YK-4-279 is a chiral molecule that exists as a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. We established that (S-YK-4-279 is the active enantiomer in prostate cancer cells.Our results demonstrate that YK-4-279 is a potent inhibitor of ETV1 and inhibits both the primary tumor growth and metastasis of fusion positive prostate cancer xenografts. Therefore, YK-4-279 or similar compounds may be evaluated as a potential

  2. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  3. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  4. Does Small Prostate Predict High Grade Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.; Kaba, S.; Koca, O.; Ozturk, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to assess the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the association between prostate size and adverse outcomes at final pathology. Study Design: Comparative, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January 2008 to January 2016. Methodology: The patients treated with open radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were reviewed. Patient characteristics including prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA levels, age, biopsy, and radical prostatectomy results were recorded. The patients whose data were complete or prostate weight was equal to or less than 80 gm, were included in the study. Patients with < 40 gm prostate weight was in group 1 and the patients in group 2 had a prostate weight from 40 to 80 gm. High grade prostate cancer was defined to have a Gleason score between 7 or higher at biopsy and final pathology. Pathology and biopsy results were compared within groups. MedCalc Statistical Software demo version was used for statistical analyses. Results: There were 162 patients in this study. Of these, 71 (43.82 percent) patients were in group 1 and 91 (56.17 percent) patients were in group 2. The age ranged from 49 to 76 years. Mean value of 62.70 +-6.82 and 65.82 +- 5.66 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Fifty (70.42 percent) and 68 patients (74.74 percent) had a Gleason score of 6 in group 1 and 2, respectively. Organconfined disease was reported in 53 patients (74.64 percent) in group 1 and in 78 patients (85.71 percent) in group 2. Gleason score concordance between biopsy and prostatectomy was reported in 61 patients (67.03 percent) and downgrading was detected in 4 patients (4.4 percent) in group 2. The median tumor volume of the patients was 4.47 cm/sup 3/ in group 1 and 6 cm/sup 3/ in group 2 (p=0.502). High grade prostate cancer was reported in 52.11 percent and 45.05 percent of the patients in

  5. Optimizing the Management of High-Risk, Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sundi, Debasish; Jeong, Byong Chang; Lee, Seung Bae; Han, Misop

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radi...

  6. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  7. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dietary folate deficiency blocks prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistulfi, Gaia; Foster, Barbara A; Karasik, Ellen; Gillard, Bryan; Miecznikowski, Jeff; Dhiman, Vineet K; Smiraglia, Dominic J

    2011-11-01

    Dietary folate is essential in all tissues to maintain several metabolite pools and cellular proliferation. Prostate cells, due to specific metabolic characteristics, have increased folate demand to support proliferation and prevent genetic and epigenetic damage. Although several studies have found that dietary folate interventions can affect colon cancer biology in rodent models, its impact on prostate is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary folate manipulation, possibly being of primary importance for prostate epithelial cell metabolism, could significantly affect prostate cancer progression. Strikingly, mild dietary folate depletion arrested prostate cancer progression in 25 of 26 transgenic adenoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, in which tumorigenesis is prostate-specific and characteristically aggressive. The significant effect on prostate cancer growth was characterized by size, grade, proliferation, and apoptosis analyses. Folate supplementation had a mild, nonsignificant, beneficial effect on grade. In addition, characterization of folate pools (correlated with serum), metabolite pools (polyamines and nucleotides), genetic and epigenetic damage, and expression of key biosynthetic enzymes in prostate tissue revealed interesting correlations with tumor progression. These findings indicate that prostate cancer is highly sensitive to folate manipulation and suggest that antifolates, paired with current therapeutic strategies, might significantly improve treatment of prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men.

  9. Radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akira; Minowada, Shigeru; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kinoshita, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadayoshi

    1983-01-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with collimators, whose openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator, has been developed for routine use in our hospital. Forty-four patients underwent radiation therapy, including this particular modality of radiotherapy, for prostatic cancer during the period of July 1976 through December 1981. Eight patients were classified as stage A, 10 stage B, 10 stage C, and 16 as stage D. Twenty-nine patients underwent conformation radiotherapy, two rotation radiotherapy, eight 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy, one 4-field radiotherapy, and four underwent a combination of 2-port opposing technique and conformation radiotherapy. Transient mild side effects such as diarrhea occurred in seven cases, while severe side effects such as rectal stricture or contracted bladder occurred in three cases. The latter occurred only in one case among 29 of conformation radiotherapy and in two among eight of 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy. The results of the treatment of short intervals in stage B, C, and D are as follows: prostatic size was reduced in 26 cases among 36, serum acid phosphatase level was reduced in 15 among 18 who had showed high acid phosphatase levels before treatment, although almost all cases underwent simultaneous hormonal therapy. The effects of radiotherapy alone were verified in two cases of stage B in which radiotherapy preceded hormonal therapy. Prostatic size and serum acid phosphatase level were reduced by radiotherapy alone. (author)

  10. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Use of bis phosphonates in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Valle, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the world, meaning a real public health problem. The prevalence of Bone metastases may reach 100% of those who die from this disease printing a serious decline in the quality of life especially in the occurrence of skeletal-related events. Since three decades we try to find an inhibitor bone resorption which might prevent or treat bone metastases develop bisphosphonates (BF). These can not only inhibit the recruitment and differentiation osteoclast but decrease its half-life leading to early apoptosis. All BF have similar physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics, but they differ in their anti-resorptive potency, ibandronate and zoledronic acid are BF generation that have been successful in the treatment of pain and decreased bone events in several works, however only one study randomized was conducted to show significant therapeutic advantages bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Although most authors indicate a therapeutic benefit, the evidence is weak and higher costs. Urges the implementation of new studies assessing both ibandronate and zoledronic acid in order to assert its virtues

  12. Oxidative Stress and DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of fruits, vegetables, and other foods on prostate cancer may be due to their antioxidant properties. An imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status is observed in prostate cancer patients. Genome oxidative damage in prostate cancer patients is associated with higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels. Oxygen radicals are associated with different steps of carcinogenesis, including structural DNA damage, epigenetic changes, and protein and lipid alterations. Epigenetics affects genetic regulation, cellular differentiation, embryology, aging, cancer, and other diseases. DNA methylation is perhaps the most extensively studied epigenetic modification, which plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin architecture, in association with histone modification and other chromatin-associated proteins. This review will provide a broad overview of the interplay of oxidative stress and DNA methylation, DNA methylation changes in regulation of gene expression, lifestyle changes for prostate cancer prevention, DNA methylation as biomarkers for prostate cancer, methods for detection of methylation, and clinical application of DNA methylation inhibitors for epigenetic therapy.

  13. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  15. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  16. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  17. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  18. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0212 TITLE: Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Takeda CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0212 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Takeda 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  19. Advances in MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longmin; Liu Ailian

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the incidence of prostate cancer in China shows an upward trend. MRI has high soft tissue resolution and multi-dimensional imaging advantages, and it can better show the anatomy of the prostate and adjacent tissue structures. With the development of MR technique, it plays a more and more important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. This review starts from the imaging performance of routine MRI sequence of prostate cancer, and a variety of functional MRI applications in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostate cancer are described in detail, such as MR perfusion-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopy, MR diffusion-weighted imaging, MR diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging, MR susceptibility-weighted imaging. Meanwhile this review introduces that functional MRI has more advantages and can provide more image information than routine MRI sequence. According to a series of semi-quantitative and quantitative data, functional MRI can further provide the blood perfusion of prostate cancer, water molecule diffusion and microcirculation state, metabolism and biochemical composition change information. (authors)

  20. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, Torrence M. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Federspiel, Mark J. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Morris, John C., E-mail: davis.brian@mayo.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-11-19

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  1. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  2. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  3. Detection of prostate cancer by contrast-ultrasound dispersion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, M.P.J.; Saidov, T.A.; Heneweer, C.; Wijkstra, H.; Mischi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of several efficient focal therapies for prostate cancer, treatment options are often restricted to radical treatments, such as a radical prostatectomy. One of the main obstacles preventing a wider application of focal therapies is the lack of reliable imaging methods for

  4. Advanced prostate cancer risk in relation to toenail selenium levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium may prevent advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most studies on this topic were conducted in populations with moderate to high selenium status. We investigated the association of toenail selenium, reflecting long-term selenium exposure, and advanced PCa risk in a population from

  5. Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5α-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

  6. RIG-I Helicase-Independent Pathway in Sendai Virus-Activated Dendritic Cells Is Critical for Preventing Lung Metastasis of AT6.3 Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Kato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated highly efficient antitumor immunity against dermal tumors of B16F10 murine melanoma with the use of dendritic cells (DCs activated by replication-competent, as well as nontransmissible-type, recombinant Sendai viruses (rSeV, and proposed a new concept, “immunostimulatory virotherapy,” for cancer immunotherapy. However, there has been little information on the efficacies of thismethod: 1 inmore clinically relevant situations including metastatic diseases, 2 on other tumor types and other animal species, and 3 on the related molecular/cellular mechanisms. In this study, therefore, we investigated the efficacy of vaccinating DCs activated by fusion gene-deleted nontransmissible rSeV on a rat model of lung metastasis using a highly malignant subline of Dunning R-3327 prostate cancer, AT6.3. rSeV/dF-green fluorescent protein (GFP-activated bone marrow-derived DCs (rSeV/dF-GFP-DC, consistent with results previously observed in murine DCs. Vaccination of rSeV/dF-GFP-DC was highly effective at preventing lung metastasis after intravenous loading of R-3327 tumor cells, compared with the effects observed with immature DCs or lipopolysaccharide-activated DCs. Interestingly, neither CTL activity nor DC trafficking showed any apparent difference among groups. Notably, rSeV/dF-DCs expressing a dominant-negative mutant of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I (rSeV/dF-RIGIC-DC, an RNA helicase that recognizes the rSeV genome for inducing type I interferons, largely lost the expression of proinflammatory cytokines without any impairment of antitumor activity. These results indicate the essential role of RIG-I-independent signaling on antimetastatic effect induced by rSeV-activated DCs and may provide important insights to DC-based immunotherapy for advanced malignancies.

  7. Radiotherapy for prevention and therapy of gynecomastia due to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer patients. A patterns-of-care-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Burkhard; Sautter, Verena; Melcher, Ute; Sautter-Bihl, Marie-Luise [Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Momm, Felix [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Gynecomastia is a frequent side effect of antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer and may compromise quality of life. Although it has been successfully treated with radiotherapy (RT) for decades, the priority of RT as a preferred treatment option has recently been disputed as tamoxifen was also demonstrated to be effective. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of indications, frequency, and technique of RT in daily practice in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. On behalf of the DEGRO-AG GCG-BD (German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy of Benign Diseases) a standardized questionnaire was sent to 294 RT institutions. The questionnaires inquired about patient numbers, indications, RT technique, dose, and - if available - treatment results. Moreover, the participants were asked whether they were interested in participating in a prospective study. From a total of 294 institutions, 146 replies were received, of which 141 offered RT for gynecomastia. Seven of those reported prophylactic RT only, whereas 129 perform both preventive and symptomatic RT. In 110 of 137departments, a maximum of 20 patients were treated per year. Electron beams (76%) were used most often, while 24% of patients received photon beams or orthovolt x-rays. Total doses were up to 20 Gy for prophylactic and up to 40 Gy for therapeutic RT. Results were reported by 19 departments: prevention of gynecomastia was observed in 60-100% of patients. Only 13 institutions observed side effects. Prophylactic and symptomatic RT is widely used in the German-speaking countries, but patient numbers are small. The clinical results indicate that RT is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment.

  8. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  9. Prospects in radionuclide imaging of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutje, Susanne; Boerman, Otto C.; van Rij, Catharina M.; Sedelaar, Michiel; Helfrich, Wijnand; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Mulders, Peter F. A.

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the Western world and represents a major health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Sensitivity and specificity of digital rectal examination (DRE) and evaluation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) are excellent methods for

  10. Role of Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    We have established a GH-deficient prostate cancer model (Tag/Ghdr/dr rat) indicating that a reduction in GH and/or IGF-I can significantly inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in this model in contrast to GH wild-type controls...

