Pan African Medical Journal ... Introduction: Long-term outcome of patients after band ligation have been poorly defined. ... endoscopic band ligation, liver cirrhosis, complication of band ligation, esophageal varices, secondary prevention ...
Full Text Available Optimal time to surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very-low-birth-weight ( 14 days groups. Basic clinical features, major morbidity of prematurity and mortality were compared. Clinical features and major outcomes were similar. The early ligation group had earlier onset of symptomatic PDA (5.7 ± 1.6 days vs. 8.1 ± 3.6 days, p = 0.024, and fewer days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN (39.6 ± 13.9 days vs. 60.4 ± 31.4 days, p = 0.025 and ventilator use (11.1 ± 6.7 days vs. 18.6 ± 10.5 days, p = 0.019. Early ligation of medical refractory PDA in very-low-birth-weight premature infants improves enteral feeding tolerance and reduces TPN and ventilator use, but long-term benefits need further investigation.
Liegl, Raffael; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois EH
More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess) as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1) and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. PMID:28539804
Full Text Available This study reported our experience of bedside patent ductus arteriosus (PDA ligation for prematurity in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Between April 1992 and March 2006, 41 very-low-birth-weight premature infants underwent PDA ligation in the NICU. There were 18 male and 23 female infants. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 26.9 weeks and 900.9 g, respectively. Preoperatively, 25 infants were ventilator-dependent. After operation, there were five deaths caused by complications of prematurity. Surgical complications occurred in four and all recovered well after treatment. Twenty preoperatively intubated babies survived and were extubated at 21.6 ± 12.7 days postoperatively. In conclusion, bedside PDA ligation in the NICU is safe and effective. It can avoid transportation of critically ill, very small infants. We suggest surgical closure as the primary treatment in very-low-birth-weight infants who are ventilator-dependent to avoid the possible complications of indomethacin and prolonged intubation.
We believe that VLBW preterm infants by having multiple system failure may have PDA ligation in operating room if there is no optimum conditions in ICU by obtaining safe transport, performing ketamine in anesthesia induction and maintenance. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(1.000: 47-50
Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G
Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.
de Maeseneer, M. G.; Giuliani, D. R.; van Schil, P. E.; de Hert, S. G.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a silicone implant at the sapheno-femoral ligation site could prevent recurrent varicosities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two non-randomised groups of patients were studied prospectively. In group A 173 patients and 212 limbs had sapheno-femoral ligation, while 172
Thiele, Maja; Krag, A; Rohde, Ulrich
In patients with oesophageal varices, the combination of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and medical therapy is recommended as standard of care for prevention of rebleeding. The results of previous meta-analyses on this topic are equivocal.......In patients with oesophageal varices, the combination of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and medical therapy is recommended as standard of care for prevention of rebleeding. The results of previous meta-analyses on this topic are equivocal....
Azad, Kishwar; Mathews, Jiji
Preterm births (PTBs), defined as births before 37 weeks of gestation account for the majority of deaths in the newborn period. Prediction and prevention of PTB is challenging. A history of preterm labour or second trimester losses and accurate measurement of cervical length help to identify women who would benefit from progesterone and cerclage. Fibronectin estimation in the cervicovaginal secretions of a symptomatic woman with an undilated cervix can predict PTB within 10 days of testing. Antibiotics should be given to women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes but tocolysis has a limited role in the management of preterm labour. Antenatal corticosteroids to prevent complications in the neonate should be given only when gestational age assessment is accurate PTB is considered imminent, maternal infection and the preterm newborn can receive adequate care. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection should be given when delivery is imminent. After birth, most babies respond to simple interventions essential newborn care, basic care for feeding support, infections and breathing difficulties. Newborns weighing 2000 g or less, benefit from KMC. Babies, who are clinically unstable or cannot be given KMC may be nursed in an incubator or under a radiant warmer. Treatment modalities include oxygen therapy, CPAP, surfactant and assisted ventilation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gluud, Lise Lotte; Krag, Aleksander
Non-selective beta-blockers are used as a first-line treatment for primary prevention in patients with medium- to high-risk oesophageal varices. The effect of non-selective beta-blockers on mortality is debated and many patients experience adverse events. Trials on banding ligation versus non...
Hoyme, U B; Grosch, A; Roemer, V M; Saling, E
Genital infection particularly bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases the relative risk of prematurity. Detection of disturbances of vaginal milieu at an early stage and the use of suitable countermeasures such as intervention with antimicrobial substances, e.g. clindamycin, can reduce the preterm birth rate, provided the diagnosis is made early enough. Since October 1996 pregnant women being given prenatal care in 16 of the 29 outpatient offices in Erfurt, have been informed about the Prematurity Prevention Programme and have been offered to take part and to perform self-measurements of their vaginal pH twice a week in order to screen for any disturbances in the vaginal milieu. Special CarePlan-VpH gloves (Selfcare, Oberhaching) were used to identify patients a risk (pH > 4.7). The pregnant women taking part in the programme were instructed to see their physician immediately, if abnormal values were present, in order to get them confirmed and to start lactobacillus acidophilus therapy (Gynoflor, Nourypharma, Oberschleissheim) or, in case of BV, to treat with clindamycin cream (Sobelin, Upjohn, Erlangen) i.vag. Patients being given prenatal care in the 13 outpatient offices not participating and other pregnant women in Erfurt who were not interested in the programme served as control group. Up to now 59 out of 314 women in the intervention group have been identified as risk cases (p > or = 4.7). 52 of them were treated with a lactobacillus preparation, and 19 additionally with clindamycin cream, 3 patients refused to have any therapy. In this ongoing study the prematurity rate was 8.3% in the self-measurement/intervention group vs. 13.0% in the control group (n = 1,842); 0.3% vs. 3.3% of the neonates belonged to the group of very early prematures with a gestational age of < 32 + 0 weeks (p < 0.01). PROM was registered in 22.3% vs. 32.1% (p < 0.001) respectively. Self-measurement of vaginal pH at close intervals, as recommended by Saling, leads to the early
Abd ElRahim, Ayman Yosry; Fouad, Rabab; Khairy, Marwa; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Fathalah, Waleed; Khatamish, Haytham; Khorshid, Omayma; Moussa, Mona; Seyam, Moataz
Band ligation and propranolol are the current therapies for primary prevention of variceal bleeding. Carvedilol is a rising nonselective beta-blocker used for reducing portal pressure with favorable outcome. The aim of this study to assess the efficacy of carvedilol, propranolol, and band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding based on the effect of each regimen on progression of Child score and portal hypertensive gastropathy after 1 year. The study included 264 cirrhotic patients with medium/large-sized varices who were candidates for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: group I: band ligation; group II: propranolol; group III: carvedilol. Group I showed higher success rate of 75 %, followed by group III with 70.2 % and group II with 65.2 %. Risk of bleeding was comparable between the three groups, with group II carrying the highest rate of complications (34.7 %) followed by group III (14.2 %) and finally group I (5.7 %). After 1 year of follow-up, Child score did not improve in any of the studied groups, while portal hypertensive gastropathy significantly increased in group I but decreased in groups II and III. Band ligation is the best treatment option for primary prevention of variceal bleeding with minimal complications. Carvedilol is a good pharmaceutical alternative medicine to propranolol with lesser side-effects. Progress of liver disease as represented by Child score is not affected by any of the primary variceal prophylactic regimens, although medical treatment reduces portal hypertensive gastropathy. Choice of treatment depends on patient will, compliance with treatment, and endoscopist competence.
V. V. Neroev
Full Text Available The system of blindness prevention and visual impairment in children with retinopathy of prematurity is a multidisciplinary medical problem, and includes the prevention of the preterm birth, the correction of terms of caring for premature babies, early detection, monitoring, and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity, as well as the organization of the long clinical supervision. Patients with retinopathy of prematurity need a comprehensive approach to the prevention of the visual impairment in order to ensure high functional outcomes and improve their quality of life.
Yong, Charles Wei Kit; Vadera, Sonam; Morgan, Marsha Y.
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of banding ligation versus no intervention in adults with cirrhosis and gastro-oesophageal varices that have not bled.......This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of banding ligation versus no intervention in adults with cirrhosis and gastro-oesophageal varices that have not bled....
Györe, F; Keserü, T; Gyuranecz, M; Bognár, I; Kerekes, L; Simon, G
Dicynone has been in use in all premature births prophylactically since 1987 by the authors. The administration of the drug begins before or during delivery. The diagnoses of cerebral haemorrhage was established on autopsy and the cases were compared with the previous years when Dicynone was not administered. During prophylactic use of Dicynone the cerebral haemorrhages significantly reduced among premature babies. It is well known, that the etiology of the cerebral haemorrhages are multifactorial. Their favourable experiences confirm the literary communications, whereas use of Dicynone can be one of the efficacious preventive drug against palsy of the premature babies.
Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that endoscopic variceal ligation is similar to the combination of nadolol plus ISMN with regard to effectiveness and safety in the prevention of first variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis.
Lamberth, K; Claesson, M H
Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti......-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). MHC-I ligation also prevented downregulation of Bcl-2 and destabilization of Deltapsim induced by anti-Fas Ab treatment or anisomycin exposure. Studies on three different Jurkat cell mutants deficient for src p56(lck), ZAP......-70 kinase, or TCR/CD3 gamma-chain showed that the cells undergo apoptosis after Fas ligation. Anisomycin exposure induced apoptosis in the src p56(lck)-deficient cell line but not in the two other mutant cell lines. Simultaneous cross-linking of MHC-I and Fas ligation inhibited apoptosis in the ZAP...
Castillo Huerta, Eugenio; Garibay Valencia, Miguel; Mirabent-González, Felio
Vulvovaginitis is one of the main causes of premature membrane rupture. To evaluate effectiveness of a combination of ketoconazole (400 mg) and clindamycin (100 mg) in vaginal tablets, compared with clindamicyn alone (600 mg/daily) orally, for six days, to prevent premature membrane rupture in patients with vulvovaginitis. Longitudinal, prospective, comparative, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study in patients older than 18 years, during them third trimester of normoevolutive pregnancy with symptomatic vulvovaginitis. Patients were monitored as out patient. Genital secretion culture and fresh studies were made. Signs and symptoms were evaluated in regular intervals: 4, 7 and 11 days. Pregnancy control was performed every three weeks, until childbirth or premature membrane rupture. 105 patients were included: 53 in the group of ketoconazole and clindamicyn (1), and 52 in the group of clindamycin alone (2). Symptoms were similar in both groups of treatment, without statistically significant differences. A case of group 2 has premature membrane rupture (p = 0.495). C. albicans was cultured in 35% of group 2 and in 11% of group 2. No adverse events with treatments were reported. The combination of ketoconazole and cindamycin was effective to prevent premature membrane rupture in patients with vulvovaginitis.
Lamberth, K; Claesson, M H
Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti-apoptotic......Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti......-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). MHC-I ligation also prevented downregulation of Bcl-2 and destabilization of Deltapsim induced by anti-Fas Ab treatment or anisomycin exposure. Studies on three different Jurkat cell mutants deficient for src p56(lck), ZAP......-70 kinase, or TCR/CD3 gamma-chain showed that the cells undergo apoptosis after Fas ligation. Anisomycin exposure induced apoptosis in the src p56(lck)-deficient cell line but not in the two other mutant cell lines. Simultaneous cross-linking of MHC-I and Fas ligation inhibited apoptosis in the ZAP...
Beharry, Kay D; Valencia, Gloria B; Lazzaro, Douglas R; Aranda, Jacob V
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a significant morbidity in prematurely born infants, is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness in children and persists till adulthood. Strict control of oxygen therapy and prevention of intermittent hypoxia are the keys in the prevention of ROP, but pharmacologic interventions have decreased risk of ROP. Various drug classes such as methylxanthines (caffeine), VEGF inhibitors, antioxidants, and others have decreased ROP occurrence. The timing of pharmacologic intervention remains unsettled, but early prevention rather than controlling disease progression may be preferred. These drugs act through different mechanisms, and synergistic approaches should be considered to maximize efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, J Y
A random and controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ethamsylate in the prevention of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) in premature infants. Between January 1990 and July 1992, 171 premature infants with a birth weight of ethamsylate 12.5 mg/kg (0.1 mL/kg from 250 mg/2mL ampoules) was given to group 1 intravenously within an hour of delivery and was followed by doses at six-hourly intervals for four days (total dose 200 mg/kg). Group 2 consisted of 85 premature infants with mean birth weight of 1.4 +/- 0.3 kg and mean gestational age of 30.4 +/- 2.2 weeks. Group 2 received 0.1 mL/kg normal saline intravenously in a similar fashion as the ethamsylate-treated group. Cranial ultrasound examinations were performed on postnatal days one, two, three, five, seven and 14. The incidence of PIVH in the ethamsylate-treated group was 24/86 (27.9%) and 39/85 (45.9%) in the control group (p ethamsylate-treated group was 9/86 (10.5%) and 20/85 (23.5%) in the control group (p ethamsylate therapy in this study.
Koh, Won Uk; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Hye Joo; Ahn, Ho-Soo; Lee, Sun Kyung; Leem, Jeong Gil; Song, Jun Gol; Shin, Jin Woo
Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a potent analog of capsaicin and activates transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type (TRPV) 1. In the current study, we investigated the preventive effect of perineural RTX on the development of cold hypersensitivity induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Furthermore, we examined the association between the expression level of TRPV1, TRP ankyrin type (TRPA) 1 and TRP melastatin type (TRPM) 8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cold hypersensitivity after SNL. RTX pretreatment prevented the development of SNL-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli. Western blot analysis 4 weeks after RTX pretreatment showed that RTX pretreatment decreased the protein expression level of SNL-induced TRPM8, but not TRPV1 or TRPA1, in the DRG of SNL rats. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed that up-regulated TRPM8-stained neurons after SNL co-localized with neurofilament 200-positive neurons located in the DRG. Pretreatment with perineural RTX significantly inhibits SNL-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold hypersensitivity. The antinociceptive effect of perineural RTX, especially on cold hypersensitivity, may be related to the suppression of TRPM8 expression in DRG.
Jang, Hoon; Hong, Kwonho; Choi, Youngsok
Premature ovarian failure is one of the side effects of chemotherapy in pre-menopausal cancer patients. Preservation of fertility has become increasingly important in improving the quality of life of completely recovered cancer patients. Among the possible strategies for preserving fertility such as ovarian tissue cryopreservation, co-treatment with a pharmacological adjuvant is highly effective and poses less of a burden on the human body. Melatonin is generally produced in various tissues and acts as a universally acting antioxidant in cells. Melatonin is now more widely used in various biological processes including treating insomnia and an adjuvant during chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the information indicating that melatonin may be useful for reducing and preventing premature ovarian failure in chemotherapy-treated female patients. We also mention that many adjuvants other than melatonin are developed and used to inhibit chemotherapy-induced infertility. This information will give us novel insights on the clinical use of melatonin and other agents as fertoprotective adjuvants for female cancer patients.
Full Text Available Background: After the umbilical cord is cut, premature neonates face numerous problems including hypothermia. With regard to serious complications of hypothermia and incapability of conventional methods in preservation of neonates′ temperature after admission, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effects of two polyethylene covers in prevention of hypothermia among premature neonates. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 96 neonates aged 28-32 weeks that randomly allocated, by drawing of lots, to three 32-subject groups as follows: Intervention group 1 (a plastic bag cover and a cotton hat, intervention group 2 (a plastic bag cover and a plastic hat, and a control group receiving routine care. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS V.14. Results: Mean axillary temperatures in intervention groups 1 and 2 were different after admission and 1 and 2 h later, but this difference was not significant and the mean axillary temperature increased with time. Mean axillary temperature in the control group showed no significant difference at these time points and it did not increase with time. The mean temperatures in preterm infants were significantly higher in the intervention groups after admission and 1 and 2 h after birth, compared to the control group. Mean axillary temperature in intervention group 2 was significantly higher than in intervention group 1. Conclusions: Usage of a plastic bag cover and a plastic hat (with no risk of hyperthermia is more effective in preventing hypothermia among neonates aged 28-32 weeks, compared to usage of a plastic bag cover and a cotton hat.
Vivien, Guillotin; Alice, Bouhet; Thomas, Barnetche; Christophe, Richez; Marie-Elise, Truchetet; Julien, Seneschal; Pierre, Duffau; Estibaliz, Lazaro
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. While the impact of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on SLE activity and neonatal lupus occurrence has been evaluated in several studies, its role on prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HCQ exposure on prematurity and IUGR during pregnancy in women with SLE. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis comparing prematurity and IUGR in SLE pregnancies exposed or not exposed to HCQ. The odds ratio of IUGR and prematurity were calculated and compared between pregnancies in each group according HCQ treatment. Six studies were included (3 descriptive cohort studies and 3 case series) totalling 870 pregnancies. Of the SLE pregnancies, 308 were exposed to HCQ and were compared to 562 not exposed to HCQ. There was no statistical difference for prematurity or IUGR between groups. This meta-analysis failed to prove the efficacy of HCQ in the prevention of prematurity as well as IUGR during SLE pregnancies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, these results should be interpreted cautiously. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Cousty, M; Tricaud, C; De Beauregard, T; Picandet, V; Bizon-Mercier, C; Tessier, C
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) combined with various antimycotic treatments for the prevention of epistaxis in horses with guttural pouch mycosis. For each case, ipsilateral ligation of the CCA was performed, followed by application of various topical medications under endoscopic guidance. Frequency and number of treatments, outcome and recurrence of haemorrhage were retrospectively recorded. Twenty-four horses were included. Topical medication was administered by detachment of the diphtheric membrane and spraying (n=16) or by intralesional injection directly in the plaques using a transendoscopic needle (n=8). Epistaxis recurred in five horses (20.8 per cent), causing death of four horses (16.6 per cent). The mean number of treatments was 6.3±4.0 (range 2-14) for all topical treatments. Ligation of the ipsilateral CCA and topical medication carries a fair prognosis for avoidance of recurrent episodes of epistaxis, but fatal haemorrhage can occur. Removal of the fungal plaque and topical treatment of the underlying lesion appeared to speed up resolution of the mycotic mucosal lesions. The described technique is a salvage procedure when financial or technical constraints prevent the use of transarterial catheter occlusion techniques. British Veterinary Association.
Xu, Shuman; Liang, Zhijiang; Du, Qiyun; Li, Zhankui; Tan, Guangming; Nie, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Lv, Xuzai; Zhang, Chunyi; Luo, Xianqiong
To identify the prevention situation, the main factors influencing prevention effects and to develop control measures over retinopathy of prematurity in China. Using stratified random sampling method, we randomly selected 23 provincial and ministerial hospitals (8 in Guangdong province, 5 in Hunan province and 10 in Shaanxi province), 81 municipal hospitals (38 in Guangdong province, 19 in Hunan province and 24 in Shaanxi province), 180 district and county hospitals (76 in Guangdong province, 57 in Hunan province and 47 in Shaanxi province) in China. A total of 284 hospitals were enrolled in the study, with questionnaires distributed investigating the status and constrain factors of ROP presentation. Significant outcomes were analyzed thereafter by SPSS 19.0. The screening rate of ROP in medical institutions from eastern, central and western China were 84.6%, 35.0% and 56.7%, respectively. The screening rate of tertiary and secondary medical institutions were 84.6% and 25.7% in the eastern, 35.0% and 4.9% in the central, 56.7% and 5.9% in the western region. Screening was carried out better in the tertiary than that in the secondary and primary institutions. Treatment for ROP was available in 15.7% of all the tertiary hospitals surveyed. Lack of professionals, equipments and technologies were considered to be major restrain factors for screening. The ROP screening and treatment status have demonstrated significant regional diversity due to uneven distribution of medical resources in China. Developed areas had established intraregional cooperation models, whereas less-developed areas should consider set up a large-scale, three-level ROP prevention network. It is of paramount importance that education and training towards ophthalmologists should be vigorously strengthened. It is strongly recommended that implement ROP telemedicine and integrated ROP prevention and management platforms through the Internet should be established.
Chen, Long; Li, Zhiguo; Ahmad, Nihal; Liu, Xiaoqi
Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles by acting as a platform in transducing signals from transmembrane receptors upon growth factor stimulation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation on IRS proteins plays critical roles in signal transduction, phosphorylation of IRS proteins on serine/threonine residues are believed to play various regulatory roles on IRS protein function. However, studies on serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS proteins are very limited, especially for insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), one member of the IRS protein family. In this study, we identify Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as the responsible kinase for phosphorylation of IRS2 on two serine residues, Ser 556 and Ser 1098. Phosphorylation of IRS2 on these two serine residues by Plk1 prevents the activation of the PI3K pathway upon growth factor stimulation by inhibiting the binding between IRS2 and the PI3K pathway components and increasing IRS2 protein degradation. Of significance, we show that IRS2 phosphorylation is cell cycle regulated and that Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation. PMID:25830382
Cheen Fei Chin
Full Text Available Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit.
Gong, Xiaoming; Rubin, Lewis P
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are important causes of blindness among children and working-age adults, respectively. The development of both diseases involves retinal microvascular degeneration, vessel loss and consequent hypoxic and inflammatory pathologic retinal neovascularization. Mechanistic studies have shown that oxidative stress and subsequent derangement of cell signaling are important factors in disease progression. In eye and vision research, role of the dietary xanthophyll carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, has been more extensively studied in adult onset macular degeneration than these other retinopathies. These carotenoids also may decrease severity of ROP in preterm infants and of DR in working-age adults. A randomized controlled clinical trial of carotenoid supplementation in preterm infants indicated that lutein has functional effects in the neonatal eye and is anti-inflammatory. Three multicenter clinical trials all showed a trend of decreased ROP severity in the lutein supplemented group. Prospective studies on patients with non-proliferative DR indicate serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin are significantly lower in these patients compared to normal subjects. The present review describes recent advances in lutein and zeaxanthin modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation related to ROP and DR and discusses potential roles of lutein/zeaxanthin in preventing or lessening the risks of disease initiation or progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schoen, Katherine; Yu, Tian; Stockmann, Chris; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, which affects more than 80 % of neonates with a birth weight less than 1,000 g. Methylxanthine therapies, including caffeine and theophylline, are a mainstay in the treatment and prevention of AOP. Despite their frequent use, little is known about the long-term safety and efficacy of these medications. In this review, we systematically evaluated the literature on neonatal methylxanthine therapies and found that caffeine is associated with fewer adverse effects and a wider therapeutic window when compared with theophylline. When used as a therapeutic agent, larger doses of caffeine citrate have been shown to improve acute neonatal outcomes when administered promptly, although further studies are needed to assess the long-term neurological consequences associated with the use of large loading doses. In a secondary analysis of data obtained from a randomized controlled trial, the prophylactic use of caffeine was associated with substantial cost savings and improved clinical outcomes. However, there remains a paucity of well-controlled, randomized clinical trials that have examined the use of caffeine as a prophylactic agent, and further prospective trials are needed to determine if caffeine is a safe and effective prophylactic agent. Additionally, measuring plasma concentrations longitudinally as a marker of therapeutic efficacy and/or toxicity has not been shown to be clinically useful in neonates who are responsive to treatment and exhibit no signs or symptoms of toxicity. However, in cases where toxicity is of concern or for neonates with congenital or pathophysiologic process that may alter the pharmacokinetics of these drugs, therapeutic drug monitoring may be warranted to monitor for methylxanthine toxicity.
Kaempfen, Siree; Neumann, Roland P; Jost, Kerstin; Schulzke, Sven M
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease of preterm neonates. The use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta-blockers), which modulate the vasoproliferative retinal process, may reduce the progression of ROP or even reverse established ROP. To determine the effect of beta-blockers on short-term structural outcomes, long-term functional outcomes, and the need for additional treatment, when used either as prophylaxis in preterm infants without ROP, stage 1 ROP (zone I), or stage 2 ROP (zone II) without plus disease or as treatment in preterm infants with at least prethreshold ROP. We searched the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL (in the Cochrane Library Issue 7, 2017); Embase (January 1974 to 7 August 2017); PubMed (January 1966 to 7 August 2017); and CINAHL (January 1982 to 7 August 2017). We checked references and cross-references and handsearched abstracts from the proceedings of the Pediatric Academic Societies Meetings. We considered for inclusion randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials that used beta-blockers for prevention or treatment of ROP in preterm neonates of less than 37 weeks' gestational age. We used the standard methods of Cochrane and the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included three randomised trials (N = 366) in this review. Two of these studies were at high risk of bias. All studies reported on prevention of ROP and compared oral propranolol with placebo or no treatment. We found no trials assessing beta-blockers in infants with established stage 2 or higher ROP with plus disease.In one trial, study medication was started after one week of life, i.e. prior to the first ROP screening. The other two trials included preterm infants if they had stage 2 or lower ROP without plus disease. Based on the GRADE assessment, we considered evidence to be of low quality for the following outcomes: rescue treatment with anti-VEGF or
Manuseio do canal arterial patente no prematuro com síndrome de angústia respiratória: ligadura ou indometacina? Management of patent ductus arteriosus in the premature infant: ligation or indomethacin?
Milton A Meier
ão sangramento excessivo. A mortalidade no Grupo 1 foi de 18,75% (9 pts. e, no Grupo 2, de 25,0% (7 pts.. Quatro pacientes do Grupo 2 transferidos para o Grupo 1 faleceram. As causas de óbito no Grupo 1 foram sépsis e hemorragia intracraniana; no Grupo 2, sépsis, enterocolite necrotizante com perfuração localizada, hemorragia intracraniana e penumotórax. Nos dois grupos, a mortalidade foi significantemente maior nos prematuros extremos. A despeito dos problemas de comparação entre os 2 grupos e das conclusões limitadas que podem ser retiradas de um estudo retrospectivo e não randomizado, acreditamos que os resultados da ligadura cirúrgica são nitidamente superiores aos obtidos com o uso da indometacina.Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in low-birth-weight premature infants has been associated with congestive heart failure, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, intracranial hemorrhage, and death. Surgical ligation of the PDA in these infants has improved lung compliance, decreased the duration of assisted ventilation, and increased nutritional utilization. After the introduction of indomethacin for the pharmacological interruption of the PDA in the last decade, several studies have been reported which attempted to establish advantages of the pharmacological treatment over the surgical ligature. The purpose of our study is to compare the results obtained in 48 consecutive patients (Group 1 who underwent surgical ligature of the PDA in the last 8 years, with 28 patients (Group 2, who underwent indomethacin therapy. The mean gestational age of Group 1 was 29.13 ± 2.33 weeks (range, 24-34 weeks, and 28.39 ± 2.30 weeks (range, 25-32 weeks in Group 2. The mean birth weight was 954.17 ± 220.86 g (range, 540-1750 g in Group 1, and 923.21 ± 191.74 g (range 550-1400 g in Group 2. Thirty three (60.75% pts. from Group 1 weighed 1,000 g or less, and 21 pts. from Group 2 (75.0% weighed less than 1,000 g. Nine pts. (32.1% from Group 2 received indomethacin
Ikematsu, Shuka; Tasaka, Masao; Torii, Keiko U; Uchida, Naoyuki
Secondary growth is driven by continuous cell proliferation and differentiation of the cambium that acts as vascular stem cells, producing xylem and phloem to expand vascular tissues laterally. During secondary growth of hypocotyls in Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem undergoes a drastic phase transition from a parenchyma-producing phase to a fiber-producing phase at the appropriate time. However, it remains to be fully elucidated how progression of secondary growth is properly controlled. We focused on phenotypes of hypocotyl vasculatures caused by double mutation in ERECTA (ER) and ER-LIKE1 (ERL1) receptor-kinase genes to elucidate their roles in secondary growth. ER and ERL1 redundantly suppressed excessive radial growth of the hypocotyl vasculature during secondary growth. ER and ERL1 also prevented premature initiation of the fiber differentiation process mediated by the NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTORs in the hypocotyl xylem. Upon floral transition, the hypocotyl xylem gained a competency to respond to GA in a BREVIPEDICELLUS-dependent manner, which was a prerequisite for fiber differentiation. However, even after the floral transition, ER and ERL1 prevented precocious initiation of the GA-mediated fiber formation. Collectively, our findings reveal that ER and ERL1 redundantly prevent premature progression of sequential events in secondary growth. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.
Bernardita Donoso Bernales
Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.
Barbarot, Sébastien; Chantier, Emilie; Kuster, Alice; Hello, Muriel; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Blouin, Eric; Stalder, Jean-François
Zinc is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in many metabolisms. Zinc deficiency induces various disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, either inherited or acquired. We report three cases of premature infants (24-31 wks gestational age) with low birthweight (650 to 940 g) and enteropathy, two of whom presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. All infants were fed by total parenteral nutrition. At a chronological age ranging from 73 to 80 days, all infants developed a periorificial dermatitis. Before the onset of the first signs, they had received zinc supplementation ranging from 146% to 195% of the recommended dose (400 microg/kg/day). Increased zinc supplementation over a course of 6-18 days induced a complete resolution of symptoms in all cases. No abnormality in the neurologic examination and no recurrence were observed at the end of the zinc treatment. Low birthweight premature infants with enteropathy on total parenteral nutrition are at risk of developing zinc deficiency. The usual recommended zinc supplementation is probably insufficient for those infants. A delay in the diagnosis of zinc deficiency may lead to severe complications.
Manzoni, P; Rizzollo, S; Decembrino, L; Ruffinazzi, G; Rossi Ricci, A; Gallo, E; Stolfi, I; Mostert, M; Stronati, M; Farina, D
Sepsis-related morbidity and mortality are major problems in NICU. Preterm neonates display clinical characteristics that make them prone to infections. Due to the high frequency of severe neurodevelopmental sequelae in survivors, the best possible strategy to manage sepsis in NICU is to prevent them. Hygiene, cohorting, stewardship on use of H2-blockers, steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotic are mandatory, as well as proper management of central venous accesses and surgical devices. In addition, clinical research offers the opportunity of adopting pharmacological preventative strategies such as use of palivizumab to prevent RSV infection, use of fluconazole to prevent fungal sepsis, use of probiotics and lactoferrin to enhance the innate immunity, and use of pagibaximab to prevent staphylococcal sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sepsis is a major clinical challenge and septic encephalopathy is its nasty complication. The pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of septic encephalopathy are not well understood. This study sought to fully characterize sepsis-associated biochemical and histopathological changes in brains of mice after cecal ligation and puncture, regarded as a highly clinically relevant animal model of polymicrobial sepsis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were significantly up-regulated in brain tissues from septic mice, but to a much lesser extent when compared with those in peripheral tissues such as lungs. Blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability was significantly increased in septic mice, as determined by the measurement of sodium fluorescein and Evans blue content. Sepsis resulted in increases in NADPH oxidase activity and expression of p47(phox and p67(phox and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase in brains, indicating that superoxide, produced by NADPH oxidase, reacts with NO to form peroxynitrite, that maybe lead to the loss of BBB integrity. Light and electron microscopic examination of septic mouse brain showed serious neuronal degeneration, as indicated by hyperchromatic, shrunken, pyknotic, and electron-dense neurons. These histopathological changes were prevented by treatment with the free radical scavenger edaravone. Together, these results suggest that sepsis can lead to rapid neurodegenerative changes in brains via free radical species production and possibly subsequent injury to the BBB. We may also provide a potentially useful therapeutic tool for treating septic encephalopathy.
Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Ub; Ezenyeaku, Cc
Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk.
Full Text Available Pediatric hernia surgery is the most common operation done by pediatric general surgeons and it is a core competency for general surgeons in the developing world. Herniotomy is performed for the surgical repair of hernia and along with orchiopexy for the closure of associated patent processus vaginalis. Traditionally, ligation of hernial sac during orchiopexy is considered mandatory to prevent postoperative development of hernia. The present report was designed to study the results of non-ligation of the hernial sac during orchiopexy. It was found that non-ligation has no untoward effect on early complications and recurrence rate on long-term follow-up. It is suggested that it is not necessary to ligate the hernial sac during orchiopexy in children.
Xiao, Guan-Yu; Liu, I-Hsuan; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chang, Chia-Chun; Lee, Yen-Hua; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kuei; Wu, Shinn-Chih
Chemotherapy used to treat cancer may cause irreversible premature ovarian failure (POF). Of late, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) provide a novel source for regenerative medicine because of their primitive stage, low immunogenicity, and easy accessibility. In this study, we isolated AFSCs from transgenic mice that ubiquitously express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). These AFSCs exhibited morphologies, immunophenotypes, and mesoderm trilineage differentiation potentials similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, AFSCs proliferated faster than MSCs and expressed OCT4, a marker for pluripotency. To investigate their potential in recovering fertility in POF model, AFSCs were transplanted into the ovaries of mice with POF six weeks post induction using chemotherapeutic drugs, busulfan and cyclophosphamide. AFSCs could rescue the reproductive ability of mice with POF by preventing follicle atresia and sustaining the healthy follicles. Notably, the transplanted AFSCs did not differentiate into granulosa and germline cells in vivo. After one month, the decreased numbers of transplanted AFSCs accompanied with the reduced beneficial effects indicated that the therapeutic efficacy were directly from AFSCs. These findings demonstrated the therapeutic effects of AFSCs and suggested the promise of AFSCs for treating infertility and POF caused by chemotherapy.
Full Text Available Chemotherapy used to treat cancer may cause irreversible premature ovarian failure (POF. Of late, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs provide a novel source for regenerative medicine because of their primitive stage, low immunogenicity, and easy accessibility. In this study, we isolated AFSCs from transgenic mice that ubiquitously express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP. These AFSCs exhibited morphologies, immunophenotypes, and mesoderm trilineage differentiation potentials similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Further, AFSCs proliferated faster than MSCs and expressed OCT4, a marker for pluripotency. To investigate their potential in recovering fertility in POF model, AFSCs were transplanted into the ovaries of mice with POF six weeks post induction using chemotherapeutic drugs, busulfan and cyclophosphamide. AFSCs could rescue the reproductive ability of mice with POF by preventing follicle atresia and sustaining the healthy follicles. Notably, the transplanted AFSCs did not differentiate into granulosa and germline cells in vivo. After one month, the decreased numbers of transplanted AFSCs accompanied with the reduced beneficial effects indicated that the therapeutic efficacy were directly from AFSCs. These findings demonstrated the therapeutic effects of AFSCs and suggested the promise of AFSCs for treating infertility and POF caused by chemotherapy.
Sanghvi, K P; Merchant, R H; Karnik, A; Kulkarni, A
To determine the role of ethamsylate in prevention of PVH-IVH in premature infants ethamsylate (12.5 mg/kg) six hourly for four days and Group B infants served as a control group. Regular cranial ultrasounds to detect the presence of PVH-IVH were done between days 3-5, 10-14 and 28-30 of post natal age, and before hospital discharge in all infants and weekly in infants detected to have PVH-IVH on earlier scans. Various antenatal and postnatal factors known to affect the incidence of PVH-IVH were recorded. A total of 192 infants underwent the trial, 93 in Group A and 99 in Group B. Antenatal corticosteroids (1 or 2 doses) were administered to 32 ( 34.4%) and 36 (36.3%) women in Group A and Group B, respectively. None of the mothers received phenobarbitone, vitamin K or indomethacin antenatally and none of the infants received phenobarbitone, vitamin E or indomethacin postnatally during the study period. PVH-IVH was seen in 26 infants in Group A, of which Grade I IVH occurred in 9, Grade II in 14, Grade III in 2 and Grade IV in one infant. Twenty-nine infants had PVH-IVH in Group B of which 11 had Grade I, 15 Grade II and 3 Grade III. None of the differences were statistically significant. Postnatal administration of ethamsylate did not decrease the incidence of PVH-IVH in the study infants.
Targeted milrinone treatment for low left ventricular output (LVO) reduces the incidence of acute cardiorespiratory instability following ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. Despite this, some infants continue to experience postoperative deterioration. Adrenal insufficiency related to prematurity has been postulated as a possible mechanism.
Halliday, Matthew; Kavarana, Minoo; Ebeling, Myla; Kiger, James
Determine if prophylactic milrinone improves cardiovascular or long-term clinical outcomes in preterm neonates who receive surgical patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation. Retrospective review of 45 infants over a 4-year period that received a PDA ligation at one institution. Data were collected on morbidity and mortality outcomes for all infants as well as milrinone therapy perioperatively. Of the 45 infants that were studied 15 received milrinone in the perioperative period of PDA ligation and the remaining 30 infants did not receive milrinone. The use of milrinone showed no statistically significant improvement in acute markers of hemodynamic stability. There was also no statistically significant difference in morbidity and mortality outcomes in milrinone group compared to the non-milrinone group. Prophylactic milrinone use for premature infants following PDA ligation does not show a significant cardiovascular or long-term clinical benefit.
Weisz, Dany E.; McNamara, Patrick J.
Observational studies have associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation in preterm infants with increased chronic lung disease (CLD), retinopathy of prematurity, and neurodevelopmental impairment at long-term follow-up. Although the biological rationale for this association is incompletely understood, there is an emerging secular trend toward a permissive approach to the PDA. However, insufficient adjustment for postnatal, pre-ligation confounders, such as intraventricular hemorrhage and the duration and intensity of mechanical ventilation, suggests the presence of residual bias due to confounding by indication, and obliges caution in interpreting the ligation-morbidity relationship. A period of conservative management after failure of medical PDA closure may be considered to reduce the number of infants treated with surgery. Increased mortality and CLD in infants with persistent symptomatic PDA suggests that surgical ligation remains an important treatment modality for preterm infants. PMID:25024972
Full Text Available Background: Considering all the latest achievements in neonatal respiratory care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is still among the most prevalent morbidity causes in premature infants. Involvement in this process results in longer period of hospitalization for the newborn and in the long run makes the living conditions more difficult. Taking the multifactorial pathogenesis into account, approaches to tackle chronic lung disease (CLD are mainly focused on interventions and prevention procedures. This study tries to investigate the potential capability of inhaled budesonide in the prevention of BPD in newborns with gestational age of <28 weeks with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial done on seventy newborns with gestational ages of 23–28 weeks with RDS in Isfahan Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital from June 2014 to April 2016. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention with budesonide and control. There were 35 newborns in each group. Upon recording demographic characteristics, the newborns in two groups were compared based on the length of noninvasive ventilation, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, the number of surfactant administrations, pneumothorax, intraventricular hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, CLD, and death. Results: The length of the need for nasal continuous positive airway pressure showed no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.54. The number of newborns who needed invasive mechanical ventilation also revealed no meaningful difference (P = 0.14. Similarly, the number of newborns who were characterized as affected by CLD also showed no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.053. Moreover, the number of newborns who experienced pneumothorax was not significantly different for the groups (P = 0.057. The number of newborns who received three administrations of surfactant had also no statistically
... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...
Zhu, Xiuxian; Zhang, Xiaole; Fu, Yonglun
A major cause of cycle cancellation during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the occurrence of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Steroidal preparations can modulate the secretion of gonadotropins (Gn); however, few studies using progesterone to inhibit the premature LH surges in COH have been published. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral delivery of progesterone soft capsules (Utrogestan) to prevent LH surges from the follicular phase and to compare cycle characteristics as well as to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in subsequent frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A total of 374 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, among which 187 patients were simultaneously administered Utrogestan and human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) from cycle day 3 until the trigger day. A short protocol including 187 controls with comparable age, body mass index (BMI), infertility duration, and antral follicle count was also used. GnRH agonist (0.1 mg) or hCG (3000 IU) was used for a trigger when the dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later transfer in both groups. The primary outcome was the number of oocytes retrieved. The secondary outcomes included the number of mature oocytes, incidence of premature LH surge, and clinical pregnancy outcomes from FET cycles. Consistent LH suppression was achieved during COH, with a range of 0.07 to 8.9 IU/L, and no premature LH surge was detected. The number of oocytes retrieved in the Utrogestan and hMG protocol was comparable with that in the short protocol (10.92 ± 5.74 vs 10.6 ± 6.22, P > 0.05), and the dose of hMG was higher than that used in the short protocol (1884.22 ± 439.47 IU vs 1446.26 ± 550.48 IU, P effective oral alternative for preventing premature LH surges in women undergoing COH, which will help to establish a convenient user regimen in combination with FET.