  11. Cancer Prevention by Tocopherols and Tea Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075

  12. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  13. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  14. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Comparison of sonographic features in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Young; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Transrectal sonography of prostate was sensitive to textural changes produced by both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancers. During recent 4 years, twenty cases of BPH and twenty cases of prostate cancers proven histologically were analyzed in their sonographic features, retrospectively, by using transrectal prostate sonography and suprapubic prostate sonography. The results were as follows: 1. Mean weights of BPH and prostate cancers was 40.4g and 47.6g, respectively. 2. Sonographic features of BPH revealed isoechogenecity in 11 cases, homogeneity in 18 cases, well defined capsular margins in 19 cases, and calcification in 16 cases. 3. Sonographic features of prostate cancers revealed mixed echogenecity in 14 cases, inhomogeneity in 15 cases, poorly defined capsular margin in 14 cases, and calcifications in 13 cases. 4. Authors concluded that prostate sonography were valuable diagnostic modality in the differentiation of BPH and prostate cancers.

  16. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Sommer, B.; Graser, A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Massmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.) [de

  17. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  18. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  19. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2006-01-01

    ... (LNCaP DU145 RC3 and CL1). Immunoblot Real Time RT-RCR polarographic and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  20. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2005-01-01

    ... (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, Real Time RTPCR, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  1. Biomarkers of Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanism of selenium growth inhibition in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells Selenium retarded cell cycle progression at multiple transition points...

  2. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  3. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Simon J; Haendler, Bernard

    2017-05-09

    Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  4. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Baumgart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  5. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  6. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  7. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  8. Novel Therapeutic Approaches Toward Treating Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Kinases, Prostate Cancer, AKT inhibition, Mouse, Prostate Stem Cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...Bearss 0, Wierda WG, Gandhi V (2009) Pim kinase inhibitor, 5GI-1776, induces apoptosis in CLL lymphocytes. Blood 114:4150--4157. 27. Grey R, et aL...PIM1 expression predict outcome in mantle cell lymphoma treated with high dose therapy, stem eel! transplantation and rituximab: a Cancer and Leukemia

  9. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    African Americans and whites revealed increased risks among men who reported a history of gonorrhea or syphilis or who had positive serology for...cancer, of 1.49 to 2.64 for syphilis, and 1.16 to 1.50 for gonorrhea .16 The meta-analysis also found an association be- tween prostate cancer and...tients with prostatitis include Chlamydia trachoma- tis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Neisseria gonorrhea , Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and

  10. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Denosumab in the Prevention of Skeletal-related Events in Patients with Prostate Cancer in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Bektur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bone mass loss (BML is one of the adverse effects of oncological chemotherapy, especially in cases of hormonal types of cancer, such as a prostate cancer (PC. BML is strongly associated with skeletal-related events (SREs, therefore decreasing the quality of patient’s life. Denosumab shows an advantage over zoledronic acid (ZA in delaying the first onset of SREs and subsequent SREs in adults with PC in several phase III clinical trials. Since generic ZA recently became available, the purpose of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of denosumab vs. brand or generic ZA in the prevention of SREs in Kazakhstani patients with PC.Methods. A Markov model was constructed in Tree-Age Pro 2013 software program with 4-week model cycles to analyze the cost-effectiveness of the treatments from the perspective of Ministry of Health (MoH over a 10-year PC cohort. Direct costs (in Kazakhstani monetary units “tenge” in 2014 included costs of drug, SRE (pathologic fracture, surgery to bone, radiation to bone, spinal cord compression, and adverse events treatment. All costs were discounted for 3% per year. Effectiveness was appraised based on the number of SREs. Health states were defined according to SRE occurrence, SRE history, and death. The model assumed that a maximum of 1 SRE could occur in each cycle. Transition probabilities were derived from the relevant phase III trials. Results were present in the incremental total cost per SRE avoided. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of the model.Results. Over the 10-year period, denosumab incurred 103,091 tenge higher costs than brand ZA, 677,133 tenge higher costs than generic ZA, and 0.58 fewer SREs per patient with PC. The estimated incremental total direct costs per SRE avoided with the use of denosumab were 177,743 tenge (instead of brand ZA and 1,167,470 tenge (instead of generic ZA. Results were robust to one-way sensitivity analyses

  11. Molecular biology of prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Timothy C.; Sehgal, I.; Timme, T.L.; Rn, C.; Yang, G.; Park, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men (Boring C.C. et al, CA 44:7-26, 1994). As with other forms of cancer, prostate cancer is a multistep disease process that involves the acquisition of multiple genetic alternations (Armitage P and Doll K, Br J Cancer 8:1-12, 1954). For prostate cancer, alternations in specific dominantly acting oncogenes including ras and myc and tumor suppressor genes including p53 and Rb have been reported. However, a simple phenotype-genotype correlation for prostate cancer progression may not be readily accessible because prostate cancer demonstrates remarkable genetic heterogeneity. Recent clinical data indicate that this heterogeneity exists both among the multiple cancer foci as well as within individual cancer foci. Furthermore, based on chromosomal analysis, it has been suggested that metastases do not necessarily seed from the largest index cancer focus at the primary site. Such observations imply that abrupt changes in gene expression may trigger metastatic behavior in relatively small cohorts of malignant cells present at the local site. This pattern of progression may result from compromised function of specific 'control' genes which could affect the activity of multiple downstream genes involved in specific pathways of malignant progression. Such a mechanistic framework involving networks of gene expression could explain the acquisition of the complex metastatic phenotype. Using the mouse prostate reconstitution (MPR) model system (Thompson et al, Cell 56:917-930, 1989) we demonstrated that progression of experimental prostate cancer to metastasis was invariably associated with functional inactivation of p53 (Thompson el al, Oncogene 10:869-879, 1995). Southern blotting analyses revealed that metastases do not necessarily originate from the most abundant clone in the primary carcinoma. Furthermore, the role of p53 as a potential metastasis suppressor

  12. Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM...blocked by the addition of Pim inhibitors. These results suggest that the Pim protein kinase can regulate stromal cell biology to modulate epithelial

  13. 78 FR 54745 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those lost to prostate cancer, offer our support to patients and... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 2013 as National Prostate Cancer Awareness...

  14. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  15. Interleukin-30: A novel microenvironmental hallmark of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. We have recently discovered that IL-30 shapes the microenvironment of prostate cancer and tumor-draining lymph nodes to favor tumor progression. IL-30 supports tumor growth in vitro, and IL-30 expression in prostate cancer patients is associated with high tumor grade and metastatic stage of disease. Thus, IL-30 may constitute a valuable target for modern therapeutic approaches to hamper prostate cancer progression.

  16. Multiparametric MRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, Jurgen J. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

  17. Long-term prediction of prostate cancer diagnosis and death using PSA and obesity related anthropometrics at early middle age: data from the malmö preventive project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assel, Melissa J; Gerdtsson, Axel; Thorek, Daniel L J; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Malm, Johan; Scardino, Peter T; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Ulmert, David

    2018-01-19

    To evaluate whether anthropometric parameters add to PSA measurements in middle-aged men for risk assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and death. After adjusting for PSA, both BMI and weight were significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa death with the odds of a death corresponding to a 10 kg/m2 or 10 kg increase being 1.58 (95% CI 1.10, 2.28; p = 0.013) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.02, 1.26; p = 0.016) times greater, respectively. AUCs did not meaningfully increase with the addition of weight or BMI to prediction models including PSA. In 1974 to 1986, 22,444 Swedish men aged 44 to 50 enrolled in Malmö Preventive Project, Sweden, and provided blood samples and anthropometric data. Rates of PSA screening in the cohort were very low. Documentation of PCa diagnosis and disease-specific death up to 2014 was retrieved through national registries. Among men with anthropometric measurements available at baseline, a total of 1692 men diagnosed with PCa were matched to 4190 controls, and 464 men who died of disease were matched to 1390 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to determine whether diagnosis or death from PCa were associated with weight and body mass index (BMI) at adulthood after adjusting for PSA. Men with higher BMI and weight at early middle age have an increased risk of PCa diagnosis and death after adjusting for PSA. However, in a multi-variable numerical statistical model, BMI and weight do not importantly improve the predictive accuracy of PSA. Risk-stratification of screening should be based on PSA without reference to anthropometrics.

  18. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  19. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  20. The relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hein; Haese, Alexander; Graefen, Markus; de la Taille, Alexandre; Irani, Jacques; de Reijke, Theo; Remzi, Mesut; Marberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Clinical data from two multi-centre European open-label, prospective studies evaluating the clinical utility of the PCA3 assay in guiding initial and repeat biopsy

  1. The prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, W G

    2017-03-01

    . Cadherins involved in cell adhesion and possibly chalone which exerts negative effects, must also be considered. Overall, the degree of BPH that any older male develops is governed largely by: Apart from providing the existing huge evidence for infection in BPH, this manuscript explains the production, release and absorption of PLD into the prostate gland where it is converted to LPA. This is a growth factor and acts within the prostate both on smooth muscle (research proof given) and on prostatic connective tissue, resulting in BPH. This manuscript indicates the vital research, including the requisite materials, which would readily provide irrefutable and final etiological proof of all of the hormones involved. It explains how, to a large extent, the use of a vaccine which is now being developed, would likely allow the ultimate prevention of this ubiquitous disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  3. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit of combi......The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  4. Incidental Prostate Cancer in Patients Undergoing Radical Cystoprostatectomy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hiroš

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to verify the incidence of incidental prostate adenocarcinoma in patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for invasive bladder carcinoma. We have retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for infiltrative bladder tumors in period between 2003 and 2007 year, 94 men with bladder cancer underwent radical cystoprostatectomy at Urology Clinic-University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre. Mean age of patients was 67 years, with age limits ranging between 48 and 79 years. Pathohystological evaluation was used for all specimens from RCP. We found that 9,57% of cystoprostatectomy specimens in patients with bladder cancer also contained incidental prostate cancer. This result was much lower than overall mean frequency of incidentally detected prostate cancer in other series of cystoprostatectomy cases (range, 23%-68%. In conclusion we recommended digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA test as part of the bladder cancer work up and complete removal of the prostate at cystoprostatectomy to prevent residual prostate cancer.

  5. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  6. Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Rebbeck’s research focuses on the etiology and prevention of cancer, with an emphasis on cancers with a genetic etiology and those that are associated with disparities in incidence or mortality by race. He has directed multiple large molecular epidemiologic studies and international consortia that have been used to identify and characterize genes involved in cancer etiology, understand the relationship of allelic variation with biochemical or physiological traits, explore interactions of inherited and somatic genomic variation with epidemiological risk factors. His research also focuses on the roles of biological and social factors on prostate cancer disparities and prostate cancer in Africa through the Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) consortium. He has also led a number of consortia that study carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations to understand breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risk and precision prevention interventions that may reduce that risk. In addition to his research activities, Dr. Rebbeck leads a number of initiatives on the Harvard Campus. He serves as Associate Director for Equity and Engagement in the Dana-Farber / Harvard Cancer Center and Co-Director for the Collective Impact Program of Harvard Catalyst. In this role, he prioritizes the cancer research agenda to maximize disease prevention and risk reduction in Massachusetts. He also oversees a team charged with ensuring that this research engages with and positively impacts communities with the greatest disease burden.  As Director of Global Oncology at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Dr. Rebbeck oversees formal and informal training and research partnerships between Dana Farber investigators and trainees with international partners.

  7. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  8. Psychosocial and Quality of Life Issues in Prostate and Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Madalinska, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractProstate and ovarian cancers are among the leading causes of death in Western countries. Applied preventive health strategies, including screening and early medical treatments either with prophylactic or curative intention, may substantially affect patients’ quality of life (QOL). This thesis focuses on the psychosocial and QOL issues involved in the evaluation of early-detected and treated prostate cancer among men in the general population, and in the evaluation of preventive he...

  9. The epigenetic promise for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Herman, James G; Otto, Gaëtan; Bigley, Joseph W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men and a leading cause of death. Improvements in disease management would have a significant impact and could be facilitated by the development of biomarkers, whether for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. The blood-based prostate biomarker PSA has been part of clinical practice for over two decades, although it is surrounded by controversy. While debates of usefulness are ongoing, alternatives should be explored. Particularly with recent recommendations against routine PSA-testing, the time is ripe to explore promising biomarkers to yield a more efficient and accurate screening for detection and management of prostate cancer. Epigenetic changes, more specifically DNA methylation, are amongst the most common alterations in human cancer. These changes are associated with transcriptional silencing of genes, leading to an altered cellular biology. One gene in particular, GSTP1, has been widely studied in prostate cancer. Therefore a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the role of this and other genes and the potential contribution to prostate cancer management and screening refinement. More than 30 independent, peer reviewed studies have reported a consistently high sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 hypermethylation in prostatectomy or biopsy tissue. The meta-analysis combined and compared these results. GSTP1 methylation detection can serve an important role in prostate cancer managment. The meta-analysis clearly confirmed a link between tissue DNA hypermethylation of this and other genes and prostate cancer. Detection of DNA methylation in genes, including GSTP1, could serve an important role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  11. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s..