Castillo, Armando; Deulofeut, Richard; Critz, Ann; Sola, Augusto
To identify whether pulse oximetry technology is associated with decreased retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and laser treatment. Inborn infants large group of inborn infants <1250 g, a change in clinical practice in combination with pulse oximetry with Masimo SET, but not without it, led to significant reduction in severe ROP and need for laser therapy. Pulse oximetry selection is important in managing critically ill infants. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Mannan, Javed; Amin, Sanjiv B
Objective This study aims to perform a meta-analysis of randomized studies to evaluate if chest shielding during phototherapy is associated with decreased incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants. Design/Methods We used published guidelines for the meta-analysis of clinical trials. The search strategy included electronic searches of CINAHL, CENTRAL Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, and abstracts presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs or cluster RCTs published in English and involving chest shielding during phototherapy in premature infants with PDA as an outcome. Exclusion criteria involved case reports, case series, and multiple publications from the same author. Heterogeneity testing using Q statistics was performed to evaluate the variance between studies. Results Two RCTs met study criteria. There was heterogeneity (I 2 : 55.4%) between the two trials. Meta-analysis of RCTs using the random effect model demonstrated that chest shielding during phototherapy was associated with decreased incidence of PDA (odds ratio: 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.96). There was no publication bias on Eggers test. Heterogeneity was seen in gestational age, gender, prophylactic use of postnatal indomethacin, duration of phototherapy, and assessment of PDA. Conclusion Chest shielding during phototherapy may be associated with decreased incidence of PDA among premature infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
... include the following: Anxiety about performance Guilty feelings Depression Stress Relationship problems Men who have a low amount of a special ... on your favorite sports team. Psychological assistance Anxiety, depression ... may help men who have premature ejaculation. Some antidepressants seem to ...
Sørensen, Cristel M; Steensberg, Jesper N; Greisen, Gorm
The objective was to evaluate the mortality and the morbidity in neonates operated for persistent ductus arteriosus at Copenhagen University Hospital in the 10-year period from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2007, and to compare the results with results reported in extant literature....
Sentilhes, L; Sénat, M-V; Ancel, P-Y; Azria, E; Benoist, G; Blanc, J; Brabant, G; Bretelle, F; Brun, S; Doret, M; Ducroux-Schouwey, C; Evrard, A; Kayem, G; Maisonneuve, E; Marcellin, L; Marret, S; Mottet, N; Paysant, S; Riethmuller, D; Rozenberg, P; Schmitz, T; Torchin, H; Langer, B
To determine the measures to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes)and its consequences. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. In France, premature birth concerns 60,000 neonates every year (7.4 %), half of them are delivered after spontaneous onset of labor. Among preventable risk factors of spontaneous prematurity, only cessation of smoking is associated to a decrease of prematurity (level of evidence [LE] 1). This is therefore recommended (grade A). Routine screening and treatment of vaginal bacteriosis in general population is not recommended (grade A). Asymptomatic women with single pregnancy without history of preterm delivery and a short cervix between 16 and 24 weeks is the only population in which vaginal progesterone is recommended (grade B). A history-indicated cerclage is not recommended in case of only past history of conisation (grade C), uterine malformation (Professional consensus), isolated history of pretem delivery (grade B) or twin pregnancies in primary (grade B) or secondary (grade C) prevention of preterm birth. A history-indicated cerclage is recommended for single pregnancy with a history of at least 3 late miscarriages or preterm deliveries (grade A).). In case of past history of a single pregnancy delivery before 34 weeks gestation (WG), ultrasound cervical length screening is recommended between 16 and 22 WG in order to propose a cerclage in case of lengthpremature rupture of membranes. Maintenance tocolysis is not recomended (grade B). Antenatal corticosteroid administration is recommended to every woman at risk of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation (grade A). After 34 weeks, evidences are not consistent enough to recommend systematic antenatal corticosteroid treatment (grade B), however, a course might be indicated in the clinical situations associated with the
BACKGROUND: Screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are performed routinely in the neonatal intensive care unit and are a recognised cause of pain in the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of instillation of topical anaesthetic eye drops compared with placebo or no treatment on pain in infants undergoing ROP screening. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2010). We identified relevant studies by searching the following: (1) computerised bibliographic databases: MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), EMBASE (1988 to October 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to March 2010; (2) the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We searched electronically abstracts from PAS from 2000 to 2010 and handsearched abstracts from ESPR from 2000 to 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised, or quasi-randomised controlled trials, or randomised cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two studies for inclusion. Both studies were randomised cross-over trials performed in single centres. Both studies used the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score as a measure of pain response. Different methods of evaluating PIPP scores are presented including the absolute PIPP score, a PIPP score > 10 or > 12 and an increase in PIPP >\\/= 4 from the baseline value. There is a nonsignificant reduction in pain scores at one minute and a nonsignificant increase at five minutes post insertion of the speculum. PIPP score > 12 at one minute resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of patients who experienced pain (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89; typical risk difference (RD) -0.23, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.86; number needed to treat to
López-Suárez, O; García-Magán, C; Saborido-Fiaño, R; Pérez-Muñuzuri, A; Baña-Souto, A; Couce-Pico, M L
The effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for foetal lung maturation in pre-term infants is well known, but there is uncertainty about the time that the treatment remains effective. A descriptive, longitudinal study was conducted to determine whether the need for surfactant administration was determined by the time-lapse between corticosteroids administration and delivery, and when repeating the doses of maternal corticosteroids should be considered. A total of 91 premature infants ≤32 weeks and/or ≤1,500 g (limit 34+6 weeks) whose mothers had received a complete course of corticosteroids were included. In patients at 27-34+6 weeks, we found that the longer the time elapsed between delivery and administration of corticosteroids, most likely were the babies to require treatment with surfactant (P=.027). The resulting ROC curve determined an 8-days cut-off after which repeating a dose of corticosteroids should be assessed. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0 and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1 clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila.
The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs
Full Text Available Monospermic fertilization is mediated by the extracellular zona pellucida composed of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3. Sperm bind to the N-terminus of ZP2 which is cleaved after fertilization by ovastacin (encoded by Astl exocytosed from egg cortical granules to prevent sperm binding. AstlNull mice lack the post-fertilization block to sperm binding and the ability to rescue this phenotype with AstlmCherry transgenic mice confirms the role of ovastacin in providing a definitive block to polyspermy. During oogenesis, endogenous ovastacin traffics through the endomembrane system prior to storage in peripherally located cortical granules. Deletion mutants of ovastacinmCherry expressed in growing oocytes define a unique 7 amino acid motif near its N-terminus that is necessary and sufficient for cortical granule localization. Deletion of the 7 amino acids by CRISPR/Cas9 at the endogenous locus (AstlΔ prevents cortical granule localization of ovastacin. The misdirected enzyme is present within the endomembrane system and ZP2 is prematurely cleaved. Sperm bind poorly to the zona pellucida of AstlΔ/Δ mice with partially cleaved ZP2 and female mice are sub-fertile.
Vayalthrikkovil, Sakeer; Bashir, Rani A; Rabi, Yacov; Amin, Harish; Spence, Jill-Marie; Robertson, Helen Lee; Lodha, Abhay
Objective Omega-3 fatty acids are vital for brain and retinal maturation. It is not clear if early use of ω-3 fatty acids in the form of fish-oil lipid emulsions (FLEs) prevents retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate whether early administration of parenteral FLEs reduces ROP requiring laser therapy or severe ROP ≥stage 3 in preterm infants. Methods A literature search was performed to identify studies comparing parenteral FLEs with soybean-based lipid emulsions (SLEs) in preventing ROP. The main outcome was incidence of severe ROP or ROP requiring laser therapy. Results Studies met the inclusion criteria (four RCTs and two observational studies). The pooled relative risk of ROP requiring laser therapy or severe ROP ≥ stage 3 in FLEs group was 0.47 [95% CI: 0.24-0.90] and 0.40 [95% CI: 0.22-0.76] in RCTs and observational studies, respectively. FLEs also reduced cholestasis; however, other secondary outcomes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality were similar. Conclusion The use of FLEs may reduce the incidence of severe ROP or need for laser therapy in preterm infants. A large multicenter RCT is required to confirm this. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Benavides Vargas, Ana Maria
Retinopathy of prematurity has been the leading cause of childhood blindness. Early and effective screening has helped to diagnose the visual target of an infant by the difference between growing up with a disability or not. A joint effort between ophthalmologists and neonatologists is proposed to control this disease, ensuring success. An appropriate, early, effective and timely treatment has been the laser and cryotherapy like good choices for the neonate to prevent disease progression. Evaluation of screening program, to determine the incidence, compare statistics variables have been measures as other medical pathologies should be encouraged as research topics. A decrease in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is expected, controlling the risk factors during the child's stay in intrahospital neonatal unit [es
... volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out ... 3 weeks after a premature birth. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) . This is an abnormal growth of blood ...
... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...
Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan
Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254
Chris G McMahon
Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.
McMahon, Chris G
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.
Taylor, Mark R; Conrad, John A; Wahl, Daniel; O'Brien, Patrick J
DNA ligase I (LIG1) catalyzes the ligation of single-strand breaks to complete DNA replication and repair. The energy of ATP is used to form a new phosphodiester bond in DNA via a reaction mechanism that involves three distinct chemical steps: enzyme adenylylation, adenylyl transfer to DNA, and nick sealing. We used steady state and pre-steady state kinetics to characterize the minimal mechanism for DNA ligation catalyzed by human LIG1. The ATP dependence of the reaction indicates that LIG1 requires multiple Mg(2+) ions for catalysis and that an essential Mg(2+) ion binds more tightly to ATP than to the enzyme. Further dissection of the magnesium ion dependence of individual reaction steps revealed that the affinity for Mg(2+) changes along the reaction coordinate. At saturating concentrations of ATP and Mg(2+) ions, the three chemical steps occur at similar rates, and the efficiency of ligation is high. However, under conditions of limiting Mg(2+), the nick-sealing step becomes rate-limiting, and the adenylylated DNA intermediate is prematurely released into solution. Subsequent adenylylation of enzyme prevents rebinding to the adenylylated DNA intermediate comprising an Achilles' heel of LIG1. These ligase-generated 5'-adenylylated nicks constitute persistent breaks that are a threat to genomic stability if they are not repaired. The kinetic and thermodynamic framework that we have determined for LIG1 provides a starting point for understanding the mechanism and specificity of mammalian DNA ligases.
Full Text Available In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol (GTT in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal and promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05 in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.
Demirel, Gamze; Celik, Istemi Han; Erdeve, Omer; Saygan, Sibel; Dilmen, Ugur; Canpolat, Fuat Emre
This study aims to compare the efficacy of orally administered Saccharomyces boulardii versus nystatin in prevention of fungal colonization and invasive fungal infections in very low birth weight infants. A prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted in preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight of ≤ 1,500 g. They were randomized into two groups, to receive S. boulardii or nystatin. Skin and stool cultures were performed for colonization and blood cultures for invasive infections, weekly. A total of 181 infants were enrolled (S. boulardii group, n = 91; nystatin group, n = 90). Fungal colonization of the skin (15.4 vs 18.9 %, p = 0.532) and the stool (32.2 vs 27 %, p = 0.441) were not different between the probiotic and nystatin groups. Two patients had Candida-positive blood culture in the nystatin group whereas none in the probiotic group. Feeding intolerance, clinical sepsis, and number of sepsis attacks were significantly lower in the probiotics group than in the nystatin group. Prophylactic S. boulardii supplementation is as effective as nystatin in reducing fungal colonization and invasive fungal infection, more effective in reducing the incidence of clinical sepsis and number of sepsis attacks and has favorable effect on feeding intolerance.
Farrell, A P; Steffensen, J F
The maximum aerobic swimming speed of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was measured before and after ligation of the coronary artery. Coronary artery ligation prevented blood flow to the compact layer of the ventricular myocardium, which represents 30% of the ventricular mass, and produced...
Mirea, Lucia; Rosenberg, Erin; Jang, Maximus; Ly, Linh; Church, Paige T.; Kelly, Edmond; Kim, S. Joseph; Jain, Amish; McNamara, Patrick J.; Shah, Prakesh S.
Importance Observational studies have associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation among preterm infants with adverse neonatal outcomes and neurodevelopmental impairment in early childhood, with a resultant secular trend away from surgical treatment. However, to our knowledge, studies have inadequately addressed sources of residual bias, including survival bias and major neonatal morbidities arising before exposure to ligation. Objective Evaluate the association between PDA ligation vs medical management and neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective cohort study of preterm infants younger than 28 weeks gestational age born between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with clinical and echocardiography diagnoses of hemodynamically significant PDA was conducted at 3 tertiary neonatal intensive care units and affiliated follow-up programs. Exposure Surgical ligation vs medical management. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was a composite of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 24 months corrected age. Secondary outcomes included death before discharge, NDI, moderate-severe chronic lung disease, and severe retinopathy of prematurity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for perinatal and postnatal confounders. Results Of 754 infants with hemodynamically significant PDA (mean [standard deviation] gestational age 25.7 [1.2] weeks and birth weight 813  grams), 184 (24%) underwent ligation. Infants who underwent ligation had a higher frequency of morbidities before PDA closure, including sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and a dependence on mechanical ventilation. After adjusting for perinatal characteristics and preligation morbidities, there was no difference in the odds of death or NDI (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.83; 95% CI, 0.52-1.32), NDI (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.78-2.06), chronic lung disease (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.78-2.39) or severe retinopathy of
Herniotomy is performed for the surgical repair of hernia and along with orchiopexy for the closure of associated patent processus vaginalis. Traditionally, ligation of hernial sac during orchiopexy is considered mandatory to prevent postoperative development of hernia. The present report was designed to study the results of ...
Thermac, Guilhem; Morgon, Laurent; Godeneche, Julien
The manufacturers of self-ligating brackets advertise a reduction of the friction engendered between the wire and the bracket, which is an essential parameter for treatment's speed and comfort. We have compared the friction obtained with four types of self-ligating brackets - In-Ovation R, Damon 3, Smart Clip and Quick - with that of a standard bracket Omniarch associated with an elastomeric ligature. All bracket were tested on a bench of traction with three types of wires: steel .019"x.025", TMA .019"x.025" and NEO sentalloy F300 .020"x.020". The results confirm a clear friction reduction for all tested wire.
Bauer, Ursula E; Briss, Peter A; Goodman, Richard A; Bowman, Barbara A
With non-communicable conditions accounting for nearly two-thirds of deaths worldwide, the emergence of chronic diseases as the predominant challenge to global health is undisputed. In the USA, chronic diseases are the main causes of poor health, disability, and death, and account for most of health-care expenditures. The chronic disease burden in the USA largely results from a short list of risk factors--including tobacco use, poor diet and physical inactivity (both strongly associated with obesity), excessive alcohol consumption, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and hyperlipidaemia--that can be effectively addressed for individuals and populations. Increases in the burden of chronic diseases are attributable to incidence and prevalence of leading chronic conditions and risk factors (which occur individually and in combination), and population demographics, including ageing and health disparities. To effectively and equitably address the chronic disease burden, public health and health-care systems need to deploy integrated approaches that bundle strategies and interventions, address many risk factors and conditions simultaneously, create population-wide changes, help the population subgroups most affected, and rely on implementation by many sectors, including public-private partnerships and involvement from all stakeholders. To help to meet the chronic disease burden, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses four cross-cutting strategies: (1) epidemiology and surveillance to monitor trends and inform programmes; (2) environmental approaches that promote health and support healthy behaviours; (3) health system interventions to improve the effective use of clinical and other preventive services; and (4) community resources linked to clinical services that sustain improved management of chronic conditions. Establishment of community conditions to support healthy behaviours and promote effective management of chronic conditions will deliver
Katsaros, C; Dijkman, J F
During the last years both the manufactures and the orthodontists seem to show an increased interest in self-ligating brackets. This paper aims to present the history of self-ligating systems, to describe the three mostly used bracketsystems and to review the relevant literature. It seems from the existing data that self-ligating brackets have certain advantages over conventionally ligated brackets. However, the data are still thin and a high need for well designed clinical trials exist.
Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.
Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148
Carmalt, J L; Shoemaker, R W; Wilson, D G
The objective of this study was to determine if ligation of the common vaginal tunic could prevent or reduce the incidence of omental herniation and eventration in draught colts undergoing routine field castration. It was found that common vaginal tunic ligation, while not completely preventing omental herniation and evisceration, significantly reduced the incidence of these complications and should be considered in those males deemed at increased risk of significant post castration complications.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007227.htm Apnea of prematurity To use the sharing features on this page, ... down or stops from any cause. Apnea of prematurity refers to short episodes of stopped breathing in ...
Waldinger, Marcel D
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature
Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy
The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…
The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.
Lilja, Helene Engstrand; Finkel, Yigael; Paulsson, Mattias; Lucas, Steven
Although premature infants with short bowel syndrome are at the highest risk of developing intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), they have great capacity for intestinal growth and adaptation if IFALD can be prevented. Conventional soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsions have been associated with IFALD. This study presents data on 5 premature neonates with short bowel syndrome treated with a combination of parenteral fish oil- and olive/soybean-based lipid emulsion for periods ranging between 7 and 17 months. Despite an enteral tolerance of less than 50% in 4 of these patients during their first year of life, direct bilirubin levels normalized while on this combination of ClinOleic (Baxter, Maurepas, France)/Omegaven (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany) at a 1:1 ratio. None of our patients developed irreversible IFALD even though all of them were premature, had undergone multiple major surgical procedures, and had experienced several episodes of sepsis. Thus far, we have not seen any adverse effects of this mixed lipid emulsion in these preterm infants. All 5 patients are growing and developing well and have normal liver function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naqvi, S.S.B.; Akthar, S.; Mubeen, A.; Noor, A.
To determine the frequency of menstrual problems after tubal ligation. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in gynae department of PAF Hospital Sargodha, Pakistan from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients and methods: Two hundred patients were included in the study with menstrual problems after tubal ligation. Results: Forty seven percent of patients presented with menorrhagia, 28% presented with metrorrhagia, 13% patients were having complaints of polymenorrhoea and 5% patients presented with dysmenorrhea and 7% had oligomenorrhoea after tubal ligation. Thirty one percent of patients ended up in hysterectomy and 37% of patients had improvement of symptoms with medical treatment. Conclusion: Menstrual problem is a common complaint in our gyn ecological patients. A large number of these patients had history of tubal ligation. Menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea can occur after tubal ligation. Patients giving the history of menstrual problems and wants tubal ligation should be counselled earlier for these symptoms. (author)
Flanagan, Keri Ann
The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.
Pothier, David D; Mackeith, Samuel; Youngs, Robin
Epistaxis is a common problem. Most patients presenting to hospital will stop bleeding with simple first-aid measures or with nasal packing. Those who do not stop will usually require surgical management. For persistent posterior epistaxis, the sphenopalatine artery may be ligated as the artery leaves the sphenopalatine foramen to enter the nasal mucosa of the lateral wall of the nose. This may be performed endoscopically. We describe the anatomy of the area and the surgical technique. We also present a brief review of the literature on this technique.
Promelle, V; Milazzo, S
Retinopathy of prematurity is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affecting extremely preterm infants exposed to high concentrations of oxygen therapy. Infants born before 32 post-menstrual weeks or with a birth weight of less than 1500g should systematically have a dilated fundus examination. The time of screening and schedule for follow-up are guided by the various risk factors. This disease results from immaturity of the peripheral retinal vessels at the time of premature birth. The classification of ROP depends on the anteroposterior extent of involvement (from center to periphery: zone I, II and III), its extension in 30° sectors (clock hours) and its stage (stage 1 to 5). "Plus" disease is defined as dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels in the posterior pole of the eye and represents a major risk factor for rapid unfavorable progression. A majority of patients will spontaneously recover, but patients with a high risk of progression will require treatment to prevent retinal detachment and blindness. The indications for treatment are threshold disease and type 1 pre-threshold disease. The current treatment of choice is peripheral retinal ablation with transpupillary laser, but ab externo cryotherapy may be used instead. Intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be an attractive therapeutic option and is currently under investigation. After laser treatment, unfavorable outcomes occur in only 9 to 14 % of eyes, but at the price of peripheral retinal destruction. For all patients, whether treated or not, a regular fundus examination should be insured until complete retinal vascularization has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil
Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132
Afulani, Patience A; Altman, Molly; Musana, Joseph; Sudhinaraset, May
Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings. We propose a conceptual model that shows pathways by which women's empowerment can affect prematurity and review and summarize the literature supporting the relationships we posit. We also suggest future directions for research on women's empowerment and prematurity. The key words we used for empowerment in the search were "empowerment," "women's status," "autonomy," and "decision-making," and for prematurity we used "preterm," "premature," and "prematurity." We did not use date, language, and regional restrictions. The search was done in PubMed, Population Information Online (POPLINE), and Web of Science. We selected intervening factors-factors that could potentially mediate the relationship between empowerment and prematurity-based on reviews of the risk factors and interventions to address prematurity and the determinants of those factors. There is limited evidence supporting a direct link between women's empowerment and prematurity. However, there is evidence linking several dimensions of empowerment to factors known to be associated with prematurity and outcomes for premature babies. Our review of the literature shows that women's empowerment may reduce prematurity by (1) preventing early marriage and promoting family planning, which will delay age at first pregnancy and increase interpregnancy intervals; (2) improving women's nutritional status; (3) reducing domestic violence and other stressors to improve psychological health; and (4) improving
Zero to Three (J), 2003
In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…
Premature ovarian failure is characterized by secondary amenorrhea affecting a woman before the age of 40, leading to hypoestrogenism, infertility, and consequences of premature menopause, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurovegetative alterations, and others. Follicular exhaustion is due to either follicles shortage or oocytes accelerated destruction. Main causes are genetic, autoimmune and iatrogenic. Among genetic causes Xq and Xp deletions, translocations, numeric aberratio...
Full Text Available Our patient presented with known mechanical mitral valve endocarditis documented by 2D transesophageal echocardiogram (TOE from a recent hospitalization at an outside facility. On admission to our center, there was no prior knowledge of an incompletely ligated left atrial appendage (LAA according to patient- or family-reported history, review of outside records or the outside facility’s 2D TOE report. A 3D TOE performed at our center to assess her pathology, since a month had passed from her prior hospitalization, revealed a LAA ligation with evidence of communication to the left atrium and with clot present in the appendage. This case report highlights the common finding of incomplete closure of the LAA following surgical ligation, thus making it inadequate for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and that 3D TOE plays a valuable role in assessing the durability of LAA ligation.
Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.
Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...
... developing severe ROP, especially those in underserved or remote areas. Currently in the U.S., evaluation of premature ... files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office ...
...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4400 Hemorrhoidal ligator. (a... of a ligature or band placed around the hemorrhoid. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...
Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.
Timmers, G J; Zweegman, S; Simoons-Smit, A M; van Loenen, A C; Touw, D; Huijgens, P C
We conducted an open label, randomised clinical trial to compare amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD, Amphocil) 2 mg/kg/day intravenously with fluconazole 200 mg/day orally, for the prevention of fungal disease in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. In the event of
Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF, also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system.
Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.
Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...
Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a preventable cause of visual impairment in premature ... and extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) premature infants from the West Metro ...... Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118(5):645-649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/.
Shaikh, B.S.; Balaoch, I.B.; Sohu, K.M.
Objective: To compare the outcome of pedicle ligation vs pedicle coagulation haemorrhoidectomy. Methodology: This comparative prospective study was carried out at Department of Surgery, Ghulam Muhammad Maher Medcial College Hospital, Sukkur, Pakistan from January 2011 to January 2013 and included 300 patients of hemorrhoids. After routine workup, patients were randomly divided into two equal groups with one group receiving pedicle ligation and other pedicle coagulation for hemorrhoidectomy. Postoperatively they were followed for a period of 8 weeks for complications including pain, urinary retention, bleeding and anal stricture. Pain was recorded up to 10th postoperative day on the basis of visual analogue scale. Results: Mean age was 45 years and male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Mean operative time in pedicle ligation group was 15 min (range 14-20 min) and 17 min (15-25 min) in pedicle coagulation group. In Pedicle ligation group, pain was worst in 35 patients, moderate in 85 and mild in 30 patients; on the other hand in pedicle coagulation group, just 09 patients experienced worst pain. Urinary retention was observed in 44 patients in pedicle ligation group and 19 in pedicle coagulation group. Five patients in pedicle ligation group developed bleeding after their discharge from hospital; 7 patients in pedicle coagulation group reported secondary bleeding. Anal stricture was a rare complication and was found equally common in both the groups. Conclusion: Conventional hemorrhoidectomy with pedicle coagulation is an effective treatment modality for hemorrhoids and is associated with less chance of postoperative anal pain and urinary retention. (author)
Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi
To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 87 studies were identified for screening, and 9 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated one of the study as being of strong quality, 7 (77.78%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. Three out of 7 studies which compared SL and conventionally ligated brackets showed, conventionally ligated brackets with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Badawi showed active SL brackets with highest torque expression compared to passive SL brackets. Major and Brauchli showed no significant differences in torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Conventionally ligated brackets presented with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Minor difference was recorded in a torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Key words: Systematic review, self ligation, torque expression, conventional ligation.
Fonseca, Luciana Teixeira; Senna, Denise C; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Silveira, Rita de Cássia; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann
To evaluate the possible protective effect of breast milk against retinopathy of prematurity by comparing the amount of breast milk received by patients who developed retinopathy of prematurity and those who did not and to determine both the required minimum amount of breast milk and the time of life during which neonates need to receive breast milk for this effect to be significant. Cohort study of newborns with a birth weight of prematurity of any degree was 31% (100 of 323 patients) and that of severe retinopathy of prematurity was of 9% (29 of 323 patients). The median amounts of breast milk received daily by patients with and without retinopathy of prematurity were 4.9 mL/kg (interquartile range, 0.3-15.4) and 10.2 mL/kg (1.5-25.5), respectively. The amount of breast milk received in the first 6 weeks of life was inversely associated with the incidence of both retinopathy of prematurity of any degree and severe retinopathy of prematurity in the univariate analyses. However, the statistical significance was maintained only during the sixth week of life in a per-period multivariate analysis controlling for confounding factors. Small amounts of breast milk are inadequate to prevent retinopathy of prematurity in premature newborns at risk for the disease.
... volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out ... to remove damaged parts of intestine. Retinopathy of prematurity (also called ROP) . ROP affects blood vessels in ...
... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...
Farrell, A P; Steffensen, J F
The maximum aerobic swimming speed of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was measured before and after ligation of the coronary artery. Coronary artery ligation prevented blood flow to the compact layer of the ventricular myocardium, which represents 30% of the ventricular mass, and produced...... a statistically significant 35.5% reduction in maximum swimming speed. We conclude that the coronary circulation is important for maximum aerobic swimming and implicit in this conclusion is that maximum cardiac performance is probably necessary for maximum aerobic swimming performance....
Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.
Nissenkorn, I; Yassur, Y; Mashkowski, D; Sherf, I; Ben-Sira, I
One hundred and fifty-five premature infants weighing 600-2000 g were followed up during 1974-80 for the presence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and for the existence of myopia. 50% of the premature infants who had ROP were myopic, while only 16% myopic premature infants were found among those who did not have ROP. There was a positive correlation between the degree of myopia and the severity of cicatricial ROP. No difference existed in the frequency and degree of myopia between prematur...
Szymanski, Wiktor; Wu, Bian; Poloni, Claudia; Janssen, Dick B.; Feringa, Ben L.
A novel family of azobenzenes containing residues needed for aqueous Staudinger–Bertozzi ligation to azides was designed. The resulting photochromes show stable and reversible switching behavior in water, with a photostationary state (PSS) of up to 95:5 cis/trans. Applications in model systems
miniport for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. Akinari Hinoki*, Ikeda ... method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the ... the open technique and an additional 2 mm miniport). A ... (unilateral, n = 9) or 42 ± 8 min (bilateral, n = 5). The mean .... Methods of laparoscopic repair have recently ...
Background This report describes the first miniport method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. To validate its safety and efficacy, the authors evaluated their early experiences. Methods Between April 2014 and December 2014, 19 SEALs using miniport ...
Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi
Background To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Material and Methods Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed fo...
Reguera, Leslie; Méndez, Yanira; Humpierre, Ana R; Valdés, Oscar; Rivera, Daniel G
Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) encompass an exciting class of chemical transformations that have proven success in almost all fields of synthetic organic chemistry. These convergent procedures incorporate three or more reactants into a final product in one pot, thus combining high levels of complexity and diversity generation with low synthetic cost. Striking applications of these processes are found in heterocycle, peptidomimetic, and natural product syntheses. However, their potential in the preparation of large macro- and biomolecular constructs has been realized just recently. This Account describes the most relevant results of our group in the utilization of MCRs for ligation/conjugation of biomolecules along with significant contributions from other laboratories that validate the utility of this special class of bioconjugation process. Thus, MCRs have proven to be efficient in the ligation of lipids to peptides and oligosaccharides as well as the ligation of steroids, carbohydrates, and fluorescent and affinity tags to peptides and proteins. In the field of glycolipids, we highlight the power of isocyanide-based MCRs with the one-pot double lipidation of glycan fragments functionalized as either the carboxylic acid or amine. In peptide chemistry, the versatility of the multicomponent ligation strategy is demonstrated in both solution-phase lipidation protocols and solid-phase procedures enabling the simultaneous lipidation and biotinylation of peptides. In addition, we show that MCRs are powerful methods for synchronized lipidation/labeling and macrocyclization of peptides, thus accomplishing in one step what usually requires long sequences. In the realm of protein bioconjugation, MCRs have also proven to be effective in labeling, site-selective modification, immobilization, and glycoconjugation processes. For example, we illustrate a successful application of multicomponent polysaccharide-protein conjugation with the preparation of multivalent
The aim of this thesis was to study the working principle in relation to the outcome of the artery ligation procedure; a treatment for hemorrhoidal disease. Hemorrhoidal artery ligation, known as HAL (hemorrhoidal artery ligation) or THD (transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization) procedure, is a
A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland
Beligere, Nagamani; Perumalswamy, Vijayalaksmi; Tandon, Manish; Mittal, Amit; Floora, Jayasheele; Vijayakumar, B; Miller, Marilyn T
Prematurity is a major global health issue leading to high mortality and morbidity among the survivors. Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are the most common complications of prematurity. In fact, ROP is the second leading cause of childhood blindness in the world. Although there is much information regarding the occurrence of ROP and of NDD in premature infants, there have been few studies on ROP and its association with NDD. The objectives of this article are to review the current literature on the subject and to publish our own findings concerning the association between ROP and NDD in premature infants. The review suggests that although NDDs are related to degree of prematurity, NDD could also be the result of visual impairments resulting from ROP. Our own study shows a close association between NDD and zonal involvement of ROP: higher NDD if zone 1 is involved and less if zone 3 is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abe, Hiroshi; Kimura, Yasuaki
Chemical ligation of oligonucleotides (ONs) is the key reaction for various ON-based technologies. We have tried to solve the problems of RNA interference (RNAi) technology by applying ON chemical ligation to RNAi. We designed a new RNAi system, called intracellular buildup RNAi (IBR-RNAi), where the RNA fragments are built up into active small-interference RNA (siRNA) in cells through a chemical ligation reaction. Using the phosphorothioate and iodoacetyl groups as reactive functional groups for the ligation, we achieved RNAi effects without inducing immune responses. Additionally, we developed a new chemical ligation for IBR-RNAi, which affords a more native-like structure in the ligated product. The new ligation method should be useful not only for IBR-RNAi but also for the chemical synthesis of biofunctional ONs.
Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Knowles, M.
The CT scans of 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary emphysema. While the average age of patients in this series was 38 years, 25 of the 55 patients, or 45%, demonstrated CT evidence of emphysema. CT findings suggestive of emphysema included areas of low-attenuation, blebs and/or vascular disruption. The authors conclude there is an increased incidence of CT-detectable pulmonary emphysema that is premature for age in patients with AIDS. Destruction of pulmonary parenchyma may represent the response of the lung to repeated pulmonary infections or may be a direct result of the human immunodeficiency virus
Full Text Available Data from literature, especially from the US, has provided data on prediction, prevention and treatment of premature membrane rupture (RPM. RPM is a significant cause of premature birth and can cause complications of a term task. Considerable research on RPM has led to a better understanding of the mechanism of spontaneous breakage of membranes, risk factors, and good results for newborns resulting from such obstetrical events. Spontaneous rupture of the membranes increases the risk of intrauterine infection and umbilical cord compression as well as the risk of premature detachment of placenta. Newborn babies resulting from RPM have an increased risk of morbidity compared to gestational age, and the risk of infection is increased compared with other premature babies due to ancillary causes. If RPM occurs in the second trimester, there is an additional risk of pulmonary hypoplasia and hip dysplasia. Pre-term conservative treatment prolongs latency to birth. Antibiotics reduce the risk of infection while corticosteroid treatment (dexamethasone reduces respiratory complications and interventricular haemorrhage without increasing the risk of infection. Birth is necessary or unavoidable in many cases by RPMs and because conservative treatment often results in no results; That is why studies are needed to identify all risk factors and the need to treat pregnant women at risk of RPM; 17-hydroxy-progesterone is a specific treatment for preventing recurrent membrane rupture. (http://www.ginecologultau.ro/ruptura-prematura-a-membranelor, 2013.
Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I
Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.
Shimizu, Y; Suzuki, H; Nimura, Y; Onoue, S; Nagino, M; Tanaka, M; Ozawa, T
We explored the molecular basis of mitochondrial energy production during rat liver regeneration after portal vein ligation. Ligation of the left branch of the portal vein induces an increase in the weight of the nonligated lobe, counterbalancing the reduced weight of the ligated lobe. Using this model, we investigated changes in mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins, mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat hepatocytes of the nonligated lobes. The amount of mitochondrial DNA-binding protein increased maximally (200% to 300% of the preoperative level) at 12 hours after the operation, before an increase (390%) in mitochondrial DNA content at 24 hours, and parallel to an increase (240%) in mitochondrial mRNA levels at 12 hours. These results suggest that the energy supply for liver regeneration is achieved through enhancement of mitochondrial DNA replication as well as transcription, in which the mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins probably play regulatory roles. We also found that in the nonligated lobes, mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor increased to a detectable level only 12 hours after the operation. These molecular biochemical data help explain why preoperative portal vein embolization, which is a modification of portal vein branch ligation, is an effective method to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure.
Madsen, C; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian
OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Nationw......OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN...... sampling. We required that cases and controls have no previous cancer and that controls have no previous bilateral oophorectomy. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epithelial...
Bergamo, Ana Zilda Nazar; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; do Nascimento, Cássio; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane
The aims were to evaluate the levels of bacterial species in saliva and in situ and to assess whether the design of brackets influences the risk of developing periodontal disease. Twenty patients (13.3 mean age) were bonded with self-ligating brackets and a conventional bracket. Saliva was collected before bonding and 30 and 60 days after bonding. One sample of each bracket was removed 30 and 60 days after bonding. The analysis was determined by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The data was evaluated by the non-parametric test. A significant increase in the levels of bacterial species in the saliva occurred in 15 of the 22 analyzed species. The self-ligating brackets presented the highest incidence percentages for the orange and red complexes 60 days after bonding. In situ analyses showed different patterns according to the bracket design. The levels of Campylobacter rectus showed significant differences (p = 0.011) 60 days after bonding among the three brackets; the highest values were observed in the In-Ovation®R bracket. The bracket design seems to influence the levels of bacterial species involved in periodontal disease. Considering the wide variety of bacterial species, additional studies are needed to aid in the establishment of effective protocols to prevent the development of periodontal disease during orthodontic treatment. A dynamic alteration in the oral microbiota may lead to inflammatory reactions in the supporting soft and hard tissues. The different types of brackets interfere with bacterial adherence. Bracket design should be considered in orthodontic treatment.
Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V
Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.
Introduction: Endoscopic variceal ligation is widely accepted as the optimum endoscopic treatment for esophageal variceal hemorrhage. In Morocco, there are no data regarding the efficacy of this technique. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic variceal ligation in the management of ...
Annals of Pediatric Surgery ... Patients and methods Laparoscopic percutaneous ligation of internal inguinal ring has been ... The mean operative time in our series was 15 (± 3) and 20 (± 5) min for bilateral cases, without anesthesia time. ... Conclusion Laparoscopic percutaneous ligation of internal inguinal ring repair of ...
... with different forms of archwires with a control group in nonextraction cases. ... into three groups: Group I was treated with active self‑ligating brackets (Nexus, ... (SS) wires; Group II was treated with interactive self‑ligating bracket system ...
Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie
Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes....
... mature enough to allow nonstop breathing. This causes large bursts of breath followed by periods of shallow breathing or stopped breathing. Apnea of prematurity usually ends on its own after a few ...
Sylvester, Michael J; Chung, Sei Y; Guinand, Luis A; Govindan, Aparna; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Arterial ligation and embolization are treatment modalities indicated in severe and refractory epistaxis. The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends and compare outcomes in treatment of hospitalized epistaxis patients with ligation or embolization. This retrospective cohort analysis utilized the 2008 to 2013 National Inpatient Sample to identify patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of epistaxis, and an associated procedure code for ligation or embolization. A total of 1,813 cases met the inclusion criteria, with 57.1% undergoing ligation. During the study period, treatment with ligation has trended downward, whereas treatment with embolization has remained constant. Overall, ligated patients were older (64.1 vs. 62.4 years; P = 0.027) and had higher rates of congestive heart failure (15.1% vs. 9.8%; P = 0.001). No significant differences in rates of chronic pulmonary disease, coagulopathy, liver disease, or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia were observed between cohorts. No differences were observed in rates of blood transfusion, stroke, blindness, or in-hospital mortality; however, ligated patients had lower rates of intubation/tracheostomy (2.8% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.009). Ligated patients also experienced shorter hospital stays (3.6 vs. 4.0 days; P = 0.014) and incurred lower hospital charges ($33,029 vs. $69,304; P < 0.001). Compared to embolization, ligation is associated with significantly decreased hospital charges and shorter hospital stay, without an increase in complication rates. Counterintuitively, ligation appears to be trending downward nationally in its use relative to embolization. 2C Laryngoscope, 127:1017-1020, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Mintz-Hittner, Helen A.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Chuang, Alice Z.
BACKGROUND Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Peripheral retinal ablation with conventional (confluent) laser therapy is destructive, causes complications, and does not prevent all vision loss, especially in cases of retinopathy of prematurity affecting zone I of the eye. Case series in which patients were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors suggest that these agents may be useful in treating retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, stratified, multicenter trial to assess intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for zone I or zone II posterior stage 3+ (i.e., stage 3 with plus disease) retinopathy of prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal bevacizumab (0.625 mg in 0.025 ml of solution) or conventional laser therapy, bilaterally. The primary ocular outcome was recurrence of retinopathy of prematurity in one or both eyes requiring retreatment before 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age. RESULTS We enrolled 150 infants (total sample of 300 eyes); 143 infants survived to 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age, and the 7 infants who died were not included in the primary-outcome analyses. Retinopathy of prematurity recurred in 4 infants in the bevacizumab group (6 of 140 eyes [4%]) and 19 infants in the laser-therapy group (32 of 146 eyes [22%], P = 0.002). A significant treatment effect was found for zone I retinopathy of prematurity (P = 0.003) but not for zone II disease (P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy, as compared with conventional laser therapy, in infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity showed a significant benefit for zone I but not zone II disease. Development of peripheral retinal vessels continued after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, but conventional laser therapy led to permanent destruction of the peripheral retina. This trial was too small to assess safety. PMID:21323540
Backes, Manouk; Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Kamp, Gerdine A.
Premature pubarche is defined as growth of pubic hair before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys. In most cases, it is caused by premature adrenarche, which is a premature increased synthesis of androgens in the adrenal gland and is considered to be relatively harmless. Premature
Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, A.R.; Bhatti, K.I.; Mahmood, K.; Lal, K.