  12. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial prostate cancer is associated with certain inherited gene mutations (variants). Learn about the hereditary prostate cancer genes, genetic testing, clinical management, and psychosocial issues in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Prostate Cancer Detection Using Near Infrared Spectral Polarization Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, R. R; Wang, W. B

    2005-01-01

    .... The technique is based on the spectral and polarization properties of light scattered, absorbed and emitted from prostate cancerous and normal tissues, and contrast agents targeted to the prostate cancers. Results of finding...

  14. CDK5 as a Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelkin, Barry D

    2008-01-01

    We have recently found that CDK5 is active in prostate cancer cell lines and in almost all human metastatic prostate cancers, and inhibition of CDK5 activity resulted in reduction of spontaneous metastases by 79...

  15. CDK5 as a Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelkin, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have recently found that CDK5 is active in prostate cancer cell lines and in almost all human metastatic prostate cancers, and inhibition of CDK5 activity resulted in reduction of spontaneous metastases by 79...

  16. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  17. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  18. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  19. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  20. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  1. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  2. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. PSA testing for men at average risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K Armstrong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common – arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities – including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council – have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations. But disagreement continues. The contention is partly over what the new evidence means. It is also a result of different valuing and prioritisation of outcomes that are hard to compare: prostate cancer deaths prevented (a small and disputed number; prevention of metastatic disease (somewhat more common; and side-effects of treatment such as incontinence, impotence and bowel trouble (more common again. A sizeable proportion of men diagnosed through PSA testing (somewhere between 20% and 50% would never have had prostate cancer symptoms sufficient to prompt investigation; many of these men are older, with competing comorbidities. It is a complex picture. Below are four viewpoints from expert participants in the evolving debate, commissioned for this cancer screening themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice. We asked the authors to respond to the challenge of PSA testing of asymptomatic, normal-risk men. They raise important considerations: uncertainty, harms, the trustworthiness and interpretation of the evidence, cost (e.g. of using multiparametric

  4. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer...Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate

  5. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  6. 77 FR 55099 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... thousands of lives every year. During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those we have... their lifetimes. As we mark National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, let us support the families who...

  7. 76 FR 55551 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... observe National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to reducing the impact of prostate cancer on our country by raising awareness and supporting research that will lead to better ways...

  8. Expression of KLK2 gene in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Shafai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The expression of KLK2 gene in people with prostate cancer is the higher than the healthy person; finally, according to the results, it could be mentioned that the KLK2 gene considered as a useful factor in prostate cancer, whose expression is associated with progression and development of the prostate cancer.

  9. P52 Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    c-Myc:hnRNPA1 pathway regulates expression of androgen receptor splice variants and enzalutamide sensitivity in prostate cancer . Castration resistant... prostate cancer (CRPC) remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Alternative splicing of the AR to generate constitutively active... receptor splice variants and enzalutamide sensitivity in prostate cancer . • We discovered that quercetin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound

  10. Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Dong; Vela, Ian; Sboner, Andrea; Iaquinta, Phillip J; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gopalan, Anuradha; Dowling, Catherine; Wanjala, Jackline N; Undvall, Eva A; Arora, Vivek K; Wongvipat, John; Kossai, Myriam; Ramazanoglu, Sinan; Barboza, Luendreo P; Di, Wei; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Qi Fan; Sirota, Inna; Ran, Leili; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Beltran, Himisha; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Touijer, Karim A; Scardino, Peter T; Laudone, Vincent P; Curtis, Kristen R; Rathkopf, Dana E; Morris, Michael J; Danila, Daniel C; Slovin, Susan F; Solomon, Stephen B; Eastham, James A; Chi, Ping; Carver, Brett; Rubin, Mark A; Scher, Howard I; Clevers, Hans; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and

  11. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  12. Neck mass: An unusual presentation of prostate cancer metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate cancer is a disease of public health importance and it is most common among men between 60 to 70 years of age. Distant primaries involving supraclavicular nodes secondary to prostate cancer is very rare. This report is a case of an unusual presentation of prostate cancer manifesting as a huge neck ...

  13. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...... receptor pathway....

  14. Prostatic sarcoma after treatment of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Andrew G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between radiation exposure for treatment of cancer and occurrence of a second primary cancer at the irradiated site is well known. This phenomenon is however rare in prostate. Case presentation A 75-year-old farmer was treated for rectal cancer with preoperative 45 Gy of radiotherapy and abdominoperineal resection. Four years later he developed symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction and acute urinary retention. He underwent a transurethral resection of the prostate. Histological examination of the removed prostate tissue and immunohistochemistry revealed it to be a poorly differentiated sarcoma. Conclusion We believe this to be the first reported case of radiation-induced sarcoma following radiotherapy treatment for rectal cancer. Since radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the contemporary treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma, it is relevant to be aware of the potential long-term carcinogenic complications of radiotherapy of the pelvis.

  15. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Di Sebastiano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of co-morbidities, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We aim to examine dietary fat throughout the prostate cancer treatment trajectory, including risk, cancer development and survivorship. Focusing on one specific nutrient throughout the prostate cancer trajectory provides a unique perspective of dietary fat in prostate cancer and the mechanisms that may exacerbate prostate cancer risk, progression and recurrence. Through this approach, we noted that high intake of dietary fat, especially, high intake of animal and saturated fats, may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. In contrast, a low-fat diet, specifically low in saturated fat, may be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors by reducing tumor angiogenesis and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF/Akt signaling pathway appears to be the key pathway moderating dietary fat intake and prostate cancer development and progression.

  17. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  18. Clinical Usefulness of the Histoculture Drug Response Assay for Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hypertrophy (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) has been adapted to determine androgen sensitivity in Gelfoam histoculture of human benign prostatic tissue as well as prostate cancer. Gelfoam histoculture was used to measure androgen-independent and androgen-dependent growth of benign and malignant prostate tissue. The androgen-sensitivity index was significantly higher in 23 paired specimens of prostate cancer compared to benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). Genistein decreased the androgen-sensitivity index of BPH and prostate cancer in Gelfoam ® histoculture in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. The Heritability of Prostate Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is thought to be the most heritable cancer, although little is known about how this genetic contribution varies across age. Methods: To address this question, we undertook the world's largest prospective study in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer cohort, including 18,680....... The role of genetic factors is consistently high across age Impact: Findings impact the search for genetic and epigenetic markers and frame prevention efforts....

  20. The Infectious Pathogenesis Of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    pyrimidine metabolism, and one-carbon folate , while pathways in the low-grade tumors were related to propanoate metabolism. Separating the cohorts...28. Brooks JD, et al.: CG island methylation changes near the GSTP1 gene in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7(6...531-6, 1998. 29. Lee WH, et al.: CG island methylation changes near the GSTP1 gene in prostatic carcinoma cells detected using the polymerase chain

  1. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict......INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics...... and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed...

  2. Emerging Therapies in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Daniel W; Morgans, Alicia K

    2018-04-11

    In the last decade, there have been multiple landmark therapeutic advances for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, both in the castration-resistant and hormone-sensitive setting. In this review, we highlight recent progress and ongoing trials for metastatic prostate cancer, including advances in chemotherapy, androgen receptor-directed therapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Several landmark studies for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer demonstrated improvement in overall survival with the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or abiraterone acetate to standard androgen deprivation therapy. A single-arm phase 2 study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib demonstrated high response rates and more favorable progression-free and overall survival for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA repair defects treated with olaparib compared with men without DNA repair defects. Multiple ongoing clinical trials are investigating novel hormonal therapies and combinations of chemotherapy, targeted small molecules, immunotherapy, and radiopharmaceuticals. Progress continues to be made in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, and ongoing clinical trials continue to investigate novel agents and approaches to treatment.

  3. Super-Penetrant Androgen Receptor: Overcoming Enzalutamide Sensitivity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Prostate Cancer Research Symposium- Prostate Cancer Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer , May19... cancer cells rely critically on the androgen receptor (AR) for initiation, growth and progression to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC...Androgen receptor, castration resistant prostate cancer , Enzalutamide , kinases. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER

  4. Dietary intervention strategies to modulate prostate cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Stephen J; Aronson, William J

    2009-05-01

    There is increasing interest in complementary and holistic approaches for cancer prevention and management. We sought to review the latest literature regarding dietary interventions for prostate cancer with a special emphasis on dietary fat and carbohydrate intake for modulating prognosis among men with prostate cancer. Several recent prospective trials have investigated various dietary and lifestyle investigations on malignant prostate tissue biology. These interventions included a very low-fat (12% fat kcals) vegan diet with various supplements and lifestyle changes, a more traditional low-fat diet (25% fat kcals) with flaxseed supplementation, and a low-glycemic index diet. Low-glycemic index and very low-fat vegan diets (with supplements and lifestyle changes) alter tumor biology as assessed by tumor gene expression changes, with a common mechanism perhaps being weight loss whereas no effects were seen with a traditional low-fat diet. In mice, either very low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets significantly slow tumor growth independent of weight loss. Epidemiologic and preclinical data also suggest cholesterol intake and serum cholesterol levels may be linked with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Small clinical trials suggest that tumor biology can be altered by either a vegan low-fat diet or eliminating simple carbohydrates accompanied by weight loss. Larger and longer term studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.

  5. The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that

  6. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor. By competing for binding to the androgen receptor, ...

  7. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  8. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  9. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thobe, Megan N. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Clark, Robert J. [Department of Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bainer, Russell O. [Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W., E-mail: crinkers@uchicago.edu [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-01-27

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies.

  10. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thobe, Megan N.; Clark, Robert J.; Bainer, Russell O.; Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies

  11. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Brian; Rochefort, Holly; Goldkorn, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management

  12. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  13. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sherer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

  14. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  15. Concepts of epigenetics in prostate cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C S; Foster, C S

    2009-01-27

    Substantial evidence now supports the view that epigenetic changes have a role in the development of human prostate cancer. Analyses of the patterns of epigenetic alteration are providing important insights into the origin of this disease and have identified specific alterations that may serve as useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Examination of cancer methylation patterns supports a stem cell origin of prostate cancer. It is well established that methylation of GSTpi is a marker of prostate cancer, and global patterns of histone marking appear to be linked to cancer prognosis with levels of acetylated histones H3K9, H3K18, and H4K12, and of dimethylated H4R3 and H3K4, dividing low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason 6 or less) into two prognostically separate groups. Elevated levels of several components of the polycomb group protein complex, EZH2, BMI1, and RING1, can also act as biomarkers of poor clinical outcome. Many components of the epigenetic machinery, including histone deacetylase (whose expression level is linked to the TMPRSS2:ERG translocation) and the histone methylase EZH2, are potential therapeutic targets. The recent discovery of the role of small RNAs in governing the epigenetic status of individual genes offers exciting new possibilities in therapeutics and chemoprevention.

  16. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  17. Diagnosis of prostate cancer using a radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, O.A.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of a specific radioimmunoassay for the determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum as a useful aid in the detection of prostatic cancer. (Auth.)

  18. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of all...... deaths occurring in Greenland and found only one invasive prostate cancer. Histological data were available for 27 autopsies and revealed no latent carcinoma. Our results suggest that in situ carcinoma is rare among Inuit and that their traditional diet, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  20. Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    use in slowing the growth of prostate cancer. This study will not use selenium as a treatment option for the possible cure of prostate cancer...slice or 1 piece o Q rj Chocolate candy and candy bars o o o o o Q o o c 1 small bar or 1 ounce ._> . ■Q Hard candy, jam, jelly, honey , or...your stream? Have you noticed any stress incontinence? (leakage of urine when sneezing, coughing or laughing) _1 -NOT AT ALL _ 2-LESS THAN 1 IN 5

  1. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  2. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M

    2018-01-01

    some of these topics. OBJECTIVE: To present the report of APCCC 2017. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten important areas of controversy in APC management were identified: high-risk localised and locally advanced prostate cancer; "oligometastatic" prostate cancer; castration-naïve and castration...... literature review or meta-analysis. The outcomes of the voting had varying degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of this article, as well as in the detailed voting results recorded in Supplementary data. CONCLUSIONS: The presented expert voting results can be used for support in areas of management...

  3. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  4. A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Androgen Receptor Signaling Inhibitors Repress Prostate Cancer Growth by Downregulating Androgen Receptor Splice Variants, EZH2, and Src. Cancer ...research 2015;75(24):5309-17. 18. Wadosky KM, Koochekpour S. Androgen receptor splice variants and prostate cancer : From bench to bedside. Oncotarget...2017;8(11):18550-76. 19. Cao S, Zhan Y, Dong Y. Emerging data on androgen receptor splice variants in prostate cancer . Endocrine-related cancer

  5. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    prostate cancer . Cancer Res 70: 7992-8002, 2010 8. Nelson PS: Molecular states underlying an- drogen receptor activation: A framework for thera- peutics...targeting androgen signaling in prostate cancer . J Clin Oncol 30:644-646, 2012 9. Thadani-Mulero M, Nanus DM, Giannakakou P: Androgen receptor on the... prostate cancer . Clin Cancer Res 21:795-807, 2015 17. van Soest RJ, de Morrée ES, Kweldam CF, et al: Targeting the androgen receptor confers in vivo

  6. Men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J James

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men. Screening for prostate cancer is widely accepted; however concerns regarding the harms outweighing the benefits of screening exist. Although patient's play a pivotal role in the decision making process, men may not be aware of the controversies regarding prostate cancer screening. Therefore we aimed to describe men's attitudes, beliefs and experiences of prostate cancer screening.Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies on men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched to October 2016.Sixty studies involving 3,029 men aged from 18-89 years, who had been screened for prostate cancer by Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA or Digital Rectal Examination (DRE and not screened, across eight countries were included. Five themes were identified: Social prompting (trusting professional opinion, motivation from family and friends, proximity and prominence of cancer; gaining decisional confidence (overcoming fears, survival imperative, peace of mind, mental preparation, prioritising wellbeing; preserving masculinity (bodily invasion, losing sexuality, threatening manhood, medical avoidance; avoiding the unknown and uncertainties (taboo of cancer-related death, lacking tangible cause, physiological and symptomatic obscurity, ambiguity of the procedure, confusing controversies; and prohibitive costs.Men are willing to participate in prostate cancer screening to prevent cancer and gain reassurance about their health, particularly when supported or prompted by their social networks or healthcare providers. However, to do so they needed to mentally overcome fears of losing their masculinity and accept the intrusiveness of screening, the ambiguities about the necessity and the potential for substantial costs. Addressing the concerns and priorities of men may facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screening

  7. Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-02-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N = 25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p = 0.03) and lower Zn (p = 0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N = 21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p = 0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p = 0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p = 0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p = 0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process.

  8. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  9. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Lukka, Himu; Cheung, Patrick; Corbett, Tom; Briones-Urbina, Rosario; Vieth, Reinhold; Ehrlich, Lisa; Kiss, Alex; Danjoux, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT

  10. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  11. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  12. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  13. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  14. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  15. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  16. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  17. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opposed to the use of another type of lipid-lowering drug, fibrates). [Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer. Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? ...

  18. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  19. Does Core Length Taken per cc of Prostate Volume in Prostate Biopsy Affect the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliktas, Hasan; Sahin, Hayrettin; Cetinkaya, Mehmet; Dere, Yelda; Erdogan, Omer; Baldemir, Ercan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal core length to be taken per cc of prostate volume for an effective prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 379 patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy with 12 to 16 cores under transrectal ultrasound guidance between September 2012 and April 2015. For each patient, the core length per cc of the prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were calculated, and these values were compared between the patients with and without prostate cancer. A total of 348 patients were included in the study. Cancer was determined in 26.4% of patients. The mean core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.15 mm/cc (0.26%; range, 0.08-0.63 cc) in patients with cancer and 2.75 ± 0.08 mm/cc (0.20%; range, 0.04-0.66 cc) in patients without cancer (P = .000 and P = .000), respectively. Core length taken per cc of prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc was found to be related to an increase in the rates of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.78). The rate of cancer determination for core length taken per cc of prostate of  3.31 mm/cc, 41.1%. Core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume are important morphometric parameters in the determination of prostate cancer. The results of study suggest a core length per cc of the prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc as a cutoff value for quality assurance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. URG11 Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulated gene 11 (URG11, a new gene upregulated by hepatitis B virus X protein, is involved in the development and progression of several tumors, including liver, stomach, lung, and colon cancers. However, the role of URG11 in prostate cancer remains yet to be elucidated. By determined expression in human prostate cancer tissues, URG11 was found significantly upregulated and positively correlated with the severity of prostate cancer, compared with that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues. Further, the mRNA and protein levels of URG11 were significantly upregulated in human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP, compared with human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1. Moreover, by the application of siRNA against URG11, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells were markedly inhibited. Genetic knockdown of URG11 also induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, induced apoptosis, and decreased the expression level of β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of URG11 promoted the expression of β-catenin, the growth, the migration, and invasion ability of prostate cancer cells. Taken together, this study reveals that URG11 is critical for the proliferation, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer cells, providing the evidence of URG11 to be a novel potential therapeutic target of prostate cancer.

  1. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  2. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 22, 3323–3329. [115] Tiffany NM, Wersinger EM, Garzotto M, and Beer TM (2004). Imatinib mesylate and zoledronic...Inhibition of Akt pathways EC Nelson et al 335 Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases addition, some Asian forms of fermented soy, such as miso, nattou and

  3. Prostate cancer metastasis to the mandible: case report | Parkins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is recognised to be the commonest type of malignancy in the male in many parts of the world. Prostate cancer has a propensity to metastasize to bone, however metastasis to the jaw is uncommon and indeed among metastatic tumours of the jaws which are a rarity, only about 9% originate from a prostatic ...

  4. Alpha Particle Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality among men in western countries. Although nearly 85% of patients present with localised disease, up to 40% will eventually develop metastatic disease during the course of illness. Of men dying from prostate cancer, more than 90% have bone metastases many with no other significant metastatic sites. Symptoms related to bone metastases and skeletal related events (SREs) account for the major cause of morbidity in these patients. Bone-seeking radionuclides have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases for many years. The first bone seeking radionuclide drug approved by the FDA was Strontium-89. Other agents have also been used including Samarium-153 EDTMP, Rhenium-186 (-188)-HEDP. These radionuclides are all emit shortrange therapeutic beta radiation with bone marrow as the dose limiting toxicity. There is strong clinical trial evidence of benefit for these radionuclides in reducing pain in advanced prostate cancer; however, none of the drugs has been shown to improve survival, albeit none of the clinical trials were powered to detect differences in survival

  5. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  6. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  7. Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dybkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  8. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  9. THE COMBINED ROLE OF HERBAL THERAPY IN THE PREVENTION OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS DURING PROSTATE BIOPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Il'yash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prostate biopsy is a routine method for diagnosing prostate cancer. However, there are a number of serious complications associated with this procedure, and especially development of infection.Objective. Evaluation of the effectiveness of complex herbal therapy in the prevention of infectious complications in patients exposed to prostate biopsy.Materials and methods. The study included 40 patients aged 48 to 69 years who underwent prostate biopsy. Patients with chronic prostatitis (category 4 NIH were divided into two groups. Patients in the comparison group limited to standard antibiotic therapy, and the patients of the main group additionally received Canephron N. The efficacy of the therapy was evaluated at 1, 2 and 6 months after the start of treatment by the dynamics of leukocyte count in prostate secretion and bacterial contamination, prostate- specific atigen (PSA level, questionnaire data, ultrasound and urodynamic survey methods.Results. The level of PSA compared to baseline data, decreased by 56.9% in the comparison group and by 67.6% in the main group (p<0.05. A clinically significant bacterial titer and an increase in the number of leukocytes more than10 in sight, were registered in the comparison group in two times more often, than in patients of the main group.Conclusion. The results of the study make it possible to recommend for patients with chronic prostatitis of category 4 NIH the prescription of Canephron N.

  10. Prostate specific antigen velocity does not aid prostate cancer detection in men with prior negative biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; O'Brien, M Frank; Roobol, Monique J; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H; Lilja, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid in prostate cancer detection. We determined whether prostate specific antigen velocity could predict repeat biopsy results in men with persistently increased prostate specific antigen after initial negative biopsy. We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer and who underwent 1 or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether prostate specific antigen velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of prostate specific antigen alone. Of the 2,579 repeat biopsies 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, of which 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater). Prostate specific antigen velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk but had low predictive accuracy (AUC 0.55, p <0.001). There was some evidence that prostate specific antigen velocity improved AUC compared to prostate specific antigen for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high prostate specific antigen velocity (from 1.7% to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml per year) had questionable clinical relevance. Men with prior negative biopsy are at lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support prostate specific antigen velocity to aid in decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  12. PROSTVAC® targeted immunotherapy candidate for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade. PROSTVAC is well tolerated and has been safely combined with other cancer therapies, including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, another immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Even greater benefits of PROSTVAC may be recognized in earlier-stage disease and low-disease burden settings where immunotherapy can trigger a long-lasting immune response.

  13. Diagnostic characteristics of lethal prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, John Thomas; Røder, Martin Andreas; Klemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    eventually died from PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on the national database, the Danish Prostate Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based study of all 19,487 men who died from PCa in Denmark between 1995 and 2013 was conducted. Trends in median survival and trends in age, prostate-specific antigen......BACKGROUND: The diagnostic characteristics of men who eventually die from prostate cancer (PCa) and the extent to which early diagnostic strategies have affected these characteristics are unclear. We aimed to investigate trends in survival and clinical presentation at diagnosis in men who...... significantly over time, parallelled by an increase in median survival. Taken together, this indicates a lead-time effect on survival, which presently, however, is not substantial enough to result in a reduced PCa-specific mortality....

  14. Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-02-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The expanding role of epigenetics in the development, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosy, Joseph R; Roberts, J Lea W; Fu, Vivian X; Jarrard, David F

    2007-03-01

    the prostate to developing cancer. Treatments involving 5-aza-deoxycytosine and other, more selective DNA methyltransferase inhibitors remove methyl residues from silenced genes, generating re-expression, and are currently being used in therapeutic trials. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown promise, not only by directly reactivating silenced genes, but also as regulators of apoptosis and sensitizers to radiation therapy. Evolving data support a significant role for epigenetic processes in the development of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Epigenetic changes can predict tumor behavior and often distinguish between genetically identical tumors. Targeted drugs that alter epigenetic modifications hold promise as a tool for curing and preventing these diseases.

  16. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  17. Prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and its relative factors in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Ganping; Wang Jiaji; Yue Zhongjin; Chen Xuehong

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer in Lanzhou, an investigation of the incidence of BPH and prostate cancer in 1356 male inhabitants over 50 years of age has been carried out including I-PSS, life quality (L), volume of prostate (V) and digital rectal examination. Plasma testosterone (T) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were assayed in 145 cases. The incidence of BPH was 35.03%, being 41.04% in urban and 30.05% in rural inhabitants. The increase of BPH has been higher in urban inhabitants (P<0.05). The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.05%, being 3.09% in urban and 2.02% in rural inhabitants, the increase of prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants (P< 0.05). A significant increase of prostate specific antigen was noted in prostate cancer patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: The increase of BPH and prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants. The age, diet and residential areas might associate with a higher incidence of BPH and prostate cancer

  18. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  19. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  20. Prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N

    2016-11-21

    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  1. Finasteride-its impact on sexual function and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride, a specific and competitive inhibitor of 5a-reductase enzyme Type 2, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT. In adults, DHT acts as primary androgen in prostate and hair follicles. The only FDA-approved dermatological indication of finasteride is androgenetic alopecia. But, apprehension regarding sexual dysfunction associated with finasteride deters dermatologists from prescribing the drug and patients from taking the drug for androgenetic alopecia. Testosterone, through its humoral endocrine and local paracrine effects is relevant in central and peripheral modulation of sexual function than locally acting DHT. Several large population-based long-term placebo-controlled studies, using International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire and objective method (Nocturnal Penile Tumescence to assess the erectile function have demonstrated no clear evidence of the negative effect of finasteride on erectile function. Reduction in ejaculatory volume is the only established causal relationship between finasteride and sexual dysfunction. Though finasteride causes significant reduction in all the semen parameters except sperm morphology, they did not fall below the threshold levels to interfere with fertility. Therefore, the sexual adverse effects associated with finasteride should be viewed in relation to normal prevalence and natural history of erectile dysfunction in the population, age of the patient, other confounding factors and also nocebo effect. The impact of finasteride on the prevention of prostate cancer has been discussed extensively. Finasteride is found to be effective in significantly reducing the incidence of low-grade prostate cancer. But the paradoxical increase in high-grade cancer in the finasteride group has been attributed to increased sensitivity and improved performance of prostate specific antigen levels to detect all grades of prostate cancer.