Objective: To find out the outcome og band ligation of oesophageal varices in decompensated chronic liver disease patients. Methods: The quasi experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Civil Hospital, Karachi, unit from September 2007 to August 2011. Subjects were eligible if they had a diagnosis of cirrhosis based on history, physical examination, biochemical parameters and liver biopsy in some cases. Patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C), antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus, hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis evident on ultrasonography, parenteral drug addiction, current alcohol abuse, previous or current treatment with β-blockers were excluded from the study. All patients were asked about alcohol intake and tested to determine the cause of liver cirrhosis. Tests for other causes of cirrhosis were carried out only if there was a suggestive clue. All patients under-went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after consent. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The age of the 173 patients who met the inclusion criteria ranged from 15 to 85 years, with a mean of 48.39+-13.38 years. There were 112 (64.7%) males. High-grade varices were seen in 130 (75.1%) patients, while low-grade varices were observed in 43 (24.9%) on first endoscopy. At initial endoscopy, 111 (64.2%) patients had portal hypertensive gastropathy. The patients were followed up for a mean period of 5.20+-2.67 months. Variceal obliteration was achieved in 138 (79.8%), while 33 (19.1%) cases developed re-bleeding. Mean number of endoscopy sessions for these patients were 2.28+-.918 with a maximum of 4. Conclusion: Band ligation eradicated oesophageal varices with less complications and a lower re-bleeding rate, but at the same time eradication was associated with more frequent development of portal hypertensive gastropathy. (author)
The prevention of cardiovascular disease is an important challenge in current medical practice. Despite higher event rates and cardiovascular burden in individuals at a more advanced age, it represents a greater challenge in individuals who develop cardiovascular disease at a very young age. In
Quinn, Graham E; Gilbert, Clare; Darlow, Brian A; Zin, Andrea
To explore the etiology, incidence and methods to prevent and treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is rapidly becoming a threat to the vision of babies in areas of the world where increasing numbers of premature babies are surviving. The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English. The search term was "retinopathy of prematurity and premature birth". We discuss the historical perspectives, prevalence and incidence, classification and treatment methods of ROP in premature babies. Peripheral retinal ablation for eyes with severe ROP can help prevent progression to blindness and several large clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of this treatment in high risk eyes. As a greater proportion of VLBW and ELBW babies survive, the population of babies at risk increases. In various regions of the world, different identification criteria are used to determine which babies are at risk of blindness in order to provide timely diagnostic examinations and treatment as needed. Methods for preventing ROP include better ante-natal and obstetric care leading to a reduction in the rate of prematurity, the use of ante-natal corticosteroids, and better neonatal care practices. Recent developments have indicated that management of oxygen supplementation is important for the prevention of severe ROP; however, there is not yet known what oxygen saturation target should be adopted. Sepsis increases severe ROP in very preterm infants. Genetic associations and a telemedicine approach may be explored to detect ROP. Treatment of anti-VEGF therapy are potentially useful in eyes with severe ROP, but long term effects are not yet known and such treatment should be used with great caution. ROP is a potentially binding disease for premature babies which is becoming more prevalent with the development improving neonatal services in many countries in recent years. High priority should be placed on developing approaches to prevent ROP
Casteels, Ingele; Cassiman, Catherine; Van Calster, Joachim; Allegaert, Karel
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease affecting the premature infant with an incompletely vascularized retina. The spectrum of ophthalmological findings in ROP exists from minimal sequelae, which do not affect vision, to bilateral retinal detachment and total blindness. With the increased survival of very small infants, retinopathy of prematurity has become one of the leading causes of childhood blindness. Over the past two decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ROP, to a large extent as a result of changes in clinical risk factors (oxygen and non-oxygen related) and characteristics observed in ROP cases. This article provides a literature review on the evolution in clinical characteristics, classification and treatment modalities and indications of ROP. Special attention is hereby paid to the neonatal factors influencing the development of ROP and to the necessity for everyone caring for premature babies to have a well-defined screening and treatment protocol for ROP. Such screening protocol needs to be based on a unit-specific ROP risk profile and, consequently, may vary between different European regions. Retinopathy of prematurity is an important cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in children. With better understanding of the pathogenesis, screening and treatment guidelines have changed over time and are unit specific.
Pascual, J.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Salido, E.; Ehrlich, R.M.; Mena, I.; Rajfer, J.
To determine whether initial ligation of the testicular vessels of the high undescended testis followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy is a viable alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens procedure, a series of preliminary experiments were conducted in the rat in which testicular blood flow was measured by the 133-xenon washout technique before, and 1 hour and 30 days after ligation of the vessels. In addition, testicular histology, and testis and sex-accessory tissue weights were measured in 6 control, 6 sham operated and 6 testicular vessel ligated rats 54 days after vessel ligation. The data demonstrate that ligation and division of the testicular blood vessels produce an 80 per cent decrease in testicular blood flow 1 hour after ligation of the vessels. However, 30 days later testis blood flow returns to the control and pre-treatment value. There were no significant changes in testis or sex-accessory tissue weights 54 days after vessel ligation. Histologically, 4 of the surgically operated testes demonstrated necrosis of less than 25 per cent of the seminiferous tubules while 1 testis demonstrated more than 75 per cent necrosis. The rest of the tubules in all 6 testes demonstrated normal spermatogenesis. From this study we conclude that initial testicular vessel ligation produces an immediate decrease in testicular blood flow but with time the collateral vessels are able to compensate and return the testis blood flow to its normal pre-treatment value. These preliminary observations lend support for the concept that initial ligation of the testicular vessels followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy in patients with a high undescended testis may be a possible alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens approach
Kent, Stephen; Pentelute, Brad; Bang, Duhee; Johnson, Erik; Durek, Thomas
The present invention concerns methods and compositions for synthesizing a polypeptide using kinetically controlled reactions involving fragments of the polypeptide for a fully convergent process. In more specific embodiments, a ligation involves reacting a first peptide having a protected cysteyl group at its N-terminal and a phenylthioester at its C-terminal with a second peptide having a cysteine residue at its N-termini and a thioester at its C-termini to form a ligation product. Subsequent reactions may involve deprotecting the cysteyl group of the resulting ligation product and/or converting the thioester into a thiophenylester.
Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.
Acute kidney injury secondary to iatrogenic bilateral ureteric ligation following emergency abdominal hysterectomy. Oluseyi A. Adejumo, Olurotimi S. Ogundiniyi, Ayodeji A. Akinbodewa, Lawrence A. Adesunloro, Oladimeji J. Olafisoye ...
Hadi Abd Zaid Al-Khattabi
Conclusion High success rate, cost eﬀectiveness and the simplicity of rubber band ligation as an outpatient procedure promote its use as the frst line of treatment for frst, second and early third degree hemorrhoids.
Full Text Available This is a retrospective review of the internal iliac ligations (IAL done over a period of 3 years. Both gynaecological and obstetric cases were considered. A total of 46 ligations were performed. The additional treatment required was hysterectomy to control haemorrhage. Intra-and post-operative complications were noted. A comparative review of the effectiveness of IAL in different situations is done and alternative modalities of treatment are considered.
Gaj, F; Biviano, I; Sportelli, G; Candeloro, L
Hemorrhoids are a very common condition. The treatment depends upon persistence and severity of symptoms. For hemorrhoids of II and III grade the rubber band ligation may be therapeutic. Our aim is to report the outcomes of rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids, with a follow up of 6 months. A total of 50 patients underwent rubber band ligation for symptomatic hemorrhoids (grade II and III) without prolapse, between June 2012 and June 2014. All patients underwent plug test to rule out presence of rectal mucosal prolapse and were classified according to PATE classification (1). Each hemorrhoid was ligated with one rubber band through a ligator. All patients were evaluated immediately at the end of the procedure, after ten days and six months after the treatment. Patient's demographic and operative data were collected and analyzed. The mean patients age was 47.6±12.3 years (range 24-72). All procedures were performed without complications. Before rubber band ligation, 42 patients had rectal bleeding, 38 had perineal discomfort and 27 had itching. Ten days after the treatment, 12 patients presented self-limited rectal bleeding, but 10 of these had more hemorrhoids and underwent a second rubber band ligation. No patients complained perineal discomfort, and 8 patients had itching; 78% and 16% of patients respectively, experienced feeling of a foreign body inside the canal anal and anal pain. After 6 months, only 13 patients were occasionally symptomatic: 4 patients had rectal bleeding, 2 had perineal discomfort and 4 had itching. Three more patients presented both perineal discomfort and hitching. None had the feeling of a foreign body in anal canal or anal pain. Rubber band ligation is an efficacious, cost-effective and simple treatment for the second and third degree hemorrhoids without rectal mucosal prolapsed. In our hands, no severe complications developed and minor complications could be handled with ease.
In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.
Kalmar, Magda; And Others
This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…
Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…
Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Rawat, Munmun; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan
Infographics or information graphics are easy-to-understand visual representation of knowledge. An infographic outlining the course of an extremely preterm infant and various potential complications encountered during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was developed. This infographic can be used to discuss outcomes of prematurity during prenatal counseling and while the infant is in the NICU. PMID:29138522
Kushnir, Susanna; Marsac, Yoann; Breitling, Reinhard; Granovsky, Igor; Brok-Volchanskaya, Vera; Goody, Roger S; Becker, Christian F W; Alexandrov, Kirill
Functional genomics and proteomics have been very active fields since the sequencing of several genomes was completed. To assign a physiological role to the newly discovered coding genes with unknown function, new generic methods for protein production, purification, and targeted functionalization are needed. This work presents a new vector, pCYSLIC, that allows rapid generation of Escherichia coli expression constructs via ligation-independent cloning (LIC). The vector is designed to facilitate protein purification by either Ni-NTA or GSH affinity chromatography. Subsequent proteolytic removal of affinity tags liberates an N-terminal cysteine residue that is then used for covalent modification of the target protein with different biophysical probes via protein ligation. The described system has been tested on 36 mammalian Rab GTPases, and it was demonstrated that recombinant GTPases produced with pCYSLIC could be efficiently modified with fluorescein or biotin in vitro. Finally, LIC was compared with the recently developed In-Fusion cloning method, and it was demonstrated that In-Fusion provides superior flexibility in choice of expression vector. By the application of In-Fusion cloning Cys-Rab6A GTPase with an N-terminal cysteine residue was generated employing unmodified pET30a vector and TVMV protease.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Takita, Eiji; Kohda, Katsunori; Tomatsu, Hajime; Hanano, Shigeru; Moriya, Kanami; Hosouchi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Shibata, Daisuke
Ligation, the joining of DNA fragments, is a fundamental procedure in molecular cloning and is indispensable to the production of genetically modified organisms that can be used for basic research, the applied biosciences, or both. Given that many genes cooperate in various pathways, incorporating multiple gene cassettes in tandem in a transgenic DNA construct for the purpose of genetic modification is often necessary when generating organisms that produce multiple foreign gene products. Here, we describe a novel method, designated PRESSO (precise sequential DNA ligation on a solid substrate), for the tandem ligation of multiple DNA fragments. We amplified donor DNA fragments with non-palindromic ends, and ligated the fragment to acceptor DNA fragments on solid beads. After the final donor DNA fragments, which included vector sequences, were joined to the construct that contained the array of fragments, the ligation product (the construct) was thereby released from the beads via digestion with a rare-cut meganuclease; the freed linear construct was circularized via an intra-molecular ligation. PRESSO allowed us to rapidly and efficiently join multiple genes in an optimized order and orientation. This method can overcome many technical challenges in functional genomics during the post-sequencing generation. PMID:23897972
Full Text Available A premature male infant was born at 30 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 1,700 g in a rural hospital. He was diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and received continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 26 days. At 26 days after birth, the patient was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and management. A comprehensive eye examination revealed a stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involving zone 2 in both eyes. The patient was recommended to a provincial-level eye hospital for emergency laser therapy. Five months after birth, the feedback from the eye hospital showed that the patient had a high risk of blindness in both eyes. Our case report shows that delaying first screening examination increases the possibility of developing aggressive posterior ROP in infants with ROP. Doctors in rural hospitals should be aware of this possibility and trained for early screening and treatment in high-risk infants.
Lee, Jae Seon; Lee, Je Jung
Premature senescence is considered as a cellular defense mechanism to prevent tumorigenesis. Although recent evidences demonstrate that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in the senescence process, the target and exact mechanism of JNK signaling in the regulation of cell proliferation has yet to be defined. In this study, we investigated the role of JNK in premature senescence and demonstrated JNK inhibition sensitized tumor cells to radiation-induced premature senescence
Andescavage, Nickie N; Metzler, Marina; Govindan, Vedavalli; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Nath, Dilip S; Krishnan, Anita; Massaro, An; Wang, Yunfei; duPlessis, Adre J; Govindan, R B
Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common complication of prematurity and a risk factor for poor outcome. Infants undergoing surgical PDA ligation are at highest risk for neurodevelopmental injury. Autonomic dysfunction has been described in premature infants with PDA. Aim To interrogate the autonomic nervous system by analysis of advanced heart rate variability (HRV) metrics before and after surgical closure of the PDA. Study Design Prospective, observational study. Subjects Twenty-seven infants born before 28 weeks' gestation were included in this study. Methods Continuous electrocardiogram data were sampled at a rate of 125 Hz for a total of 6 hours before and 6 hours after 30 hours of surgical closure. HRV was determined by detrended fluctuation analysis to calculate the short and long root mean square (RMS L and RMS S ) and α components at two time scales (long and short). Results Gestational age (GA) was positively associated with RMS L , RMS S , and α S and was negatively associated with α L . There was no difference between RMS s , RMS L , α S , or α L before and after surgery; however, median heart rate was lower after surgery ( p < 0.01). Conclusion Advancing GA is highly associated with increasing HRV; however, surgical ligation does not affect HRV in the postoperative period. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Bruick, Richard K.; Dawson, Philip E.; Kent, Stephen BH; Usman, Nassim; Joyce, Gerald F.
Synthetic oligonucleotides and peptides have enjoyed a wide range of applications in both biology and chemistry. As a consequence, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have received considerable attention, most notably in the development of antisense constructs with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have been used as molecular tags, in the assembly of supramolecular arrays and in the construction of encoded combinatorial libraries. To make these chimeric molecules more accessible for a broad range of investigations, we sought to develop a facile method for joining fully deprotected oligonucleotides and peptides through a stable amide bond linkage. Furthermore, we wished to make this ligation reaction addressable, enabling one to direct the ligation of specific oligonucleotide and peptide components.To confer specificity and accelerate the rate of the reaction, the ligation process was designed to be dependent on the presence of a complementary oligonucleotide template.
Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay
We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures.
Zhang, Hong-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Kun; Li, Xiao-Gang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vascular disorder frequently found in premature infants. Different therapeutic strategies have been developed to treat ROP. However, there are still many children with ROP suffering by severe limitations in vision or even blindness. Recently, ROP has been suggested to be caused by abnormal development of the retinal vasculature, but not simply resulted by retinal neovascularization which takes about 4 to 6wk after birth in premature infants. Thus, instead of focusing on how to reduce retinal neovascularization, understanding the pathological changes and mechanisms that occur prior to retinal neovascularization is meaningful, which may lead to identify novel target(s) for the development of novel strategy to promote the healthy growth of retinal blood vessels rather than passively waiting for the appearance of retinal neovascularization and removing it by force. In this review, we discussed recent studies about, 1) the pathogenesis prior to retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR; a ROP in animal model) and in premature infants with ROP; 2) the preclinical and clinical research on preventive treatment of early OIR and ROP. We will not only highlight the importance of the mechanisms and signalling pathways in regulating early stage of ROP but also will provide guidance for actively exploring novel mechanisms and discovering novel treatments for early phase OIR and ROP prior to retinal neovascularization in the future. PMID:29862189
Monroy-Torres, R.; Mendoza Hernández, A. N.; Ruiz González, S. R.
Introduction: Premature infant has special nutritional and physiological recommendations. Nutritional support promotes an appropriate weight gain. While this support is monitored according to international guidelines, the metabolic and infectious complicationscan be reduced and prevented.Objective: To describe the management of nutritional support in premature infant in a Mexican (Guana juato) hospital.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study, where a survey of 22 questions was applied by...
Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K., Navin H.; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika
Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist’s armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first...
Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500
Ümeyye Taka Aydın; Hatip Aydın; Osman Çekiç
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between ox...
Background: Oesophageal varices are common sequelae of cirrhosis, which when they bleed can be difficult to control. Oesophageal variceal band ligation, being the best modality for controlling variceal bleeding has not been common practice in West Africa, a region recognized to have a high prevalence of liver diseases.
Full Text Available Background: Tubal sterilization is the permanent and effective contraception method. This can be performed at any time, but at least half are performed in conjunction with cesarean or vaginal delivery and are termed puerperal. The most complication after tubal ligation is ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal death in first trimester.Case presentation: We present a 33 years old woman gravida5, para4, all normal vaginal delivery, presented with complaints of delayed menstrual period, pelvic pain and spotting. She underwent tubal ligation for two times. For the first time she had puerperal Pomeroy tubal sterilization after third child delivery. Intra uterine pregnancy occurred three years later. One day after vaginal delivery of fourth child, she underwent post partum tubal ligation with the Parkland method. Tubal pregnancy occurred nine months later. Physical examination identified acute abdomen. Pelvic ultrasound showed no gestational sac in uterine cavity. The sac with fetal pole was in right adnexa. Beta-HCG was 2840mIU/ml. She underwent laparotomy. Surgical management included salpingectomy with cornual resection in both sides. The surgery identified Ectopic pregnancy.Conclusion: Any symptoms of pregnancy in a woman after tubal ligation must be investigated; an ectopic pregnancy should be excluded. Ectopic pregnancy must be considered, in any woman with lower abdominal pain, missed period and vaginal bleed-ing. Conception after tubal sterilization can be explained by fistula formation and re-canalization of fallopian tube.
El-Khuffash, Afif F
To compare differences in tissue Doppler imaging, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) between infants with low (<200 mL\\/kg\\/min) and high (>200 mL\\/kg\\/min) left ventricular (LV) output 1 hour after duct ligation and assess the impact of milrinone treatment on cardiac output and myocardial performance.
Harmand, Thibault J; Murar, Claudia E; Bode, Jeffrey W
Total chemical synthesis of proteins allows researchers to custom design proteins without the complex molecular biology that is required to insert non-natural amino acids or the biocontamination that arises from methods relying on overexpression in cells. We describe a detailed procedure for the chemical synthesis of proteins with the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA ligation), using (S)-5-oxaproline (Opr) as a key building block. This protocol comprises two main parts: (i) the synthesis of peptide fragments by standard fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry and (ii) the KAHA ligation between fragments containing Opr and a C-terminal peptide α-ketoacid. This procedure provides an alternative to native chemical ligation (NCL) that could be valuable for the synthesis of proteins, particularly targets that do not contain cysteine residues. The ligation conditions-acidic DMSO/H2O or N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)/H2O-are ideally suited for solubilizing peptide segments, including many hydrophobic examples. The utility and efficiency of the protocol is demonstrated by the total chemical synthesis of the mature betatrophin (also called ANGPTL8), a 177-residue protein that contains no cysteine residues. With this protocol, the total synthesis of the betatrophin protein has been achieved in around 35 working days on a multimilligram scale.
Background: Treatment of hemorrhoids in Nigeria is usually done by the traditional open method that requires hospital admission; anesthesia and is associated with high morbidity. Rubber band ligation is a suitable alternative to open hemorrhoidectomy and has the potential to reduce the need for hospital admission.
In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the effectiveness of the hemorrhoidal artery ligation under control Doppler as a new technique for the treatment of hemorrhoids. We report the results of patients with hemorrhoids we have followed over a period of one year who were treated with HAL Doppler. The intra-and ...
Roelfes, G; Hilvert, D
The chemical synthesis of moderate-sized proteins has benefited enormously from the development of chemoselective methods for the ligation of peptide fragments. In this regard, the reaction of peptide thioesters with peptides containing an N-terminal cysteine has proved particularly powerful. The
Background: Female sterilization is an important tool in reducing unplanned pregnancy and maternal mortality in our environment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, sociodemographic characteristics, technique, effectiveness and complications associated with female sterilization by bilateral tubal ligation ...
This experiment was aimed at investigating the level of tissue regeneration following sanguineous reperfusion post ligation of the spermatic cord in dogs. A total of 5 adult Nigerian local dogs conditioned for 3 weeks, laboratorily evaluated twice weekly prior to surgery were maintained for 1month. Dogs were aseptically ...
Objective: To evaluate the results of endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVBL) in the local set-up. Design: Retrospective analysis of data of all patients who had EVBL. Setting: Patients having EVBL at the office endoscopy suite. The Nairobi Hospital, the Aga Khan Hospital and M.P Shah Hospital. Methods: The varices were ...
After identifying the fistulous opening, the fistula tract was circumferentially and meticulously dissected ,then the dissected tract was lifted up and the base was ligated tightly with 5/0 vicryl, the external epithelium of the dissected tract was fulgurated with the diathermy, then a second layer of local soft tissue was secured over ...
Křenek, Karel; Gažák, Radek; Daskhan, G. Ch.; Garcia, J.; Fiore, M.; Dumy, P.; Šulc, Miroslav; Křen, Vladimír; Renaudet, O.
Roč. 393, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 9-14 ISSN 0008-6215 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chemoselective ligation * Glycocluster * Cyclopeptide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sevket Yilmaz Education and Research. Hospital, Bursa, Turkey ... laparoscopic approach to varicocelectomy has been the high associated ... bilateral varicoceles, a 3 mm trocar was placed at the right. McBurney's .... open-high or subinguinal ligation (microsurgical), laparo- scopic methods ...
Tabitha Lynn Ward
Full Text Available von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHLD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with multiple benign and malignant tumors of different organs. We report a papillary cystadenoma of the mesosalpinx found in close association with an adenomatoid tumor discovered incidentally following tubal ligation in a patient with vHLD.
Hain, Max; Dhopatkar, Ashish; Rock, Peter
During orthodontic tooth movement with the preadjusted edgewise system, friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface tends to impede the desired movement. The method of ligation is an important contributor to this frictional force. This in vitro study investigated the effect of ligation method on friction and evaluated the efficacy of the new slick elastomeric modules from TP Orthodontics (La Porte, Ind), which are claimed to reduce friction at the module/wire interface. Slick modules were compared with regular nonslick modules, stainless steel ligatures, and the SPEED self-ligating bracket system (Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada). The effect of using slick modules with metal-reinforced ceramic (Clarity, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and miniature brackets (Minitwin, 3M Unitek) was also examined. Results showed that, when considering tooth movement along a 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwire, saliva-lubricated slick modules can reduce static friction at the module/archwire interface by up to 60%, regardless of the bracket system. The SPEED brackets produced the lowest friction compared with the 3 other tested bracket systems when regular modules were used. The use of slick modules, however, with all of the ligated bracket types tested significantly reduced friction to below the values recorded in the SPEED groups. Loosely tied stainless steel ligatures were found to generate the least friction.
Dehbi, Hasnaa; Azaroual, Mohamed Faouzi; Zaoui, Fatima; Halimi, Abdelali; Benyahia, Hicham
Over the last few years, the use of self-ligating brackets in orthodontics has progressed considerably. These systems have been the subject of numerous studies with good levels of evidence making it possible to evaluate their efficacy and efficiency compared to conventional brackets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets by means of a systematic review of the scientific literature. A systematic study was undertaken in the form of a recent search of the electronic Pubmed database, oriented by the use of several keywords combined by Boolean operators relating to the therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets through the study of tooth alignment, space closure, expansion, treatment duration and degree of discomfort. The search was limited to randomized controlled studies, and two independent readers identified studies corresponding to the selection criteria. The chosen articles comprised 20 randomized controlled trials. The studies analyzed revealed the absence of significant differences between the two types of system on the basis of the clinical criteria adopted, thereby refuting the hypothesis of the superiority of self-ligating brackets over conventional systems. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reaction of azides with triaryl phosphines under mild conditions gives iminophosphoranes which can react with almost any kind of electrophilic reagent, e.g. aldehydes/ketones to form imines or esters to form amides. This so-called Staudinger ligation has been employed in a wide range of applications as a general tool for bioconjugation including specific labeling of nucleic acids. Results A new approach for the preparation of labeled nucleosides via intermolecular Staudinger ligation is described. Reaction of azidonucleosides with triphenylphosphine lead to iminophosphorane intermediates, which react subsequently with derivatives of coumarin or ferrocene to form coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides. Fluorescent properties of coumarin labeled nucleosides are determined. Conclusion New coumarin and ferrocene labeled nucleosides were prepared via intermolecular Staudinger ligation. This reaction joins the fluorescent coumarin and biospecific nucleoside to the new molecule with promising fluorescent and electrochemical properties. The isolated yields of products depend on the structure of azidonucleoside and carboxylic acids. A detailed study of the kinetics of the Staudinger ligation with nucleoside substrates is in progress.
Keith A. Aqua
Full Text Available We report on the performance of 348 adnexectomies and 35 uterine artery ligations for both benign and malignant disease using a simple laparoscopic suturing technique. Only 5-mm ports are required, and there was no morbidity directly associated with this approach. The procedure can be performed quickly, is relatively inexpensive, and allows hysterectomy and oophorectomy to be performed without bipolar electrocautery.
El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom
Biochemical strategies that use a combination of synthetic oligonucleotides, thermostable DNA polymerases, and DNA ligases can produce large DNA constructs up to 1 megabase in length. Although these ambitious targets are feasible biochemically, comparable technologies for the chemical synthesis of long DNA strands lag far behind. The best available chemical approach is the solid-phase phosphoramidite method, which can be used to assemble DNA strands up to 150 bases in length. Beyond this point, deficiencies in the chemistry make it impossible to produce pure DNA. A possible alternative approach to the chemical synthesis of large DNA strands is to join together carefully purified synthetic oligonucleotides by chemical methods. Click ligation by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne (CuAAC) reaction could facilitate this process. In this Account, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and applications of oligonucleotides prepared by click ligation. The alkyne and azide oligonucleotide strands can be prepared by standard protocols, and the ligation reaction is compatible with a wide range of chemical modifications to DNA and RNA. We have employed click ligation to synthesize DNA constructs up to 300 bases in length and much longer sequences are feasible. When the resulting triazole linkage is placed in a PCR template, various DNA polymerases correctly copy the entire base sequence. We have also successfully demonstrated both in vitro transcription and rolling circle amplification through the modified linkage. This linkage has shown in vivo biocompatibility: an antibiotic resistance gene containing triazole linkages functions in E. coli . Using click ligation, we have synthesized hairpin ribozymes up to 100 nucleotides in length and a hammerhead ribozyme with the triazole linkage located at the substrate cleavage site. At the opposite end of the length scale, click-ligated, cyclic mini-DNA duplexes have been used as models to study base pairing. Cyclic duplexes have
Maka, Erika; Imre, László; Somogyvári, Zsolt; Németh, János
Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness around the world. The Department of Ophthalmology at the Semmelweis University and the Peter Cerny Neonatal Emergency and Ambulance Service started an innovative Premature Eye Rescue Program to reduce the non-essential transport of premature babies suffering from retinopathy of prematurity. During the first 5 years 186 eyes of 93 premature babies were treated at the bedside with stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity in the primary hospitals. In this first 5-years period the authors reduced the number of transports of premature babies for laser treatment; 93 children avoided the unnecessary transport, saving altogether a distance of 21,930 kilometers for children, as well as the ambulance service. The Premature Eye Rescue Program offers a good and effective alternative for treatment of retinopathy in the primary hospitals. The authors propose the national extension of this program.
Martha V. Douglas-Escobar
Full Text Available The term encephalopathy of prematurity encompasses not only the acute brain injury (such as intraventricular hemorrhage but also complex disturbance on the infant’s subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL. Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9 and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.
Mosalli, Rafat; AlFaleh, Khalid; Paes, Bosco
To investigate the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on mortality and morbidity of preterm infants weighing less than 1000 g at birth. The study conducted a systematic search of available database from 1996-2008. Retrieved articles were assessed for eligibility and data was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Decisions to include studies for review and the methodological quality of included studies were asssessed in duplicate based on predetermined criteria. No language restrictions were applied. Only one eligible study that enrolled 84 extremely low birth weight infants was identified. Prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA resulted in a statistically significant reduction of severe stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis, [RR 0.25, 95% CI (0.08, 0.83), P value 0.02, number needed to treat 5]. The study, however, found no statistically significant difference in mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Current evidence does not support the use of prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA in the management of the preterm infants
Gupta, P J
The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54) or infrared coagulation (N = 46). Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years). The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months). The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale). Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059). The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03), but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03). Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.
Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.
Lúcio Henrique Esmeraldo Gurgel Maia
Full Text Available Objective: To test the null hypothesis that the aging process in self-ligating brackets is not higher than in conventional brackets. Methods: Twenty-five conventional (GN-3M/Unitek; GE-GAC; VE-Aditek and 25 self-ligating (SCs-3M/Unitek; INs-GAC; ECs-Aditek metal brackets from three manufacturers (n = 150 were submitted to aging process in 0.9% NaCl solution at a constant temperature of 37 ± 1ºC for 21 days. The content of nickel, chromium and iron ions in the solution collected at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After the aging process, the brackets were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM under 22X and 1,000X magnifications. Results: Comparison of metal release in self-ligating and conventional brackets from the same manufacturer proved that the SCs group released more nickel (p < 0.05 than the GN group after 7 and 14 days, but less chromium (p < 0.05 after 14 days and less iron (p < 0.05 at the three experimental time intervals. The INs group released less iron (p < 0.05 than the GE group after 7 days and less nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05 after 14 and 21 days. The ECs group released more nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05 than the VE group after 14 days, but released less nickel and chromium (p < 0.05 after 7 days and less chromium and iron (p < 0.05 after 21 days. The SEM analysis revealed alterations on surface topography of conventional and self-ligating brackets. Conclusions: The aging process in self-ligating brackets was not greater than in conventional brackets from the same manufacturer. The null hypothesis was accepted.
Álvarez-Fuente, María; Arruza, Luis; Muro, Marta; Zozaya, Carlos; Avila, Alejandro; López-Ortego, Paloma; González-Armengod, Carmen; Torrent, Alba; Gavilán, Jose Luis; Del Cerro, María Jesús
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most serious chronic lung diseases in infancy and one of the most important sequels of premature birth (prevalence of 15-50%). Our objective was to estimate the cost of BPD of one preterm baby, with no other major prematurity-related complications, during the first 2 years of life in Spain. Data from the Spanish Ministry of Health regarding costs of diagnosis-related group of preterm birth, hospital admissions and visits, palivizumab administration, and oxygen therapy in the year 2013 were analyzed. In 2013, 2628 preterm babies were born with a weight under 1500 g; 50.9% were males. The need for respiratory support was 2.5% needed only oxygen therapy, 39.5% required conventional mechanical ventilation, and 14.9% required high-frequency ventilation. The incidence of BPD was of 34.9%. The cost of the first 2 years of life of a preterm baby with BPD and no other major prematurity-related complications ranged between 45,049.81 € and 118,760.43 €, in Spain, depending on birth weight and gestational age. If the baby required home oxygen therapy or developed pulmonary hypertension, this cost could add up to 181,742.43 €. Prematurity and BPD have an elevated cost, even for public health care systems. This cost will probably increase in the coming years if the incidence and survival of preterm babies keeps rising. The development of new therapies and preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of BPD and other morbidities associated with prematurity should be a priority. What is known: • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious chronic lung disease related with premature birth. • BPD is an increasing disease due to the up-rise in the number of premature births. What is new: • The economic cost of preterm birth and BPD has never before been estimated in Spain nor published with European data. • Preterm babies with BPD and a good clinical outcome carry also an important economic and social burden.
Soleymani-e- Shayesteh Y
Full Text Available During pregnancy, different froms of periodontal disease such as pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumors, pregnancy stomatitis, may be encountered. But the most considerable point is the pregnant women's infection with periodontal disease and its effect on delivery and weight of newborn infants. Based on the latest researches and statistics, it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm or premature delivery. On the other hand, poor hygiene, should be considered as another danger, resulting in premature delivery. Besides, the presence of a collection of oral fosobacteria in ammoniutic fluid in mothers with premature delivery, increases the probability of an oral- haematogenous connection. Moreover, prostaglandin E2, in cervicular fluid, has been considered as an index for periodontal disease activity and loss of weight at the time of birth. These findings suggest that effective steps, to prevent preterm delivery, can be taken, if women, genycologists and dentists have enough knowledge. This article focuses on the special supervision that is required to prevent the effects of hormonal changes on periodontal tissues and conversely to reduce systemic disorders resulting from periodontal disease, in pregnant woman.
Lehenbauer, David G; Fraser, Charles D; Crawford, Todd C; Hibino, Naru; Aucott, Susan; Grimm, Joshua C; Patel, Nishant; Magruder, J Trent; Cameron, Duke E; Vricella, Luca
The safety of surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight premature neonates has been questioned because of associated morbidities. However, these studies are vulnerable to significant bias as surgical ligation has historically been utilized as "rescue" therapy. The objective of this study was to review our institutions' outcomes of surgical PDA ligation. All neonates with operative weight of ≤1.00 kg undergoing surgical PDA ligation from 2003 to 2015 were analyzed. Records were queried to identify surgical complications, perioperative morbidity, and mortality. Outcomes included pre- and postoperative ventilator requirements, pre- and postoperative inotropic support, acute kidney injury, surgical complications, and 30-day mortality. One hundred sixty-six preterm neonates underwent surgical ligation. One hundred twenty-one (70.3%) had failed indomethacin closure. One hundred sixty-four (98.8%) patients required mechanical ventilation prior to surgery. At 17 postoperative days, freedom from the ventilator reached 50%. Of 109 (66.4%) patients requiring prolonged preoperative inotropic support, 59 (54.1%) were liberated from inotropes by postoperative day 1. Surgical morbidity was encountered in four neonates (2.4%): two (1.2%) patients had a postoperative pneumothorax requiring tube thoracostomy, one (0.6%) patient had a recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and one (0.6%) patient had significant intraoperative bleeding. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 1.8% (n = 3); no deaths occurred intraoperatively. In this retrospective investigation, surgical PDA closure was associated with low 30-day mortality and minimal morbidity and resulted in rapid discontinuation of inotropic support and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Given the safety of this intervention, surgical PDA ligation merits consideration in the management strategy of the preterm neonate with a PDA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background During surgery, controlled haemostasis to prevent blood loss is vital for a successful outcome. It can be difficult to ligate vessels located deep in the abdomen. A device that is easy to use and enables secure ligatures could be beneficial. Cable ties made of nylon have been used for ligation but the non-resorbable material caused tissue reactions. The objective of this study was to use a resorbable material to construct a device with a self-locking mechanism and to test its mechanical strength and ligation efficiency. Methods The device was manufactured by injection moulding of polydioxanone, a resorbable polymer used for suture materials. Polydioxanone with inherent viscosities of 1.9 dL/g and 1.3 dL/g were tested. The device consisted of a perforated flexible band which could be pulled through a case with a locking mechanism. After a first version of the device had been tested, some improvements were made. The locking case was downsized, corners were rounded off, the band was made thicker and the mould was redesigned to produce longer devices. Tensile tests were performed with the second version. The first version of the device was used to ligate the ovarian pedicle in a euthanized dog and to test echogenicity of the device with ultrasound. Compression of vessels of the ovarian pedicle was examined by histology. Both versions of the device were tested for haemostasis of and tissue grip on renal arteries in six anaesthetised pigs. Results The tensile strength of the flexible band of the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.9 dL/g was 50.1 ± 5.5 N (range 35.2-62.9 N, n = 11 and the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.3 dL/g had a tensile strength of 39.8 ± 8.1 N (range 18.6-54.2 N, n = 11. Injection moulding of the polymer with lower inherent viscosity resulted in a longer flow distance. Both versions of the device had an effective tissue grip and complete haemostasis of renal arteries was verified. The device attached
Cucurachi, G; Tuoto, M G
Nosocomial infections are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections is based on strategies that aim to limit susceptibility to infections by enhancing host defences, interrupting trasmission of organisms by healthcare workers and by promoting the judicious use of antimicrobials. Strategies for the prevention of nosocomial infections include hand hygiene practices, prevention of central venous (cvc)-related bloodstream infections, judicious use of antimicrobials for therapy, enhancement of host defences, skin care and early enteral feeding with human milk. Major concerns about the use of alcoholic chlorhexidine are for the high risk of skin burns in extremely premature infants during the first days of life, when the skin is thin and not fully keratinesed. Aqueous chlorhexidine could be less irritant when used in very low birthweigth infants and thus could represent a good option. A recent prospective trial of adult patients showed similar effectiveness of alcoholic and aqueos solutions of chlorexidine. However, to date no study evaluated whether the aqueos formulation is less harmful and as effective as the alcoholic formulation in neonatal infants. The lack of evidence for neonatal patients prompts urgent need for large randomised controlled trials comparing effectiveness and safety of different skin disinfectants before CVC placement in neonates and particulary in very low birth-weight infants. Nosocomial infections are still of the most serious problems for the neonatal intensive care unit. Therefore every effort must be implemented to reduce the incidence of these infections, can not be considered a toll required hospitalization, as it may not be acceptable for a place of shelter and care as the hospital may itself be a source of disease.
Gomez Gavara, Concepcion; Bhangui, Prashant; Salloum, Chady; Osseis, Michael; Esposito, Francesco; Moussallem, Toufic; Lahat, Eylon; Fuentes, Liliana; Compagnon, Philippe; Ngongang, Norbert; Lim, Chetana; Azoulay, Daniel
The management of large spontaneous portosystemic shunt (SPSS) during liver transplantation (LT) is a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to compare the short-term and longterm outcomes of SPSS ligation versus nonligation during LT, when both options are available. From 2011 to 2017, 66 patients with SPSS underwent LT: 56 without and 10 with portal vein thrombosis (PVT), all of whom underwent successful thrombectomy and could have portoportal reconstruction. The SPSS were either splenorenal (n = 40; 60.6%), left gastric (n = 16; 24.2%), or mesenterico-iliac (n = 10; 15.1%). Following portoportal anastomosis, the SPSS was ligated in 36 (54.4%) patients and left in place in 30 (45.5%) patients, based on the effect of the SPSS clamping/unclamping test on portal vein flow during the anhepatic phase. Intraoperatively, satisfactory portal flow was obtained in both groups. Primary nonfunction (PNF) and primary dysfunction (PDF) rates did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Nonligation of SPSS was significantly associated with a higher rate of postoperative encephalopathy (P SPSS in LT (ie, PNF and PDF, PVT, and encephalopathy) was present in 16 (44.4%) and 22 (73.3%) patients of the ligated and nonligated shunt group, respectively (P = 0.02). Patient (P = 0.05) and graft (P = 0.02) survival rates were better in the ligated shunt group. In conclusion, the present study supports routine ligation of large SPSS during LT whenever feasible. Liver Transplantation 24 505-515 2018 AASLD. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Jamil, Ahmad Zeeshan; Tahir, Muhammad Younis; Ayub, Muhammad Hammad; Mirza, Khurram Azam
To study the demographic and clinical features of Retinopathy of Prematurity in urban Punjab. The cross-sectional study was performed at Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore, from April 2010 to October 2013 and comprised neonates born with birth weight less than 2000 g, gestational age less than 37 weeks, or those who were considered high risk for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Variables recorded included history, birth weight, gestational age, oxygen supplementation, development of Retinopathy of Prematurity, and laser treatment. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. There were 285 neonates in the study with a mean birth weight of 1280.34 ± 350.43 g and mean gestational age being 29.38 ± 3.14 weeks. Overall, 167 (58.6%) received supplemental oxygen, 86(30.2%) were anaemic and 44 (15.4%) received blood transfusion. Besides, 47 (16.5%) premature babies were product of multiple gestation, 34 (11.9%) were having respiratory distress, 25 (8.8%) had sepsis and received intravenous antibiotics, 70(24.6%) developed Retinopathy of Prematurity, and 22 (7.7%) developed threshold disease and received laser treatment at mean gestational age of 32.11 ± 2.53 weeks. Screening is key to preventing childhood blindness caused by Retinopathy of Prematurity. Prematurity, low birth weight and supplemental oxygen therapy are significant risk factors for the condition.
Svetlana V. Garina
Full Text Available Introduction. Recently in Russia there is a tendency to increase the proportion of premature infants, prolonged postnatal adaptation which may be associated with carnitine deficiency Early diagnosis and correction of carnitine deficiency in premature infants is possible to reserve the prevention of pathological conditions of the prenatal period in these patients. Materials and Methods. 98 newborn infants have been examined with the help of clinical laboratory methods. Results. It has been stated that the overwhelming majority of newborn infants irrespective of their gestational age and body mass at the moment of birth had reference ranges of crude carnitine and higher degree of floating carnitine in their peripheral blood within the first days of their lives. These changes are particularly characteristic for small pre-mature infants. Statistically significant differences between the levels of crude carnitine and floating carnitine depended on the gender of newborn infants have been revealed. Directly correlated dependence of the level of crude carnitine on the body mass at the moment of birth of small premature infants has been stated. Discussion and Conclusions. It has been proved that implementing L-carnitine into the development care plan for premature infants facilitates quick body weight gain, significantly cuts down the period of tube feeding, lowers frequency of anemia development of premature infants and duration of neonatal jaundice. The ability of Elkar to correct functional diseases of cardio vascular system of premature infants has been shown.
After the economic failure of the 70's and not having been able to solve for decades its multiple problems, the nuclear industry was suffering a slow but inescapable agony. However, the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the likely arrival of the worldwide peak of oil production have infused new life to the nuclear option, and it has again become one of the main topics of discussion in the worldwide energy debate. But in this debate we tend to forget that the causes of the abrupt end of the first nuclear era have not disappeared, and that for this reason it may well be that we are lead to a repetition of the events that induced its first demise. The much talked nuclear renaissance is thus likely to end up as a premature miscarriage. (Author)
Mehmet Ali Şekeroğlu
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in triplets. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive premature triplets who had been screened for ROP in a single maternity hospital were analyzed and presence and severity of ROP; birth weight, gender, gestational age of the infant; route of delivery and the mode of conception were recorded. Results: A total of 54 triplets (40 males, 14 females who were screened for ROP between March 2010 and February 2013 were recruited for the study. All triplets were delivered by Caesarean section and 36 (66.7% were born following an assisted conception. During follow-up, seven (13% of the infants developed ROP of any stage and two (3.7% required laser photocoagulation. The mean gestational age of triplets with ROP was 27.6±1.5 (27-31 weeks whereas it was 32.0±1.5 (30-34 weeks in those without ROP (p=0.002. The mean birth weights of triplets with and without ROP were 1290.0±295.2 (970-1600 g and 1667.5±222.2 (1130-1960 g, respectively (p<0.001. The presence of ROP was not associated with gender (p=0.358 or mode of conception (p=0.674. Conclusion: ROP in triplets seems to be mainly related to low gestational age and low birth weight. Further prospective randomized studies are necessary to demonstrate risk factors of ROP in triplets and to determine if and how gemelarity plays a role in the development of ROP.
Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prematurity. 29.1050 Section 29.1050 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1050 Prematurity. A condition of growth and development characteristic of the lower...
Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.
Underwood, Mark A.
Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065
Ruckhaeberle, K.-E.; Bilek, K.; Viehweg, B.; Kuehndel, K.; Colditz, U.; Baer, G.
Premature birth is not only characterized by premature delivery action but it is ever more frequently interpreted as the disturbed fetoplacental unit syndrome. In an attempt to therapeutically prevent premature delivery the placental function should be monitored. Possible intrauterine survival should be assessed as accurately as possible against extrauterine survival in order that the necessary tocolysis time could be determined. In our observations, clinical significance was studied of radioimmunologically determined HPL values in the serum under tocolysis conditions at premature birth risk on the basis of postnatal classification of the postnatal condition and of the particularity of the adaptation phase of the neonates. The significance of HPL determination in checking the fetoplacental unit during tocolysis should be arrived at while also using other diagnostic techniques, such as oxytocinase or estriol, ultrasound biometry, cardiotocography. (author)
Nagano, Takashi; Várnai, Csilla; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Wingett, Steven W; Fraser, Peter
Chromosome conformation capture and various derivative methods such as 4C, 5C and Hi-C have emerged as standard tools to analyze the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the nucleus. These methods employ ligation of diluted cross-linked chromatin complexes, intended to favor proximity-dependent, intra-complex ligation. During development of single-cell Hi-C, we devised an alternative Hi-C protocol with ligation in preserved nuclei rather than in solution. Here we directly compare Hi-C methods employing in-nucleus ligation with the standard in-solution ligation. We show in-nucleus ligation results in consistently lower levels of inter-chromosomal contacts. Through chromatin mixing experiments we show that a significantly large fraction of inter-chromosomal contacts are the result of spurious ligation events formed during in-solution ligation. In-nucleus ligation significantly reduces this source of experimental noise, and results in improved reproducibility between replicates. We also find that in-nucleus ligation eliminates restriction fragment length bias found with in-solution ligation. These improvements result in greater reproducibility of long-range intra-chromosomal and inter-chromosomal contacts, as well as enhanced detection of structural features such as topologically associated domain boundaries. We conclude that in-nucleus ligation captures chromatin interactions more consistently over a wider range of distances, and significantly reduces both experimental noise and bias. In-nucleus ligation creates higher quality Hi-C libraries while simplifying the experimental procedure. We suggest that the entire range of 3C applications are likely to show similar benefits from in-nucleus ligation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2
Fernandes, Daniel J; Miguel, José Augusto M; Quintão, Catia C A; Elias, Carlos N
To evaluate the frictional forces generated by ceramic- (Opal, Ultradent) and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating brackets (Oyster, Gestenco) and compare the effectiveness of these ligatureless systems with glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate conventional brackets (Blonde, Gestenco). The hypothesis is that there is no difference between frictional forces generated by ceramic- and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate conventional brackets. Twelve preadjusted 0.022 3 0.028-inch maxillary canine brackets were tested, divided into three groups: Opal, Oyster, and Blonde. Frictional tests were conducted with the Emic DL 10000 testing machine with a 20 N loadcell for 40 seconds at a 0.5 cm/min speed. Each bracket-wire combination was tested five times. The data generated were analyzed by parametric analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and Bonferroni tests. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for the three groups (Pfrictional forces of the Oyster glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating brackets were significantly lower (37.0 ± 8.9 cN) than those of the Opal ceramic-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating brackets (49.5 ± 10.1 cN), while the Blonde glass-fiber-reinforced conventional bracket frictional forces were 105.8 ± 6.4 cN. Oyster glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate brackets produced less friction than Opal ceramic-reinforced polycarbonate brackets. The polycarbonate ligatureless system showed significantly lower frictional forces compared to Blonde conventional polycarbonate brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. The study rejected the initial hypothesis because there are significant differences of frictional forces among the tested systems. © 2010 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.
Liu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Chin-Fu; Lee, Ya-Ling
We report a case of acute purulent meningitis caused by Streptococcus sanguinis after endoscopic ligation for oesophageal variceal haemorrhage in a cirrhotic patient without preceding symptoms of meningitis. Initial treatment with flomoxef failed. The patient was cured after 20 days of intravenous penicillin G. This uncommon infection due to S. sanguinis adds to the long list of infectious complications among patients with oesophageal variceal haemorrhage.
Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa
A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)
Full Text Available Prematurity is still an actual medical problem. Significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies is observed due to the progress in perinatal care .Usually, parents are not prepared for a premature birth, for the majority of them the hospitalization of a child in neonatal intensive care unit is a source of fear, moreover parents often blame themselves for the situation. Appearing emotions and questions require a compatible response from the therapeutic team. The most important activity in the practice of the team is emotional, informative, evaluative support.
Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can
Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.
Granboulan, V; Danan, C; Dassieu, G; Janaud, J C; Durand, B
The ongoing progress in neonatal intensive care is modifying the psychic context of prematurity for all the partners, infants as well as parents and physicians. Comfort and prognosis of preterm infants have much improved. Since newborns under 24 weeks of gestational age are now surviving, they spend approximately half the duration of pregnancy out of the maternal uterus. All the psychological issues of such an early separation have to be considered, including the developmental outcome of a sensorial environment which is quite different from the intra-uterine one. Research has been developing in this field. The cooperation between neonatalogists and psychologists has been profitable to parents. Problems linked to the separation, such as difficulty in representing the infant, are no more frequent owing to the attention paid to the mother-child bond and subsequent early contacts. What is forward now is the impact of an hyper technical world of intensive care on the parents, and of the strange aspect of the tiny baby surrounded by engines and tubes. Such an overpresence of reality often results in a reaction of traumatic daziness among parents. The cooperation of the whole staff is necessary for the resumption of an imaginary process of psychic functioning. Finally, the survival of very-low-birth-weight infants confronts the neonatalogists with some delicate ethical questions. Psychiatrists and psychologists might have an important part to play in aiding the profession in its sorting out of these ethical issues.
Veteläinen, Reeta; Dinant, Sander; van Vliet, Arlène; van Gulik, Thomas M.
PURPOSE: Dual embolization of the hepatic artery and portal vein (PV) has been proposed to enhance contralateral liver regeneration before resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PV ligation compared with simultaneous or sequential dual ligation on regeneration,
Hadi, A.; Aman, Z.; Anwar, F.; Khan, M.; Iqbal, Z.
Objectives: To assess symptomatic relief in haemorrhoidal disease using rubber band ligation. Settings and duration: Surgical unit, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from July 2007 to June 2009. Patients and Methods: All patients presenting with rectal bleeding or prolapse underwent proto copy to determine the cause of bleeding. Only patients with first, second and third degree haemorrhoids (bleeding and prolapse) were selected for the study and they underwent rubber band ligation in two sessions, 6 weeks apart. Patients were followed in the OPD at 3 months and one year when their subjective and objective symptoms were noted followed by rectal examination and proctoscopy. Therapeutic response was assessed by symptomatic improvement in bleeding and prolapse of hemorrhoids and any complications. Results: A total of 105 patients underwent rubber band ligation. There were 65(62%) males and 40(38%) females with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Age of the patients ranged from 21-65 years (+- 2.4 SD). Twenty three (21.9%) patients had first degree, 50(47.6%) had second degree and 32(30.5%) had third degree haemorrhoids. Forty-eight patients (45.7%) presented with degree, 50(47.6%) had second prolapse, 33(31.4%) had both bleeding and prolapse and 23(21.9%) had bleeding only. At 3 months of follow up rubber band ligation cured 76(72.4%) patients, improved 13(12.4%) and failed in 7(6.7%) patients. At one year follow up, recurrence of bleeding and prolapse occurred in 16(15.2%) patients having third degree haemorrhoids. Overall success was third achieved in 89(84.8%) cases. Complications were seen in 20(19.1%) patients which were of mild to moderate nature and no serious/ life threatening complications were noted. Conclusion: Rubber band legislation is a rapid and safe procedure for testing first, second and and early third degree Conclusions: Rubber band ligation is a rapid and safe non operative procedure for treating first, second and third degree haemorrhoids on out
Eisenhut, Marion; Georg, Jens; Klähn, Stephan; Sakurai, Isamu; Mustila, Henna; Zhang, Pengpeng; Hess, Wolfgang R; Aro, Eva-Mari
The functional relevance of natural cis-antisense transcripts is mostly unknown. Here we have characterized the association of three antisense RNAs and one intergenically encoded noncoding RNA with an operon that plays a crucial role in photoprotection of photosystem II under low carbon conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Cyanobacteria show strong gene expression dynamics in response to a shift of cells from high carbon to low levels of inorganic carbon (C(i)), but the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Among the most up-regulated genes in Synechocystis are flv4, sll0218, and flv2, which are organized in the flv4-2 operon. The flavodiiron proteins encoded by this operon open up an alternative electron transfer route, likely starting from the Q(B) site in photosystem II, under photooxidative stress conditions. Our expression analysis of cells shifted from high carbon to low carbon demonstrated an inversely correlated transcript accumulation of the flv4-2 operon mRNA and one antisense RNA to flv4, designated as As1_flv4. Overexpression of As1_flv4 led to a decrease in flv4-2 mRNA. The promoter activity of as1_flv4 was transiently stimulated by C(i) limitation and negatively regulated by the AbrB-like transcription regulator Sll0822, whereas the flv4-2 operon was positively regulated by the transcription factor NdhR. The results indicate that the tightly regulated antisense RNA As1_flv4 establishes a transient threshold for flv4-2 expression in the early phase after a change in C(i) conditions. Thus, it prevents unfavorable synthesis of the proteins from the flv4-2 operon.
Eisenhut, Marion; Georg, Jens; Klähn, Stephan; Sakurai, Isamu; Mustila, Henna; Zhang, Pengpeng; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Aro, Eva-Mari
The functional relevance of natural cis-antisense transcripts is mostly unknown. Here we have characterized the association of three antisense RNAs and one intergenically encoded noncoding RNA with an operon that plays a crucial role in photoprotection of photosystem II under low carbon conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Cyanobacteria show strong gene expression dynamics in response to a shift of cells from high carbon to low levels of inorganic carbon (Ci), but the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Among the most up-regulated genes in Synechocystis are flv4, sll0218, and flv2, which are organized in the flv4-2 operon. The flavodiiron proteins encoded by this operon open up an alternative electron transfer route, likely starting from the QB site in photosystem II, under photooxidative stress conditions. Our expression analysis of cells shifted from high carbon to low carbon demonstrated an inversely correlated transcript accumulation of the flv4-2 operon mRNA and one antisense RNA to flv4, designated as As1_flv4. Overexpression of As1_flv4 led to a decrease in flv4-2 mRNA. The promoter activity of as1_flv4 was transiently stimulated by Ci limitation and negatively regulated by the AbrB-like transcription regulator Sll0822, whereas the flv4-2 operon was positively regulated by the transcription factor NdhR. The results indicate that the tightly regulated antisense RNA As1_flv4 establishes a transient threshold for flv4-2 expression in the early phase after a change in Ci conditions. Thus, it prevents unfavorable synthesis of the proteins from the flv4-2 operon. PMID:22854963
Can a combined screening/treatment programme prevent premature failure of renal transplants due to chronic rejection in patients with HLA antibodies: study protocol for the multicentre randomised controlled OuTSMART trial
Background Renal transplantation is the best treatment for kidney failure, in terms of length and quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However, most transplants fail after 10 to 12 years, consigning patients back onto dialysis. Damage by the immune system accounts for approximately 50% of failing transplants and it is possible to identify patients at risk by screening for the presence of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens. However, it is not clear how best to treat patients with antibodies. This trial will test a combined screening and treatment protocol in renal transplant recipients. Methods/Design Recipients >1 year post-transplantation, aged 18 to 70 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min will be randomly allocated to blinded or unblinded screening arms, before being screened for the presence of antibodies. In the unblinded arm, test results will be revealed. Those with antibodies will have biomarker-led care, consisting of a change in their anti-rejection drugs to prednisone, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. In the blinded arm, screening results will be double blinded and all recruits will remain on current therapy (standard care). In both arms, those without antibodies will be retested every 8 months for 3 years. The primary outcome is the 3-year kidney failure rate for the antibody-positive recruits, as measured by initiation of long-term dialysis or re-transplantation, predicted to be approximately 20% in the standard care group but transplant dysfunction, incidence of infection, cancer and diabetes mellitus, an analysis of adherence with medication and a health economic analysis of the combined screening and treatment protocol. Blood samples will be collected and stored every 4 months and will form the basis of separately funded studies to identify new biomarkers associated with the outcomes. Discussion We have evidence that the biomarker-led care regime will be effective at preventing graft dysfunction and expect this to
Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos
Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.
Solans Pérez de Larraya, Ana M; Ortega Molina, José M; Fernández, José Uberos; Escudero Gómez, Júlia; Salgado Miranda, Andrés D; Chaves Samaniego, Maria J; García Serrano, José L
To analyse the speed of temporal retinal vascularisation in preterm infants included in the screening programme for retinopathy of prematurity. A total of 185 premature infants were studied retrospectively between 2000 and 2017 in San Cecilio University Hospital of Granada, Spain. The method of binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy with indentation was used for the examination. The horizontal disc diameter was used as a unit of length. Speed of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) was calculated as the ratio between the extent of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter) and the time in weeks. The weekly temporal retinal vascularisation (0-1.25 disc diameter/week, confidence interval) was significantly higher in no retinopathy of prematurity (0.73 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week) than in stage 1 retinopathy of prematurity (0.58 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week). It was also higher in stage 1 than in stages 2 (0.46 ± 0.14 disc diameter/week) and 3 of retinopathy of prematurity (0.36 ± 0.18 disc diameter/week). The rate of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) decreases when retinopathy of prematurity stage increases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.91) for retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment versus not requiring treatment. The best discriminative cut-off point was a speed of retinal vascularisation prematurity may be required. However, before becoming a new standard of care for treatment, it requires careful documentation, with agreement between several ophthalmologists.
McNamara, C M
This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.
Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Zetu, Irina Nicoleta
Premature loss of primary molars due to dental caries and their complications has been associated with space loss and eruptive difficulties, especially when the loss occurs early. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary upper molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first and second upper permanent molar. The study group included 64 patients 6-9 years old with premature loss of primary molars and a control group of 48 patients with intact temporary teeth. It was evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first and second upper permanent molars and occlusal plane. The sofware used is Easy Dent 4 Viewer®.The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 20.0; SPSS, Chicago, III). It was observed that premature loss of upper second deciduous molars modifies greater the vertical axis of the permanent molars than the premature loss of first upper primary molar. First upper primary molar loss cause an acceleration eruption of first premolar, which will produce a distal inclintion of the both permanent molars. The use of space maintainers after premature loss of the second upper temporary molar is a last solution in preventing tridimensional lesions in the dental arch and occlusion.
Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.
Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.
Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation
Liu, Yun; Guo, Hong-ming
To analyze the differences of root resorption between passive self-ligating and conventional brackets, and to determine the relationship between passive self-ligating brackets and root resorption. Fifty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups using passive self-ligating brackets or conventional straight wire brackets (0.022 system), respectively. Cone-beam CT was taken before and after treatment. The amount of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors was measured on CBCT images. Student's t test was performed to analyze the differences of root apical resorption between the 2 groups with SPSS17.0 software package. No significant difference(P> 0.05) in root resorption of maxillary incisors was found between passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets. Passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets can cause root resorption, but the difference was not significant. Passive self-ligating brackets do not induce more root resorption.
Shahideh Jahanian Sadatmahalleh
Full Text Available Background: Tubal ligation (TL is recommended for women who have completed their family planning. The existence of the menstrual disorders following this procedure has been the subject of debate for decades. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between tubal ligation and menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods: A historical cohort study was carried out on 140 women undergoing tubal ligation (TL group and on 140 women using condom as the main contraceptive method (Non-TL group. They aged between 20 and 40 years and were selected from a health care center in Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, during 2013-2014. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, obstetrical features and menstrual bleeding pattern using a routine questionnaire. A validated pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC was also used to measure the menstrual blood loss. Results: Women with TL had more menstrual irregularity than those without TL (24.3 vs. 10%, P=0.002. Women with TL had more polymenorrhea (9.3 vs. 1.4%, P=0.006, hypermenorrhea (12.1 vs. 2.1%, P=0.002, menorrhagia (62.9 vs. 22.1%, P<0.0001 and menometrorrhagia (15.7 vs. 3.6%, P=0.001 than those without TL. There is a significant difference in the PBLAC score between women with and without TL (P<0.0001. According to logistic regression, age odds ratio [(OR=1.08, confidence interval (CI:1.07-1.17, P=0.03], TL (OR=5.95, CI:3.45-10.26, P<0.0001 and cesarean section (OR=2.72, CI:1.49-4.97, P=0.001 were significantly associated with menorrhagia. Conclusion: We found significant differences in menstrual disorders between women with and without TL. Therefore, women should be informed by the health providers regarding the advantages and disadvantages of TL before the procedures.
Khan, M.; Khan, S.; Pervez, A.; Nawaz, H.; Ahmed, S.; Tareen, S.
Objective: To describe the mode of presentation of varicocele and to compare the low ligation (Inguinal approach/ ivanissevich s procedure) and high ligation (Retroperitoneal approach/modified Palomo's procedure) of varicocele repair regarding efficacy and postoperative complications. Subjects and Methods: A total of 213 patients of varicocele who underwent treatment in the department and completed 6 months follow-up were included in the study. The mode of presentation of varicocele was recorded for all patients. For treatment purpose patients were randomly divided into two groups: in group I (n:115) varicocele was ligated by inguinal approach (Ivanissevich s procedure) while in group II (n: 98) by retroopertional approach (modified Palomo s procedure). The efficacy and postoperative complications of the two procedures were carefully recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of the patients of group-I and group-II was 27.2 and 27.5 years respectively. More than 50% patients of both groups presented with feeling of heaviness/ dragging sensation on ipsilateral side. Presentation with infertility/sub fertility in group-I and group-II was 16.5% and 15.3% respectively. Majority of patients of both groups had grade III varicocele with visible deformity. The rate of postoperative complications was very low in both groups of patients. Recurrence of varicocele and postoperative hydrocele formation were slightly more common in group-II as compared to group-I but the difference was statistically not significant (p>0.05). An extremely significant improvement occurred postoperatively in both sperms density and motility in infertile/sub fertile patients of both groups. Conclusion: Both procedures of varicocele repair are equally equally effective and have a low rate of complications. There is no significant difference in postoperatively complications. An extremely significant improvement occurs in semen parameters of infertile/sub fertile patients
Sunil, P C; Michael, Tony; Raju, Aravind S; Paul, Renji K; Mamatha, J; Ebin, T M
The objective of the study was to determine the sites of plaque accumulation and to compare the plaque accumulated with metal and self-ligating orthodontic brackets in order to know which bracket type had a higher plaque retaining capacity. The study was done on 20 subjects who were scheduled for orthodontic treatment including extraction of four premolars and fixed orthodontic appliances. Mesh-backed edgewise metal brackets ligated with steel ligatures and self-ligating brackets were bonded to the premolars to be extracted using composite (Transbond XT, 3M). The subjects were told to continue their normal oral hygiene regimen. Teeth were extracted at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after bracket bonding. Plaque attached to the buccal surfaces was stained using plaque disclosing agent. The teeth were then immersed in fixative containing 4% formaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer for 24 h, followed by 0.1 M phosphate buffer for 12 h. The specimens were then mounted on aluminum stubs, and sputter coated with gold prior to Scanning electron microscopy examination. The results showed that increased retention of plaque in metal brackets ligated with steel ligatures and comparatively less in self-ligating brackets at the base of the brackets. This study highlights that higher retention of plaque in metal brackets ligated with steel ligatures and comparatively less plaque retention in self-ligating brackets. Excess composite around the bracket base is the critical site of plaque accumulation associated with fixed appliances due to its rough surface texture.
Clyman, RI; Wickremasinghe, A; Merritt, TA; Solomon, T; McNamara, P; Jain, A; Singh, J; Chu, A; Noori, S; Sekar, K; Lavoie, PM; Attridge, JT; Swanson, JR; Gillam-Krakauer, M; Reese, J
Objective To test the hypothesis that an impaired adrenal response to stress might play a role in the hypotension that follows patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation. Study design We performed a multicenter study of infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation who were about to undergo PDA ligation. Serum adrenal steroids were measured 3 times: before and after a cosyntropin (1.0 μg/kg) stimulation test (performed before the ligation), and at 10-12 hours after the ligation. A standardized approach...
Leslie, A T F S
To characterize and investigate the relationship between systemic blood flow and pre- and postoperative cerebral electrical activity in preterm neonates undergoing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation.
Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.
Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…
Gordana Stanković – Babić
mechanisms of action requires a comprehensive approach to the complex problem of preventing prematurity, ROP, and appropriate ROP treatment.
diabetes mellitus. The results may be used for assessment of unacceptable social risks resulting from health inequalities. Within intentions to reduce an unfavourable premature mortality gap, it is necessary to reconsider certain local polices and practices as well as financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden.
Full Text Available Sortase A (SrtA from Staphylococcus aureus has been often used for ligating a protein with other natural or synthetic compounds in recent years. Here we show that SrtA-mediated ligation (SML is universally applicable for the linkage of two purely artificial building blocks. Silica nanoparticles (NPs, poly(ethylene glycol and poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide are chosen as synthetic building blocks. As a proof of concept, NP–polymer, NP–NP, and polymer–polymer structures are formed by SrtA catalysis. Therefore, the building blocks are equipped with the recognition sequence needed for SrtA reaction—the conserved peptide LPETG—and a pentaglycine motif. The successful formation of the reaction products is shown by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS, and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The sortase catalyzed linkage of artificial building blocks sets the stage for the development of a new approach to link synthetic structures in cases where their synthesis by established chemical methods is complicated.
Stejskalová, Eva; Horáková, Petra; Vacek, Jan; Bowater, Richard P; Fojta, Miroslav
DNA ligases are essential enzymes in all cells and have been proposed as targets for novel antibiotics. Efficient DNA ligase activity assays are thus required for applications in biomedical research. Here we present an enzyme-linked electrochemical assay based on two terminally tagged probes forming a nicked junction upon hybridization with a template DNA. Nicked DNA bearing a 5' biotin tag is immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and ligated product is detected via a 3' digoxigenin tag recognized by monoclonal antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Enzymatic conversion of napht-1-yl phosphate to napht-1-ol enables sensitive detection of the voltammetric signal on a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The technique was tested under optimal conditions and various situations limiting or precluding the ligation reaction (such as DNA substrates lacking 5'-phosphate or containing a base mismatch at the nick junction, or application of incompatible cofactor), and utilized for the analysis of the nick-joining activity of a range of recombinant Escherichia coli DNA ligase constructs. The novel technique provides a fast, versatile, specific, and sensitive electrochemical assay of DNA ligase activity.
Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Levie, Elliot; Nguy, Susanna; Avanzi, Antonina; Barilla, Rocky; Xu, Yijie; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Greco, Stephanie H; Deutsch, Michael; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Tippens, Daniel; Pushalkar, Smruti; Eisenthal, Andrew; Saxena, Deepak; Ahn, Jiyoung; Hajdu, Cristina; Engle, Dannielle D; Tuveson, David; Miller, George
Modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling can have protective or protumorigenic effects on oncogenesis depending on the cancer subtype and on specific inflammatory elements within the tumor milieu. We found that TLR9 is widely expressed early during the course of pancreatic transformation and that TLR9 ligands are ubiquitous within the tumor microenvironment. TLR9 ligation markedly accelerates oncogenesis, whereas TLR9 deletion is protective. We show that TLR9 activation has distinct effects on the epithelial, inflammatory, and fibrogenic cellular subsets in pancreatic carcinoma and plays a central role in cross talk between these compartments. Specifically, TLR9 activation can induce proinflammatory signaling in transformed epithelial cells, but does not elicit oncogene expression or cancer cell proliferation. Conversely, TLR9 ligation induces pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) to become fibrogenic and secrete chemokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation. TLR9-activated PSCs mediate their protumorigenic effects on the epithelial compartment via CCL11. Additionally, TLR9 has immune-suppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment (TME) via induction of regulatory T cell recruitment and myeloid-derived suppressor cell proliferation. Collectively, our work shows that TLR9 has protumorigenic effects in pancreatic carcinoma which are distinct from its influence in extrapancreatic malignancies and from the mechanistic effects of other TLRs on pancreatic oncogenesis. © 2015 Zambirinis et al.
Nasir, M.A.; Masroor, R.; Arfar, Y.; Sarwar, S.; Butt, Q.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of injections Sclerotherapy (IST) and rubber band ligation (RBL) for the treatment of 2nd degree haemorrhoids in terms of improvement in symptoms severity score (SS score) in OPD patients. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted in surgical OPD of CMH Kohat, from 15th October 2010 to 10th April 2011 Material and Methods: A total of 116 patients with symptomatic 2nd degree haemorrhoids were randomly divided into two groups, RBL and IST (58 patients each) respectively and a baseline symptoms severity score was noted for each patient. Patients in RBL group were treated with RBL while in IST group were treated with IST. The outcome measures were relief of symptoms and improvement in SS score. Results: In RBL group, baseline SS score was 4.67 +- 2.01 which reduced to final mean SS score of 1.34 +- 0.96 whereas in IST group the baseline SS score was of 4.31 +- 2.13 which reduced to a final mean SS score of 1.6 +- 0.97. 44 (75.95%) patients had complete recovery and control of bleeding in RBL group; whereas in IST group 32 (55.1%) of the patients had this response by the end of two weeks. Conclusion: Rubber band ligation was found to have better patient outcomes as compared to injections sclerotherapy in treatment of 2nd degree hemorrhoids. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.
McDermott, Ailbhe M; O'Cathain, Eadaoin; Carey, Brian William; O'Sullivan, Peter; Sheahan, Patrick
Sphenopalatine artery ligation is a commonly employed surgical intervention for control of posterior epistaxis unresponsive to nasal packing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of sphenopalatine artery ligation for control of epistaxis at our institution and the impact of timing and other factors on outcome. Case series with chart review. Academic tertiary referral center. Case notes were reviewed for 45 consecutive patients undergoing sphenopalatine artery ligation for control of epistaxis between October 2008 and October 2014. Forty-one patients had nasal packing prior to sphenopalatine artery ligation, with 33 undergoing ≥2 packings. Postoperatively, 6 patients had rebleeding, which was treated with repacking (n = 4) and return to the operating room (n = 2). The overall success rate of sphenopalatine artery ligation was 87% (39 of 45). Rebleeding rate was not affected by concomitant septoplasty, anterior ethmoidal artery ligation, or postoperative nasal packing. Patients undergoing SPA ligation within the first 24 hours of admission had a significantly shorter hospital length of stay (3 vs 6 days, P = .02) and treatment cost (€5905 vs €10,001, P = .03). Length of stay was not influenced by sphenopalatine artery ligation after ≤1 nasal pack versus ≥2 packs. Timing of sphenopalatine artery ligation did not affect blood transfusion requirement (P = .84). Sphenopalatine artery ligation is an effective management strategy for surgical control of refractory epistaxis. Early timing of sphenopalatine artery ligation may lead to reductions in length of stay. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
M. E. van der Heyde
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the experiences of the parents of an ill premature infant in order to identify the needs of the parents going through this potential crisis. As a result of the constant medical and technological progress the percentage of premature infants is continually increasing. It is therefore of vital importance that the nursing and other medical staff are made aware of the trauma that these parents experience. This will enable them in giving adequate support and accompaniment in the prevention of social pathology.
Madsen, Berit L.; Giudice, Linda; Donaldson, Sarah S.
Purpose: To disprove the common view that women who have undergone irradiation to fields excluding the pelvis are at risk for radiation-induced premature menopause, we reviewed menstrual function and fertility among women treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. Methods and Materials: Treatment and follow-up records of all women less than age 50 at the time of diagnosis of Stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease, treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation alone and enrolled in radiotherapy trials from 1967 to 1985, were reviewed. In addition, patients were surveyed regarding their menstrual status and fertility history. Results: Thirty-six women, aged 10 to 40 years, with normal menstrual function at the time of Hodgkin's diagnosis, were identified. Mean follow-up was 14 years, with a range of 1.25-22.75 years. The average radiation dose to mantle and paraaortic fields was 40-44 Gy; the calculated scatter radiation dose to the pelvis at the ovaries was 3.2 Gy. There were 38 pregnancies in 18 women; all offspring are normal. One of 36 women (2.7%) experienced premature menopause. The reported rate of premature menopause in women who have not undergone irradiation is 1-3%; not significantly different than the rate in our study. There is a syndrome whereby antibodies to several endocrine organs occur (including the ovary), which is associated with premature ovarian failure. This syndrome may be associated with prior radiation to the thyroid, such as that given by mantle-irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. We report such a case. Conclusion: There is little risk of premature menopause in women treated with radiation fields that exclude the pelvis. Women with presumed radiation-induced premature menopause warrant an evaluation to exclude other causes of ovarian failure, such as autoimmune disorders
Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 47-52
Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W
AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...
Manuguerra, Ilenia; Croce, Stefano; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.
Current gene synthesis methods are driven by enzymatic reactions. Here we report the one-pot synthesis of a chemically-ligated gene from 14 oligonucleotides. The chemical ligation benefits from the highly efficient click chemistry approach templated by DNA nanostructures, and produces modified DNA...
Gluud, Lise L; Klingenberg, Sarah; Nikolova, Dimitrinka
To compare banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in patients with esophageal varices and no previous bleeding.......To compare banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in patients with esophageal varices and no previous bleeding....
Saitoh, Ryuichi; Nakagawa, Nobuo; Kohrogi, Yukinori; Izunaga, Hiroshi; Bussaka, Hiromasa; Miyawaki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Ikawa, Tsutomu; Ishikawa, Takashi (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)
Three male cases of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma are presented. Satisfactory results were obtained by performing preoperative embolization combined with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) in two of them. The other case had undergone external carotid ligation. Usefulness of IADSA in performing preoperative embolization for this disease and problems of external carotid ligation are discussed.
Conclusion: Slide modules produce least friction followed by loose SS ligation, slick modules, regular modules, tight SS ligation and highest friction was produced by regular modules tied in a ′figure of 8′ pattern. Width of bracket had no influence on friction produced.
Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity(ROPis an ocular disease caused by retinal ophthalmic dysplasia in premature infants, leads to strabismus, amblyopia, cataract, glaucoma, and even blindness, which seriously affects the quality of life of preterm infants. The infant blindness ratio has climbed to 6%-18%, according to figures released by the World Health Organisation. ROP is the primary cause of blindness in children of the world in recent years. But the pathogenesis of ROP is not yet clear. Gestational age, birth weight, oxygen intake, delivery mode, multiple newborns, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, anemia, blood transfusion, sepsis, infection, hypercapnia, hyperbilirubinemia, maternal prenatal use of a drug are all the risk factors. We reviewed the risk factors and possible mechanism of ROP, in order to offer theoretical support for the study and prevention of ROP in premature infants.
Azawi, Nessn Htum; Hult, Mariam Annalisa Skibsted; Dahl, Claus
INTRODUCTION: Conventionally, individual ligation of the renal vessels with clips is performed during laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN). Concomitant ligation of the vessels is not a standard procedure due to an expected risk of stapler dysfunction and the development of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF......). Using the EndoGIA stapler 45/2.5 mm, we compared en bloc ligation with individual ligation during LN and nephroureterectomy (LNU) with a special focus on the development of AVF and technique safety. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients undergoing LN or LNU at the Department of Urology......, Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, between January 2010 and April 2014. The follow-up period was minimum six months. RESULTS: A total of 228 patients underwent LN and 56 patients underwent LNU. In the LN group, 77 patients underwent en bloc ligation. The mean surgical time was significantly reduced to 89 minutes...
Rice, Timothy R
Children born premature are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. This piece advances the hypothesis that altered androgen exposure observed in premature infants is an important mediator of the neurodevelopmental risk in males associated with prematurity. Specifically, the alterations of normative physiologic postnatal activations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that occur in preterm males are hypothesized to contribute to the risk of neuropsychiatric pathology of prematurity through altered androgen-mediated organizational effects on the developing brain. The physiology of testosterone and male central nervous system development in full-term births is reviewed and compared to the developmental processes of prematurity. The effects of the altered testosterone physiology observed within prematurity outside of the central nervous system are reviewed as a segue into a discussion of the effects within the nervous system, with a special focus on autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The explanatory power of this model is reviewed as a supplement to the preexisting models of prematurity and neurodevelopmental risk, including infection and other perinatal central nervous system insults. The emphasis is placed on altered androgen exposure as serving as just one among many mediators of neurodevelopmental risk that may be of interest for further research and evidence-based investigation. Implications for diagnosis, management and preventative treatments conclude the piece.
Robinson, R; O'Keefe, M
The ocular complications in population of 131 premature infants, with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are reported. An increased incidence of strabismus (20% with ROP and 25% without ROP) and myopia (27.5% with ROP and 8.8% without ROP) was shown. Significant visual loss occurred in 10.7% overall, increasing to 35% with stage 3 disease and 100% with stage 4. With the increased survival rate of premature infants, the relevance to future management of this expanding group of young ...
E. S. Sakharova
Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality, like a frequency of long-term unfavourable psychomotor developmental outcomes is in inverse relationship with gestational age and birth weight. Now scientists give attention to the risk factors — the infection, preeclampsia, smoking, etc., to look for prevention of premature birth. The outcome of premature baby depends on the birth weight; the methodof labor and the hospital technical support also have an influence. The frequency of neurological impairments — infantile cerebral palsy, visual and hearing disorders, and probability of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia are also in inverse relationship with gestational age and birth weight. Last decade there are many scientists give attention to the cognitive deficit and behavior disorders in adolescents, born premature. Premature infants with extremely low birth weight have developmental disorders at 8-13%. Not all of cognitive and behavioral problems have symptoms in the first years of life, but have delayed unfavourable effects. The severity of cognitive deficit not always corresponds with structural impairments of brain, detected in functional studies of premature baby in the first year of life.
Ricci, Maurício Pichler; Matos, Délcio; Saad, Sarhan Sydney
To compare the results of rubber band ligation and infrared photocoagulation for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease through the analysis of the incidence of complications after each treatment and respective success rate. Forty-eight patients with first, second or third degree hemorrhoidal disease were randomized to receive treatment with either rubber band ligation (n=23) or infrared photocoagulation (n=25). Each patient was assessed at 1 week and 4 week intervals after treatment. We compared the incidence of complications and efficiency of each treatment modality and Qui-square, Fisher's Exact Test and Student's t Test were used to statistical analysis. Bleeding occured in eight (34,7%) patients treated with rubber band ligation and in four (16,0%) after infrared photocoagulation (p=0,243). Thirteen (52,0%) patients felt pain during infrared photocoagulation and 9 (39,1%) after rubber band ligation (p=0,546). After rubber band ligation, 14 (60,8%) required medication for pain relief. One patient (4,0%) required medication after infrared photocoagulation (prubber band ligator and 1 (4,0%) treated with infrared photocoagulation had symptomatic mucosal ulcers. Perianal dermatitis occured in two (8,0%) patients treated with infrared photocoagulation and one patient (4,3%) was observed to have prolapsed thrombosed piles after rubber band ligation. One month after treatment, 17 of 23 patients treated with rubber band ligation (73,9%) and 18 of 25 patients treated with infrared photocoagulation were asymptomatic. Rubber band ligation treated bleeding and prolapse in 90,0% and 82,4% respectively. Infrared photocoagulation treats bleeding and prolapse in 93,7% and 87,5% respectively. Those differences are not significant. Rubber band ligation causes significantly more pain than infrared photocoagulation during the first week after the procedures and their success rate are not different after four weeks of treatment.
Liu, Yuan; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Chang, Po-shou; Yang, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan
Bile is the exocrine secretion of liver and synthesized by hepatocytes. It is drained into duodenum for the function of digestion or drained into gallbladder for of storage. Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. However, Bile duct ligation results in the changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces1, 2. In this work, we demonstrate a novel technique to image this pathological condition by using a newly developed in vivo imaging system, which includes multiphoton microscopy and intravital hepatic imaging chamber. The images we acquired demonstrate the uptake, processing of 6-CFDA in hepatocytes and excretion of CF in the bile canaliculi. In addition to imaging, we can also measure kinetics of the green fluorescence intensity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is one of the methods utilised in recycling organic communal waste. The composting process is dependent on aerobic microbial activity and proceeds through a succession of different phases each dominated by certain microorganisms. In this study, a ligation-detection-reaction (LDR based microarray method was adapted for species-level detection of compost microbes characteristic of each stage of the composting process. LDR utilises the specificity of the ligase enzyme to covalently join two adjacently hybridised probes. A zip-oligo is attached to the 3'-end of one probe and fluorescent label to the 5'-end of the other probe. Upon ligation, the probes are combined in the same molecule and can be detected in a specific location on a universal microarray with complementary zip-oligos enabling equivalent hybridisation conditions for all probes. The method was applied to samples from Nordic composting facilities after testing and optimisation with fungal pure cultures and environmental clones. Results Probes targeted for fungi were able to detect 0.1 fmol of target ribosomal PCR product in an artificial reaction mixture containing 100 ng competing fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS area or herring sperm DNA. The detection level was therefore approximately 0.04% of total DNA. Clone libraries were constructed from eight compost samples. The LDR microarray results were in concordance with the clone library sequencing results. In addition a control probe was used to monitor the per-spot hybridisation efficiency on the array. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the LDR microarray method is capable of sensitive and accurate species-level detection from a complex microbial community. The method can detect key species from compost samples, making it a basis for a tool for compost process monitoring in industrial facilities.
J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)
textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a
Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...
Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others
Psychological and educational correlates of prematurity in children during four periods, the last at 7 years of age, were assessed as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 241 infants classified by birth weight, gestational age, and sex to determine later functioning in school. (Author/MC)
Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A
CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...
Dec 5, 2015 ... Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a challenging complication of ... PROM (P < 0.000), latency period (P < 0.000), and birth weight (P < 0.001). ..... J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:271‑6. 25. Mercer ...
Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA
Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short
Lapillonne, Alexandre; Jensen, Craig L
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake in preterm infants is crucial for normal central nervous system development and has the potential for long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. While much attention has focused on improving their nutritional intake, many premature infants do not receive an adequate DHA supply. We demonstrate that enterally fed premature infants exhibit daily DHA deficit of 20mg/kg.d, representing 44% of the DHA that should have been accumulated. Furthermore, the DHA content of human milk and current preterm formulas cannot compensate for an early DHA deficit which may occur during the first month of life. We recommend breast-feeding, which supplies preformed LC-PUFA, as the preferred method of feeding for preterm infants. However, to fulfill the specific DHA requirement of these infants, we recommend increasing the DHA content of human milk either by providing the mothers with a DHA supplement or by adding DHA directly to the milk. Increasing the DHA content above 1% total fatty acids appears to be safe and may enhance neurological development particularly that of infants with a birth weight below 1250 g. We estimate that human milk and preterm formula should contain approximately 1.5% of fatty acid as DHA to prevent the appearance of a DHA deficit and to compensate for the early DHA deficit.
Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir
Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter - regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost - YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden.
Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.
Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely
de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R
Black/Non-Hispanic population. The design and evaluation of weight-based maternal health programs that aggregate race/ethnicity may not be sufficient. The optimal method to address maternal pre-pregnancy and intra-pregnancy weight-related health disorders may need to be stratified along race/ethnicity adjusted strategies and goals. However, a more global preventative strategy that encompasses the social determinants of health may be needed to reduce the higher rates of prematurity among the Black/Non-Hispanic population.
Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Dref, Olivier le [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier; Barranger, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paris (France); Gayat, Etienne; Mebazaa, Alexandre [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Paris (France)
To evaluate the role and efficacy of pelvic embolisation in the treatment of persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation and to identify the complications of this procedure in this specific population. The clinical files and angiographic examinations of 12 consecutive women (mean age 32 years) who were treated with pelvic embolisation because of persistent, severe postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation were reviewed. Angiography revealed that persistent bleeding was due to incomplete arterial ligation (n = 4) or the presence of newly developed anastomotic routes (n = 8). In 11 women, pelvic embolisation stopped the bleeding. Hysterectomy was needed in one woman with retained placenta. Two complications due to pelvic embolisation, including leg ischaemia and transient sciatic nerve ischaemia, were identified, both after internal iliac artery ligation. In women with persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation, pelvic embolisation is an effective treatment in most cases. However, embolisation of the anastomotic routes that contribute to persistent bleeding may result in ischaemic complications. These potential complications reaffirm that arterial ligation should not be the favoured option for postpartum haemorrhage and that special care must be given during pelvic embolisation after failed arterial ligation. (orig.)
Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Cantor, Eric J.; Evans, Thomas C.
Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10−3 s−1 and KM DNA ligase produced only 5′-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a KM ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of Mn2+, but was strongly inhibited by concentrations of NaCl >100 mM. Abortive adenylylation was suppressed at low ATP concentrations (8, leading to increased product yields. The ligation reaction was rapid for a broad range of substrate sequences, but was relatively slower for substrates with a 5′-phosphorylated dC or dG residue on the 3′ side of the ligation junction. Nevertheless, PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated all sequences tested with 10-fold less enzyme and 15-fold shorter incubation times than required when using T4 DNA ligase. Furthermore, this ligase was used in a ligation-based detection assay system to show increased sensitivity over T4 DNA ligase in the specific detection of a target mRNA. PMID:24203707
The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with 3.24 times the risk of CAD on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with an increased risk of CAD in young smokers. Premature graying of hair can be used as preliminary evidence by ...
Sukkaew, Lassada; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Makhanov, Stanislav S.; Barman, Sarah; Pangputhipong, Pannet
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is an infant disease characterized by increased dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels. Automatic tortuosity evaluation from retinal digital images is very useful to facilitate an ophthalmologist in the ROP screening and to prevent childhood blindness. This paper proposes a method to automatically classify the image into tortuous and non-tortuous. The process imitates expert ophthalmologists' screening by searching for clearly tortuous vessel segments. First, a skeleton of the retinal blood vessels is extracted from the original infant retinal image using a series of morphological operators. Next, we propose to partition the blood vessels recursively using an adaptive linear interpolation scheme. Finally, the tortuosity is calculated based on the curvature of the resulting vessel segments. The retinal images are then classified into two classes using segments characterized by the highest tortuosity. For an optimal set of training parameters the prediction is as high as 100%.
Sakai, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Tamai, Miho; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi
Research highlights: → Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. → Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. → PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.
Ríos, Eddy; Sierralta, Armando; Abarzúa, Marigraciela; Bastías, Joaquín; Barra, María Inés
Endoscopic band ligation is the treatment of choice for bleeding esophageal varices. However it is not clear if this procedure is associated with less early and late mortality than sclerotherapy. To assess rates of re-bleeding and mortality in cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices treated with endoscopic injection or band ligation. Analysis of medical records and endoscopy reports of two cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices, treated between 1990 and 2010. Of these, 54 patients were treated with sclerotherapy and 90 patients with band ligation. A third cohort of 116 patients that did not require endoscopic treatment, was included. The mean analyzed follow up period was 2.5 years (range 1-16). Collection of data was retrospective for patients treated with sclerotherapy and prospective for patients treated with band ligation. Rates of re-bleeding and medium term mortality were assessed. During the month ensuing the first endoscopic treatment, re-bleeding was recorded in 39 and 72% of patients treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01). The relative risk of bleeding after band ligation was 0.53 (95% confidence limits 0.390.73). Death rates until the end of follow up were 20 and 48% among patients with treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01), with a relative risk of dying for patients subjected to band ligation of 0.41 (95% confidence limits 0.25-0.68). Band ligation was associated with lower rates of re-bleeding and mortality in these cohorts of patients.
Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Pathology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Mo [Dept. of Surgery, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
To compare the volume change and the regenerative capacity between portal vein ligation (embolization) (PVL) and heterochronous PVL with hepatic artery ligation (HAL) in a rodent model. The animals were separated into three groups: group I, ligation of the left lateral and median portal vein branches; group II, completion of PVL, followed by ligation of the same branches of the hepatic artery after 48 h; control group, laparotomy without ligation was performed. Five rats from each group were sacrificed on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the operation. Volume change measurement, liver function tests and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. The volume of the nonligated lobe between groups I and II was not significantly different by day 5 and day 7. Mean alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels were significantly higher in group II, while the albumin level was higher in group I. Both c-kit- and MIB-5-positive cells used in the activity detection of regeneration were more prevalent in group I on day 1, 3, and 5, with statistical significance. There was no operation related mortality. PVL alone is safe and effective in compensatory liver regeneration. Performing both PVL and HAL does not confer any additional benefits.
Tarcin, Orhan; Basaranoglu, Metin; Tahan, Veysel; Tahan, Gülgün; Sücüllü, Ilker; Yilmaz, Nevin; Sood, Gagan; Snyder, Ned; Hilman, Gilbert; Celikel, Cigdem; Tözün, Nurdan
Abstract Background One of the most useful experimental fibrogenesis models is the "bile duct-ligated rats". Our aim was to investigate the quantitative hepatic collagen content by two different methods during the different stages of hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats on a weekly basis. We questioned whether the 1-wk or 4-wk bile duct-ligated model is suitable in animal fibrogenesis trials. Methods Of the 53 male Wistar rats, 8 (Group 0) were used as a healthy control group. Bile duct...
Full Text Available The rate of rebleeding of esophageal varices remains high after cessation of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Many measures have been developed to prevent the occurrence of rebleeding. When considering their effectiveness in reduction of rebleeding, the associated complications cannot be neglected. Due to unavoidable high incidence of complications, shunt surgery and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy are now rarely used. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt was developed to replace shunt operation but is now reserved for rescue therapy. Nonselective beta-blockers alone or in combination with isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic variceal ligation are currently the first choices in the prevention of variceal rebleeding. The combination of nonselective beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal ligation appear to enhance the efficacy. With the advent of newly developed measures, esophageal variceal rebleeding could be greatly reduced and the survival of cirrhotics with bleeding esophageal varices could thereby be prolonged.
Schoemaker, Joop; Drexhage, Hemmo; Hoek, Annemieke
textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heterogeneous disorder with a multicausal pathogenesis involving chromosomal, genetic, enzymatic, infectious, and iatrogenic causes. There remains, however, a group of POF patients without a known etiology, the so-called "idiopathic...
Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA); Emil ANTON; Sorana Caterina ANTON
The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amn...
Harila, V; Heikkinen, T; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L
The aims of this study were to: examine the expression of open bite in prematurely born children and discuss the etiological factors that may lead to bite it. The subjects were 328 prematurely born (cross-sectional study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in the 1960s and 1970s. Dental documents, including casts and photographs, were taken once at the age of 6-12 years in the mixed dentition. The occlusion was recorded by examining and measuring the hard stone casts. Vertical open bite was recorded only for full erupted teeth. The statistical method used was chi-square analysis. Significant differences in the incidence of anterior open bite (from left to right canine) was found between the preterm and control groups and between gender and ethnic groups. The prevalence of anterior open bite was nearly 9% in the preterm group and almost 7% in the control group. African Americans (9%) had a significantly greater incidence of open bite than Caucasians (3%; Pbite than boys (8% vs 6%; Pbite was increased--especially in preterm African American boys compared to controls (11% vs 8%). The results show differences in the development of anterior open bite between ethnic and gender groups. Premature birth may also influence dental occlusal development. Of importance are the patient's: general health condition; respiratory infections; inadequate nasal- and mouth-breathing; oral habits; and other medical problems. Preterm children may be relatively more predisposed to etiological factors for the development of anterior open bite.
Costanzo, Caitlyn M; Vinocur, Charles; Berman, Loren
Term infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) typically present between 4 and 6 weeks. There is limited consensus, however, regarding age of presentation of premature infants. We aim to determine if there is an association between the degree of prematurity and chronological age of presentation of HPS. A total of 2988 infants who had undergone a pyloromyotomy for HPS were identified from the 2012 and 2013 NSQIP-P Participant Use Files. Two hundred seventeen infants (7.3%) were born prematurely. A greater degree of prematurity was associated with an older chronological age of presentation ( P Prematurity was significantly associated with an increase in overall postoperative morbidity, reintubation, readmission, and postoperative length of stay. When clinicians evaluate an infant with nonbilious emesis with a history of prematurity, they should consider pyloric stenosis if the calculated postconceptional age is between 44 and 50 weeks. When counseling families of premature infants, surgeons should discuss the increased incidence of postpyloromyotomy morbidity.
Genito-Urinary Function and Quality of Life after Elective Totally Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy after at Least One Episode of Complicated Diverticular Disease According to Two Different Vascular Approaches: the IMA Low Ligation or the IMA Preservation.
Mari, Giulio; Crippa, Jacopo; Costanzi, Andrea; Mazzola, Michele; Magistro, Carmelo; Ferrari, Giovanni; Maggioni, Dario
The arterial ligation during elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease can affect genito-urinary function injuring the superior hypogastric plexus, and can weaken the distal colonic stump arterial perfusion. Ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery distal to the left colic artery or the complete preservation of the inferior mesenteric artery can therefore be compared in terms of preservation of the descending sympathetic fibres running along the aorta to the rectum resulting in a different post operative genito urinary function. From January 2015 to March 2016, 66 patients underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease among two enrolling hospitals. In one centre 35 patients underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with the ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery distal to the left colic artery (low ligation). In the other centre 31 patient were operated on the same procedure with complete inferior mesenteric artery preservation (IMA preservation). There was no difference in terms of major complication occurred, first passage of stool and length of hospital stay between the two groups. Time of surgery was significantly shorter in LL group compared to IMA preserving group and intra operative blood loss was significantly lower in the LL group. There were no differences in the genito urinary function between the two group pre operatively, at 1 and 9 months post operatively. Genito urinary function did not significantly change across surgery in each groups. The low ligation and the IMA preserving vascular approach are safe end feasible techniques in elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease. They both prevent from genito-urinary post-operative disfunction and allow good post operative quality of life. The low ligation approach is related to shorter operative time and slower intra operative blood loss. Celsius.
Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Li, Shih-Wen; Huang, Li-Tung
Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats display cholestasis and liver damages. The potential protective activity of melatonin in young BDL rats in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has not yet been evaluated. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: one group received laparotomy (Sham), a second group received BDL for two weeks (BDL), and a third group received BDL and intraperitoneal melatonin (100 mg/day) for two weeks (BDL + M). BDL group rats showed liver apoptosis, increased pro-inflamamtory mediators, caspases alterations, anti-apoptotic factors changes, and dysfunction of ER homeostasis. Melatonin effectively reversed apoptosis, mainly through intrinsic pathway and reversed ER stress. In addition, in vitro study showed melatonin exerted its effect mainly through the melatonin 2 receptor (MT2) in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, BDL in young rats caused liver apoptosis. Melatonin rescued the apoptotic changes via the intrinsic pathway, and possibly through the MT2 receptor. Melatonin also reversed ER stress induced by BDL.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Rubber band ligation (BL is the most widely used technique for treatment of symptomatic internal haemorrhoids (IH that are refractory to conservative treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of colonoscopic BL as therapy for symptomatic IH. Methods: Patients seen at our center with symptomatic IH who underwent BL between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in this prospective study. The clinical and colonoscopic details were entered in uniform structured data forms. Results: Two hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with symptomatic IH were enrolled in the study. The presentations were rectal bleeding in 150 (69% and prolapse in remaining 68 (31% patients. Twenty-four patients (11% had chronic liver disease (child B-C. Same operator treated all the patients. The severity of the IH was classified by using Goligher grading system. The mean age of patients was 48.3 + 15 years with range of 22 - 85 years. The mean follow up was 3months (range 1 month - 36 months. In 209 patients (96% there was at least 1 grade reduction in hemorrhoids as well the symptoms were controlled. Two patients required surgery and another 7 patients required repeat session of banding. After banding session 32 (15% patients had perianal pain and 13 (6% had mild bleeding. Conclusions: Colonoscopic BL is a safe, and effective outpatient therapeutic procedure for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids. Furthermore, the BL is safe and effective in patients of coagulopathy associated with chronic liver disease.
Madhoun, Nour Y.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a blockage in the differentiation of myeloid cells at different stages. CD44-ligation using anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been shown to reverse the blockage of differentiation
Jaegle, Mike; Wong, Ee Lin; Tauber, Carolin; Nawrotzky, Eric; Arkona, Christoph; Rademann, Jörg
Protein-templated fragment ligation is a novel concept to support drug discovery and can help to improve the efficacy of protein ligands. Protein-templated fragment ligations are chemical reactions between small molecules ("fragments") utilizing a protein's surface as a reaction vessel to catalyze the formation of a protein ligand with increased binding affinity. The approach exploits the molecular recognition of reactive small-molecule fragments by proteins both for ligand assembly and for the identification of bioactive fragment combinations. In this way, chemical synthesis and bioassay are integrated in one single step. This Review discusses the biophysical basis of reversible and irreversible fragment ligations and gives an overview of the available methods to detect protein-templated ligation products. The chemical scope and recent applications as well as future potential of the concept in drug discovery are reviewed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Department of General Surgery, MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Odisha, India. ABSTRACT ... Management of fistula‑in‑ano through ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract. 2 ... At the time of admission, a detailed history and the clinical.
Dörr, Mark; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Wieczorek, Rafal
achieved, if small, activated, oligonucleotides are ligated on a template. A template directed ligation can lead to autocatalytic or cross- catalytic replication and thus maintain a certain pool of catalyitc species. Important for these processes is a destabilization of the formed douplex....../multiplex to overcome product inhibition. The latest results of our template directed ligation experiments in the eutectic ice phase are presented. Different activation strategies are compared and an outlook towards applications in molecular evolution and artifical cell systems (« protocells ») will be given. Figure 1....... (a) Reaction scheme of the condensation reaction of two oligoribonucleotides : The leaving group in this example is imidazole. (b) Illustration of a possible spatial arrangement of a template (15nt) directed ligation. The 7-mer is activated with imidazole at the 5' phosphate (apical moiety...
Black, W C; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N; Duteau, N M
Most single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection requires expensive equipment and reagents. The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is an inexpensive SNP assay that detects ligation between a biotinylated "allele-specific detector" and a 3' fluorescein-labeled "reporter" oligonucleotide. No ligation occurs unless the 3' detector nucleotide is complementary to the SNP nucleotide. The original OLA used chemical denaturation and neutralization. Heated OLA (HOLA) instead uses a thermal stable ligase and cycles of denaturing and hybridization for ligation and SNP detection. The cost per genotype is approximately US$1.25 with two-allele SNPs or approximately US$1.75 with three-allele SNPs. We illustrate the development of HOLA for SNP detection in the Early Trypsin and Abundant Trypsin loci in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and at the a-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s.
Araujo Filho Vergilius José Furtado de
Full Text Available We prospectively studied the effects of the ligation of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA on postoperative hypoparathyroidism in 48 patients who underwent functional subtotal thyroidectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: A, with bilateral ligation of the ITA and B, without ligation of the ITA. Parathyroid function was checked preoperatively and after surgery by clinical examination and measurement of total calcium, intact PTH, urinary calcium, and AMPc. RESULTS: A significant incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia occurred: 17% in group A and 13% in B on the 4th postoperative day. Six months later, the incidence was 5% in Group A and 0% in Group B. These differences were not statistically significant between the two groups, and neither were any of the other clinical and laboratory observations. CONCLUSION: The ligation of the ITA was not an important causal factor for the occurrence of postoperative hypocalcemia after subtotal thyroidectomy.
Hosseini, Nasrin; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Nasehi, Mohammad; Radahmadi, Maryam; Mohammad Reza, Zarrindast
Cognitive functions are impaired in patients with liver disease. Bile duct ligation causes cholestasis that impairs liver function. This study investigated the impact of cholestasis progression on the acquisition and retention times in the passive avoidance test and on the locomotor activity of rats. Cholestasis was induced in male Wistar rats by ligating the main bile duct. Locomotor activity, learning and memory were assessed by the passive avoidance learning test at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation. The serum levels of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were measured. The results showed that acquisition time and locomotor activity were not affected at day 7 and day 14, but they were significantly (P locomotor activity were impaired at 21 days after bile duct ligation following the progression of cholestasis.
Knighton, Richard C; Sambrook, Mark R; Vincent, Jack C; Smith, Simon A; Serpell, Christopher J; Cookson, James; Vickers, Matthew S; Beer, Paul D
The dansyl fluorophore ligated to gold nanoparticles via imidazole and amine groups affords conjugates capable of detecting micromolar concentrations of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard by a fluorescence switching 'ON' displacement assay.
Full Text Available AIM: Qi-shen-yi-qi (QSYQ, a formula used for the routine treatment of heart failure (HF in China, has been demonstrated to improve cardiac function through down-regulating the activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS. However, the mechanisms governing its therapeutic effects are largely unknown. The present study aims to demonstrate that QSYQ treatment can prevent left ventricular remodeling in heart failure by attenuating oxidative stress and inhabiting inflammation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham group, model group (LAD coronary artery ligation, QSYQ group with high dosage, middle dosage and low dosage (LAD ligation and treated with QSYQ, and captopril group (LAD ligation and treated with captopril as the positive drug. Indicators of fibrosis (Masson, MMPs, and collagens and inflammation factors were detected 28 days after surgery. RESULTS: Results of hemodynamic alterations (dp/dt value in the model group as well as other ventricular remodeling (VR markers, such as MMP-2, MMP-9, collagen I and III elevated compared with sham group. VR was accompanied by activation of RAAS (angiotensin II and NADPHoxidase. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 in myocardial tissue were also up-regulated. Treatment of QSYQ improved cardiac remodeling through counter-acting the aforementioned events. The improvement of QSYQ was accompanied with a restoration of angiotensin II-NADPHoxidase-ROS-MMPs pathways. In addition, "therapeutic" QSYQ administration can reduce both TNF-α-NF-B and IL-6-STAT3 pathways, respectively, which further proves the beneficial effects of QSYQ. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that QSYQ protected LAD ligation-induced left VR via attenuating AngII -NADPH oxidase pathway and inhabiting inflammation. These findings provide evidence as to the cardiac protective efficacy of QSYQ to HF and explain the beneficial effects of QSYQ in the clinical application for HF.
M S Kannan
Full Text Available Aim: The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek and Damon 3 (Ormco both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. Results: The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets. For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05 than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and
Kannan, M S; Murali, R V; Kishorekumar, S; Gnanashanmugam, K; Jayanth, V
The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope) study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco) made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA) and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek) and Damon 3 (Ormco) both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets). For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05) than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and relatively higher amount of frictional forces
Full Text Available Background: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are strong predictors of an increased likelihood for premature CHD. Considering the benefits of risk factors᾿ management, it is imperative to find and treat them before looking for more unknown and weak risk factors. Objectives: Limited information is available about the demographic and historical characteristics of the patients with premature Coronary Heart Disease (CHD in IR Iran. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the traditional risk factors in these patients. Also, the researchers hypothesized that there are insufficient risk assessment and preventive intervention methods for the asymptomatic adult population. Methods: This study was conducted on 125 patients with premature CHD (age<50 years who were admitted in two academic hospitals with acute coronary syndromes. The patients were accepted since they had a definite CHD on the basis of acute myocardial infarction (elevated cardiac enzymes or documented CAD in coronary angiography. Results: The mean age of the study population was 42.50±5.65 (26 to 49 years. Among the patients,92 (73.6% were male, 113 (90.4% were married, 58 (46.4% were smokers,19 (15.2% were opium users, 97 (77.6% had dyslipidemia, 44 (35.2% had hypertension, and 33 (26.4% had diabetes mellitus. In addition, family history was presented in 54 patients (43.2%. Conclusions: Premature Coronary Heart Disease is a public health problem. However, there is lack of effective and intensive treatments of well-defined traditional risk factors and prevention methods for the majority of the patients experiencing premature CHD. In sum, there is still plenty of room for improvement of risk management in IR Iran.
Ricci,Maurício Pichler; Matos,Délcio; Saad,Sarhan Sydney
PURPOSE: To compare the results of rubber band ligation and infrared photocoagulation for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease through the analysis of the incidence of complications after each treatment and respective success rate. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with first, second or third degree hemorrhoidal disease were randomized to recieve treatment with either rubber band ligation (n=23) or infrared photocoagulation (n=25). Each patient was assessed at 1 week and 4 week intervals after t...
Singhal, Abhishek; Nielsen, Peter E
We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected...... precursors. Cross-catalytic product formation followed product inhibited kinetics, but approximately two replication rounds were observed. Analogous but less efficient replication was found for a similar tetrameric system. These results demonstrate that simpler nucleobase replication systems than natural...
García-Cañas, Virginia; Mondello, Monica; Cifuentes, Alejandro
New DNA amplification methods are continuously developed for sensitive detection and quantification of specific DNA target sequences for, e.g. clinical, environmental or food applications. These new applications often require the use of long DNA oligonucleotides as probes for target sequences hybridization. Depending on the molecular technique, the length of DNA probes ranges from 40 to 450 nucleotides, solid-phase chemical synthesis being the strategy generally used for their production. However, the fidelity of chemical synthesis of DNA decreases for larger DNA probes. Defects in the oligonucleotide sequence result in the loss of hybridization efficiency, affecting the sensitivity and selectivity of the amplification method. In this work, an enzymatic procedure has been developed as an alternative to solid-phase chemical synthesis for the production of long oligonucleotides. The enzymatic procedure for probe production was based on ligation of short DNA sequences. Long DNA probes were obtained from smaller oligonucleotides together with a short sequence that acts as bridge stabilizing the molecular complex for DNA ligation. The ligation reactions were monitored by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF) using a bare fused-silica capillary. The capillary gel electrophoresis-LIF method demonstrated to be very useful and informative for the characterization of the ligation reaction, providing important information about the nature of some impurities, as well as for the fine optimization of the ligation conditions (i.e. ligation cycles, oligonucleotide and enzyme concentration). As a result, the yield and quality of the ligation product were highly improved. The in-lab prepared DNA probes were used in a novel multiplex ligation-dependent genome amplification (MLGA) method for the detection of genetically modified maize in samples. The great possibilities of the whole approach were demonstrated by the specific and sensitive
Hegyi Thomas; Hiatt Mark; Ciaccio Edward J; Drzewiecki Gary M
Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to op...
Clarence T. T. Wong
Full Text Available Serine/Threonine ligation (STL has emerged as an alternative tool for protein chemical synthesis, bioconjugations as well as macrocyclization of peptides of various sizes. Owning to the high abundance of Ser/Thr residues in natural peptides and proteins, STL is expected to find a wide range of applications in chemical biology research. Herein, we have fully investigated the compatibility of the serine/threonine ligation strategy for X-Ser/Thr ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. Our studies have shown that 17 amino acids are suitable for ligation, while Asp, Glu, and Lys are not compatible. Among the working 17 C-terminal amino acids, the retarded reaction resulted from the bulky β-branched amino acid (Thr, Val and Ile is not seen under the current ligation condition. We have also investigated the chemoselectivity involving the amino group of the internal lysine which may compete with the N-terminal Ser/Thr for reaction with the C-terminal salicylaldehyde (SAL ester aldehyde group. The result suggested that the free internal amino group does not adversely slow down the ligation rate.
Full Text Available Background : There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, which include: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation, BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation, and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation. Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock were assessed. Results: Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01. Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05. Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05 and 21 days (P < 0.001 after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease.
Tarcin, Orhan; Basaranoglu, Metin; Tahan, Veysel; Tahan, Gülgün; Sücüllü, Ilker; Yilmaz, Nevin; Sood, Gagan; Snyder, Ned; Hilman, Gilbert; Celikel, Cigdem; Tözün, Nurdan
One of the most useful experimental fibrogenesis models is the "bile duct-ligated rats". Our aim was to investigate the quantitative hepatic collagen content by two different methods during the different stages of hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats on a weekly basis. We questioned whether the 1-wk or 4-wk bile duct-ligated model is suitable in animal fibrogenesis trials. Of the 53 male Wistar rats, 8 (Group 0) were used as a healthy control group. Bile duct ligation (BDL) had been performed in the rest. Bile duct-ligated rates were sacrificed 7 days later in group 1 (10 rats), 14 days later in group 2 (9 rats), 21 days later in group 3(9 rats) and 28 days later in group 4 (9 rats). Eight rats underwent sham-operation (Sham). Hepatic collagen measurements as well as serum levels of liver enzymes and function tests were all analysed. The peak level of collagen was observed biochemically and histomorphometricly at the end of third week (P fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats is transient, i.e. reverses spontaneously after 3 weeks. This contrasts any situation in patients where hepatic fibrosis is progressive and irreversible as countless studies performed by many investigators in the same animal model.
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most useful experimental fibrogenesis models is the "bile duct-ligated rats". Our aim was to investigate the quantitative hepatic collagen content by two different methods during the different stages of hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats on a weekly basis. We questioned whether the 1-wk or 4-wk bile duct-ligated model is suitable in animal fibrogenesis trials. Methods Of the 53 male Wistar rats, 8 (Group 0 were used as a healthy control group. Bile duct ligation (BDL had been performed in the rest. Bile duct-ligated rates were sacrificed 7 days later in group 1 (10 rats, 14 days later in group 2 (9 rats, 21 days later in group 3(9 rats and 28 days later in group 4 (9 rats. Eight rats underwent sham-operation (Sham. Hepatic collagen measurements as well as serum levels of liver enzymes and function tests were all analysed. Results The peak level of collagen was observed biochemically and histomorphometricly at the end of third week (P Conclusion We have shown that fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats is transient, i.e. reverses spontaneously after 3 weeks. This contrasts any situation in patients where hepatic fibrosis is progressive and irreversible as countless studies performed by many investigators in the same animal model.
Kasuya, Shugo; Nagasaka, Satoshi; Hanyuda, Ai; Ishimura, Sadao; Hirashita, Ayao
This study examined the effect of ligation on the load-deflection characteristics of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wire. A modified three-point bending system was used for bending the NiTi round wire, which was inserted and ligated in the slots of three brackets, one of which was bonded to each of the three bender rods. Three different ligation methods, stainless steel ligature (SSL), slot lid (SL), and elastomeric ligature (EL), were employed, as well as a control with neither bracket nor ligation (NBL). The tests were repeated five times under each condition. Comparisons were made of load-deflection curve, load at maximum deflection of 2,000 microm, and load at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's test were conducted to determine method difference (alpha = 0.05). The interaction between deflection and ligation was tested, using repeated-measures ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The load values of the ligation groups were two to three times greater than the NBL group at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading: 4.37 N for EL, 3.90 N for SSL, 3.02 N for SL, and 1.49 N for NBL (P wire may make NiTi wire exhibit a significantly heavier load than that traditionally expected. NiTi wire exhibited the majority of its true superelasticity with SL, whereas EL may act as a restraint on its superelasticity.
Low, Donald W.; Hill, Michael G.; Carrasco, Michael R.; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Botti, Paolo
We have completed the total chemical synthesis of cytochrome b562 and an axial ligand analogue, [SeMet7]cyt b562, by thioester-mediated chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. A novel auxiliary-mediated native chemical ligation that enables peptide ligation to be applied to protein sequences lacking cysteine was used. A cleavable thiol-containing auxiliary group, 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl, was added to the α-amino group of one peptide segment to facilitate amide bond-forming ligation. The amine-linked 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl auxiliary was stable to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride used to cleave and deprotect peptides after solid-phase peptide synthesis. Following native chemical ligation with a thioester-containing segment, the auxiliary group was cleanly removed from the newly formed amide bond by treatment with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, yielding a full-length unmodified polypeptide product. The resulting polypeptide was reconstituted with heme and folded to form the functional protein molecule. Synthetic wild-type cyt b562 exhibited spectroscopic and electrochemical properties identical to the recombinant protein, whereas the engineered [SeMet7]cyt b562 analogue protein was spectroscopically and functionally distinct, with a reduction potential shifted by ≈45 mV. The use of the 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl removable auxiliary reported here will greatly expand the applicability of total protein synthesis by native chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. PMID:11390992
Longoni, Juliano N; Lopes, Beatriz M; Freires, Irlan A; Dutra, Kamile L; Franco, Ademir; Paranhos, Luiz R
The present study aimed to review the literature systematically and assess comparatively whether self-ligating metallic brackets accumulate less Streptococcus mutans biofilm than conventional metallic brackets. The systematic search was performed following PRISMA guidelines and registration in PROSPERO. Seven electronic databases (Google Scholar, LILACS, Open Grey, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were consulted until April 2016, with no restriction of language and time of publication. Only randomized clinical studies verifying S. mutans colonization in metallic brackets (self-ligating and conventional) were included. All steps were performed independently by two operators. The search resulted in 546 records obtained from the electronic databases. Additionally, 216 references obtained from the manual search of eligible articles were assessed. Finally, a total of 5 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. In 1 study, the total bacterial count was not different among self-ligating and conventional brackets, whereas in 2 studies the amount was lower for self-ligating brackets. Regarding the specific count of S. mutans , 2 studies showed less accumulation in self-ligating than in conventional brackets. Based on the limited evidence, self-ligating metallic brackets accumulate less S. mutans than conventional ones. However, these findings must be interpreted in conjunction with particularities individual for each patient - such as hygiene and dietary habits, which are components of the multifactorial environment that enables S. Mutans to proliferate and keep retained in the oral cavity.
Xu, Rong; Ayers, Brenda; Cowburn, David; Muir, Tom W.
A convenient in vitro chemical ligation strategy has been developed that allows folded recombinant proteins to be joined together. This strategy permits segmental, selective isotopic labeling of the product. The src homology type 3 and 2 domains (SH3 and SH2) of Abelson protein tyrosine kinase, which constitute the regulatory apparatus of the protein, were individually prepared in reactive forms that can be ligated together under normal protein-folding conditions to form a normal peptide bond at the ligation junction. This strategy was used to prepare NMR sample quantities of the Abelson protein tyrosine kinase-SH(32) domain pair, in which only one of the domains was labeled with 15N Mass spectrometry and NMR analyses were used to confirm the structure of the ligated protein, which was also shown to have appropriate ligand-binding properties. The ability to prepare recombinant proteins with selectively labeled segments having a single-site mutation, by using a combination of expression of fusion proteins and chemical ligation in vitro, will increase the size limits for protein structural determination in solution with NMR methods. In vitro chemical ligation of expressed protein domains will also provide a combinatorial approach to the synthesis of linked protein domains.
Wang, HaiYang; Jo, Yu-Jin; Sun, Tian-Yi; Namgoong, Suk; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung
To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase onset by preventing the premature activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until all kinetochores are attached to the spindle. Although an escape from mitosis in the presence of unsatisfied SAC has been shown in several cancer cells, it has not been reported in oocyte meiosis. Here, we show that CDK7 activity is required to prevent a bypass of SAC during meiosis I in mouse oocytes. Inhibition of CDK7 using THZ1 accelerated the first meiosis, leading to chromosome misalignment, lag of chromosomes during chromosome segregation, and a high incidence of aneuploidy. Notably, this acceleration occurred in the presence of SAC proteins including Mad2 and Bub3 at the kinetochores. However, inhibition of APC/C-mediated cyclin B degradation blocked the THZ1-induced premature polar body extrusion. Moreover, chromosomal defects mediated by THZ1 were rescued when anaphase onset was delayed. Collectively, our results show that CDK7 activity is required to prevent premature anaphase onset by suppressing the bypass of SAC, thus ensuring chromosome alignment and proper segregation. These findings reveal new roles of CDK7 in the regulation of meiosis in mammalian oocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Juliana Zimmermann Carrion1, João Borges Fortes Filho2, Marcia Beatriz Tartarella3, Andrea Zin4, Ignozy Dorneles Jornada Jr41Program for the Prevention of Blindness due to Retinopathy of Prematurity, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, 3Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 4Departament of Neonatology, Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, 5University Luterana do Brasil School of Medicine, Canoas, BrazilAbstract: The purpose of this work was to review the studies published over the last 10 years concerning the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in Latin American countries, to determine if there was an improvement in ROP prevalence rates in that period, and to identify the inclusion criteria for patients at risk of developing ROP in the screening programs. A total of 33 studies from ten countries published between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Prevalence of any ROP stage in the regions considered ranged from 6.6% to 82%; ROP severe enough to require treatment ranged from 1.2% to 23.8%. There was no routine screening for ROP, and there was a lack of services for treatment of the disease in many countries. Inclusion criteria for patients in the studies ranged between birth weight ≤1500 g and ≤2000 g and gestational age ≤32 and <37 weeks. Use of different inclusion criteria regarding birth weight and gestational age in several Latin American studies hindered comparative analysis of the published data. Highly restrictive selection criteria for ROP screening in relation to birth weight and gestational age should not be used throughout most Latin American countries because of their different social characteristics and variable neonatal care procedures. The studies included in this review failed to provide adequate information to determine if the prevalence of ROP
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014 was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies.
Moore, Tiffany A; Berger, Ann M; Wilson, Margaret E
The morbidity and mortality of preterm infants are impacted by their ability to maintain physiologic homeostasis using metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic mechanisms independent of the mother's placenta. Exploring McEwen's allostatic load model in preterm infants provides a new way to understand the altered physiologic processes associated with frequently occurring complications of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. The purpose of this article is to present a new model to enhance understanding of the altered physiologic processes associated with complications of prematurity. The model of allostatic load and complications of prematurity was derived to explore the relationship between general stress of prematurity and complications of prematurity. The proposed model uses the concepts of general stress of prematurity, allostasis, physiologic response patterns (adaptive-maladaptive), allostatic load, and complications of prematurity. These concepts are defined and theoretical relationships in the proposed model are interpreted using the four maladaptive response patterns of repeated hits, lack of adaptation, prolonged response, and inadequate response. Empirical evidence for cortisol, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses are used to support the theoretical relationships. The proposed model provides a new way of thinking about physiologic dysregulation in preterm infants. The ability to describe and understand complex physiologic mechanisms involved in complications of prematurity is essential for research. Advancing the knowledge of complications of prematurity will advance clinical practice and research and lead to testing of interventions to reduce negative outcomes in preterm infants.
Wang, Dan; Zhang, Bo; Dong, Yu; Song, E
Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is identified as a rare, rapidly progressing and severe form of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Here, we report the diagnosis and treatment of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in two of the triplets born at low birth weight and small gestational age. A case concerning two triplets who were born at 31 weeks' gestational age with low birth weight and reached bilateral threshold APROP was reported. The ROP of triplets A and B had the characteristic features of aggressive diseases, which were posterior location, prominence of plus disease and rapid progression. Low birth weight and small gestational age, multiple pregnancies, pregnancy-induced hypertension and older age of the mother might account for the presentations of APROP. These cases demonstrate the importance of early screening and diagnosis in APROP infants. Prompt and adequate laser photocoagulation with a large number of high-intensity closely performed spots and early retreatment could be effective and safe for preventing the progression of APROP with plus disease in zone 1 or 2 in premature triplets. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K, Navin H; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika
Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist's armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first permanent molar into place. Conventional design poses various limitations in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. Thus, it is required to modify the conventional designs according to the needs of the patient. This case report describes an innovative modification of distal shoe appliance in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. In the present case, modification of distal shoe space maintainer was advocated because of inadequate abutments caused due to multiple loss of deciduous molars. Bilateral design of distal shoe was planned for unilateral loss of deciduous molars.
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, related risk factors, treatment and follow-up results in cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Material and Method: Medical records of 405 premature infants who attended our clinic between August 1999 and September 2004 were retrospectively screened. Among these patients, 379 infants were followed up in our neonatology unit and 26 were referred to us from other clinics. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation and/or cryotherapy were performed when prethreshold or threshold ROP was detected. Surgery was performed in stage IV-V ROP. Results: ROP was detected in 88 out of 405 infants (21.72%. At the first examination, stage I ROP was detected in 18 eyes (10.4%, stage II - in 67 eyes (38.72%, stage III - in 82 eyes (47.39%, and stage IV-V – in 6 eyes (3.46%. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation was applied to 34 eyes with stage II and in 47 eyes with stage III ROP. Ten eyes with threshold ROP and 4 eyes which progressed to threshold ROP were treated with cryotherapy. Scleral buckling was performed in 3 eyes that progressed to stage IV ROP. At the first examination, 2 eyes with stage IV-V ROP were treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. Discussion: In our series, the most important risk factors for development and progression of ROP were found to be low birth weight, low gestational age, mechanical ventilation and multiple pregnancy. Effective screening, follow-up and appropriate treatment are important for prevention of permanent damage and unfavorable outcome in ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 128-32
Laughon, Matthew M.; Chantala, Kim; Aliaga, Sofia; Herring, Amy H.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Hughes, Rachel; Clark, Reese H.; Smith, P. Brian
Objective Diuretics are often prescribed off-label to premature infants, particularly to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We examined their use and safety in this group. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of infants diuretics in 333 neonatal intensive care units from 1997–2011. We examined use of acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, chlorothiazide, diazoxide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, mannitol, metolazone, or spironolactone combination. Respiratory support and FiO2 on the first day of each course of diuretic use were identified. Results Thirty-seven percent (39,357/107,542) of infants were exposed to at least 1 diuretic; furosemide was the most commonly used (93% with ≥1 recorded dose), followed by spironolactone, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, and acetazolamide. Seventy-four percent were exposed to 1 diuretic at a time, 19% to 2 diuretics simultaneously, and 6% to 3 diuretics simultaneously. The most common combination was furosemide/spironolactone, followed by furosemide/chlorothiazide and chlorothiazide/spironolactone. Many infants were not receiving mechanical ventilation on the first day of each new course of furosemide (47%), spironolactone (69%), chlorothiazide (61%), and hydrochlorothiazide (68%). Any adverse event occurred on 42 per 1000 infant-days for any diuretic and 35 per 1000 infant-days for furosemide. Any serious adverse event occurred in 3.8 for any diuretic and 3.2 per 1000 infant-days for furosemide. The most common laboratory abnormality associated with diuretic exposure was thrombocytopenia. Conclusion Despite no FDA indication and little safety data, over one third of premature infants in our population were exposed to a diuretic, many with minimal respiratory support. PMID:24801161
For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of
Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline
Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.
Hoffding, J; Kisling, E
Premature loss of primary molars causes, without doubt, permanent changes in regard to space and sagittal molar relations, in the permanent dentition. The changes are due to drifting of teeth and lack of growth, and such changes should, whenever possible, be prevented. In part two of this series of papers, a further analysis of the data will be presented.