  2. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia.

  3. The impact of obesity on prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G. van; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity in many parts of the world emphasizes the importance of learning more about the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer (PC). The present paper reviews the impact of obesity on PC using knowledge obtained from the available literature. Search of published

  4. Clinical adenoviral gene therapy for prostate cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, E.; Essand, M.; Bangma, Ch. H.; Barber, Ch.; Behr, J.-P.; Briggs, S.; Carlisle, R.; Cheng, W.-S.; Danielsson, A.; Dautzenberg, I. J. C.; Dzojic, H.; Erbacher, P.; Fisher, K.; Frazier, A.; Georgopoulos, L. J.; Hoeben, R.; Kochanek, S.; Koppers-Lalic, D.; Kraaij, R.; Kreppel, F.; Lindholm, L.; Magnusson, M.; Maitland, N.; Neuberg, P.; Nilsson, B.; Ogris, M.; Remy, J.-S.; Scaife, M.; Schooten, E.; Seymour, L.; Totterman, T.; Uil, T. G.; Ulbrich, Karel; Veldhoven-Zweistra, J. L. M.; de Vrij, J.; van Weerden, W.; Wagner, E.; Willemsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2010), s. 807-813 ISSN 1043-0342 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 512087 - GIANT Keywords : adenovirus * gene delivery * prostate cancer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2010

  5. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  6. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  7. The Role of YYI in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sui, Guangchao

    2008-01-01

    ...+/+ cells in the 3-D culture system. We used these cells in the renal grafting experiments to study the effect of YY1 expression to the prostate cancer formation in vivo. The renal grafts have been collected and further studies are in the process.

  8. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    surgery and radiation therapy, result in well documented significant morbidities, including significant lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence ...and urinary urgency as well as sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, evidence from many sources suggests that most prostate cancers are relatively...pre-operative PSA (pɘ.0001). These analyses provide confidence in the clinical data because they are known factors associated with recurrence

  9. Prostate cancer: ESMO Consensus Conference Guidelines 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horwich, A.; Hugosson, J.; de Reijke, T.; Wiegel, T.; Fizazi, K.; Kataja, V.; Parker, Chris; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Berthold, Dominik; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Carlsson, Sigrid; Daugaard, Gedske; de Meerleer, Gert; Dearnaley, David; Fizazi, Karim; Fonteyne, Valérie; Gillessen, Silke; Heinrich, Daniel; Horwich, Alan; Hugosson, Jonas; Kataja, Vesa; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Nilsson, Sten; Padhani, Anwar; Papandreou, Christos; Roobol, Monique; Sella, Avishay; Valdagni, Riccardo; van der Kwast, Theo; Verhagen, Paul; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The first ESMO Consensus Conference on prostate cancer was held in Zurich, Switzerland, on 17-19 November 2011, with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals including experts in methodological aspects. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically

  10. [Calculus formation in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate: causes, treatment and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Wen; Zhou, Wen-Quan; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Gao, Jian-Ping

    2012-05-01

    To study the causes, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention of calculus that develops in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate. We reported 11 cases of calculus that developed in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection or transurethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate. The patients complained of repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia after operation, accompanied with urinary tract infection and some with urinary obstruction, which failed to respond to anti-infective therapies. Cystoscopy revealed calculi in the prostatic cavity, with eschar, sphacelus, uneven wound surface and small diverticula in some cases. After diagnosis, 1 case was treated by holmium laser lithotripsy and a second transurethral resection of the prostate, while the other 10 had the calculi removed under the cystoscope, followed by 1 -2 weeks of anti-infective therapy. After treatment, all the 11 cases showed normal results of routine urinalysis, and no more symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia. Three- to six-month follow-up found no bladder irritation symptoms and urinary tract infection. Repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition, urodynia and urinary tract infection after transurethral resection of the prostate should be considered as the indicators of calculus in the prostatic cavity, which can be confirmed by cystoscopy. It can be treated by lithotripsy or removal of the calculus under the cystoscope, or even a second transurethral resection of the prostate. For its prevention, excessive electric coagulation and uneven wound surface should be avoided and anti-infection treatment is needed.

  11. Early prostate cancer: particularities of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of prostate cancer screening using PSA leads to a disproportional increase of cancer incidence. Most of those tumors are small and indolent in behavior. When diagnosed, they are usually managed by radical treatment modalities despite the growth of serious adverse events of such therapy. Active surveillance appears to be an alternative treatment approach for the majority of those patients. Author stresses on the particularities of the prostate cancer diagnosed in the PSA era. Show the importance of patient stratification and the utility of the use of nomograms in clinical praxis. The clinical importance of treatment choices based on life expectancy of patient, concomitant diseases on one side and cancer biological behavior in the other side is discussed. Critically discuss the new approach of radiation with proton beams advertising that it remains an experimental therapeutic choice. (author)

  12. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    degradation of several cancer -related proteins, including the androgen receptor , which is dysregulated in certain prostate cancers . Overall, the goal of my...Behavior of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Cells Turner, Williamson D., Xavier University of Louisiana, Class...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0677 TITLE: PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy L. Weigel

  13. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  15. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer.

  16. Prevention of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuroczycki-Saniutycz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA accounts for 95% of all pancreatic cancers. About 230,000 PDA cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. PDA has the lowest five-year survival rate as compared to others cancers. PDA in Poland is the fifth leading cause of death after lung, stomach, colon and breast cancer. In our paper we have analysed the newest epidemiological research, some of it controversial, to establish the best practical solution for pancreatic cancer prevention in the healthy population as well as treatment for patients already diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. We found that PDA occurs quite frequently but is usually diagnosed too late, at its advanced stage. Screening for PDA is not very well defined except in subgroups of high-risk individuals with genetic disorders or with chronic pancreatitis. We present convincing, probable, and suggestive risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer, many of which are modifiable and should be introduced and implemented in our society.

  17. A review of pomegranate in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, C J; Pantuck, A; Carducci, M A

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical studies showing that pomegranate juice and its components inhibit prostate cancer led to multiple clinical trials to determine whether pomegranate products could slow the growth of prostate cancer. This review summarizes the preclinical data and discusses the results of the clinical trials. Trials targeted patients on active surveillance, neoadjuvant patients, patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following local therapy for prostate cancer, and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the BCR patient population, early phase II trials of both pomegranate juice and extract showed significant lengthening of PSA doubling time (PSADT), and confirmed the safety of pomegranate products. While a placebo-controlled phase III trial determined that pomegranate extract did not significantly prolong PSADT in BCR patients, a preplanned subset analysis of patients with the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) AA genotype showed greater PSADT lengthening on the pomegranate extract arm. In the neoadjuvant population, a large trial demonstrated a significant increase in urolithin A and a non-significant reduction in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidation in prostate cancer tissue, on the pomegranate arm vs the placebo arm. In addition, a randomized clinical trial of a polyphenol-rich multicomponent food supplement that included a 31.25% pomegranate extract found significant slowing of PSA increase in the food supplement arm vs placebo in men on active surveillance and those experiencing BCR. Pomegranate juice and extract are safe but did not significantly improve outcomes in BCR patients in a large placebo-controlled trial. However a subset of BCR patients with the MnSOD AA genotype appear to respond positively to the antioxidant effects of pomegranate treatment. Phase II trials of 100% pomegranate products in neoadjuvant patients and patients with mCRPC were negative. A multicomponent food supplement showed promising

  18. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early stages. They ...

  19. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  20. Definition of molecular determinants of prostate cancer cell bone extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Steven R; Hays, Danielle L; Yazawa, Erika M; Opperman, Matthew; Walley, Kempland C; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Burdick, Monica M; Gillard, Bryan M; Moser, Michael T; Pantel, Klaus; Foster, Barbara A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2013-01-15

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Here, we describe how metastatic prostate cancer cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. Prostate cancer cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic prostate cancer tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. Prostate cancer cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1, and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, prostate cancer cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin, and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate mice dramatically reduced prostate cancer incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins, and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating prostate cancer cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight into the role of α1,3 fucosylation in prostate cancer development.

  1. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications......OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory...

  2. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Mathias; Thomsen, Frederik B; Iversen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent...

  3. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as “nature’s power fruit”. Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) and/or pomegranate extracts (PE) significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis. PMID:25158234

  4. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  5. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  6. Characterization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for Use in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Strategies Against Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Keefe, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) appears to be an ideal prostate cancer marker and potential therapeutic target, however there have been reports of PSMA expression in non-prostatic tissues, including brain, kidney and liver...

  7. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/ Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of Expression of Androgen Receptor in ABCG2+ CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cells” 4.) Morenike Olu, K Miller, I Gelman, Dept. Cancer Genetics ... rubric for the Directed Readings course sequence. Training in the use of the web conferencing software will be provided by the Project Director at

  8. XMRV: A New Virus in Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, Amanda L.; Sfanos, Karen S.; Isaacs, William B.; Zheng, Qizhi; Maldarelli, Frank; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Rein, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported the presence of a gammaretrovirus, termed “XMRV” (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) in prostate cancers (PCa). If confirmed, this could have enormous implications for the detection, prevention, and treatment of PCa. However, other papers report failure to detect XMRV in PCa. We tested nearly 800 PCa samples, using a combination of real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The PCR reactions were simultaneously monitored for amplification of a single-copy human gene, in order to confirm the quality of the sample DNA and its suitability for PCR. Controls demonstrated that the PCR assay could detect the XMRV in a single infected cell, even in the presence of a 10,000-fold excess of uninfected human cells. The IHC used two rabbit polyclonal antisera, each prepared against a purified MLV protein. Both antisera always stained XMRV-infected or – transfected cells, but never stained control cells. No evidence for XMRV in PCa was obtained in these experiments. We discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies in the results from different laboratories. It is possible that XMRV is not actually circulating in the human population; even if it is, the data do not seem to support a causal role for this virus in PCa. PMID:20966126

  9. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7 T in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagemaat, Miriam W; Vos, Eline K; Maas, Marnix C; Bitz, Andreas K; Orzada, Stephan; van Uden, Mark J; Kobus, Thiele; Heerschap, Arend; Scheenen, Tom W J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of phosphorus (P) spectra of the human prostate and to investigate changes of individual phospholipid metabolites in prostate cancer through in vivo P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 T. In this institutional review board-approved study, 15 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and 3-dimensional P MRSI at 7 T. Voxels were selected at the tumor location, in normal-appearing peripheral zone tissue, normal-appearing transition zone tissue, and in the base of the prostate close to the seminal vesicles. Phosphorus metabolite ratios were determined and compared between tissue types. Signals of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC) were present and well resolved in most P spectra in the prostate. Glycerophosphocholine signals were observable in 43% of the voxels in malignant tissue, but in only 10% of the voxels in normal-appearing tissue away from the seminal vesicles. In many spectra, independent of tissue type, 2 peaks resonated in the chemical shift range of inorganic phosphate, possibly representing 2 separate pH compartments. The PC/PE ratio in the seminal vesicles was highly elevated compared with the prostate in 5 patients. A considerable overlap of P metabolite ratios was found between prostate cancer and normal-appearing prostate tissue, preventing direct discrimination of these tissues. The only 2 patients with high Gleason scores tumors (≥4+5) presented with high PC and glycerophosphocholine levels in their cancer lesions. Phosphorus MRSI at 7 T shows distinct features of phospholipid metabolites in the prostate gland and its surrounding structures. In this exploratory study, no differences in P metabolite ratios were observed between prostate cancer and normal-appearing prostate tissue possibly because of the partial volume effects of small tumor foci in large MRSI voxels.