Prenatal tracheal ligation or intra-amniotic administration of surfactant or dexamethasone prevents some structural changes in the pulmonary arteries of surgically created diaphragmatic hernia in rabbits Ligadura de traquéia no período pré-natal ou administração intra-amniótica de surfactante ou dexametasona evitam algumas alterações estruturais nas artérias pulmonares de fetos de coelho com hérnia diafragmática congênita produzida com cirurgia
Consuelo J. Rodrigues
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Characterization of the structural changes occurring in the pulmonary arteries resulting from surgically produced congenital diaphragmatic hernia in rabbits, with particular emphasis on the preventive effects of prenatal tracheal ligation or administration of intra-amniotic dexamethasone or surfactant. METHODS: Twenty rabbit fetuses underwent surgical creation of a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the 24th or 25th gestational day. They were divided according to the following procedures: congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 5, congenital diaphragmatic hernia plus tracheal ligation (n = 5, congenital diaphragmatic hernia plus intra-amniotic administration of dexamethasone 0.4 mg (n = 5 or surfactant (Curosurf 40 mg, n = 5. On gestational day 30, all the fetuses were delivered by caesarean section and killed. A control group consisted of five nonoperated fetuses. Histomorphometric analysis of medial thickness, cell nuclei density, and elastic fiber density of pulmonary arterial walls was performed. RESULTS: Arteries with an external diameter > 100 mum have a decreased medial thickness, lower cell nuclei density, and greater elastic fiber density when compared with arteries with external diameter 100 mum. Prenatal treatments with tracheal ligation or intra-amniotic administration of dexamethasone or surfactant prevented these changes. In arteries with external diameter OBJETIVO: Caracterização das alterações estruturais que ocorrem nas artérias pulmonares de fetos de coelho com hérnia diafragmática congênita produzida com cirurgia, com destaque especial aos efeitos preventivos da ligadura de traquéia ou administração intra-amniótica de dexametasona ou surfactante. MÉTODOS: Vinte fetos de coelho foram submetidos a cirurgia para produção de hérnia diafragmática no 24º ou 25º dia de gestação. Os animais foram divididos de acordo com os procedimentos: hérnia diafragmática congênita (n = 5, hérnia diafragm
The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications
Following years of research there have been some significant developments in the understanding and subsequent support being offered to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) families. In addition, ground breaking advances in the treatment of premature infants, with specific interest in the role of human milk, are now available. New information was presented by leading international researcher, Professor Meier, at an international symposium earlier this year. This article seeks to share this insightful information and provide support to those working in or around the NICU.
Johnston, Karissa M; Gooch, Katherine; Korol, Ellen; Vo, Pamela; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Bradt, Pamela; Levy, Adrian
Preterm birth is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality among infants worldwide, and imposes considerable burden on health, education and social services, as well as on families and caregivers. Morbidity and mortality resulting from preterm birth is highest among early (prematurity due to the larger number of late preterm infants relative to early and moderate preterm infants. The aim in this study was to characterize the burden of premature birth in Canada for early, moderate, and late premature infants, including resource utilization, direct medical costs, parental out-of-pocket costs, education costs, and mortality, using a validated and published decision model from the UK, and adapting it to a Canadian setting based on analysis of administrative, population-based data from Québec. Two-year survival was estimated at 56.0% for early preterm infants, 92.8% for moderate preterm infants, and 98.4% for late preterm infants. Per infant resource utilization consistently decreased with age. For moderately preterm infants, hospital days ranged from 1.6 at age two to 0.09 at age ten. Cost per infant over the first ten years of life was estimated to be $67,467 for early preterm infants, $52,796 for moderate preterm infants, and $10,010 for late preterm infants. Based on population sizes this corresponds to total national costs of $123.3 million for early preterm infants, $255.6 million for moderate preterm infants, $208.2 million for late preterm infants, and $587.1 million for all infants. Premature birth results in significant infant morbidity, mortality, healthcare utilization and costs in Canada. A comprehensive decision-model based on analysis of a Canadian population-based administrative data source suggested that the greatest national-level burden is associated with moderate preterm infants due to both a large cost per infant and population size while the highest individual-level burden is in early preterm infants and the largest total population size is
Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki
at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE......), and sham-operated (Sham). Mice in CLPV and CLPE were injected with saline or edaravone intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily. The treatments were initiated 4 days prior to the surgical procedure. Mortality, histological changes, electron microscopy (EM), and expression of Bcl-2 family genes...
Fields, S J; Livshits, G; Sirotta, L; Merlob, P
The present study tested whether various sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and medical/physiological factors act in a direct or indirect manner on the risk of prematurity using path analysis on a sample of Israeli births. The path model shows that medical complications, primarily toxemia, chorioammionitis, and a previous low birth weight delivery directly and significantly act on the risk of prematurity as do low maternal pregnancy weight gain and ethnicity. Other medical complications, including chronic hypertension, preclampsia, and placental abruption, although significantly correlated with prematurity, act indirectly on prematurity through toxemia. The model further shows that the commonly accepted sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral risk factors act by modifying the development of medical complications that lead to prematurity as opposed to having a direct effect on premature delivery. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Petre Cotoras Viedma
Full Text Available Resumen La hemorragia digestiva alta variceal es una de las complicaciones más serias de la cirrosis hepática. Los betabloqueadores no selectivos y la ligadura endoscópica se consideran efectivos como estrategia de prevención primaria de hemorragia variceal, pero no hay consenso sobre cuál de las dos constituye la mejor opción. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos siete revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 21 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que la ligadura variceal probablemente disminuye el riesgo de sangrado digestivo variceal y se asocia a menos efectos adversos al ser comparada con betabloqueadores no selectivos, aunque probablemente no existen diferencias en términos de mortalidad.
Bygum, Anette; Westermark, Per; Brandrup, Flemming
Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of premature birth, thick caseous desquamating epidermis, and neonatal asphyxia. We describe two siblings with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. The index patient was born at gestational week 34. Immediately aft...... in the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum. Diagnosing this syndrome is important to reassure parents, obstetricians, and pediatricians about its benign course after complications in the perinatal period....
Nissenkorn, I; Kremer, I; Gilad, E; Cohen, S; Ben-Sira, I
Three premature infants observed to develop severe stage III retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3 to 5 weeks of age received immediate treatment by cryoablation and photocoagulation, with good results. The critical importance of the ophthalmic examination of premature babies from the age of 2 weeks, so as not to overlook such cases of 'rush' type ROP is stressed and the difficulty involved in treating such small neonates is discussed.
Rukholm, Gavin; Farrokhyar, Forough; Reid, Diane
1. To determine the prevalence of left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) post patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation at a Tertiary Care Centre. 2. To identify risk factors associated with LVCP. 3. To identify co-morbidities associated with LVCP. 4. To determine the frequency of pre- and post-operative nasopharyngolaryngoscopic (NPL) examination in this patient population. Retrospective chart review of all infants who underwent PDA ligation surgery at a tertiary care academic hospital between July 2003 and July 2010. Data on patient age, gender, weight, method of PDA ligation, and results of NPL scoping were collected, as well as patient co-morbidities post PDA ligation. One hundred and fifteen patients underwent PDA ligation surgery. Four patients were excluded due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Of the remaining 111 patients, nineteen patients (17.1%) were found to have LVCP. Low birth weight was identified as a significant risk factor for LVCP (p=0.002). Gastroesophageal reflux was identified as a significant co-morbidity associated with LVCP post PDA ligation (p=0.002). Only 0.9% of patients were scoped pre-operatively, and 27.9% were scoped postoperatively. LVCP is associated with multiple morbidities. The authors strongly recommend routine post-operative scoping of all patients post PDA ligation surgery, and preoperative scoping when possible. A prospective study is warranted, in order to confirm the prevalence of LVCP as well as risk factors and associated co-morbidities. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Preeti Patil Chhablani
Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.
Anna J Fenton
Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.
Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.
Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Akula, James D.; Fulton, Anne B.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP. PMID:27671171
Ohno, Tsutomu; Mizobe, Naoki; Takehiro, Hideo
Evaluation of the extracerebral space on CT resulted as follows: The existence of the etracerebral space in the parieto-occipital region (PO-ECS) was physiological findings characteristic to premature infants. Its incidence was higher and the width of the space was greater, in those of premature infants. Generally PO-ECS disappeared around 40 weeks of gestation, while it tended to remaine beyond 40 weeks in premature infants born after less than 30 weeks of pregnancy. The appearance and disappearance of the PO-ECS may present some approach to learning the development of the brain in premature infants. (Ueda, J.)
Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong
To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of astigmatism was significantly different between ROP (37.29%, 22/59) and controls (17.86%, 15/84). The corneal refractive power in ROP and non-ROP was more potent compared with controls (PPremature babies with or without ROP are susceptible to myopia and astigmatism. ROP, prematurity and low birth-weight synergistically influence the development of refractive status and optical components, of which the prematurity and low birth-weight are more important.
Pentelute, Brad L; Kent, Stephen B H
Increased versatility for the synthesis of proteins and peptides by native chemical ligation requires the ability to ligate at positions other than Cys. Here, we report that Raney nickel can be used under standard conditions for the selective desulfurization of Cys in the presence of Cys(Acm). This simple and practical tactic enables the more common Xaa-Ala junctions to be used as ligation sites for the chemical synthesis of Cys-containing peptides and proteins. [reaction: see text].
David G Nickens
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro selection of kinase ribozymes for small molecule metabolites, such as free nucleosides, will require partition systems that discriminate active from inactive RNA species. While nucleic acid catalysis of phosphoryl transfer is well established for phosphorylation of 5' or 2' OH of oligonucleotide substrates, phosphorylation of diffusible small molecules has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study demonstrates the ability of T4 DNA ligase to capture RNA strands in which a tethered monodeoxynucleoside has acquired a 5' phosphate. The ligation reaction therefore mimics the partition step of a selection for nucleoside kinase (deoxyribozymes. Ligation with tethered substrates was considerably slower than with nicked, fully duplex DNA, even though the deoxynucleotides at the ligation junction were Watson-Crick base paired in the tethered substrate. Ligation increased markedly when the bridging template strand contained unpaired spacer nucleotides across from the flexible tether, according to the trends: A(2>A(1>A(3>A(4>A(0>A(6>A(8>A(10 and T(2>T(3>T(4>T(6 approximately T(1>T(8>T(10. Bridging T's generally gave higher yield of ligated product than bridging A's. ATP concentrations above 33 microM accumulated adenylated intermediate and decreased yields of the gap-sealed product, likely due to re-adenylation of dissociated enzyme. Under optimized conditions, T4 DNA ligase efficiently (>90% joined a correctly paired, or TratioG wobble-paired, substrate on the 3' side of the ligation junction while discriminating approximately 100-fold against most mispaired substrates. Tethered dC and dG gave the highest ligation rates and yields, followed by tethered deoxyinosine (dI and dT, with the slowest reactions for tethered dA. The same kinetic trends were observed in ligase-mediated capture in complex reaction mixtures with multiple substrates. The "universal" analog 5-nitroindole (dNI did not support ligation when
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of GMOs on the global market the maintenance of European GMO regulations is becoming more complex. For the analysis of a single food or feed sample it is necessary to assess the sample for the presence of many GMO-targets simultaneously at a sensitive level. Several methods have been published regarding DNA-based multidetection. Multiplex ligation detection methods have been described that use the same basic approach: i hybridisation and ligation of specific probes, ii amplification of the ligated probes and iii detection and identification of the amplified products. Despite they all have this same basis, the published ligation methods differ radically. The present study investigated with real-time PCR whether these different ligation methods have any influence on the performance of the probes. Sensitivity and the specificity of the padlock probes (PLPs with the ligation protocol with the best performance were also tested and the selected method was initially validated in a laboratory exchange study. Results Of the ligation protocols tested in this study, the best results were obtained with the PPLMD I and PPLMD II protocols and no consistent differences between these two protocols were observed. Both protocols are based on padlock probe ligation combined with microarray detection. Twenty PLPs were tested for specificity and the best probes were subjected to further evaluation. Up to 13 targets were detected specifically and simultaneously. During the interlaboratory exchange study similar results were achieved by the two participating institutes (NIB, Slovenia, and RIKILT, the Netherlands. Conclusions From the comparison of ligation protocols it can be concluded that two protocols perform equally well on the basis of the selected set of PLPs. Using the most ideal parameters the multiplicity of one of the methods was tested and 13 targets were successfully and specifically detected. In the
Zhang, Jin; Wu, Dan; Xie, Cheng; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Rui; Xu, Li-Xian; Mei, Xiao-Peng
Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem. Drug treatments such as tramadol have been reported to effectively decrease neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. It has also been reported that modulating glial activation could also prevent or reverse neuropathic pain via the administration of a glial modulator or inhibitor, such as propentofylline. Thus far, there has been no clinical strategy incorporating both neuronal and glial participation for treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present research study was designed to assess whether coadministration of tramadol and propentofylline, as neuronal and glial activation inhibitors, respectively, would exert a synergistic effect on the reduction of rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. Rats underwent SNL surgery to induce neuropathic pain. Pain behavioral tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of drugs on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia with von-Frey hairs. Proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was also detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Intrathecal tramadol and propentofylline administered alone relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted a more potent effect in a synergistic and dose dependent manner than the intrathecal administration of either drug alone. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1β up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after the lesion, which was significantly decreased by tramadol and propentofylline coadministration. Inhibiting proinflammatory factor IL-1β contributed to the synergistic effects of tramadol and propentofylline coadministration on rat peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, our study provided a rationale for utilizing a novel strategy for treating neuropathic pain by blocking the proinflammatory factor related pathways in the central nervous system.
Morville, Patrice; Akhavi, Ahmad
The advent of Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional Size (ADOIIAS) provided the potential to close hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSPDA) and to analyze the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the device. Treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very premature neonates is still a dilemma for the neonatalogist who has to consider its significance and has to choose among different treatment options. Because surgical ligation and medical therapy both have their drawbacks, interventional catheterization might provide an alternative means of closing HSPDA. Between September 2013 and June 2015, 32 premature infants with complications related to HSPDA defined by ultrasound (US) underwent transcatheter closure. The procedure was performed in the catheterization laboratory by venous cannulation without angiography. The position of the occluder was directed by X-ray and US. In particular we looked at procedural details, device size selection, complications, and short and mid-term outcomes. Thirty two premature infants, all of whom had clinical complications related to HSPDA, born at gestational ages ranging between 23.6 and 36 weeks (mean ± standard deviation 28 ± 3 weeks) underwent attempted transcatheter PDA closure using the ADOIIAS. Their mean age and weight at the time of procedure was 25 days (range 8-70 days) and 1373 g (range 680-2480 g), respectively. Ten infants weighed ≤1,000g. All ducts were tubular. The mean PDA and device waist diameters were 3.2 ± 0.6mm (range 2.2-4) and 4.4 ± 0.6 mm, respectively, and the mean PDA and device lengths 5.2 ± 2.0 mm (range 2-10) and 3.4 ± 1.3 mm. Median fluoroscopy and procedural times were 11 min (range 3-24) and 28 min (range 10-90), respectively. Complete closure was achieved in all but one patient. There was no device migration. A left pulmonary artery (LPA) obstruction developed in one patient. Five infants died. Four deaths were related to complications of
Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon
American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gazula, Suhasini; Pawar, D K; Seth, T; Bal, C S; Bhatnagar, V
To objectively demonstrate the gain in blood volume and blood components following early ligation of splenic artery during splenectomy and splenorenal shunts in children with extra hepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO). Twenty-eight children (20 males and 8 females, mean age: 9.9 (+/-3.2) years) with EHPVO and hypersplenism were recruited. We followed a protocol of systematically locating and ligating the splenic artery first, followed by a 30-minute waiting period to allow the massive spleen to decongest via the splenic vein and venous collaterals and then completing the splenectomy by standard procedure. No intravenous fluid was administered during this 30-minute period. Blood samples were drawn just prior to splenic artery ligation and soon after splenectomy for the estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. We noticed a highly significant increase in the hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte, platelet, and RBC counts by early ligation of the splenic artery (p platelet count was equivalent to a platelet transfusion of atleast 4 units of platelet concentrates in an adult. There is a positive correlation between the splenic weight and the platelet gain (p= 0.0568) and the splenic volume on preoperative imaging and the platelet gain (p= 0.0251). Early ligation of the splenic artery during splenectomy results in passive splenic decongestion and thereby a significant gain in blood components. This protocol appears to be a feasible blood conservation method to avoid blood transfusions in this group of hypersplenic EHPVO patients.
Lee, Hye Won; Yoon, Yup; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Rim, Hyeong Teck; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Seok Hwan
To evaluate the role of bile duct obstuction in the development of atrophy of the liver, using an animal model. Seven rabbits were divided into two groups: group 1(n=3D5), in which there was selective bile duct ligation, and group 2(n=3D2), which underwent a sham operation. Each group was evaluated using CT for changes in hepatic volume after selective bile duct ligation or a sham operation. In group I, the diameter of dilated bile duct was measured 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after bile duct ligation, while gross and histologic change were evaluated in all cases. In group 1, bile duct dilatation was seen on CT two weeks after selective bile duct ligation, and did not change significantly during follow-up. In four of five cases, CT revealed no evidence of significant atrophy of the involved segment. Pathologic specimens, however, revealed dilatation of the bile duct, periductal fibrosis, infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells, and periportal fibrosis. One of five cases showed segmental liver atrophy after selective bile duct ligation. In addion to the above pathologic findings, there was obstruction of the portal vein by foreign body reaction. In group 2, no evidence of dilated bile duct or liver atrophy was revealed by CT or pathologic specimen after a sham operation. During long-term follow-up of 16 weeks, obstruction of the bile duct did not play a major role in the development of lobar atrophy in the rabbit.=20
Jiao, Kun; Sun, Quan; Chen, Baian; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing
Vitamin K1 is used as a liver protection drug for cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis in China, but the mechanism of vitamin K1's action in liver fibrosis is unclear. In this study, a model of liver fibrosis was achieved via bile duct ligation in rats. The rats were then injected with vitamin K1, and the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and the fibrotic grade score, collagen content, the expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) were measured on day 28 after ligation. The levels of the biochemical parameters, fibrotic score and collagen content were significantly reduced by treatment with vitamin K1 in bile duct-ligated rats. In addition, α-SMA and CK19 expression was significantly reduced by vitamin K1 treatment in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggested that vitamin K1 may attenuate liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation in bile duct-ligated rats.
Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Yoon Gyu; Moon, Ki Ho; Lee, Suek Hong; Kim, Byung Soo; Han, Gun Taik
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphologic changes of the injured hepatic acini following ligation of common bile duct and to investigate the pathophysiologic process of hepatic failure and biliary liver cirrhosis in the extrahepatic cholestasis. The common bile ducts of 18 rabbits were ligated partially. The rabbits were killed and selective microangiography was carried out with infusion of barium suspensio via portal vein 4 to 24 weeks after ligation. Selective microangiography was also carried out in two normal rabbits. The microangiographic findings were evaluated and correlated with histopathologic features. The sinusoids of the liver acinus showed distortion, varying degrees of luminal widening, and irregularities in architecture. Terminal branches of the portal vein (TPV) showed increased number of branches, luminal narrowing, tortuosity, distortion, and beaded appearance. Peribiliary plexi were found as thin curvilinear, barium-filled structures along the wall of the dilated bile duct. The microangiographic findings were well correlated with histopathologic findings. The grades of microangiographic and histopathologic findings were poorly correlated with the duration of the ligation of CBD. Changes in microvasculature of the liver scinus following partial ligation of common bile duct were demonstrated by microangiography. Although the microvascular changes were evoked secondary to the injury, they might have some active roles in the pathophysiologic process in the liver
Aragón, Mônica L S Castro; Lima, Leandro Santiago; Normando, David
Debris buildup on brackets and arch surfaces is one of the main factors that can influence the intensity of friction between bracket and orthodontic wire. This study sought to evaluate the effect of air-powder polishing cleaning on debris levels of self-ligating ceramic brackets at the end of orthodontic treatment, compared to the behavior of conventional brackets. Debris levels were evaluated in metal conventional orthodontic brackets (n = 42) and ceramic self-ligating brackets (n = 42) on canines and premolars, arranged in pairs. There were brackets with and without air-powder polishing. At the end of orthodontic treatment, a hemiarch served as control and the contralateral hemiarch underwent prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Debris buildup in bracket slots was assessed through images, and Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the results. The median debris levels were statistically lower in the conventional metal brackets compared to self-ligating ones (p = 0.02), regarding brackets not submitted to air-powder polishing. Polishing significantly reduced debris buildup to zero in both systems, without differences between groups. Ceramic self-ligating brackets have a higher debris buildup in comparison to conventional metal brackets in vivo, but prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet was effective in reducing debris levels in self-ligating and also in conventional brackets.
Saporito, I; Butti, A C; Salvato, A; Biagi, R
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of space closure of two bracket systems, self-ligating and conventional ones, considering two systems with the same design and prescription. The experimental model of this study aims to identify in general if one type of system is more suitable for planning the extractive therapy, without considering the clinical aspect necessary for an adequate orthodontic approach. A resin maxilla without the first premolars was used to test the self-ligating and conventional brackets system. Space closure was achieved on 0.016x0.022" in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs 150 grams in strength and 10 mm in length. Two experiment settings have been prepared. The first setting was made bonding conventional bracket on the right side and self-ligating on the left; the last one was made bonding self-ligating bracket on the right side and conventional on the left. All measurements (runs) have been repeated seven times for both settings. During the closing phase of extraction spaces both systems are equable since there are no significant statistical differences (P=0.70). Our typodont model showed no significant difference in the efficiency of space closure between the self-ligating bracket and conventional bracket tied with stainless steel ligatures.
Full Text Available Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy and ligation are standard treatment modalities used for the management of esophageal varices. Reportedly, sclerotherapy and ligation are associated with complications such as hematuria, pulmonary thrombus formation, pleural effusion, renal dysfunction, and esophageal stenosis. However, hemothorax following sclerotherapy and ligation has not yet been reported. We treated a patient who presented with liver cirrhosis and polycythemia vera and later developed hemothorax following the above-mentioned procedures. An 86-year-old man diagnosed with liver cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis type B and alcohol abuse underwent variceal sclerotherapy using ethanolamine oleate to treat his esophageal varices. Oozing from the esophageal varices continued even after the sclerotherapy procedure; therefore, we performed endoscopic variceal ligation. The patient developed left-sided hemothorax within 24 h after treatment of his varices, and an emergency thoracotomy was performed. A pulmonary ligament of the left lung was bulging and ripping because of mediastinal hematoma, and oozing was noted. Cessation of bleeding was noted after the laceration of the left pulmonary ligament had been sutured. Ours is the first case of hemothorax reported in a patient following an uncomplicated procedure of sclerotherapy and ligation.
Alnahwi, Hassan H; Donly, Kevin J; Contreras, Claudia I
This study was designed to evaluate the amount of space loss (SL) caused by premature loss of primary second molars, determine whether the eruption status of permanent first molars is an important factor in the amount of SL, and evaluate the effectiveness of space maintainers (SMs) in SL prevention. SL associated with 100 prematurely extracted primary second molars was evaluated in 87 healthy patients. Teeth were divided into groups based on the use of SMs (36 with SM and 64 without SM). Bitewing and periapical radiographs taken before extraction and 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after extraction were used to determine the amount of SL. Not every patient attended every recall appointment, so the sample size varied at different evaluation times. The most significant amount of SL occurred in the first 12 months after extraction. In patients who did not use an SM, at 6 months there was a mean SL of 2.12 mm (SD, 1.65 mm) and at 12 months there was a mean of 4.02 mm (SD, 1.65), with significantly more SL in the first 6 months (P 0.05). When patients without an SM were grouped by the eruption status of the permanent first molar, there was significantly more SL in the groups with unerupted first molars than there was in the groups with erupted first molars at both 6 months (P < 0.001) and 12 months (P < 0.05). At both 6 and 12 months, the amount of SL in patients who had an SM (n = 13 and n = 14, respectively) was not significantly different from the amount of SL in those who did not have an SM (n = 33 and n = 23, respectively). SMs should be placed as soon as possible following tooth extraction to prevent undue SL. Placement of an SM a year or more after extraction has minimal benefit, since most SL takes place within the first year. SL does occur even when SMs are used.
Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C
Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari
Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane
Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Słopień, Radosław
Among the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) two groups of factors are reported: factors which lead to decrease of follicular number and factors which stimulate follicular atresia. In the first group genetic factors are the most important whereas in the second: enzymatic autoimmunological, iatrogenic, toxins and infections are reported. In 1986 familiar POF on the background of long arm of chromosome X deletion was reported. Other chromosomes which are important for normal ovarian function are: chromosome 21 (AIRE gene), chromosome 11 (gene of beta FSH, ATM gene), chromosome 3 (gene responsible for BEPS syndrome) and chromosome 2 (genes of FSH and LH receptors). In this review the role of these genes and results of several epidemiological studies are reported.
Laparoscopic splenectomy is a well described gold standard procedure for various indications. One of the key steps during laparoscopic splenectomy is the hilar pedicle vessels control, which can be challenging in most cases. Most centres around the world recommend the use Ligaclib or endovascular staplers as Methods of choice for hilar pedicle control but the issue is the cost and efficiency of the laparoscopic haemostatic devices. A descriptive retrospective study of patients who had laparoscopic splenectomy from 2013 to present. Hilar splenic vessel control was done with suture ligation. We looked at outcomes of patients offered this technique, complications of this technique, and describing the technique of hilar control in laparoscopic splenectomy. Total of 27 patients had laparoscopic splenectomy with splenic hilar pedicle control with suture ligation. Mean operative time, mean blood volume loss, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications conversion to laparotomy. Laparoscopic hilar pedicle control with suture ligation is safe and effective for the patient in our hospital setting.
Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Bakholdt, Vivi
BACKGROUND: Recurrent lymphocele following groin dissection is generally a self-limiting condition, but in a few cases, the lymphocele persists and for this, there are not many options. Few reports have proposed the efficacy of lymph vessel ligation with patent blue as a vessel locator. We have......, and their data was retrieved from electronic patient records. RESULTS: In total, eight patients had this procedure performed for a total of ten inguinal regions. In all regions, leaking lymph vessels were easily found by the blue color and a median of 3 (range 1-5 vessels) vessels per region were ligated using...... and had the procedure performed again with immediate effect. CONCLUSIONS: Ligation of lymph vessels for the treatment of recurrent inguinal lymphoceles appears to be an appropriate treatment modality that is both quick and easy to perform with minimum risk, and in most cases, it results in immediate...
Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, 789 Howard Avenue, P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)
Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)
Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R.
Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)
Patronas, N.J.; Tsuchimoch, M.; Webber, R.; Ruttimann, U.; Fox, P.; Bacher, J.; Schellinger, D.
This paper presents an assessment of the usefulness of MR imaging in pathologic conditions of the salivary gland. The authors performed MR imaging in six dogs after ductal ligation on one side, followed by secretory stimulation with intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (5 mg/kg). On the images obtained after ductal ligation and before stimulation, there was no significant change in the signal intensity on either side. After injection of pilocarpine, however, T2-weighted images showed an obvious increase in signal intensity of the ligated gland in every instance. Their results indicate that MR images obtained after pilocarpine stimulation will be useful to study patients with ductal obstruction and that they may provide an objective basis for a noninvasive diagnostic test for unilateral stenosis
Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ
Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with
Stern, Marilyn; Hildebrandt, Katherine A.
Two studies were conducted in which college students and mothers were asked to rate unfamiliar infants shown on videotapes. Infants were described as either full-term or premature and as either male or female. Infants labeled premature were rated more negatively than those labeled full-term, but infants labeled male and female were rated…
Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis not only causes premature deliveries, but is also associated with neonatal complications and increased mortality. Clinical findings and infectious markers in mother or infant do not predict the diagnosis of histological chorioamnionitis. Therefore, placental histopathology may have a role in predicting neonatal outcome in premature deliveries, especially those below 30 weeks.
Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G
The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....
Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…
Khodabux, Chantal Muriel
In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite
Flores, F X; Ojeda, F J; Calhoun, D A
Reports of Bartter syndrome in premature neonates are rare. We describe the presentation and clinical course of a neonate born at 25.6 weeks estimated gestational age with polyuria, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria ,who was diagnosed with neonatal Bartter syndrome. The evaluation, diagnosis and management of neonatal Bartter syndrome in this premature neonate are discussed.
Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian
Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.
MONTEIRO, Maria Regina Guerra; da SILVA, Licinio Esmeraldo; ELIAS, Carlos Nelson; VILELLA, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos
Objective To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material. PMID:25025564
Maria Regina Guerra MONTEIRO
Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M. The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil. The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.
Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J
Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.
Taranath, Deepa A; Oh, Dickson D-S; Keane, Miriam C; Fabel, Helen; Marshall, Peter
Criteria for screening preterm infants for retinopathy of prematurity vary around the world. We aimed to analyse the efficacy of alternative screening criteria. We collected retrospective data at a tertiary level neonatal nursery. Our participants were 1007 babies, born between 1997 and 2011, at prematurity. We determined whether disease would be detected using an alternative Australian screening model (gestational age prematurity is our main outcome. Using several of the alternative criteria, two neonates with clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity, one of whom required laser treatment to preserve sight, would not have been screened, and their disease may have gone undetected. Use of prematurity may risk clinically significant cases being missed and others may screen babies unnecessarily. Alternative criteria should be considered and '<30 weeks gestational age and/or <1500 g birth weight' appears a viable option. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
M. I. Ziborova
Full Text Available This article considers the psychophysiological and neuroendocrine differences characteristic of premature children, which are as a result of long-term perinatal consequences. Particular emphasis is laid on the effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress system, the performance of which is reprogramed during complicated pregnancy, labor, and postnatal period under pain stress due to medical manipulations. Being extremely sensitive to all these exposures, the brain of a premature infant develops during activation of the stress system and takes on a few distinctive properties in addition to independent neuroanatomical distinctions due to premature birth. The altered neurohormonal patterns revealed in very prematurely born children and adolescents involve the regulation of mental processes, behavior, metabolism, and circadian rhythms (sleep-wake regulation, which differ from those in their maturely born peers. These cases allow learning and behavior problems and lower cognitive estimates to be considered in normally developing children born extremely prematurely who have also hormonal dysregulation.
Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth
Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P prematurity, because prematurity is an outcome of preeclampsia.
Rhomberg, W.; Schuster, A.
Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria
Herth, Matthias Manfred; Andersen, Valdemar L.; Lehel, Szabolcs
Tetrazine–trans-cyclooctene ligations are remarkably fast and selective reactions even at low micro-molar concentrations. In bioorthogonal radiochemistry, tools that enable conjugation of radioactive probes to pre-targeted vectors are of great interest. Herein, we describe the successful developm......Tetrazine–trans-cyclooctene ligations are remarkably fast and selective reactions even at low micro-molar concentrations. In bioorthogonal radiochemistry, tools that enable conjugation of radioactive probes to pre-targeted vectors are of great interest. Herein, we describe the successful...
Lundberg, Martin; Thorsen, Stine Buch; Assarsson, Erika
A high throughput protein biomarker discovery tool has been developed based on multiplexed proximity ligation assays (PLA) in a homogeneous format in the sense of no washing steps. The platform consists of four 24-plex panels profiling 74 putative biomarkers with sub pM sensitivity each consuming...... sequences are united by DNA ligation upon simultaneous target binding forming a PCR amplicon. Multiplex PLA thereby converts multiple target analytes into real-time PCR amplicons that are individually quantificatied using microfluidic high capacity qPCR in nano liter volumes. The assay shows excellent...
Leke, Renata; de Oliveira, Diogo L; Mussulini, Ben Hur M.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) arises from acute or chronic liver diseases and leads to several problems, including motor impairment. Animal models of chronic liver disease have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this disease. Impairment of locomotor activity has been described in different...... female Wistar rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL rats) or the manipulation of common bile duct without ligation (control rats). Six weeks after surgery, control and BDL rats underwent open-field, plus-maze and foot-fault behavioral tasks. The BDL rats developed chronic liver failure...
Sorenson, Thomas J; La Pira, Biagia; Hughes, Joshua; Lanzino, Giuseppe
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the craniocervical junction are uncommon vascular lesions, which often require surgical treatment even in the endovascular era. Most commonly, the fistula is placed laterally, and surgical ligation is performed through a lateral suboccipital craniotomy. After dural opening, the area is inspected, and the arterialized vein is identified emerging from the dura, often adjacent to the entry point of the vertebral artery, and ligated. A far lateral craniotomy is the authors' preferred surgical approach for accessing and treating dural arteriovenous fistulas of the craniocervical junction that cannot be reached endovascularly.
In this communication we report the synthesis of novel titanium and zirconium complexes ligated by bidentate "salicylaldimine-like" N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Double addition of the NHC chelate to either TiCl4(thf)2 or ZrCl4 forms bis-ligated organometallic fragments with a distorted octahedral geometry. These complexes are rare examples of group IV transition-metal NHC adducts. Preliminary catalytic tests demonstrate that in the presence of methylaluminoxane (MAO) these complexes are useful initiators for the polymerization of ethylene and the copolymerization of ethylene with norbornene and 1-octene. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A new simple scheme for constructing recombinant vectors that does not require any restriction enzyme, ligase, or any other special enzyme treatment has been developed. By using caged primers in PCR, unnatural sticky-ends of any sequence, which are sufficiently long for ligation-independent cloning (LIC, are directly prepared on the product after a brief UVA irradiation. Target genes and vectors amplified by this light-assisted cohesive-ending (LACE PCR join together in the desired arrangement in a simple mixture of them, tightly enough to be repaired and ligated in competent cells.
Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.
S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; J.N. van den Anker (John); M. Laughon (Matthew); R.H. Clark; P.B. Smith; C.P. Hornik
textabstractObjective: To examine the effect of sildenafil therapy on development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring surgical intervention in premature infants. Study Design: We identified premature infants who were discharged from Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care
Coronel, R.; Fiolet, J. W.; Wilms-Schopman, J. G.; Opthof, T.; Schaapherder, A. F.; Janse, M. J.
We studied the relation between [K+]o and the electrophysiologic changes during a "Harris two-stage ligation," which is an occlusion of a coronary artery, preceded by a 30-minute period of 50% reduction of flow through the artery. This two-stage ligation has been reported to be antiarrhythmic. Local
Bentsen, K D; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Boesby, S
before and during a 4-h period after ligation of the common bile duct was assessed from serum PIIINP concentrations in a systemic artery, the portal vein and a hepatic vein of seven healthy anaesthetized pigs. Seven sham-operated anaesthetized pigs served as controls. Ligation of the bile duct did...
Szczupakowski, Alexandra; Reimann, Susanne; Dirk, Cornelius; Keilig, Ludger; Weber, Anna; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph
Self-ligating brackets are widely believed to offer better clinical efficiency and, in particular, less friction. Thus, the goal of this in vitro investigation was to assess the friction behavior of different bracket/archwire/ligature combinations during simulated canine retraction. An important aspect of this work was to determine whether conventional bracket systems behave differently in passive or active self-ligating brackets used with a Slide™ ligature, an elastic ligature, or a steel ligature. Three conventional (Contour, Class One; Discovery(®), Dentaurum; Mystique MB, GAC) and six self-ligating (Carriere SL, Class One; Clarity™ SL, 3M Unitek; Damon3, Ormco; In-Ovation(®) C, GAC; Speed Appliance, Speed System™; QuicKlear(®), Forestadent(®)) bracket systems were analyzed. All brackets featured a 0.022″ slot (0.56 mm). Each conventional system was tested with a steel ligature (0.25 mm; Remanium(®), Dentaurum), an elastic ligature (1.3 mm in diameter; Dentalastics, Dentaurum), and a modified elastic ligature (Slide™; Leone(®)). Each combination was used with four archwires, including rectangular stainless steel (0.46 × 0.64 mm, 0.018 × 0.025″, Dentaurum), rectangular nickel-titanium with Teflon coating (0.46 × 0.64 mm, 0.018 × 0.025″, Forestadent(®)), round coaxial nickel-titanium (0.46 mm, 0.018″, Speed), and half-round/half-square (D-profile) stainless steel (0.46 mm, 0.018″, Speed). In the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS), retraction of a canine was simulated on a Frasaco model replicated in resin. Based on the force systems, the respective friction values were determined. For each combination of materials, five brackets of the same type were tested and five single measurements performed. Friction values were found to vary distinctly with the different combinations, modifiers being the ligature systems and the archwire types. Any significant friction differences between the steel-ligated, Slide™-ligated
Ding, X B; Tang, W W; Mao, D Q; Jiao, Y; Shen, Z Z
Objective: To analyze the premature death probability and cause-eliminated life expectancy of cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes in Chongqing residents in 2016 so as to provide recommendation for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevention and control in Chongqing. Methods: Death cases of Chongqing Municipality between January 1(st) and December 31(st), 2016 were reported through death case registry system of national center for disease prevention and control. Death cases were sorted by international classification of disease (ICD-10). Mortality rate, standardized mortality rate, constituent ratio, premature death probability, life expectancy, and cause-eliminated life expectancy of four major NCDs were analyzed. Results: A total of 218 004 death cases were reported in Chongqing, 2016, and the mortality rate was 731.73/100 000. Of them, a total of 179 637 death cases of the four major NCDs including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes were reported, accounting for 82.40% of all death cases. The mortality rate and standardized mortality rate of four major NCDs was 602.95/100 000 and 455.82/100 000, respectively. The premature death probability of four major NCDs was 15.96%, and males (25.39%) had a higher premature death probability than females (10.78%). The premature death probability of cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes were 6.01%, 8.32%, 2.05%, and 0.43%, respectively. Life expectancy would increase by 6.02, 3.19, 1.89, and 0.19 years, after eliminating cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes respectively. Conclusion: The premature death probability of major NCDs was high in Chongqing, and males had a higher premature death probability than females did. Intervention and health management of the population should be conducted according to different gender-based risk factors to reduce the premature death probability.
Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children born at term achieved better results in the majority of tests. The comparison of girls and boys born prematurely and at term showed no statistically significant difference between them in terms of dynamic balance, static balance or total balance control. The comparison of the tests performed on the right and left lower limb in prematurely born children showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Premature birth affects the ability to maintain body balance. The results of the study indicate the need to develop coordination skills that shape body balance in prematurely born children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of preterm labour has risen over the last few years. Hence, there is growing interest in the identification of markers that may facilitate prediction and prevention of premature birth complications. Here, we studied the association of the number of circulating stem cell populations with the incidence of complications typical of prematurity. Methods The study groups consisted of 90 preterm (23–36 weeks of gestational age and 52 full-term (37–41 weeks infants. Non-hematopoietic stem cells (non-HSCs; CD45-lin-CD184+, enriched in very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs, expressing pluripotent (Oct-4, Nanog, early neural (β-III-tubulin, and oligodendrocyte lineage (Olig-1 genes as well as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs; CD45+lin-CD184+, and circulating stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs; CD133+CD34+; CD133-CD34+ in association with characteristics of prematurity and preterm morbidity were analyzed in cord blood (CB and peripheral blood (PB until the sixth week after delivery. Phenotype analysis was performed using flow cytometry methods. Clonogenic assays suitable for detection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells were also applied. The quantitative parameters were compared between groups by the Mann–Whitney test and between time points by the Friedman test. Fisher’s exact test was used for qualitative variables. Results We found that the number of CB non-HSCs/VSELs is inversely associated with the birth weight of preterm infants. More notably, a high number of CB HSCs is strongly associated with a lower risk of prematurity complications including intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, infections, and anemia. The number of HSCs remains stable for the first six weeks of postnatal life. Besides, the number of CSPCs in CB is significantly higher in preterm infants than in full-term neonates (p Conclusion We conclude that CB HSCs are markedly associated with the development of premature
P. V. Rozental’
Full Text Available During more than 70 years retinopathy of premature infants (previously — retrolental retinopathy has been one of the main problems in neonatology practice. This is caused firstly by the high risk of blindness development and visual disability and secondly — by the steady increase of health care allowing infants previously believed to be incurable to survive. Success in prevention of development of severe forms of this disorder nowadays depends not only on knowledge and experience of pediatric ophthalmologists. To the great extent it is associated to efforts and awareness of all levels of medical care participating in management of premature infants: from maternity hospitals, including departments of intensity care and neonatology, to out-patients clinics. According to the review of modern literature the article contains the main data on etiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, classification, clinical manifestation, diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of retinopathy of premature infants. The author also noted the tendencies to reveal the disease in the modern history of the Russian Federation. It is important to say, that urgency of this problem in the Russian Federation has significantly raised during the last years due to switch since the 1st January 2012 to the live birth criteria recommended by the World Health Organization.
S. V. Il'ina
Full Text Available Study aim: analyzing the results of pneumococcal infection vaccination conducted to reduce infantile morbidity and mortality in 2011-2012 at the expenses of the Irkutsk municipal budget. Patients and methods. Vaccination using the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was conducted for more than 700 risk group children: premature infants, children with congenital heart diseases or bronchopulmonary dysplasia from 2 months to 2 years of age. 193 vaccinated children had been observed for 1.5 years. 30% of premature infants and 46% of children with congenital heart diseases were vaccinated using the PCV7/PCV13 vaccine at the age of 2-6 months, 52 and 40% - at the age of 7-11 months, accordingly. The PCV7/PCV13 vaccine was administered together with other vaccines of the national preventive vaccination calendar in 65% of cases. Results. Rate of general post-vaccinal reactions (body temperature increase from 37.6 to 38.0oC – 4%; no local reactions were registered. No other unfavorable phenomena were noted in the post-vaccinal period. No cases of pneumonia, meningitis, acute otitis media and bronchoobstructive syndrome were registered within the observation period. Conclusions: pneumococcal infection vaccination of premature infants with congenital heart diseases and bronchopulmonary dysplasia conducted in Irkutsk proved high efficacy and safety of the used vaccine – PCV7/PCV13.
Si, Yang; Chen, Deng; Tian, Linyu; Mu, Jie; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ling; Deng, Ying; He, Jun; Li, You; He, Li; Zhou, Dong
This longitudinal prospective study updated a previous report on premature mortality and focused on the risk factors among patients with convulsive epilepsy in resource-poor settings. The present cohort size (7,231) and follow-up (mean 33.4 months) were expanded. The basic epidemiologic aspects of this cohort were similar to the original report (case fatality: 3.26% vs. 2.97%, respectively; injury contributed more than half of the deaths). Cox regression analysis suggested that male patients, late ages of onset (>45 years old), short duration of epilepsy (2 per month) were independent risk factors for overall premature death. Male patients with late ages of onset and high seizure frequency had a higher risk of injury-specific death. This study emphasizes the preventable nature of injuries that are leading putative causes of death among people with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China. Education on specific populations and efficient seizure control are of paramount importance in reducing the risk of premature mortality. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.
Arnildo A. Hackenhaar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections.METHODS:this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression.RESULTS:of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge.CONCLUSIONS:the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.
Park, Kitae; Jung, Da-Woon; Kim, Ji-Yeon
A space maintainer is generally preferred when a primary first molar is lost before or during active eruption of the first permanent molars in order to prevent space loss. However, controversy prevails regarding the space loss after eruption of the permanent first molars. The purpose of this study was to examine spatial changes subsequent to premature loss of a maxillary primary first molar after the eruption of the permanent first molars. Thirteen children, five girls and eight boys, expecting premature extraction of a maxillary primary first molar because of caries and/or failed pulp therapy, were selected. Spatial changes were investigated using a three-dimensional laser scanner by comparing the primary molar space, arch width, arch length, and arch perimeter before and after the extraction of a maxillary primary first molar. Also, the inclination and angulation changes in the maxillary primary canines, primary second molars, and permanent first molars adjacent to the extraction site were investigated before and after the extraction of the maxillary primary first molar in order to examine the source of space loss. There was no statistically significant space loss on the extraction side compared to the control side (P = 0.33). No consistent findings were seen on the inclination and angulation changes on the extraction side. The premature loss of a maxillary primary first molar, in cases with class I molar relationship, has limited influence on the space in permanent dentition.
Jamil, M.; Usman, R.; Afzal, M.; Malik, N.I.
Objective: To find out the optimal primary surgical treatment options for infected pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug abusers. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Vascular Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Lahore, from Jan 2010 to Jun 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse and an infected pseudoaneurysm in the groin or elbow, presenting in emergency department; were included in this study. All patients were primarily treated with ligation of the artery, excision of infected pseudoaneurysm and debridement of necrotic tissues. Only one patient underwent additional revascularization procedure. Results: All patients who underwent ligation and excision procedures did well initially. One (3.2%) patient developed severe distal ischemia after ligation of femoral artery within first 24 hours, so extra anatomic revascularization procedure was performed. Five (16.1%) patients required revascularization procedure after 16 weeks due to disabling distal ischemia. No amputation was needed and mortality rate was zero. Conclusion: Primary ligation of the artery with excision of infected pseudoaneurysm and necrotic material was found the optimal initial management for infected pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts. Ischemic complications if develop should be treated with early or late revascularization.
Smits, Hermelijn H.; de Jong, Esther C.; Schuitemaker, Joost H. N.; Geijtenbeek, Theo B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Wierenga, Eddy A.
Th cell polarization toward Th1 or Th2 cells is strongly driven by exogenous cytokines, in particular IL-12 or IL-4, if present during activation by Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DC). However, additional Th cell polarizing mechanisms are induced by the ligation of cell surface molecules on DC and
Bagger, Sven; Wagner, Kim
pancreatic trypsin, and proteinase K from Tritirachium album was examined. The efficiency of the substrates was assessed by kinetic measurement of the partition between aminolysis and hydrolysis. The results are discussed with special reference to coulombic interactions between the metal-ligated substrates...
Background and Objective: To document bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) rate and highlight the need to improve on the rates. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of BTLs done in a five-year period from January 2000 to December 2004 constituted the study group. Results: There were a total of 103 BTLs, 58 were ...
Nielsen, M; Gerwien, J; Geisler, C
ligation induces homotypic adhesion in both beta2-integrin-positive and negative, CD4-positive T cell lines. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (mAb) weakly inhibited the adhesion response in beta2-integrin-positive T cells and had no effect on beta2-integrin-negative T cells. In contrast, an anti-CD58 (LFA-3...
Smeenk, L.E.J.; Dailly, N.; Hiemstra, H.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Timmerman, P.
The synthesis and applications of water-soluble scaffolds that conformationally constrain side chain unprotected linear peptides containing two cysteines are described. These scaffolds contain a functionality with orthogonal reactivity to be used for labeling and ligation. This is illustrated by the
Zawada, Zbigniew; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Bouř, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan; Stibor, Ivan
Roč. 14, č. 8 (2008), s. 76-77 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /30./. 31.08.2008-05.09.2008, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prion protein * neurodegenerative diseases * chemical synthesis * ligation conditions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Zawada, Z.; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Bednárová, Lucie; Bouř, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan; Stibor, Ivan
Roč. 37, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 44-44 ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins /11./. 03.08.2009-07.08.2009, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prion protein * SPPS * native chemical ligation * fragments Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
: The extracorporeal ligation of the rectum just proximal to the cut end of the rectum before applying the linear stapling stapler facilitates the procedure and requires only a few firings of the stapler during the laparoscopic rectal resections. Results: Ten patients with a median age of 72 years underwent rectal...
Context: The surgical management of fistula-in-ano is still debatable and no clear recommendations have been made available until now. The present study analyses the results of ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) technique in treating fistula-in-ano in particular with recurrence, healing time, and continence status.
Schierwagen, Robert; Leeming, Diana Julie; Klein, Sabine
reflect the stage of liver fibrosis and may allow monitoring of anti-fibrotic therapies. Here we analyzed these neo-epitopes as read-out for a liver directed therapy with statins. Methods: Bile duct ligation (BDL) was performed on wild type rats, which received atorvastatin (15 mg/kg(*)d) for 1 week...
Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.; Wianecka, M.; Dabrowski, Slawomir
A DNA fingerprinting method known as ALIS-FLP (amplified ligation selected fragment-length polymorphism) has been developed for selective and specific amplification of restriction fragments from TspRI restriction endonuclease digested genomic DNA. The method is similar to AFLP, but differs...
Aarts, Henk J.M.; Vos, Pieter; Larsson, Jonas T.
A proof of principle of a multi-target assay for genotyping Salmonella has been developed targeting 62 genomic marker sequences of Salmonella related to pathogenicity. The assay is based on multiplex ligation detection reaction (LDR) followed by customized ArrayTube® microarray detection. The fea...... assessors that support bio-traceability models....
Hammond, Maria; Nong, Rachel Yuan; Ericsson, Olle; Pardali, Katerina; Landegren, Ulf
Patterns of protein interactions provide important insights in basic biology, and their analysis plays an increasing role in drug development and diagnostics of disease. We have established a scalable technique to compare two biological samples for the levels of all pairwise interactions among a set of targeted protein molecules. The technique is a combination of the proximity ligation assay with readout via dual tag microarrays. In the proximity ligation assay protein identities are encoded as DNA sequences by attaching DNA oligonucleotides to antibodies directed against the proteins of interest. Upon binding by pairs of antibodies to proteins present in the same molecular complexes, ligation reactions give rise to reporter DNA molecules that contain the combined sequence information from the two DNA strands. The ligation reactions also serve to incorporate a sample barcode in the reporter molecules to allow for direct comparison between pairs of samples. The samples are evaluated using a dual tag microarray where information is decoded, revealing which pairs of tags that have become joined. As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that this approach can be used to detect a set of five proteins and their pairwise interactions both in cellular lysates and in fixed tissue culture cells. This paper provides a general strategy to analyze the extent of any pairwise interactions in large sets of molecules by decoding reporter DNA strands that identify the interacting molecules.
Zhao, Tingting; Lin, Chunshui; Yao, Qiuhong; Chen, Xi
In this work, we describe a new label-free, sensitive and highly selective strategy for the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of ATP at the picomolar level via ATP-induced ligation. The molecular-beacon like DNA probes (P12 complex) are self-assembled on a gold electrode. The presence of ATP leads to the ligation of P12 complex which blocks the digestion by Exonuclease III (Exo III). The protected P12 complex causes the intercalation of numerous ECL indicators (Ru(phen)3(2+)) into the duplex DNA grooves, resulting in significantly amplified ECL signal output. Since the ligating site of T4 DNA ligase and the nicking site of Exo III are the same, it involves no long time of incubation for conformation change. The proposed strategy combines the amplification power of enzyme and the inherent high sensitivity of the ECL technique and enables picomolar detection of ATP. The developed strategy also shows high selectivity against ATP analogs, which makes our new label-free and highly sensitive ligation-based method a useful addition to the amplified ATP detection arena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nichols, Brent G; Jabbour, Jad; Hehir, David A; Ghanayem, Nancy S; Beste, David; Martin, Timothy; Woods, Ronald; Robey, Thomas
Identify laryngoscopic and functional outcomes of infants with vocal fold immobility (VFI) following patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation and identify predictors of recovery. Retrospective review of patients with VFI following PDA ligation from 2001 to 2012 at a single institution. Inclusion criteria were: (1) PDA ligation as only cardiac surgical procedure; (2) left VFI documented by laryngoscopy; (3) minimum follow up 120 days, with at least 2 laryngoscopies performed. Resolution of VFI was determined at follow-up laryngoscopy. Univariate logistic regression models were used to identify variables associated with VFI recovery. 66 subjects were included with median follow up of 3.0 (± 2.1) years. The mean gestational age was 24.5 ± 1.4 weeks, mean birth weight 673 ± 167 g, and mean age at procedure was 18.6 ± 14.3 days. Patients presented with respiratory symptoms (39%), dysphonia (78%) and dysphagia (55%). Resolution of VFI was observed in 2/66 (3%) patients. Recovery was documented at 20 days and 11 months respectively. Respiratory symptoms, dysphagia, and dysphonia persisted at last follow up in 11%, 47%, and 20% of patients. VFI associated with ligation of the ductus arteriosus has a low rate of recovery. Clinical symptoms frequently persist, and as such regular follow-up by otolaryngologists to mitigate morbidity is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wallis de Vries, B. M.; van der Beek, E. S. J.; de Wijkerslooth, L. R. H.; van der Zwet, W. C.; van der Hoeven, J. A. B.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, M.; Eddes, E. H.
We evaluated the results of the Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal arterial ligation (DG-HAL) method in the management of symptomatic grade 2 and 3 hemorrhoids. Between June 2005 and March 2006, 110 consecutive patients with symptomatic grade 2 and 3 hemorrhoids according to the DG-HAL method were treated.
Zirak-Schmidt, Samira; Perdawood, Sharaf
INTRODUCTION: Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a sphincter-preserving procedure for treatment of anal fistulas described in 2007 by Rojanasakul et al. Several studies have since then assessed the procedure with varied results. This review assesses the relevant literature o...
Aarts, H.J.M.; Vos, P.; Larsson, J.T.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Huehn, S.; Weijers, T.; Gronlund, H.A.; Malorny, B.
A proof of principle of a multi-target assay for genotyping Salmonella has been developed targeting 62 genomic marker sequences of Salmonella related to pathogenicity. The assay is based on multiplex ligation detection reaction (LDR) followed by customized ArrayTube (R) microarray detection. The
Hammad Ali Qazi
Full Text Available Objective: Despite development of new contraceptive methods, sterilization remained the most widely used method. Our objective was to determine the factors contributing to decision making for tubal ligation in females.Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Jinnah Post graduate Medical Centre (JPMC between March - November 2008. About 505 Females using contraceptive measures were consecutively included. Those having any severe debilitating disease and unfamiliar with “urdu” language were excluded. Three trained co researchers conducted structured interviews to determine the frequency and factors associated with tubal ligation.Results: The final multiple logistic regression showed illiteracy [AOR 2.91 95% CI 1.53-5.53], number of children < 3 [AOR 6.15 95% CI 2.61-14.50], age of women < 30 [AOR 0.12 95% CI 0.06-0.22] years and information gained through health worker [AOR 3.04 95% CI 1.60-5.80] to be statistically significant.Conclusion: This highlights tubal ligation was more common in uneducated women of age > 35 years having <3 children. The most common means of promoting tubal ligation was information gained through health workers.
Araújo, Raíssa Costa; Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; Araujo, Adriana Monteiro de; Normando, David
To compare the degree of debris and friction of conventional and self-ligating orthodontic brackets before and after clinical use. Two sets of three conventional and self-ligating brackets were bonded from the first molar to the first premolar in eight individuals, for a total of 16 sets per type of brackets. A passive segment of 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted into each group of brackets. Frictional force and debris level were evaluated as received and after 8 weeks of intraoral exposure. Two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied at P brackets (P brackets showed a higher amount of debris compared with the conventional brackets. The frictional force in conventional brackets was significantly higher when compared with self-ligating brackets before clinical use (P brackets, when exposed to the intraoral environment, showed a significant increase in frictional force during the sliding mechanics. Debris accumulation was higher for the self-ligating system.
Folco, Alejandra A; Benítez-Rogé, Sandra C; Iglesias, Marina; Calabrese, Diana; Pelizardi, Cristina; Rosa, Alcira; Brusca, Marisa I; Hecht, Pedro; Mateu, María E
Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response.
Objective:We performed a multicenter study of preterm infants, who were about to undergo patent ductus arteriosus ligation, to determine whether echocardiographic indices of impaired myocardial performance were associated with subsequent development of catecholamine-resistant hypotension following ligation.Study Design:A standardized treatment approach for hypotension was followed at each center. Infants were considered to have catecholamine-resistant hypotension if their dopamine infusion was >15 μg kg(-1)min(-1). Echocardiograms and cortisol measurements were obtained between 6 and 14 h after the ligation (prior to the presence of catecholamine-resistant hypotension).Result:Forty-five infants were enrolled, 10 received catecholamines (6 were catecholamine-responsive and 4 developed catecholamine-resistant hypotension). Catecholamine-resistant hypotension was not associated with decreased preload, shortening fraction or ventricular output. Infants with catecholamine-resistant hypotension had significantly lower levels of systemic vascular resistance and postoperative cortisol concentration.Conclusion:We speculate that low cortisol levels and impaired vascular tone may have a more important role than impaired cardiac performance in post-ligation catecholamine-resistant hypotension.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 14 August 2014; doi:10.1038\\/jp.2014.151.
Fifty four percent of pts had PDA size 5-8mm.One patient died during reoperation . Conclusion: In developed countries , PDA is exclusively managed at infancy but in developing countries like ours, PDA may present in adults with symptoms and if there is no evidence of significant pulmonary hypertension ,PDA ligation is ...
El-Batta, Amer; Waltman, Andrew W.; Grubbs, Robert H.
In this communication we report the synthesis of novel titanium and zirconium complexes ligated by bidentate "salicylaldimine-like" N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Double addition of the NHC chelate to either TiCl4(thf)2 or ZrCl4 forms bis
I. V. Rakhmanova
Full Text Available Initial audiological test was performed in 136 premature children with various gestational age born from single fetation. The children were divided into 2 groups: prematures with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and prematures with normal weight for their gestational age (normotrophy. The study showed that the rate of passing the initial audiological test using the method of DPOAE was lower in both ears in children with IUGR, than in children with normotrophy. The correlation between the results of initial audiological test and birth weight was found: the lower was weight, the higher was risk of absence of acoustic response registration on initial examination.
Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder
of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners...... in early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....
Wang Jun; Yu Zheng-Feng
In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Guo, Li-jun; Ye, Rong-wei; Wang, Gui-xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-wen; Ren, Ai-guo
To understand the distribution of birth weight among premature infants and the associated social factors. The study population consisted of 97 537 women who delivered singleton live birth of 20 to 41 gestational weeks in 4 counties/cities, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China from 1995 to 2000. Chi-square test was employed to test the difference of proportions between respective groups. One- way ANOVA was used to test the differences regarding the mean of gestational weeks at the first prenatal visit and the mean of prenatal visits between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors associated with premature birth. Women aged 35 years had higher (8.8%) premature incidence than those aged less than 24 years (5.6%), 25 - 29 years (4.6%), or 30 - 34 years (4.5%, P premature incidence than those with height taller than 150 cm (5.0%). Women whose BMI were at least 28 and 24 - 28 had higher (5.5%, 5.5%) premature incidences than those whose BMI were 18.5 - 24.0 (5.0%), premature birth was 6.0% among women without previous pregnancy, higher than that among those women with 4 times of pregnancies (5.7%), 2 times of pregnancies (4.3%), and 3 times of pregnancies (4.0%). Parous women with at least two deliveries had higher (9.3%) premature incidence than the primiparous women (5.2%) and whose women with only one delivery (4.5%, P premature incidence than those who did not receive the service (6.1%). The mean times of prenatal visits among women with premature births was 8.53, less than that of those with full term delivery (10.97). Women with less than four times of prenatal visit had higher (18.9%) premature incidence than those with at least five prenatal visits (4.9%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that premature delivery risk was associated with age, height, BMI, gravidity, parity, early prenatal care, the mean of gestational weeks at first prenatal visit and the mean number of prenatal visits etc. Premature delivery
Jauch, E.T. [Beckwith Electric Company Inc., Largo, FL (United States)
Studies of premature load tap changer (LTC) transformer failures on utility systems have shown the tap changers to be the primary contributing factor. Some of the LTC factors that lead to transformer failures include oil quality and particulate contamination; LTC contact temperature rise; contact coking; carbon film build-up; short circuit mechanical forces; and contact wear and arcing. These factors create increasing contact resistance thereby increasing voltage drop, localized heating, contact pitting, oil contamination and general deterioration. This paper discussed utility tapchanger control practices and methods of determining control functions to be activated as well as the determination of optimum settings contributing to excessive or untimely tap change operations. The transformer applications that were considered included transmission tie transformers as well as transmission distribution interface transformers. The paper discussed the circulating current paralleling method and the circulating reactive current or var sharing paralleling method. Several common practices were discussed, including basic voltage control ranges and setting effects; timing options available; LDC misapplications; first house protection methods; and various paralleling techniques. It was concluded that although there are several other methods of paralleling power transformers, many are not applicable under certain system configurations. In these applications, improper use of a paralleling method or improper setting and commissioning may cause hunting for appropriate tap positions and dramatically increase the number of tap changes, causing wear and degradation of the tap changer contacts. 3 refs., 5 figs.
With increasing interest and clinical research in male sexual disorders, it has become clear that not only psychological but also organic, neurobiological, and genetic factors may play an important role in premature ejaculation (PE). This article provides an overview of the different treatment options both for lifelong (primary, "congenital") and acquired (secondary) PE. Review of the literature. Currently used treatment options for PE. Treatments reviewed include psychological/behavioral/sexual counseling therapy, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Before starting any therapy for PE, correct diagnosis has to be made considering the patient's reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the duration and type of PE. Concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) should be either ruled out or proven by appropriate means. In uncomplicated cases of PE with stable partnerships, medical treatment represents the first-choice option with a high likelihood of success. Dapoxetine, where available, or other SSRIs provide suitable therapeutic options with a good risk/benefit profile for patients. In complicated ("difficult-to-treat") PE patients, a combination of medication and sexual counseling should be considered the first treatment option. Combination therapies of PDE-5 inhibitors and PE-related medications should be offered to patients suffering from comorbid PE and ED, with ED treatment starting first. In those patients with severe PE-IELTs of IELT, compared with either monotherapy. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Di Fiore, Juliann M; Martin, Richard J; Gauda, Estelle B
With increased survival of preterm infants as young as 23 weeks gestation, maintaining adequate respiration and corresponding oxygenation represents a clinical challenge in this unique patient cohort. Respiratory instability characterized by apnea and periodic breathing occurs in premature infants because of immature development of the respiratory network. While short respiratory pauses and apnea may be of minimal consequence if oxygenation is maintained, they can be problematic if accompanied by chronic intermittent hypoxemia. Underdevelopment of the lung and the resultant lung injury that occurs in this population concurrent with respiratory instability creates the perfect storm leading to frequent episodes of profound and recurrent hypoxemia. Chronic intermittent hypoxemia contributes to the immediate and long term co-morbidities that occur in this population. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology leading to the perfect storm, diagnostic assessment of breathing instability in this unique population and therapeutic interventions that aim to stabilize breathing without contributing to tissue injury. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Renata Košir Pogačnik
Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.
Morville, Patrice; Douchin, Stephanie; Bouvaist, Helene; Dauphin, Claire
Over the last few decades different strategies have been proposed to treat persistent ductal patency in premature infants. The advent of the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II Additional Size (ADOIIAS) provided the potential to close the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Opinions differ on the significance and treatment of PDA in premature neonates. Because surgical ligation and medical therapy both have their drawbacks, interventional catheterisation can be considered as an alternative means of closing the ductus arteriosus. Our aim was to analyse the feasibility, safety and efficacy of this device in premature infants weighing closure. The procedure was performed in the catheterisation laboratory by venous cannulation without angiography. The position of the occluder was directed by X-ray and ultrasound. We looked at procedural details, device size selection, complications and short-term and mid-term outcomes. Eighteen infants born at gestational ages ranging between 23.6 and 29+6 weeks (mean±SD 25+6±3 weeks) underwent transcatheter PDA closure. Their mean age and weight at the time of the procedure was 20 days (range 8-44 days) and 980 g (range 680-1200 g), respectively. The mean PDA and device waist diameters were 3.2±0.6 mm (range 2.2-4 mm) and 4.5±0.6 mm, respectively, and the mean PDA and device lengths were 4.3±1.2 mm (range 2-10 mm) and 2.5±0.9 mm, respectively. Complete closure was achieved in all but one patient. There was no device migration. One patient developed a left pulmonary artery obstruction. Three infants died. Two deaths were related to complications of prematurity and one to the procedure. Transcatheter closure of a PDA is feasible in very low weight infants with ADOIIAS and is an alternative to surgery. Success requires perfect selection and placement of the occluder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless
Full Text Available Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of endogenous molecules and contaminant DNA templates, often originating from environmental microbes. These two populations of templates exhibit different chemical characteristics, with the former showing depurination and cytosine deamination by-products, resulting from post-mortem DNA damage. Such chemical modifications can interfere with the molecular tools used for building second-generation DNA libraries, and limit our ability to fully characterize the true complexity of ancient DNA extracts. In this study, we first use fresh DNA extracts to demonstrate that library preparation based on adapter ligation at AT-overhangs are biased against DNA templates starting with thymine residues, contrarily to blunt-end adapter ligation. We observe the same bias on fresh DNA extracts sheared on Bioruptor, Covaris and nebulizers. This contradicts previous reports suggesting that this bias could originate from the methods used for shearing DNA. This also suggests that AT-overhang adapter ligation efficiency is affected in a sequence-dependent manner and results in an uneven representation of different genomic contexts. We then show how this bias could affect the base composition of ancient DNA libraries prepared following AT-overhang ligation, mainly by limiting the ability to ligate DNA templates starting with thymines and therefore deaminated cytosines. This results in particular nucleotide misincorporation damage patterns, deviating from the signature generally expected for authenticating ancient sequence data. Consequently, we show that models adequate for estimating post-mortem DNA damage levels must be robust to the molecular tools used for building ancient DNA libraries.
Full Text Available Aim: To objectively demonstrate the gain in blood volume and blood components following early ligation of splenic artery during splenectomy and splenorenal shunts in children with extra hepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO. Methods: Twenty-eight children (20 males and 8 females, mean age: 9.9 (±3.2 years with EHPVO and hypersplenism were recruited. We followed a protocol of systematically locating and ligating the splenic artery first, followed by a 30-minute waiting period to allow the massive spleen to decongest via the splenic vein and venous collaterals and then completing the splenectomy by standard procedure. No intravenous fluid was administered during this 30-minute period. Blood samples were drawn just prior to splenic artery ligation and soon after splenectomy for the estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: We noticed a highly significant increase in the hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte, platelet, and RBC counts by early ligation of the splenic artery (p < 0.0004. The gain in hemoglobin and hematocrit was equivalent to a transfusion of atleast 100-150 ml of packed RBC. The increase in platelet count was equivalent to a platelet transfusion of atleast 4 units of platelet concentrates in an adult. There is a positive correlation between the splenic weight and the platelet gain (p= 0.0568 and the splenic volume on preoperative imaging and the platelet gain (p= 0.0251. Conclusion: Early ligation of the splenic artery during splenectomy results in passive splenic decongestion and thereby a significant gain in blood components. This protocol appears to be a feasible blood conservation method to avoid blood transfusions in this group of hypersplenic EHPVO patients.
The change of the parotid gland with time following ligation of the main duct was investigated. The duct-ligated parotid gland in rabbit was examined by salivary gland scintigraphy with 99m Tc-pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ), sialography and microscopic observation. The third day after ligation of the main duct, the outward form of the parotid gland on the static scintigram was not well-defined. On the seventh day, 99m TcO 4 - accumulation was decreased slightly. On the 14th day, atrophy of the parotid gland occurred. The degree of atrophy produced by ligation increases as the duration of the ligation increases. On the 42nd day, the presence of the parotid gland was not recorded practically. The main duct was dilated on the third day. On the seventh day, the intraglandular ducts were bent and strictured. Disappearance of the peripheral duct and atrophy of the parotid gland parenchyma was observed. On microscopic observation, the intraglandular tributaries and the lumen were dilated on the third day. And the reticular fiber was observed that was irregularly formed in parts. The acinar cells were pressed by large and small dilated lumen on the seventh day. On the 14th day, the collagenous fiber around the acini and the duct was increased still more. In addition, fibrosis of the lobule interspace was observed. The degree of atrophy of the acini and lobule was increased maximally on the 42nd day. These results of the salivary gland scintigraphy closely connected with sialograms and microscopic findings. The parotid gland tissue decreases and changings of the duct system were indicated by these imaging methods in detail. (author)
Miyano, Go; Miyahara, Katsumi; Halibieke, Abudebieke; Lane, Geoffrey J; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Yamataka, Atsuyuki
We tested our laparoscopy-assisted "open" ligation (LOL) technique on testicular vessels. We ligated the left testicular artery and vein (TAV) in 8-week-old male Wister rats using LOL (LOL group; n=10) or laparotomy (open group; n=10). In LOL, a 0-degree laparoscope was introduced through a 5-mm epigastric trocar. A 3-mm grasper was used to expose the left TAV. A lapa-her-closure (LHC) needle loaded with 3-0 SurgiPro was directly inserted into the left lower quadrant where the left TAV should be and advanced under the vessels, and the suture material was released leaving one end outside. The LHC was then withdrawn a little and advanced again over the vessels to grasp the end of the suture material just released to bring it outside. This was proximally repeated. The two ends of both sutures were conventionally tied outside, and the knot was passed through the insertion site and tightened around the vessels. In the open group, the left TAV were ligated using two 3-0 SurgiPro ties. In both groups, the right side was left intact. All rats were sacrificed 2 weeks postoperatively, and both testes were examined with hematoxylin and eosin. Treatment time was 5-7 minutes for LOL and 7-8 minutes for the open group. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. No adhesions were present between the ligated vessels and bowel in any rat. Histopathology of all left testes showed coagulative necrosis of germinal cells and seminiferous tubules; all right testes were normal. LOL appears to be as effective as open ligation and may find application for treating varicocele.
Stefanos, Sennay; Secchi, Antonino G; Coby, Guy; Tanna, Nipul; Mante, Francis K
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between active and passive self-ligating brackets and 0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel archwire during sliding mechanics by using an orthodontic sliding simulation device. Maxillary right first premolar active self-ligating brackets In-Ovation R, In-Ovation C (both, GAC International, Bohemia, NY), and SPEED (Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada), and passive self-ligating brackets SmartClip (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), Synergy R (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, Colo), and Damon 3mx (Ormco, Orange, Calif) with 0.022-in slots were used. Frictional force was measured by using an orthodontic sliding simulation device attached to a universal testing machine. Each bracket-archwire combination was tested 30 times at 0° angulation relative to the sliding direction. Statistical comparisons were performed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunn multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance was set at P <0.05. The Damon 3mx brackets had significantly the lowest mean static frictional force (8.6 g). The highest mean static frictional force was shown by the SPEED brackets (83.1 g). The other brackets were ranked as follows, from highest to lowest, In-Ovation R, In-Ovation C, SmartClip, and Synergy R. The mean static frictional forces were all statistically different. The ranking of the kinetic frictional forces of bracket-archwire combinations was the same as that for static frictional forces. All bracket-archwire combinations showed significantly different kinetic frictional forces except SmartClip and In-Ovation C, which were not significantly different from each other. Passive self-ligating brackets have lower static and kinetic frictional resistance than do active self-ligating brackets with 0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel wire. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang Qingqiao; Jiang Shiliang; Huang Lianjun; Zhao Shihua; Zheng Hong; Ling Jian; Jin Jinglin; Xu Zhongying; Xie Ruolan; Dai Ruping
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter closure of re-canalized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) after surgical ligation. Methods: Between June 1995 and November 2000, 14 patients (5 male, 9 female) with re-canalized PDA after surgical ligation underwent transcatheter closure, their median age was 13 years (range 4 to 48 years). The time between surgical ligation and the interventional procedure ranged from one month to twenty-two years. Implantations of Amplatzer duct occluder and Rashkind occluder were performed trans-venously. Cook coil occlusions was performed trans-arterially. Follow-up with X-ray radiograph and echocardiography was made 24 hours, 1, 3, 6 months, and more than 1 year after the procedure. Results: Twelve PDAs were of funnel shape, and the remaining two PDAs were of tubular shape. The median minimum diameter of re-canalized PDA after ligation was 4 mm (range 1 to 8 mm). Aortograms ten minutes after closure showed complete closure and trivial residual shunt in 11 and 3 patients, respectively. The technical success rate was 100%, and there were no complications. Echocardiography showed complete closure in all patients within 24 hours. All patients were discharged in one to two days after the procedure. At a follow-up of one to eighteen months in ten patients, there were no migration of devices and residual PDA. Conclusion: Transcatheter closure using Amplatzer duct occluder, coil (Cook company or Pfm company) and Rashkind occluder was an effective method for patients with re-canalized PDA after surgical ligation. It may be an alternative to second surgery owing to its safety, reliability, min-invasiveness, and short hospitalization
Qingqiao, Zhang; Shiliang, Jiang; Lianjun, Huang; Shihua, Zhao; Hong, Zheng; Jian, Ling; Jinglin, Jin; Zhongying, Xu; Ruolan, Xie; Ruping, Dai [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing Union Medical College, Beijing (China). Cardiovascular Inst. and Fuwai Hospital, Dept. of Radiology
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter closure of re-canalized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) after surgical ligation. Methods: Between June 1995 and November 2000, 14 patients (5 male, 9 female) with re-canalized PDA after surgical ligation underwent transcatheter closure, their median age was 13 years (range 4 to 48 years). The time between surgical ligation and the interventional procedure ranged from one month to twenty-two years. Implantations of Amplatzer duct occluder and Rashkind occluder were performed trans-venously. Cook coil occlusions was performed trans-arterially. Follow-up with X-ray radiograph and echocardiography was made 24 hours, 1, 3, 6 months, and more than 1 year after the procedure. Results: Twelve PDAs were of funnel shape, and the remaining two PDAs were of tubular shape. The median minimum diameter of re-canalized PDA after ligation was 4 mm (range 1 to 8 mm). Aortograms ten minutes after closure showed complete closure and trivial residual shunt in 11 and 3 patients, respectively. The technical success rate was 100%, and there were no complications. Echocardiography showed complete closure in all patients within 24 hours. All patients were discharged in one to two days after the procedure. At a follow-up of one to eighteen months in ten patients, there were no migration of devices and residual PDA. Conclusion: Transcatheter closure using Amplatzer duct occluder, coil (Cook company or Pfm company) and Rashkind occluder was an effective method for patients with re-canalized PDA after surgical ligation. It may be an alternative to second surgery owing to its safety, reliability, min-invasiveness, and short hospitalization.
Gózdz, Stanislaw; Krzyzak, Michalina; Maślach, Dominik; Wróbel, Monika; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena
of death causes were responsible for an average 76.0% PYLL. The analysis of the causes of premature mortality in Swietokrzyskie Province shows that in the majority of cases it is due to preventable deaths, which calls for the necessity of more intensive measures in primary and secondary prevention as well as the improvement in treatment standards, mainly of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, injuries and accidents.
Zahn, Evan M; Peck, Daniel; Phillips, Alistair; Nevin, Phillip; Basaker, Kaylan; Simmons, Charles; McRae, Marion E; Early, Tracy; Garg, Ruchira
The goal of this study was to describe early and midterm outcomes of extremely premature newborns (EPNs) who underwent transcatheter echocardiographically guided patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. Surgical ligation of PDA in EPNs confers significant risk for procedural morbidity and adverse long-term outcomes. The Amplatzer Vascular Plug II was used in all cases. Post-ligation syndrome was defined using previously published parameters. Patients were followed at pre-specified intervals, and prospectively collected data were reviewed. Transcatheter closure was attempted in 24 EPNs (mean procedural age 30 days [range 5 to 80 days], mean procedural weight 1,249 g [range 755 to 2,380 g]) and was successful in 88%. The 3 procedural failures were related to the development of left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenosis caused by the device, and all devices were removed uneventfully. Complications included 2 instances of device malposition, resolved with device repositioning, and 1 instance of LPA stenosis, requiring an LPA stent. There were no procedural deaths, cases of post-ligation syndrome, residual PDA, or device embolization. Survival to discharge was 96% (23 of 24), with a single late death unrelated to the procedure. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, all patients were alive and well, with no residual PDA or evidence of LPA or aortic coarctation. This newly described technique can be performed safely with a high success rate and minimal procedural morbidity in EPNs. Early and midterm follow-up is encouraging. Future efforts should be directed toward developing specific devices for this unique application. Copyright Â© 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berger, R.S.; Dixon, S.L.
A fatal case of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease developed in a premature infant after receiving several blood products, including nonirradiated white blood cells. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease can be prevented. Irradiation of blood products is the least controversial and most effective method. Treatment was unsuccessful in most reported cases of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Therefore irradiation of blood products before transfusing to patients susceptible to transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease is strongly recommended
... and premature birth, including: Connective tissue disorders, like Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (also called EDS) and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (also called vEDS). Connective tissue is tissue that ...
van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.
Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial
An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.
Apr 16, 1983 ... and the premature infant ... values in cord and maternal plasma to fetal age and weight and to the incidence of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was .... thyroxine and prolactin values with an increase in weight has also.
Gaíva, Maria Aparecida Munhoz; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan
This study aimed at analyzing the family participation in the premature assistance in a university hospital neonatal ICU. Data were collected from the participant observation. Results showed that despite of the mother's presence in the daily life of their premature children placed in a hospital, family isn't inserted in the work process and mothers are the only ones who take part of the cares. This participation basically happens in the execution of maternity care, especially at the medium risk unity, the mother and premature family are less welcomed and there isn't any partnership between the care team and the family, there aren't team interventions in order to turn premature family in autonomous subject to promote health and life quality to baby's life.
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is predominantly seen in premature infants and is the leading .... Because neonates are often intolerant to large enteral volumes, the ... of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics. 2005 ...
Christiane Fernandes RIBEIRO
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively.
Trivli, Alexandra; Polychronaki, Maria; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Papadimas, Michail; Patelarou, Athina E.; Dermitzaki, Niki; Matalliotakis, Michail
Objective. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of extremely premature infants and to evaluate the risk factors and outcome of the cases. Materials and Methods. Out of 200 premature births, we retrospectively reviewed 9 cases that developed ROP. We excluded cases where ROP developed in newborns > 30 weeks of gestational age and cases where medical notes were unavailable or incomplete. Topical drops of cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 5% were instilled and f...
The premature chromosome condensation technique has been applied for biological dosimetry purpose. Premature chromo-some condensation was induced by incubating unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of okadaic acid or calyculin A (a phosphatase inhibitor) which eliminated the need for fusion with mitotic cells. It is now possible to examine the early damage induced by radiation. It is simple, exact when it combines with fluorecence in situ hybridization. (authors)
Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare
BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing
Material balance, including energy recovery and nuclear fuel flow rate, under conditions of premature FA extraction from power reactor is considered. It is shown that in cases when before and after FA extraction reactor operates not under optimal conditions damage of FA premature changing is proportional to the first degree of fuel incomplete burning. If normal operating conditions of reactor or its operation after FA changing is optimal, the damage is proportional to the square of fuel incomplete burning
Khodabux, Chantal Muriel
In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite the use of a national transfusion guideline, we observed significant differences concerning the total amount of administered transfusions. A liberal transfusion strategy and a higher transfusion volu...
A 13-year-old ballet dancer who had been dancing en pointe (on the tips of the toes) since 10 years presented to the clinic with a shortened right second toe. She had no previous history of pain or trauma. She was diagnosed with premature growth arrest of the second metatarsal head physes resulting in a shortened metatarsal. This is the first reported case of premature growth arrest in a ballet dancer as a result of dancing en pointe.
Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline
Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15,381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to 2 control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1°C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone, and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1°C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI, 3%, 6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI, 3%, 5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1°C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI, 1%, 3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI, 1%, 3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B312.
Elizebeth V. Issac; Sareena Gilvaz; Neetha B. George
BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) is defined as premature rupture of membrane before 37 completed weeks. It is associated with 40% preterm deliveries and results in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Present study is an attempt to find the association between infection and PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women between 29 weeks and 34 weeks of gestation who were admitted in our labour room during a period from November 2012 to Nove...
The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.
Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R; Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G
Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal treatment strategies and algorithms as
Templeton, J L; Spence, R A; Kennedy, T L; Parks, T G; Mackenzie, G; Hanna, W A
One hundred and thirty seven previously untreated out-patients with first and second degree haemorrhoids were allocated at random to treatment by infrared coagulation (n=66) or rubber band ligation (n=71). Complete follow up was obtained in 122 patients (60 who had undergone infrared coagulation (group 1), and 62 rubber band ligation (group 2)) at periods from three months to one year after completion of treatment. Infrared coagulation produced a satisfactory outcome in 51 patients (85%): 34 were rendered asymptomatic and 17 improved. Rubber band ligation produced a satisfactory outcome in 57 patients (92%): 33 were rendered asymptomatic and 24 improved. Both methods were equally effective in first and second degree haemorrhoids. The incidence of side effects, particularly discomfort, during and after treatment was significantly higher in those treated by rubber band ligation (p less than 0.001). This appeared to be an appreciable deterrent to future patient compliance. The number of patients losing more than 24 hours from work was higher after rubber band ligation than after infrared coagulation. The number of treatments necessary to cure symptoms did not differ significantly between the two methods. Infrared coagulation was significantly faster than rubber band ligation (p less than 0.001). Infrared coagulation is a simple, fast, and effective outpatient method for the treatment of first and second degree haemorrhoids with fewer troublesome side effects and higher patient acceptability than rubber band ligation. PMID:6404471
Miriam Rodríguez Rodríguez
Full Text Available A descriptive correlational study with a longitudinal projection was made in the Intensive Perinatal Cares Unit in “Camilo Cienfuegos” Hospital in Sancti Spíritus, including 524 premature children as population, according to the inclusion criteria, from January 2005 to December 2010. The objective was a clinical and epidemiological characterization of retinopathy of prematurity as a preventable cause of blindness in the province. The behavior of the illness was described taking into account social and demographic variables, also risk factors to develop the entity and the treatment applied. The sample was composed by 58 patients and the collector instrument was a validated test. There were 16 children who needed laser treatment. The main risk factors were low gestational age, extreme low weight, low apgar and the use of surfactants. The prevalence rate was statistically relevant and increased annually, giving relevance to the illness as a health problem causing preventable blindness in Sancti Spíritus Province.