  11. Estrogen receptor signaling in prostate cancer: Implications for carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkhoff, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the classical target for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, but more recently estrogens and their receptors have also been implicated in prostate cancer development and tumor progression. Recent experimental and clinical data were reviewed to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms how estrogens and their receptors may affect prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the most prevalent ER in the human prostate, while the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is restricted to basal cells of the prostatic epithelium and stromal cells. In high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the ERα is up-regulated and most likely mediates carcinogenic effects of estradiol as demonstrated in animal models. The partial loss of the ERβ in HGPIN indicates that the ERβ acts as a tumor suppressor. The tumor promoting function of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, a major driver of prostate carcinogenesis, is triggered by the ERα and repressed by the ERβ. The ERβ is generally retained in hormone naïve and metastatic prostate cancer, but is partially lost in castration resistant disease. The progressive emergence of the ERα and ERα-regulated genes (eg, progesterone receptor (PR), PS2, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, and NEAT1) during prostate cancer progression and hormone refractory disease suggests that these tumors can bypass the AR by using estrogens and progestins for their growth. In addition, nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways mediated by orphan receptors (eg, GPR30 and ERRα) has also been implicated in prostate cancer progression. Increasing evidences demonstrate that local estrogen signaling mechanisms are required for prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Despite the recent progress in this research topic, the translation of the current information into potential therapeutic applications remains highly challenging and clearly warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nonlinear system identification for prostate cancer and optimality of intermittent androgen suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taiji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    These days prostate cancer is one of the most common types of malignant neoplasm in men. Androgen ablation therapy (hormone therapy) has been shown to be effective for advanced prostate cancer. However, continuous hormone therapy often causes recurrence. This results from the progression of androgen-dependent cancer cells to androgen-independent cancer cells during the continuous hormone therapy. One possible method to prevent the progression to the androgen-independent state is intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) therapy, which ceases dosing intermittently. In this paper, we propose two methods to estimate the dynamics of prostate cancer, and investigate the IAS therapy from the viewpoint of optimality. The two methods that we propose for dynamics estimation are a variational Bayesian method for a piecewise affine (PWA) system and a Gaussian process regression method. We apply the proposed methods to real clinical data and compare their predictive performances. Then, using the estimated dynamics of prostate cancer, we observe how prostate cancer behaves for various dosing schedules. It can be seen that the conventional IAS therapy is a way of imposing high cost for dosing while keeping the prostate cancer in a safe state. We would like to dedicate this paper to the memory of Professor Luigi M. Ricciardi. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostate cancer's hegemonic masculinity in select print mass media depictions (1974-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J N

    1999-01-01

    The meanings associated with prostate cancer were studied in contemporary mass print media. The study includes both manifest and latent content analysis of a period of approximately 2 decades, from 1974 to 1995. The manifest analysis revealed a primary emphasis on the importance of early detection. The latent analysis found that prostate cancer's presentation is gendered. Its description is embedded in themes related to masculinity, sexuality, competition, brotherhood, and machismo. This small, qualitative, and inductive study raises questions about the socially significant portrayal of the meanings of disease in the media, about the men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, have symptoms of prostate cancer, or about all men, because any man might at some time be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Stereotypical imaging could alienate men who either do not or do not want to fit into the stereotypical ideal as it is protrayed in the media. Such a portrayal also may have inplications for the potential willingness of men to engage in early detection, avail themselves of treatment, act preventatively, or become involved in lobbying for monies for research into the early prevention, detection, and treatment of prostate cancer.

  14. The Proteome of Primary Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Wikström, Pernilla; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    for disease aggressiveness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mass spectrometry was used for genome-scale quantitative proteomic profiling of 28 prostate tumors (Gleason score 6-9) and neighboring nonmalignant tissue in eight cases, obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy samples. Two...... changes occurring during prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression can result in clinically relevant discoveries. OBJECTIVES: To study cellular processes altered in PCa using system-wide quantitative analysis of changes in protein expression in clinical samples and to identify prognostic biomarkers......BACKGROUND: Clinical management of the prostate needs improved prognostic tests and treatment strategies. Because proteins are the ultimate effectors of most cellular reactions, are targets for drug actions and constitute potential biomarkers; a quantitative systemic overview of the proteome...

  15. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  16. Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, D E; DeMarzo, A M; Platz, E A; Jadallah, S; Hicks, J; Epstein, J I; Partin, A W; Netto, G J

    2007-05-01

    Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p=0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in

  17. Prostate Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly, and finding and treating it before symptoms occur may not improve men’s health. Start here to find information on prostate cancer treatment, research, causes and prevention, screening, and statistics.

  18. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  19. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  20. The Science of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The science of cancer prevention is described by Dr. Barnett S. Kramer, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute (NCI). The Division of Cancer Prevention administers a broad spectrum of research that spans basic pre-clinical, laboratory research, supportive and palliative care research, early detection, and randomized controlled clinical trials. The Division also supports the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and is devoted to the balanced communication of scientific results.

  1. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, William H; Zhu, Chunfang; Clark, Curtis; Christensen, James G; Sun, Zijie

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR) signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, we directly assessed the efficacy of c-Met inhibition during androgen ablation on the growth and progression of prostate cancer. We tested two c-Met small molecule inhibitors, PHA-665752 and PF-2341066, for anti-proliferative activity by MTS assay and cell proliferation assay on human prostate cancer cell lines with different levels of androgen sensitivity. We also used renal subcapsular and castrated orthotopic xenograft mouse models to assess the effect of the inhibitors on prostate tumor formation and progression. We demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of PHA-665752 and PF-2341066 on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The effect on cell proliferation was stronger in androgen insensitive cells. The c-Met inhibitor, PF-2341066, significantly reduced growth of prostate tumor cells in the renal subcapsular mouse model and the castrated orthotopic mouse model. The effect on cell proliferation was greater following castration. The c-Met inhibitors demonstrated anti-proliferative efficacy when combined with androgen ablation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

  2. Case of prostate cancer with anterior localization multiparametric MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer most often originates from acinar epithelium. Most of the clinically palpable carcinomas are located predominantly in the rear/dorzo-lateraI zones of the gland, but the tumors in the transition zone anatomical may spread to the periphery. The detection of a neoplastic process in the front parts of the gland is rare and poses difficulties in diagnosis. We present a rare case of anterior location of prostate carcinoma with invasion of bladder, blood vessels and seminal vesicles. At present, diagnosis of prostate cancer in most men is demonstrated by elevated serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or positive rectal examination or ultrasonography. Multi parametric MR study is a promising method for detecting prostate cancer. When used in conjunction with PSA values and rectal examination, MRI is increasingly accepted as a standard for the diagnosis and characterization of prostate carcinoma. Key words; Prostate Cancer. Anterior Localization. Multi Parametric MRI

  3. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  4. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  5. Outcomes following negative prostate biopsy for patients with persistent disease after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Cohen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: When faced with biochemical recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, clinicians must determine whether the recurrence is local or systemic. Post radiotherapy prostate biopsies to detect persistent local disease are difficult to interpret histopathologically and are subject to sampling error. Our study examines outcomes for patients with a negative prostate biopsy performed for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels after prostate radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 238 prostate cancer patients with a negative biopsy following definitive radiotherapy. Seventy-five of these patients had biochemical recurrence at the time of biopsy. A negative biopsy was defined as the absence of prostate cancer without radiation-treatment effect in the specimen. RESULTS: Patients underwent biopsy at a mean of 41 months after the completion of radiation. They had a mean PSA of 6. Patients were followed for an average of 63 months. Thirty-two patients (43% developed metastasis, and 11 (15% died of prostate cancer despite a negative post-radiation biopsy. Five of nine patients (56% with sequential biopsies had a positive second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSA recurrence and a negative post-radiation biopsy have a high chance of persistent local disease, progression, and death from prostate cancer. Furthermore, an initial negative biopsy does not rule-out local recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer need to be evaluated earlier for local recurrence.

  6. Issues reporting PSA in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Paul H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Prostate; Lung; Colon; Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) project is a multi-center trial developed to investigate the effectiveness of DRE and PSA testing in the early detection and outcome of patients with prostate cancer. Accordingly, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) has been launched and is a randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy versus expectant management for ALCaP. PSA: Initially PSA was thought to be of little value for diagnosis because 20% of men undergoing radical prostatectomy have 'normal' PSA and patients with apparently only symptomatic BPH have 'elevated' levels as follows: 4-10 ng/ml (Tandem-R) - 20%, >10 ng/ml -3%. Yet, PSA has looked attractive as a diagnostic tool in many studies; for example, when PSA was used in a screening approach as the first test which then drove further evaluation (Catalona, Brawer). It was shown that the positive predictive value for PSA's between 4 and 10 is approximately 20% and > 10 approximately 55%. The value of serial PSA's (velocity) is unknown but is under intense study: one major issue is determination of what represents a significant rise (details to be presented). Studies have also revealed that a DRE and PSA are important for optimal results. About 18% of clinically detectable cancers are only DRE positive while about 25 - 30% are only PSA positive. When both a DRE and PSA are used together, very few clinically apparent cancers are missed (3-5%). Recent ROC curves suggest that 4 ng/ml is reasonable. Recently, PSA values for men without apparent cancer were stratified by age, and taking the 2SD, age specific reference values were generated as follows: age 40-49 (0-2.5 ng/ml), 50-59 (0-3.5), 60-69 (0-4.5), 70-70 (0-6.5). Finally, there is the issue about different PSA assays regarding the compatabilities/reliability of the upper limit of normal and serial values. Much of the confusion is because there is no international PSA standard and

  7. Potency after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, Louis; Torre, Taryn; Fearn, Paul A.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of potency preservation after treatment of localized prostate cancer with transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and the efficacy of sildenafil were studied. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 482 patients who were able to maintain an erection suitable for intercourse before treatment from a cohort of 1166 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with PPB. All patients have been followed prospectively, and actuarial analysis was performed to assess potency preservation over time. Patients treated with sildenafil were evaluated as to its efficacy. Results: The median follow-up of this cohort was 34 months (6-92), with a median age of 68 years (47-80). Potency was preserved in 311 of the 482 patients, with a 5-year actuarial potency rate of 52.7%. The 5-year actuarial potency rate for patients treated with PPB as monotherapy was 76%, and, for those treated with combination external beam radiotherapy (EBT) + PPB, 56% (p=0.08). Patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) + PPB had a 5-year potency rate of 52%, whereas those with combination EBT + PPB + NAAD had a potency rate of 29% (p=0.13). Cox regression analysis identified that pretreatment use of NAAD and patient age predicted for impotence (p=0.0001 and 0.04, respectively). Of 84 patients treated with sildenafil, 52 had a successful outcome (62%). The response to sildenafil was significantly better in those patients not treated with NAAD (p=0.04). Conclusions: The actuarial potency rates at 5 years for patients treated with PPB are lower than generally acknowledged, except for those patients treated with PPB as monotherapy. Patients who received sildenafil exhibited improved potency in a majority of cases

  8. Sox2 Is an Androgen Receptor-Repressed Gene That Promotes Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregel, Steven; Kiriluk, Kyle J.; Rosen, Alex M.; Cai, Yi; Reyes, Edwin E.; Otto, Kristen B.; Tom, Westin; Paner, Gladell P.; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Vander Griend, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in detection and therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer continues to be a major clinical problem. The aberrant activity of stem cell pathways, and their regulation by the Androgen Receptor (AR), has the potential to provide insight into novel mechanisms and pathways to prevent and treat advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancers. To this end, we investigated the role of the embryonic stem cell regulator Sox2 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2] in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In the normal prostate, Sox2 is expressed in a portion of basal epithelial cells. Prostate tumors were either Sox2-positive or Sox2-negative, with the percentage of Sox2-positive tumors increasing with Gleason Score and metastases. In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1, endogenous expression of Sox2 was repressed by AR signaling, and AR chromatin-IP shows that AR binds the enhancer element within the Sox2 promoter. Likewise, in normal prostate epithelial cells and human embryonic stem cells, increased AR signaling also decreases Sox2 expression. Resistance to the anti-androgen MDV3100 results in a marked increase in Sox2 expression within three prostate cancer cell lines, and in the castration-sensitive LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell line ectopic expression of Sox2 was sufficient to promote castration-resistant tumor formation. Loss of Sox2 expression in the castration-resistant CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line inhibited cell growth. Up-regulation of Sox2 was not associated with increased CD133 expression but was associated with increased FGF5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 5) expression. These data propose a model of elevated Sox2 expression due to loss of AR-mediated repression during castration, and consequent castration-resistance via mechanisms not involving induction of canonical embryonic stem cell pathways. PMID:23326489

  9. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibition (ARPI) but eventually develops into lethal castration resistance prostate cancer ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0553 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Gleave...Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Gleave 5d

  10. CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) Specific Aims: 1. Effect of dinaciclib on androgen receptor (AR) S81 phosphorylation and function. 2. Effect of...circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire profiling as biomarkers for men with oligometastatic prostate cancer treated with...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0670 TITLE: CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Barry Nelkin