McGill-Vargas, Lisa; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Liang, Hanyu; Anzueto Guerra, Diana; Johnson-Pais, Teresa; Seidner, Steven; McCurnin, Donald; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; DeFronzo, Ralph; Musi, Nicolas; Blanco, Cynthia
Premature infants have altered glucose regulation early in life and increased risk for diabetes in adulthood. Although prematurity leads to an increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult life, the role of hepatic glucose regulation and adaptation to an early extrauterine environment in preterm infants remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental differences in glucose metabolism, hepatic protein content, and gene expression of key insulin-signaling/gluconeogenic molecules. Fetal baboons were delivered at 67%, 75%, and term gestational age and euthanized at birth. Neonatal baboons were delivered prematurely (67% gestation), survived for two weeks, and compared with similar postnatal term animals and underwent serial hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Premature baboons had decreased endogenous glucose production (EGP) compared with term animals. Consistent with these results, the gluconeogenic molecule, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase messenger RNA, was decreased in preterm baboons compared with terms. Hepatic insulin signaling was altered by preterm birth as evidenced by decreased insulin receptor-β, p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, and Akt-1 under insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, preterm baboons failed to have the normal increase in glycogen synthase kinase-α from fetal to postnatal life. The blunted responses in hepatic insulin signaling may contribute to the hyperglycemia of prematurity, while impaired EGP leads to hypoglycemia of prematurity. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.
Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.
Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110
Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.
He, Bi-Zi; Sun, Xiu-Jing; Quan, Mei-Ying; Wang, Dan-Hua
To study the dynamic changes in macronutrients and energy in human milk from mothers of premature infants. A total of 339 human milk samples were collected from 170 women who delivered preterm or full-term infants in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital between November 2012 and January 2014. Macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates and energy were measured using a MIRIS human milk analyzer and compared between groups. In milk samples from premature infants' mothers, the protein levels were the highest in colostrum (2.22±0.49 g/dL), less in transitional milk (1.83±0.39 g/dL), and the least in mature milk (1.40±0.28 g/dL) (Pmacronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants vary significantly between colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk. Protein levels are significantly higher in colostrum from premature infants' mothers than in colostrum from term infants' mothers, but the significant difference is not seen for mature milk. Macronutrient and energy levels show significant differences between milk samples from mothers of premature infants with different gestational ages, so as to meet different needs of premature infants.
Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane
To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, W F; Minhas, S; Ralph, D J
To date, there is no FDA-approved therapy for premature ejaculation (PE). Recently, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have been demonstrated to have encouraging results in the treatment of PE by a few studies. The aim of this review was to assess the updated manuscripts and thereafter present the practical recommendations and possible mechanisms concerning PDE5-Is for treating PE. Using MEDLINE, we searched and assessed the peer manuscripts published from 1 January 1996 to 1 September 2005 about PDE5-Is for treating PE. The results show that the number of patients in all the reports is very few and most of the studies do not employ double-blinded and placebo-controlled tests, though they are prospective and randomized. Therefore, the results and conclusions might be biased. PDE5-Is are suggested to be used in PE with old age or associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), or to be employed alone or in combination with selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) when SSRIs fail to treat PE; behavioural therapy is proposed to be used for preventing the recurrence of PE following withdrawal of PDE5-Is. In addition, for the PE patient with a definite aetiological cause, the aetiology should be cured first, if PE still exists, followed by PDE-Is prescription. Possible mechanisms that are involved include relaxing the smooth muscles of vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate and urethra; decreasing the central sympathetic output; inducing peripheral analgesia; prolonging the duration of erection; and increasing confidence, the perception of ejaculatory control, overall sexual satisfaction, and decreasing the post-orgasmic refractory time to achieve a second erection after ejaculation. Well-designed multicentre studies are urgently warranted to further elucidate the efficacies and safety as well as mechanisms of PDE5-Is in the treatment of PE.
Mishra, Gita D; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Anderson, Debra; Kuh, Diana; Sandin, Sven; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Lee, Jung Su; Mizunuma, Hideki; Cade, Janet E; Burley, Victoria; Greenwood, Darren C; Goodman, Alissa; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Adami, Hans-Olov; Demakakos, Panayotes; Weiderpass, Elisabete
.80, 95% CI 1.53-2.12) and early menopause (1.31, 1.19-1.44). Nulliparity was associated with increased risk of premature menopause (2.26, 1.84-2.77) and early menopause (1.32, 1.09-1.59). Women having early menarche and nulliparity were at over 5-fold increased risk of premature menopause (5.64, 4.04-7.87) and 2-fold increased risk of early menopause (2.16, 1.48-3.15) compared with women who had menarche at ≥12 years and two or more children. Most of the studies (except the birth cohorts) relied on retrospectively reported age at menarche, which may have led to some degree of recall bias. Our findings support early monitoring of women with early menarche, especially those who have no children, for preventive health interventions aimed at mitigating the risk of adverse health outcomes associated with early menopause. InterLACE project is funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council project grant (APP1027196). G.D.M. is supported by Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT120100812). There are no competing interests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.
Kerpsack, S.J.; McLoughlin, M.A.; Birchard, S.J.; Smeak, D.D.; Biller, D.S.
Mesenteric lymphangiography and thoracic duct ligation were performedon 19 cats with chylothorax between 1987 to 1992. Chylothorax was diagnosed on the basis of detection of chylomicrons in the pleural effusion or determination of a cholesterol concentration:triglyceride concentration ratio of 12 months after surgery. Four cats died between 2 and 13 days after thoracic duct ligation, but pleural effusion had resolved in 3 of these 4 cats at the time of death. Five cats were euthanatized 8 to 36 days after surgery because of persistent chylous effusion after thoracic duct ligation
Hofmeyr, G Justus; Essilfie-Appiah, George; Lawrie, Theresa A
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Amnioinfusion aims to restore amniotic fluid volume by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for PPROM on perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2011). Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared to no amnioinfusion in women with PPROM. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five trials but we only analysed data from four studies (with a total of 241 participants). One trial did not contribute any data to the review.Transcervical amnioinfusion improved fetal umbilical artery pH at delivery (mean difference 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.14; one trial, 61 participants) and reduced persistent variable decelerations during labour (risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91; one trial, 86 participants).Transabdominal amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in neonatal death (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.66; two trials, 94 participants), neonatal sepsis (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.61; one trial, 60 participants), pulmonary hypoplasia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.88; one trial, 34 participants) and puerperal sepsis (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; one trial, 60 participants). Women in the amnioinfusion group were also less likely to deliver within seven days of membrane rupture (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.70; one trial, 34 participants). These results should be treated with circumspection as the positive findings were mainly due to one trial with unclear allocation concealment. These results are encouraging but are limited by the sparse data and unclear methodological robustness, therefore further evidence is required before amnioinfusion for
S. A. Perepelitsa
Full Text Available Objective: to reveal a relationship of placental inflammatory changes to bacterial infection in premature neonates with respiratory failure. Material and methods. Bronchoalveolar aspirate was bacteriologically studied in 157 premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS; the total and differential leukocyte counts were measured in their peripheral blood. The levels of the cytokines IL-1^3, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were studied in different biological fluids of mothers and their babies; the placentas were also morphologically examined. Results. An analysis of bacterial cultures from the tracheobronchial tree revealed no growth of bacterial microflora in 61.8% of cases, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated in 6.4 and 8.3% of the infants, respectively; Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Enterobacter agglomerans, and hemolytic group A Streptococcus were seen in 1.9% each; moreover, 1.3% of the newborn infants were found to have Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. Other microorganisms and a microbial association were encountered in 8.9% of cases. Placental morphological examination revealed different inflammatory changes concurrent with chronic and acute placental insufficiency. The investigation demonstrated that the maternal peripheral plasma levels of IL-1^, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were within the physiological range at the end of the first period of delivery. The amniotic fluid displayed elevated IL-6 and TNF-a concentrations and normal IL-4 and IL-1e levels, suggesting that there was an intrauterine inflammatory process. Conclusion. Premature birth is associated with various placental inflammatory changes, which causes intrauterine stimulation of macrophages in the chorionic villi. Specific immune defense mechanisms that prevent the development of a fetal infectious process, i.e. the maternal infectious process, may induce
Katcher Brian S
Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and
Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O’Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L.; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry
Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. Methods We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. Results We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. Conclusion This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes. PMID:29389312
Gaglioti, Anne H; Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D; Akintobi, Tabia Henry
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes.
Full Text Available The Ito cell (fat-storing cell is a cell lying in perisinusoidal space of liver. The function of Ito cell is expanding from a site of fat-storing site to a center of extracellular matrix metabolism and mediator production in the liver. This study was performed in order to evaluate the Ito cells in cholestatic condition. The artificial cholestatic was conducted by ligation of extrahepatic bile ducts (bile duct ligation = BDL in broilers. The results showed that BDL induced bile congestion, fibrosis, proliferation of Ito cells and intrahepatic bile ductules. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Ito cells were scattered throughout the fibrotic areas, and larger in size with more extensive immunoreactivity than those in normal livers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated that Ito cells were closely associated with the production of extracellular collagen fibers. Ito cells actively react against hepatocytic injuries, especially in fibrogenesis of cholestatic livers.
Pochulu, Bruno; Sarsam, Omar; Peillon, Christophe; Baste, Jean-Marc
A 37-year-old patient presented with a self-limiting episode of moderate haemoptysis. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed a tortuous and dilated right bronchial artery arising from the descending aorta at the level of T6. Therapeutic angiography was attempted, but in the presence of spinal artery arising from the bronchial artery in question, selective embolization was contraindicated due to risk of spinal cord ischaemia. After a multidisciplinary meeting, it was decided to attempt surgery to ligate this pathological artery. We performed minimally invasive robot-assisted ligation of this pathological artery. The postoperative course was uneventful with good clinical and radiological outcome at 3-month follow-up. A minimally invasive approach provides a real alternative to embolization and could be a therapeutic option.
Yameen, B.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Preuss, C. M.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Verveniotis, Elisseos; Trouillet, V.; Rezek, Bohuslav; Barner-Kowollik, C.
Roč. 49, č. 77 (2013), s. 8623-8625 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118; GA ČR GAP108/11/1857; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : conductive poly(3-hexylthiophen) brushes * Diels-Alder ligation * Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KFM) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 6.718, year: 2013
Zawada, Zbigniew; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Šafařík, Martin; Březinová, Anna; Bouř, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan; Stibor, Ivan
Roč. 103, č. 11 (2009), s. 1001-1001 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /44./. 27.11.2009-29.11.2009, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prion * chemical ligation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Rashidian, Mohammad; Mahmoodi, Mohammad M.; Shah, Rachit; Dozier, Jonathan K.; Wagner, Carston R.; Distefano, Mark D.
Imine-based reactions are useful for a wide range of bioconjugation applications. Although aniline is known to catalyze the oxime ligation reaction under physiological conditions, it suffers from slow reaction kinetics, specifically when a ketone is being used or when hydrazone-oxime exchange is performed. Here, we report on the discovery of a new catalyst that is up to 15 times more efficient than aniline. That catalyst, m-phenylenediamine (mPDA), was initially used to analyze the kinetics o...
Tang, Jin; Wu, Qiaoxing; Tang, Xinming; Shi, Ruihan; Suo, Jingxia; Huang, Guangping; An, Junqing; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Jinling; Hao, Wenzhuo; She, Ruiping; Suo, Xun
Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can be found throughout the body, especially in epithelial tissue. Animal model was established by inoculation of HCMV (strain AD-169) or coinoculation with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) into the ligated sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix in living rabbits. The specimens were collected from animals sacrificed 1 and a half hours after infection. Results The virus was found to be capable of reproducing in these specimens through RT-PCR and West...
Wojtczak, B. A.; Andrysiak, A.; Grüner, Bohumír; Lesnikowski, Z. J.
-, č. 14 (2008), s. 10675-10682 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523 Grant - others:MSHE(PL) N405 051 32/3592; MSHE(PL) K152/H03/2007/10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : alkynes * azides * chemical ligation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.454, year: 2008
Full Text Available "nHemorrhoid is one of the most common surgical diseases and different methods are available for its treatment. This study is a comparison between two methods of treatment of internal hemorrhoid, Monopolar low voltage instrument (Ultroid and Rubber Band Ligation. This method has been carried out prospectively in which 50 patients who were treated with rubber band ligation and 50 patients with Ultroid were compared according to the incidence of complications, post-operative pain and treatment response. According to this study complete success rate with Ultroid was 82% and partial success rate was 10% and no response to treatment was seen in 8%. In Rubber Band method the complete response rate was 94% (P=0.2. With Ultroid, 74% of patient reported no postoperative pain, 24% reported mild and moderate pain and 2% of patients complained of severe pain. With Rubber band ligation, 72% of patients reported no post-operative pain, 26% reported mild and moderate pain and 1% complained of severe pain (P=0.00. Rubber Band ligation and Ultroid are both considered as outpatient procedures for treatment of hemorrhoids. Both methods are mostly used for grade 1, 2 and sometime grade 3 hemorrhoids. In Ultroid method the operator is required to hold the probe for a period of time, and in most cases, the surgeon should spend between 20-25 minutes for the coagulation of three piles. Some surgeons do not have patience for this modality of internal hemorrhoid treatment. In this study we achieved acceptable results comparable with those of other techniques.
Kaygisiz, Emine; Uzuner, Fatma Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Taner, Levent; Çulhaoğlu, Rana; Sezgin, Yasemin; Ateş, Can
To evaluate the effects of fixed orthodontic treatment with steel-ligated conventional brackets and self-ligating brackets on halitosis and periodontal health. Sixty patients, at the permanent dentition stage aged 12 to 18 years, who had Angle Class I malocclusion with mild-to-moderate crowding were randomly selected. Inclusion criteria were nonsmokers, without systematic disease, and no use of antibiotics and oral mouth rinses during the 2-month period before the study. The patients were subdivided into three groups randomly: the group treated with conventional brackets (group 1, n = 20) ligated with steel ligature wires, the group treated with self-ligating brackets (group 2, n = 20), and the control group (group 3, n = 20). The periodontal records were obtained 1 week before bonding (T1), immediately before bonding (T2), 1 week after bonding (T3), 4 weeks after bonding (T4), and 8 weeks after bonding (T5). Measurements of the control group were repeated within the same periods. The volatile sulfur components determining halitosis were measured with the Halimeter at T2, T3, T4, and T5. A two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups statistically. No statistically significant group × time interactions were found for plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and halitosis, which means three independent groups change like each other by time. The risk of tongue coating index (TCI) being 2 was 10.2 times higher at T1 than at T5 (P brackets do not have an advantage over conventional brackets with respect to periodontal status and halitosis.
Jurandir Antonio BARBOSA
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Barbosa Versatile bracket design may provide lower frictional force and greater sliding. However, no in vitro studies have shown its sliding mechanisms and frictional resistance, particularly in comparison with other self-ligating or conventional brackets. Objective To compare the frictional resistance among self-ligating brackets (EasyClip/ Aditek, Damon MX/ Ormco and In Ovation R/ GAC; conventional brackets (Balance Roth/ GAC, and Roth Monobloc/ Morelli; and Barbosa Versatile bracket (Barbosa Versatile/ GAC with different angles and arch wires. Material and method Brackets were tested with the 0.014", 0.018", 0.019"×0.025" and 0.021"×0.025" stainless steel wires, with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 degree angulations. Tying was performed with elastomeric ligature for conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets, or with a built-in clip system of the self-ligating brackets. A universal testing machine was used to obtain sliding strength and friction value readouts between brackets and wires. Result Three-way factorial ANOVA 4×5×6 (brackets × angulation × wire and Tukey tests showed statistically significant differences for all factors and all interactions (p<0.0001. Static frictional resistance showed a lower rate for Barbosa Versatile bracket and higher rates for Roth Monobloc and Balance brackets. Conclusion The lowest frictional resistance was obtained with the Barbosa Versatile bracket and self-ligating brackets in comparison with the conventional type. Increasing the diameter of the wires increased the frictional resistance. Smaller angles produced less frictional resistance.
Daniel Spadoto Dias
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Tubal ligation is one of the most commonly used contraceptive methods worldwide. Since the controversy over the potential effects of tubal sterilization still continues, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and psychological repercussions of videolaparoscopic tubal ligation.DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational, single cohort, retrospective study, conducted in a tertiary public hospital.METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to 130 women aged 21-46 years who underwent videolaparoscopic tubal ligation by means of tubal ring insertion or bipolar electrocoagulation and sectioning, between January 1999 and December 2007. Menstrual cycle interval, intensity and duration of bleeding, premenstrual symptoms, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, noncyclic pelvic pain and degree of sexual satisfaction were assessed in this questionnaire. Each woman served as her own control, and comparisons were made between before and after the surgical procedure and between the two techniques used.RESULTS: The clinical and psychological repercussions were significant, with increases in bleeding (P = 0.001, premenstrual symptoms (P < 0.001, dysmenorrhea (P = 0.019 and noncyclic pelvic pain (P = 0.001; and reductions in the number of sexual intercourse occurrences per week (P = 0.001 and in libido (P = 0.001. Women aged ≤ 35 years at the time of sterilization were more likely to develop menstrual abnormalities. The bipolar electrocoagulation method showed greater clinical and psychological repercussions.CONCLUSION: Regardless of the technique used, videolaparoscopic tubal ligation had repercussions consisting of increased menstrual flow and premenstrual symptoms, especially in women aged ≤ 35 years, and also had a negative influence on sexual activity.
Leonard Euler Andrade Gomes do Nascimento
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify, by means of a systematic review, whether the design of brackets (conventional or self-ligating influences adhesion and formation of Streptococcus mutans colonies. METHODS: Search strategy: four databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid ALL EMB Reviews, PubMed and BIREME were selected to search relevant articles covering the period from January 1965 to December 2012. Selection Criteria: in first consensus by reading the title and abstract. The full text was obtained from publications that met the inclusion criteria. Data collection and analysis: Two reviewers independently extracted data using the keywords: conventional, self-ligating, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans, and systematic review; and independently evaluated the quality of the studies. In case of divergence, the technique of consensus was adopted. RESULTS: The search strategy resulted in 1,401 articles. The classification of scientific relevance revealed the high quality of the 6 eligible articles of which outcomes were not unanimous in reporting not only the influence of the design of the brackets (conventional or self-ligating over adhesion and formation of colonies of Streptococcus mutans, but also that other factors such as the quality of the bracket type, the level of individual oral hygiene, bonding and age may have greater influence. Statistical analysis was not feasible because of the heterogeneous methodological design. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that there is no evidence for a possible influence of the design of the brackets (conventional or self-ligating over colony formation and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans.
Hsu, Geng-Long; Hill, James W.; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Chih-Yuan
Although penile implantation remains a final solution for patients with refractory impotence, undesirable postoperative effects, including penile size reduction and cold sensation of the glans penis, remain problematic. We report results of a surgical method designed to avoid these problems. From 2003 to 2013, 35 consecutive patients received a malleable penile implant. Of these, 15 men (the enhancing group) were also treated with venous ligation of the retrocoronal venous plexus, deep dorsal...
Na, Dong Gyu; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Gi Seok; Yeon, Kung Mo
The purpose of this study is to describe the angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid arteries and to evaluate the extent of angiographic assessment needed before embolization. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery, which were 6 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 2 cases of carotid cavernous fistula, 1 case of hemangioma and 1 case of arteriovenous malformation with carotid cavernous fistula. The previously ligated arteries are proximal external carotid artery (n = 5), branches of external carotid artery (n = 2) and common carotid artery (n = 3). Common carotid artery or internal carotid artery (n = 9), vertebral artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), costocervical trunk (n = 2), thyrocervical trunk (n = 2) were assessed by conventional angiography. Angiography of both carotid and vertebral arteries was performed in 5 cases. The collateral vascular channels were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery (n = 8), vertebral artery (n = 5), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), deep cervical artery (n = 2) and ascending cervical artery (n = 1). Embolization were performed in 9 cases with operative cannulation (n = 4), embolization via collateral branches of ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 1), embolization via collateral branches of contralateral external carotid artery (n = 3) and balloon occlusion via direct puncture (n = 1). The collateral channels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery, contralateral or ipsilateral external carotid artery, vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery on angiography. Complete angiographic assessment of possible collateral channels is mandatory for the
Davis Thomas M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although technological advances allow for the economical acquisition of whole genome sequences, many organisms' genomes remain unsequenced, and fully sequenced genomes may contain gaps. Researchers reliant upon partial genomic or heterologous sequence information require methods for obtaining unknown sequences from loci of interest. Various PCR based techniques are available for sequence walking - i.e., the acquisition of unknown DNA sequence adjacent to known sequence. Many such methods require rigid, elaborate protocols and/or impose narrowly confined options in the choice of restriction enzymes for necessary genomic digests. We describe a new method, TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR (or TVL-PCR that innovatively integrates available tools and familiar concepts to offer advantages as a means of both targeted sequence walking and paralog mining. Findings TVL-PCR exploits the ligation efficiency of the pCR®4-TOPO® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California vector system to capture fragments of unknown sequence by creating chimeric molecules containing defined priming sites at both ends. Initially, restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA is end-repaired to create 3' adenosine overhangs and is then ligated to pCR4-TOPO vectors. The ligation product pool is used directly as a template for nested PCR, using specific primers to target orthologous sequences, or degenerate primers to enable capture of paralogous gene family members. We demonstrated the efficacy of this method by capturing entire coding and partial promoter sequences of several strawberry Superman-like genes. Conclusions TVL-PCR is a convenient and efficient method for DNA sequence walking and paralog mining that is applicable to any organism for which relevant DNA sequence is available as a basis for primer design.
van der Meer, Saskia; Zeebregts, Clark; Tielliu, Ignacc; Verhoeven, Eric; van den Dungen, Jan
Patients diagnosed with steal syndrome after hemodialysis access surgery have a few options for symptom relief while maintaining vascular access. These include fistula lengthening, banding, distal revascularization with interval ligation (DRIL), revision using distal inflow (RUDI) or proximalization
Voigt, M; Briese, V; Pietzner, V; Kirchengast, S; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S; Jorch, G
We aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of nine maternal parameters (biological, medical, and social) on rates of prematurity. Our objective was to provide obstetricians with a way of screening women for likely premature deliveries. We conducted a retrospective analysis on the data of about 2.3 million pregnancies taken from the German perinatal statistics of 1995-2000. Rates of prematurity were calculated with single and multi-dimensional analyses on the basis of nine maternal parameters (age, weight, height, number of previous live births, stillbirths, miscarriages and terminations of pregnancy, smoking status, previous premature delivery). The following combinations of parameters were investigated in particular: rates of prematurity according to the number of previous stillbirths, miscarriages, and terminations; rates of prematurity according to the number of previous live births and maternal age, height and weight. We also included daily cigarette consumption and previous premature deliveries in our analyses. The rate of prematurity (premature deliveries (32-36 weeks) was 5.9%, and the rate of very early premature deliveries (prematurity (prematurity of 27.5% in women with the following combination of parameters: > or =1 stillbirth, > or =2 terminations of pregnancy and > or =2 miscarriages. A rather high risk of premature delivery (>11%) was also found for elderly (> or =40 years) grand multiparous women as well as small (premature deliveries (>10%). The risk table that we present here may assist in predicting premature delivery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
Leal, Renata C; Amaral, Flávia L B; França, Fabiana M G; Basting, Roberta T; Turssi, Cecilia P
To evaluate the effect of different lubricants on friction between orthodontic brackets and archwires. Active (Quick, Forestadent) and passive (Damon 3MX, Ormco) self-ligating brackets underwent friction tests in the presence of mucin- and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-based artificial saliva, distilled water, and whole human saliva (positive control). Dry friction (no lubricant) was used as the negative control. Bracket/wire samples (0.014 × 0.025 inch, CuNiTi, SDS Ormco) underwent friction tests eight times in a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance showed no significant interaction between bracket type and lubricant (P = .324). Friction force obtained with passive self-ligating brackets was lower than that for active brackets (P Friction observed in the presence of artificial saliva did not differ from that generated under lubrication with natural human saliva, as shown by Tukey test. Higher friction forces were found with the use of distilled water or when the test was performed under dry condition (ie, with no lubricant). Lubrication plays a role in friction forces between self-ligating brackets and CuNiTi wires, with mucin- and CMC-based artificial saliva providing a reliable alternative to human natural saliva.
Karow, Anne R; Theissen, Bettina; Klostermeier, Dagmar
RNA helicases mediate structural rearrangements of RNA or RNA-protein complexes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Members of the DEAD box helicase family consist of two flexibly connected helicase domains. They share nine conserved sequence motifs that are involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding, and helicase activity. Most of these motifs line the cleft between the two helicase domains, and extensive communication between them is required for RNA unwinding. The two helicase domains of the Bacillus subtilis RNA helicase YxiN were produced separately as intein fusions, and a functional RNA helicase was generated by expressed protein ligation. The ligated helicase binds adenine nucleotides with very similar affinities to the wild-type protein. Importantly, its intrinsically low ATPase activity is stimulated by RNA, and the Michaelis-Menten parameters are similar to those of the wild-type. Finally, ligated YxiN unwinds a minimal RNA substrate to an extent comparable to that of the wild-type helicase, confirming authentic interdomain communication.
Clyman, Ronald I; Wickremasinghe, Andrea; Merritt, T Allen; Solomon, Tabitha; McNamara, Patrick; Jain, Amish; Singh, Jaideep; Chu, Alison; Noori, Shahab; Sekar, Krishnamurthy; Lavoie, Pascal M; Attridge, Joshua T; Swanson, Jonathan R; Gillam-Krakauer, Maria; Reese, Jeff; DeMauro, Sara; Poindexter, Brenda; Aucott, Sue; Satpute, Monique; Fernandez, Erika; Auchus, Richard J
To test the hypothesis that an impaired adrenal response to stress might play a role in the hypotension that follows patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation. We performed a multicenter study of infants born at 15. Of 95 infants enrolled, 43 (45%) developed hypotension and 14 (15%) developed catecholamine-resistant hypotension. Low postoperative cortisol levels were not associated with the overall incidence of hypotension after ligation. However, low cortisol levels were associated with the refractoriness of the hypotension to catecholamine treatment. In a multivariate analysis: the OR for developing catecholamine-resistant hypotension was OR 36.6, 95% CI 2.8-476, P = .006. Low cortisol levels (in infants with catecholamine-resistant hypotension) were not attributable to adrenal immaturity or impairment; their cortisol precursor concentrations were either low or unchanged, and their response to cosyntropin was similar to infants without catecholamine-resistant hypotension. Infants with low cortisol concentrations after PDA ligation are likely to develop postoperative catecholamine-resistant hypotension. We speculate that decreased adrenal stimulation, rather than an impaired adrenal response to stimulation, may account for the decreased production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bregenholt, S; Röpke, M; Skov, S
of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Immediately following MHC-I ligation, the T cells responded with increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation, with new bands appearing in the SDS-PAGE. Exposure of T cells to immobilized anti-MHC-I Ab for 24 h induced an increased surface expression of the TCR/CD3 and CD......28 molecules. MHC-I-induced proliferation of purified T cells was dependent on cellular interactions with non-T cells. Under certain conditions, in which MHC-I was ligated by picogram concentrations of immobilized anti-MHC-I Ab, anti-TCR/CD3 Ab-induced proliferation of T cells was strongly inhibited....... These data clearly demonstrate that ligation of the MHC-I complex on T cells may induce both positive and negative signals. Since the physiologic ligands for MHC-I molecules are TCR and the CD8 molecules, our data may suggest that MHC-I molecules are instrumental in cellular interactions between T cells....
Mohammadzade Mohammad Ali
Full Text Available Pseudo-aneurysm of the femoral artery is the most common arterial complication in drug injecting abusers. Scholars in vascular surgery have published debating statements regarding techniques of successful surgical management during last two decades. We present the results of simple arterial ligation in a series of 32 patients presenting with infected femoral pseudo-aneurysm. Most of the patients were males (89%. Young persons in the age group of 15-44 years were mostly affected. Site of lesion included common femoral artery in 65% , superficial femoral artery 28% and at bifurcation 6.2%. celulitis in 14 (53%, abscess & "ncelulitis in 6 (19%, necrosing fasciitis in 2 (6.2% and vascular abscess in 7 (22% cases were the forms of associated local infection. There was no hemorrhage, vascular thrombosis, amputation, or mortality. Claudicating were the only complications identified in 2 patients with Tripe ligation. Ligation is the optimal management for infected pseudo-aneurysms because it is easy, cost-effective, and safe. Early reconstruction is not recommended, since there is an extended infection in the location of the pseudo-aneurysm.
Roberta Heiffig Handem
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. Results No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Conclusions Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.
Handem, Roberta Heiffig; Janson, Guilherme; Matias, Murilo; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Lima, Darwin Vaz; Garib, Daniela Gamba; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto
The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR) in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.
Jiang, Rui; Weingart, Jacob; Zhang, Hailong; Ma, Yong; Sun, Xue-Long
We report an enzymatic end-point modification and immobilization of recombinant human thrombomodulin (TM), a cofactor for activation of anticoagulant protein C pathway via thrombin. First, a truncated TM mutant consisting of epidermal growth factor-like domains 4–6 (TM456) with a conserved pentapeptide LPETG motif at its C-terminal was expressed and purified in E. coli. Next, the truncated TM456 derivative was site-specifically modified with N-terminal diglycine containing molecules such as biotin and the fluorescent probe dansyl via sortase A (SrtA) mediated ligation (SML). The successful ligations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and fluorescence imaging. Finally, the truncated TM456 was immobilized onto N-terminal diglycine-functionalized glass slide surface via SML directly. Alternatively, the truncated TM456 was biotinylated via SML and then immobilized onto streptavidin-functionalized glass slide surface indirectly. The successful immobilizations were confirmed by fluorescence imaging. The bioactivity of the immobilized truncated TM456 was further confirmed by protein C activation assay, in which enhanced activation of protein C by immobilized recombinant TM was observed. The sortase A-catalyzed surface ligation took place under mild conditions and is rapid occurring in a single step without prior chemical modification of the target protein. This site-specific covalent modification leads to molecules being arranged in a definitively ordered fashion and facilitating the preservation of the protein’s biological activity. PMID:22372933
Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire
The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.
Lutala Prosper M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tubal ligation is the most popular family planning method worldwide. While its benefits, such as effectiveness in protecting against pregnancies, minimal need for long-term follow-up and low side-effects profile are well documented, it has many reported complications. However, to date, these complications have not been described by residents in Congo. Therefore, the study aimed at exploring the experience of women who had undergone tubal ligation, focusing on perceptions of physical, psychological and contextual experiences of participants. Methods This qualitative study used a semi-structured questionnaire in a phenomenological paradigm to collect data. Fifteen participants were purposefully selected among sterilized women who had a ligation procedure performed, were aged between 30 and 40 years, and were living within the catchment area of the district hospital. Data were collected by two registered nurses, tape-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Reading and re-reading cut and paste techniques, and integration were used to establish codes, categories, themes, and description. Results Diverse and sometimes opposite changes in somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms, productivity, ecological relationships, doctor-client relationships, ethical issues, and change of life style were the major problem domains. Conclusions Clients reported conflicting experiences in several areas of their lives after tubal sterilization. Management, including awareness of the particular features of the client, is needed to decrease the likelihood of psychosocial morbidity and/or to select clients in need of sterilization.
Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Mann, Guy; Kamnesky, Guy; Brik, Ashraf
Chemical synthesis of histones allows precise control of the installation of post-translational modifications via the coupling of derivatized amino acids. Shortcomings of other approaches for obtaining modified histones for epigenetic studies include heterogeneity of the obtained product and difficulties in incorporating multiple modifications on the same histone. In this protocol, unprotected peptide fragments are prepared by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis and coupled in aqueous buffers via native chemical ligation (NCL; in NCL, a peptide bond is formed between a peptide with an N-terminal Cys and another peptide having a C-terminal thioester). This task is challenging, with obstacles relating to the preparation and ligation of hydrophobic peptides, as well as the requirement for multiple purification steps due to protecting-group manipulations during the polypeptide assembly process. To address this, our approach uses an easily removable solubilizing tag for the synthesis and ligation of hydrophobic peptides, as well as a more efficient and better-yielding method to remove Cys-protecting groups that uses palladium chemistry (specifically [Pd(allyl)Cl] 2 and PdCl 2 complexes). The utility of this approach is demonstrated in the syntheses of ubiquitinated H2B at Lys34, phosphorylated H2A at Tyr57 and unmodified H4. Each of these analogs can be prepared in milligram quantities within ∼20-30 d.
Kukwikila, Mikiembo; Gale, Nittaya; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom; Tavassoli, Ali
The chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides and their enzyme-mediated assembly into genes and genomes has significantly advanced multiple scientific disciplines. However, these approaches are not without their shortcomings; enzymatic amplification and ligation of oligonucleotides into genes and genomes makes automation challenging, and site-specific incorporation of epigenetic information and/or modified bases into large constructs is not feasible. Here we present a fully chemical one-pot method for the assembly of oligonucleotides into a gene by click-DNA ligation. We synthesize the 335 base-pair gene that encodes the green fluorescent protein iLOV from ten functionalized oligonucleotides that contain 5ʹ-azide and 3ʹ-alkyne units. The resulting click-linked iLOV gene contains eight triazoles at the sites of chemical ligation, and yet is fully biocompatible; it is replicated by DNA polymerases in vitro and encodes a functional iLOV protein in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate the power and potential of our one-pot gene-assembly method by preparing an epigenetically modified variant of the iLOV gene.
Templeton, J L; Spence, R A; Kennedy, T L; Parks, T G; Mackenzie, G; Hanna, W A
One hundred and thirty seven previously untreated out-patients with first and second degree haemorrhoids were allocated at random to treatment by infrared coagulation (n=66) or rubber band ligation (n=71). Complete follow up was obtained in 122 patients (60 who had undergone infrared coagulation (group 1), and 62 rubber band ligation (group 2)) at periods from three months to one year after completion of treatment. Infrared coagulation produced a satisfactory outcome in 51 patients (85%): 34 ...
Wucherpfennig, Thomas G; Rohrbacher, Florian; Pattabiraman, Vijaya R; Bode, Jeffrey W
The primary products of the chemical ligation of α-ketoacids and 5-oxaproline peptides are esters, rather than the previously reported amides. The depsipeptide product rapidly rearranges to the amide in basic buffers. The formation of esters sheds light on possible mechanisms for the type II KAHA ligations and opens an avenue for the chemical synthesis of depsiproteins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara
To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.
Yi, Jianru; Li, Meile; Li, Yu; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Zhihe
The aim of this study was to compare the external apical root resorption (EARR) in patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment with self-ligating or conventional brackets. Studies comparing the EARR between orthodontic patients using self-ligating or conventional brackets were identified through electronic search in databases including CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and SIGLE, and manual search in relevant journals and reference lists of the included studies until Apr 2016. The extraction of data and risk of bias evaluation were conducted by two investigators independently. The original outcome underwent statistical pooling by using Review Manager 5. Seven studies were included in the systematic review, out of which, five studies were statistically pooled in meta-analysis. The value of EARR of maxillary central incisors in the self-ligating bracket group was significantly lower than that in the conventional bracket group (SMD -0.31; 95% CI: -0.60--0.01). No significant differences in other incisors were observed between self-ligating and conventional brackets. Current evidences suggest self-ligating brackets do not outperform conventional brackets in reducing the EARR in maxillary lateral incisors, mandible central incisors and mandible lateral incisors. However, self-ligating brackets appear to have an advantage in protecting maxillary central incisor from EARR, which still needs to be confirmed by more high-quality studies.
The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Cayabyab, Rowena; Ramanathan, Rangasamy
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) continues to be a major preventable cause of blindness and visual handicaps globally. With improved perinatal care, improved survival of moderately preterm infants, and limited resources for oxygen delivery and monitoring, more mature preterm infants are developing severe ROP in developing countries. The pathophysiology of ROP is characterized by two phases. Phase I ROP is due to vaso-obliteration beginning immediately after birth secondary to a marked decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Phase II begins around 33 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). During this phase, VEGF levels increase, especially if there is retinal hypoxia with increasing retinal metabolism and demand for oxygen leading to abnormal vasoproliferation. Since the original description of ROP in 1942 by Terry et al. [Am J Ophthalmol 1942;25:203-204], four epidemics of ROP have been observed. Prevention or early treatment of ROP involves careful titration of oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter (SpO2). Optimal SpO2 target remains elusive. Most of the large trials have focused on either a low SpO2 (85-89%) or a high SpO2 (91-95%) from the first day of birth to 36 weeks' PMA. Although the incidence of severe ROP and bronchopulmonary dysplasia decreased significantly, predischarge mortality was higher in these studies. Use of graded SpO2 during the 2 different phases of ROP (early, low SpO2 during phase I vs. late, high SpO2 during phase II) may be the best approach to prevent this disabling condition. Further trials should focus on this strategy. Other biological agents that are currently being studied include IGF-1 with IGF-binding protein-3 (rhIGF-1 + rhIGFBP-3) and propranolol. For advanced stages of ROP, laser ablation of avascular retina, early treatment of ROP (ETROP) protocol, intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibodies (e.g. bevacizumab) and vitrectomy are used to protect central vision and prevent
Winkler, H A; Anderson, P S; Fields, A L; Runowicz, C D; DeVictoria, C; Goldberg, G L
To evaluate patient compliance with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening after tubal ligation compared with other methods of birth control in patients who develop cervical cancer, a retrospective review of 262 women with cervical cancer diagnosed at age Albert Einstein College of Medicine from January 1987 to December 1995. Demographic data, stage of the disease, histologic type, history of smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and birth control use were recorded. The Pap screening history was obtained from all the patients. Women who had a bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were compared with those who did not have this form of birth control. The date and result of their last Pap test prior to their diagnosis of cervical cancer was noted. Two hundred fourteen women with cervical cancer were evaluable. The clinical stage, mean age, history of smoking, and history of STD were similar for both groups. Gravidity among the BTL group was higher than in the non-BTL group (p < 0.01). Forty-eight (22.4%) women had a previous BTL. Twenty-seven of these 48 patients (56.3%) did not have a Pap smear within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of the 166 patients, 61 (36.7%) did not have a Pap test within 3 years (p < 0.05). Fourteen women (29.2%) in the tubal ligation group never returned for a Pap test following the BTL. An average of 6.2+/-5.9 years elapsed since the last Pap test in the BTL group, with 4.0+/-5.1 years in the nontubal ligation group (p < 0.05). There was a correlation between the number of years since BTL (14.2+/-7.7) to the number of years since the last Pap test (6.2+/-5.9) (p < 0.05). Women who have had a BTL should be considered high risk because of poor screening compliance. A Pap test every 3 years is not adequate in this high-risk population group. We advocate improved counseling regarding the importance of continued annual Pap screening for women who are considering tubal ligation.
Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Tao, Jianguo; Wang, Rong; Miao, Dengshun
To determine whether transplanted amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice, postnatal 2-day-old Bmi-1−/− mice were injected intraperitoneally with the second-passage AMSCs from amniotic membranes of β-galactosidase (β-gal) transgenic mice or wild-type (WT) mice labeled with DiI. Three reinjections were given, once every seven days. Phenotypes of 5-week-old β-gal+ AMSC-transplanted or 6-week-old DiI+ AMSC-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice were compared with vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− and WT mice. Vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice displayed growth retardation and premature aging with decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis; a decreased ratio and dysmaturity of lymphocytic series; premature osteoporosis with reduced osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis; redox imbalance and DNA damage in multiple organs. Transplanted AMSCs carried Bmi-1 migrated into multiple organs, proliferated and differentiated into multiple tissue cells, promoted growth and delayed senescence in Bmi-1−/− transplant recipients. The dysmaturity of lymphocytic series were ameliorated, premature osteoporosis were rescued by promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis, the oxidative stress and DNA damage in multiple organs were inhibited by the AMSC transplantation in Bmi-1−/− mice. These findings indicate that AMSC transplantation ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice and could be a novel therapy to delay aging and prevent aging-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:26370922
Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.
Puertas, Alberto; Tirado, Pilar; Pérez, Isabel; López, María S; Montoya, Francisco; Cañizares, José M; Miranda, José A
To investigate the effect of transcervical amnioinfusion on the management of labour and neonatal outcomes in preterm premature rupture of the membranes. This clinical trial included 86 patients with premature rupture of the membranes between weeks 27 and 35 of gestation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amnioinfusion via a two-way catheter or to the control group. Clinical management was otherwise the same in both groups. Amnioinfusion decreased the frequency of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate (27.9% versus 53.5%, pamnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of the membranes reduced the number of interventions needed because of nonreassuring fetal status, and improved neonatal gasometric values without increasing maternal or fetal morbidity.
Vitela, J.E.; Reifman, J.
The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented and a new method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. Validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Three case studies are presented. The first two came from a training session for classification of three component failures in a nuclear power plant. The last case, comes from a training session for classification of welded fuel elements