  11. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    epigenetic link between obesity and prostate cancer survival which will be explored in future studies. The support of the award has provided many...histone modifications in prostate cancer . Epigenetic inhibitors that target HDACs have been tested in clinical trials and approved by the US Food and...Drug Administration for use in treating specific cancers . Thus, understanding the specific role of obesity-related epigenetic events in prostate

  12. CDK5 A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Parallel: No scientific or budgetary overlap 90091646 (PI: Drake) Title: Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for...Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for Optimal Activation of Specific Effector T-Cells Time commitment: 1.2 calendar...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0670 TITLE: CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Barry Nelkin

  13. Immune-Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Overlap: None 20 90061946 (Drake) Title: Epigenetic Drugs and Immuno Therapy for Prostate Cancer (EDIT-PC) Effort: 1.2 calendar months (10% effort...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0667 TITLE: Immune-Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Ivkov...Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0667 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  14. Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    relationship prostate cancer growth, androgen receptor (AR) levels, hypoxia, and translocator protein (TSPO) levels. As described in the statement of work... bladder uptake) that enable robust detection of small prostate cancers . In contrast, high background and variable uptake of FDHT and FMISO confounded the...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0245 TITLE: Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher Chad

  15. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer and the skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men in the UK. Androgen ablation with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRH agonists) alone, or in combination with anti-androgens is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, despite maximal

  16. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  17. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  18. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  19. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit K.; Mai Weiyan; McGary, John E.; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian; Teh, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Methods: Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Results: Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Conclusion: Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions

  20. Tumor-Associated Antigens for Specific Immunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Andrea [Biologics Safety and Disposition, Preclinical Safety, Translational Sciences, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Werk Klybeck, Klybeckstraße 141, Basel CH-4057 (Switzerland); Wehner, Rebekka [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Füssel, Susanne [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Bachmann, Michael [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Wirth, Manfred P. [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Schmitz, Marc, E-mail: marc.schmitz@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany)

    2012-02-22

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous cancer diagnosis and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Effective treatment modalities for advanced metastatic PCa are limited. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on T cells and antibodies represent interesting approaches to prevent progression from localized to advanced PCa and to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced disease. CD8{sup +} cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) efficiently recognize and destroy tumor cells. CD4{sup +} T cells augment the antigen-presenting capacity of dendritic cells and promote the expansion of tumor-reactive CTLs. Antibodies mediate their antitumor effects via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, improving the uptake of coated tumor cells by phagocytes, and the functional interference of biological pathways essential for tumor growth. Consequently, several tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been identified that represent promising targets for T cell- or antibody-based immunotherapy. These TAAs comprise proteins preferentially expressed in normal and malignant prostate tissues and molecules which are not predominantly restricted to the prostate, but are overexpressed in various tumor entities including PCa. Clinical trials provide evidence that specific immunotherapeutic strategies using such TAAs represent safe and feasible concepts for the induction of immunological and clinical responses in PCa patients. However, further improvement of the current approaches is required which may be achieved by combining T cell- and/or antibody-based strategies with radio-, hormone-, chemo- or antiangiogenic therapy.

  1. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiotherapy in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igdem, Sefik; Alco, Guel; Ercan, Tuelay; Barlan, Metin; Ganiyusufoglu, Kuersat; Unalan, Buelent; Turkan, Sedat; Okkan, Sait

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence, predisposing factors, and clinical characteristics of insufficiency fractures (IF) in patients with prostate cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy as part of their definitive treatment. Methods and Materials: The charts of 134 prostate cancer patients, who were treated with pelvic radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. IF was diagnosed by bone scan and/or CT and/or MRI. The cumulative incidence of symptomatic IF was estimated by actuarial methods. Results: Eight patients were identified with symptomatic IF after a median follow-up period of 68 months (range, 12-116 months). The 5-year cumulative incidence of symptomatic IF was 6.8%. All patients presented with lower back pain. Insufficiency fracture developed at a median time of 20 months after the end of radiotherapy and was managed conservatively without any need for hospitalization. Three patients were thought to have metastatic disease because of increased uptake in their bone scans. However, subsequent CT and MR imaging revealed characteristic changes of IF, avoiding any further intervention. No predisposing factors for development of IF could be identified. Conclusions: Pelvic IF is a rare complication of pelvic radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Knowledge of pelvic IF is essential to rule out metastatic disease and prevent unnecessary treatment, especially in a patient cohort with high-risk features for distant spread.

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  3. Diagnosis of prostate cancer with needle biopsy: Should all cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The triad of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound‑guided prostate biopsy is used in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). It is recommended that all cases of PCa should be diagnosed with needle biopsy before treatment. The exclusion criteria for those ...

  4. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material

  5. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shinichi; Satake, Ichiro; Tujii, Toshihiko; Tari, Kiyonobu; Sakura, Mizuyoshi

    1988-01-01

    Between February 1982 and February 1986, 30 patients with prostatic cancer received intaoperative radiotherapy (IORT). First 10 cases were treated by the transperineal approach, and after April 1983, 20 cases were done by the retropubic approach. We chose the retropubic approach, because it has advantages over the transperineal approach, which has a risk of rectal damage, lymph-adenectomy can not be performed and the patient can not sit down for a long time after the operation. In the IORT procedure for prostatic cancer by the retropubic approach, a longitudinal lower abdominal incision is made, and pushing down the bladder, the treatment cone is inserted to the prostate. We performed lymph-adenectomy at the same operation, if hard and large lymph-nodes were touched. Of 30 patients, 2 had stage B disease, 10 had stage C and 18 had stage D disease. The overall 5-year survival rate (Kaplan-Meier method) after IORT was 42.6 % where as that the 31 cases seen (stage C : 6 cases, stage D : 25 cases) since the Center was founded (October 1975) until the introduction of IORT was 3.2 %. Although no definite conclusion can be drawn because all cases received multidisciplinary therapy, IORT appears useful for the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  7. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2005-01-01

    .... This research postulates that prostate cancer cells commandeer this normal epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway to recruit stromal cells to support abnormal tumor growth and tests the hypothesis...

  8. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2003-01-01

    .... This research postulates that prostate cancer cells commandeer this normal epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway to recruit stromal cells to support abnormal tumor growth and tests the hypothesis...

  9. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  10. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  11. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  12. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  13. A case report of monitoring PSA level changes in two prostate cancer patients treated with Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom along with western anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to find out how Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP and Sweet Bee Venom(SBV treatments are effective on prostate cancer patients by monitoring Prostate specific antigen(PSA values. Methods: We treated two prostate cancer patients with MGP and SBV from October 2008 to April 2011. One patient had localized prostate cancer, the other was in the terminal stage of prostate cancer with lung and bone metastasis and both had been receiving western anticancer therapy. We had monitored the changes of PSA value. Results: In case 1, MGP and SBV treatments seemed to be helpful in preventing the recurrence of localized prostate cancer. In case 2, PSA value was decreased by MGP treatment. Conclusions: It is conceivable that MGP and SBV are effective treatments for patients with prostate cancer.

  14. Epigenetics in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cutting-edge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy.

  15. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) May 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Apr 2009 to 14 Apr 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate...have only demonstrated limited antitumor effects. To improve this immunotherapeutic approach, we will use both bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, a...circulating tumor cells before and after prostatectomy, and, more recently, helped to develop a prospective study of antibiotic prophylaxis for use in

  16. Prostatic MR imaging. Accuracy in differentiating cancer from other prostatic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, S.; Kivisaari, L.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Radiology; Vehmas, T. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Taari, K.; Rannikko, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of MR imaging in differentiating between cancer and other prostatic disorders, and evaluated the diagnostic criteria for various prostatic diseases. Material and Methods: A total of 74 endorectal coil MR studies were performed on 72 patients. Twenty patients had prostatic cancer, 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 acute bacterial prostatitis, 5 chronic bacterial prostatitis (2 also belonging to the previous category), 19 chronic non-bacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and 6 were symptomless voluntary controls. All studies were interpreted by two experienced radiologists in random order. Radiologists were blinded to all clinical data including the age of the patients. Based on MR findings, both radiologists filled in a form covering diagnostic criteria and diagnosis. Results: Accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer was 74%. Sensitivity was 50% and specificity 83%, and positive and negative predictive values were 53 and 82%, respectively. Bacterial prostatitis showed some features similar to carcinoma. Abundant BPH rendered cancer detection more difficult. No diagnostic criterion was clearly better than the others. Interobserver agreement on the MR diagnosis ranged from moderate to good. Conclusion: Without knowledge of accurate clinical data, MR seems to be too insensitive in detecting prostate cancer to be used as a primary diagnostic tool.

  17. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.

  18. Younger British men's understandings of prostate cancer: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Parlane, Victoria L; Buckley, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore young British men's understandings of prostate health and cancer of the prostate. A total of 16 White-British men between 31-50 years of age took part in interviews face-to-face or through computer-mediated communication. Thematic analysis broadly informed by grounded theory identified two key themes; 'limited knowledge about the prostate' and 'early detection & unpleasant procedures'. Accounts are discussed with reference to implications for improving men's understandings of prostate cancer, and likelihood of self-referral for prostate screening where necessary.

  19. Mortality results from the Göteborg randomised population-based prostate-cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugosson, Jonas; Carlsson, Sigrid; Aus, Gunnar; Bergdahl, Svante; Khatami, Ali; Lodding, Pär; Pihl, Carl-Gustaf; Stranne, Johan; Holmberg, Erik; Lilja, Hans

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death from malignant disease among men in the developed world. One strategy to decrease the risk of death from this disease is screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA); however, the extent of benefit and harm with such screening is under continuous debate. In December, 1994, 20,000 men born between 1930 and 1944, randomly sampled from the population register, were randomised by computer in a 1:1 ratio to either a screening group invited for PSA testing every 2 years (n=10,000) or to a control group not invited (n=10,000). Men in the screening group were invited up to the upper age limit (median 69, range 67-71 years) and only men with raised PSA concentrations were offered additional tests such as digital rectal examination and prostate biopsies. The primary endpoint was prostate-cancer specific mortality, analysed according to the intention-to-screen principle. The study is ongoing, with men who have not reached the upper age limit invited for PSA testing. This is the first planned report on cumulative prostate-cancer incidence and mortality calculated up to Dec 31, 2008. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial ISRCTN54449243. In each group, 48 men were excluded from the analysis because of death or emigration before the randomisation date, or prevalent prostate cancer. In men randomised to screening, 7578 (76%) of 9952 attended at least once. During a median follow-up of 14 years, 1138 men in the screening group and 718 in the control group were diagnosed with prostate cancer, resulting in a cumulative prostate-cancer incidence of 12.7% in the screening group and 8.2% in the control group (hazard ratio 1.64; 95% CI 1.50-1.80; pattendees compared with the control group was 0.44 (95% CI 0.28-0.68; p=0.0002). Overall, 293 (95% CI 177-799) men needed to be invited for screening and 12 to be diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death. This study shows that prostate

  20. Mortality results from the Göteborg Randomised Prostate Cancer Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugosson, Jonas; Carlsson, Sigrid; Aus, Gunnar; Bergdahl, Svante; Khatami, Ali; Lodding, Pär; Pihl, Carl-Gustaf; Stranne, Johan; Holmberg, Erik; Lilja, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death from malignant disease among men in the Western world. One strategy to decrease the risk of dying from this disease is screening with Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA); however, the extent of benefit and harm with such screening is under continuous debate. Methods In December 1994, 20 000 men born 1930 to 1944, randomly sampled from the Population Register, were computer randomised in a 1:1 ratio to a screening group invited for biennial PSA testing or to a control group not invited. In each arm, 48 men were excluded from analysis due to either death or emigration before randomization date or prevalent prostate cancer. The primary endpoint was prostate cancer specific mortality analyzed according to the intention-to-screen principle. Men in the screening group were invited up to the upper age limit (median 69, range 67–71 years) and only men with elevated PSA were offered additional tests such as digital rectal examination and prostate biopsies. The study is still ongoing inviting men who have not yet reached the upper age limit. This is the first planned report on cumulative prostate cancer incidence and mortality calculated up to Dec 31 2008. This study is registered [as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial], number [ISRCTN49127736]. Findings Among men randomised to screening 7578/9952 (76%) attended at least once (attendees). During a median follow-up of 14 years, 1138 men in the screening group and 718 in the control group were diagnosed with prostate cancer resulting in a cumulative incidence of prostate cancer of 12.7% in the screening arm and 8.2% in the control arm (hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50–1.80; pattendees compared to the control group was 0.44 (95% CI 0.28–0.68; p=0.0002). Overall, 293 men needed to be invited for screening and 12 to be diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death. Interpretation The benefit of prostate cancer

  1. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, C.; Galli, M.; Meoli, P.; Mariani, L.; Novelli, L.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To analyze the feasibility of high dose assessing acute and late toxicities both rectal and genitourinary in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: Between April 2006 and April 2008 90 patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with MRT technique in the Department of Radiotherapy. The analysis included 80 patients, 10 of them in treatment. The total dose received was 80 Gy. One patient received 70.2 Gy (because of previous pelvic radiotherapy). Age average: 65 (r 43-85 years). Stage: T1c: 43 p (53.75%), T2: 35 p (43.75%), T3: 1 p (1.25%). Score of Gleason 10 ng/ml and [es

  2. Radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.J.; Richardson, G.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1965, 401 patients with prostate cancer have received intensive local pelvic radiation therapy at the Virginia Mason Medical Center. Two hundred twenty-one of this series were in the Stage C category. The 36 Stage B cancers were either medically nonoperable, or advanced extent, or had high-grade histopathology. Ten patients each were in diffuse Stage A or Stage D groups, the latter receiving local palliative inensive treatment to the prostate area. The mean age of the patients was 67.6 years. The five year survival of the Stage C group was 57.7%. There was no apparent influence on the survival of irradiated Stage C patients who received estrogen therapy. Current treatment techniques employ 10 megavolt photon beam with whole pelvic nodal fields and bilateral are rotational boost fields. The incidence of reactions and complications is presented

  3. A recommender system for prostate cancer websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly; Chignell, Mark; Krahn, Murray

    2008-11-06

    One of the challenges for people seeking health information online is the difficulty in locating health Websites that are personally relevant, credible and useful. We developed a Web-based recommender system in order to help address this problem in the context of prostate cancer. We are conducting an online randomized controlled trial to evaluate the accuracy of its recommendations and to compare the efficacy of content-based and collaborative filtering.

  4. Calcium and Nuclear Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan V. Maly; Wilma A. Hofmann

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the un...

  5. The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    the proposed project : 1. To continue to acquire a comprehensive understanding of prostate cancer genomics . 2. To develop an understanding of... Genetics I • ECEV 35901 Evolutionary Genomics • Fundamentals of Clinical Research • HGEN 47400 Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Geneticists...Marc Gillard,2 David M. Hatcher,5 Westin R. Tom,5 Walter M. Stadler2 and Kevin P. White1,2,3 1Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology , Departments of

  6. Calcium and Nuclear Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Maly

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the unifying themes that hold out promise in the context of the problems presented by prostate cancer. Genomic perturbations, kinase cascades, developmental pathways, and channels and transporters are covered, with an emphasis on nuclear transport and functions. Special attention is paid to the molecular mechanisms behind prostate cancer progression to the malignant forms and the unfavorable response to anti-androgen treatment. The survey leads to some new hypotheses that connect heretofore disparate results and may present a translational interest.

  7. Nutrigenetics and prostate cancer: 2011 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yinan; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer runs in families and shows a clear dietary involvement. Until recently, the key risk gene(s) have proved elusive. We summarise current understandings of nutrient-gene interactions in prostate cancer risk and progression. A MEDLINE-based literature search was conducted. Hypothesis-directed candidate gene approaches provide plausible, albeit statistically weak, nutrient-gene interactions. These are based on early understandings of factors likely to impact on carcinogenesis, including both nutrient and genetic effects on androgen biosynthesis and action, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA damage and DNA repair. Non-hypothesis-directed genome-wide association studies provide much stronger evidence for other genes, not hitherto suspected for involvement. Although only a few of these have been formally tested for dietary associations in well-designed epidemiologic studies, the nature of many of the genes suggests that their activity may be regulated by nutrients. These effects may not only be relevant to prostate cancer susceptibility, but also to disease progression. It will be important to move beyond studying single nucleotide polymorphisms, into more complex chromosomal rearrangements and to epigenetic changes. For future progress, large international cohorts will not only need to provide proof of individual nutrient-gene interactions, but also to relate these to more complex nutrient-gene-gene interactions, as parts of pathways. Bioinformatics and biostatistics will be increasingly important tools in nutrigenetic studies beyond 2011. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A vaccine strategy with multiple prostatic acid phosphatase-fused cytokines for prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujio, Kei; Watanabe, Masami; Ueki, Hideo; Li, Shun-Ai; Kinoshita, Rie; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Futami, Junichiro; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2015-04-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the attractive treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) previously approved the therapeutic vaccine, sipuleucel-T, which is composed of autologous antigen-presenting cells cultured with a fusion protein [prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF)]. Although sipuleucel-T has been shown to prolong the median survival of patients for 4.1 months, more robust therapeutic effects may be expected by modifying the vaccination protocol. In the present study, we aimed to develop and validate a novel vaccination strategy using multiple PAP-fused cytokines for prostate cancer treatment. Using a super gene expression (SGE) system that we previously established to amplify the production of a recombinant protein, significant amounts of PAP-fused cytokines [human GMCSF, interleukin-2 (IL2), IL4, IL7 and mouse GMCSF and IL4] were obtained. We examined the activity of the fusion proteins in vitro to validate their cytokine functions. A significant upregulation of dendritic cell differentiation from monocytes was achieved by PAP-GMCSF when used with the other PAP-fused cytokines. The PAP-fused human IL2 significantly increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, as determined by flow cytometry. We also investigated the in vivo therapeutic effects of multiple PAP-fused cytokines in a mouse prostate cancer model bearing prostate-specific antigen (PSA)- and PAP-expressing tumors. The simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of PAP-GMCSF, -IL2, -IL4 and -IL7 significantly prevented tumor induction and inhibited the tumor growth in the PAP-expressing tumors, yet not in the PSA-expressing tumors. The in vivo therapeutic effects with the multiple PAP-fused cytokines were superior to the effects of PAP-GMCSF alone. We thus demonstrated the advantages of the combined use of multiple PAP-fused cytokines including PAP-GMCSF, and propose a promising prostatic

  9. Dietary folate deficiency blocks prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model

    OpenAIRE

    Bistulfi, Gaia; Foster, Barbara A; Karasik, Ellen; Gillard, Bryan; Miecznikowski, Jeff; Dhiman, Vineet K; Smiraglia, Dominic J

    2011-01-01

    Dietary folate is essential in all tissues to maintain several metabolite pools and cellular proliferation. Prostate cells, due to specific metabolic characteristics, have increased folate demand to support proliferation and prevent genetic and epigenetic damage. Although several studies found that dietary folate interventions can affect colon cancer biology in rodent models, impact on prostate is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary folate manipulation, possibly bei...

  10. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prostate Cancer Scholars Program is designed to encourage students from under-represented minority groups to enter graduate training and ultimately

  11. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  12. Occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Cheryl E; Demers, Paul A; Kalia, Sunil; Hystad, Perry; Villeneuve, Paul J; Nicol, Anne-Marie; Kreiger, Nancy; Koehoorn, Mieke W

    2016-11-01

    Preventable risk factors for prostate cancer are poorly understood; sun exposure is a possible protective factor. The goal of this study was to investigate prostate cancer risk in outdoor workers, a population with high sun exposure. Prostate cancer cases and controls from a large study (conducted between 1994 and 1997) were used for this analysis. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was used to assign solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at work as moderate (2 to hours outside/day) or high (≥6 hours). Average daily satellite UV-B measures were linked to the latitude/longitude of the residences of each participant. Several other exposure metrics were also examined, including ever/never exposed and standard erythemal dose by years (SED×years). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between solar UVR exposure and the odds of prostate cancer. A total of 1638 cases and 1697 controls were included. Men of Indian and Asian descent had reduced odds of prostate cancer (ORs 0.17 (0.08 to 0.35) and 0.25 (0.15 to 0.41), respectively) compared with Caucasian men, as did single men (OR 0.76 (0.58 to 0.98)) compared with married men. Overall, no statistically significant associations were observed between sun exposure and prostate cancer with 1 exception. In the satellite-enhanced JEM that considered exposure in high category jobs only, prostate cancer odds in the highest quartile of cumulative exposure was decreased compared with unexposed men (OR 0.68 (0.51 to 0.92)). This study found limited evidence for an association with prostate cancer, with the exception of 1 statistically significant finding of a decreased risk among workers with the longest term and highest sun exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. 14. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  14. Pilot Comparison of Stromal Gene Expression among Normal Prostate Tissues and Primary Prostate Cancer Tissues in White and Black Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bova, G. S

    2006-01-01

    ..., and expression analysis of prostate-stroma specific cells in normal and cancerous prostates, and aims to develop preliminary data sufficient to identify potential differences in stromal RNA expression in normal and cancerous...

  15. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmus, T.; Baur, A.; Hamm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, but only about 10 % of patients die from that cancer. Recent studies suggest that not all patients benefit from a radical therapeutic approach. When prostate cancer is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can make an important contribution to cancer localization within the prostate. Many studies show that T2-weighted morphologic imaging should be supplemented by multiparametric MRI techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging, contrast-enhanced sequences, and MR spectroscopy. This approach detects aggressive prostate cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. The findings of multiparametric MRI additionally contribute information to the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. The use of these multiparametric MRI techniques will gain an increasing role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. They can help in establishing a definitive diagnosis with a minimum of invasiveness and may also contribute to optimal individualized treatment. This review article presents the different techniques of multiparametric MRI and discusses their contribution to the detection of prostate cancer. Moreover, this review outlines an objective approach to image interpretation and structured reporting of MRI findings using the PI-RADS criteria. The review concludes with an outline of approaches to prostate biopsy on the basis of MRI (transrectal ultrasound, direct MRI guidance of tissue sampling, and MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy) and emerging future uses of MRI in the planning of focal treatment options and in the active surveillance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. (orig.)

  16. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  17. Prostate Cancer: Improving the Flow of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Colleen A F

    2018-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed in U.S. men and kills over 27 000 men annually. Thus, improving the outcomes for patients diagnosed with this disease is imperative. There has been a considerable amount of research done over the past several decades resulting in more cures than ever, but the death rate is still unacceptable. This oration addresses the progress that we have made over the past several decades and outlines the work yet to be done, as well as some processes to make that work happen. © RSNA, 2018.

  18. Sciatic neuropathy as first sign of metastasising prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Rastiemadabadi, Zoreh; Smith, Torben Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    idiopathic neuropathy. Here we describe a patient who was initially diagnosed with idiopathic sciatic neuropathy but who was eventually diagnosed with prostate cancer. This is an uncommon manifestation of prostate cancer, and the diagnostic was difficult because prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was normal...... and the positron emission tomography scan negative. Changes in PSA should always raise the suspicion of prostate cancer, just as idiopathic progressive neuropathy should always raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy, even when standard diagnostics fail to explain the patient's symptoms....

  19. The value of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density in the diagnosis ad treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guoying; Yu Mingqi; Feng Xinli

    2001-01-01

    To study the clinical value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), the PSA levels of pre-and post-treatment were measured in 28 cases with prostate cancer (Pca) and 80 patients with being Prostate hyperplasia (BPH). PASD was measured in 18 cases Pca and 50 cases BPH of them. The results suggest that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for Pca were 85.7%, 80.0% and 81.4%, respectively. The false positive rate was 20%. PSAD is superior to PSA in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia. The false positive rate was only 6%. But in the clinical application, the authors should combine PASD with other materials. The regular observation of post therapeutic PSA is of great value to the earlier discovery of local recurrence and metastasis as well as the judgement of curative effect and prognosis

  20. Anticancer effect of triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lijun; Li, Sumei; Zhuo, Yumin; Chen, Jianfan; Qin, Xiaoping; Guo, Guoqing

    2017-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum , within the Polyporaceae family of Basidiomycota, is a popular traditional remedy medicine used in Asia to promote health and longevity. Compounds extracted from G. lucidum have revealed anticancer, antioxidant and liver protective effects. G. lucidum has been associated with prostate cancer cells. G. lucidum extracts contain numerous bioactive components; however, the exact functional monomer is unknown and the role of triterpenes from G. lucidum (GLT) in prostate cancer remain obscure. The present study investigated the effects of GLT on cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis in DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. The results demonstrated that a high dose (2 mg/ml) of GLT inhibits cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the regulation of matrix metalloproteases. Furthermore, GLT induced apoptosis of DU-145 cells. In general, GLT exerts its effect on cancer cells via numerous mechanisms and may have potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of cancer.