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Sample records for prevent potato sprouting

  1. Environmental life cycle analysis of potato sprout inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, R.P.V.; Ree, C.M.; Moll, H.C.

    Potato sprout inhibitors are generally applied to suppress sprouting during winter storage. This study presents the compared environmental profiles of the two sprout inhibitors available on the Dutch market: A traditional chemical product with isopropyl-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC) and

  2. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  3. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...

  4. Sprout inhibition of potatoes by electron irradiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Junichiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shinichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio; Hori, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Sprouting of potatoes are inhibited usually by the gamma-ray irradiation. The buds of potatoes exist in a very thin layer near surface of each tuber. So the inhibition will be performed sufficiently by surface irradiation using electron beams. To irradiate all surfaces of each potato uniformly, the authors prepare a new apparatus which is a conveyer passing under an electron beam scanner of accelerator rotating the potatoes by many rotating rollers. The sprout inhibition experiment of potatoes was performed by following three methods to obtain the performance of this apparatus, and the results were compared. 1) turn over irradiation method --- potatoes were arranged in one layer in plastic baskets and were irradiated on the conveyor. After irradiation, the potatoes were turned over and were irradiated again. 2) rotating irradiation method --- potatoes were rotated on the rotating roller apparatus set on the conveyer and were passed under the electron beam scanner. 3) rotating irradiation method with an improved rotating roller apparatus --- the rotating rollers have many protuberances on their surface to irradiate all of potato surface more uniform. 550 keV electron beams by Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator were used for the irradiation and the irradiated dose was 5 to 20 krad. 40 pieces of potates, ''Danshaku'' variety yielded in June 1981, were irradiated for each dose in the beginning of August. Prior to these irradiation experiments, the dose and dose uniformity were checked by the agar color dosimeters. After the irradiation, potatoes were stored in natural condition and their sprouting was observed. The potatoes irradiated by the improved rotating roller apparatus were almost completely sprout-inhibited by 20 krad irradiation. (author)

  5. S-Carvone as a natural potato sprout inhibiting, fungistatic and bacteristatic compound.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, K.; Poolman, B.; Smid, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    S-Carvone, a common monoterpene found in caraway (Carum carvi L.), inhibits the sprouting of potatoes very efficiently at continuous low head space concentrations. The length growth of potato sprouts was inhibited within 2 days following exposure to S-carvone. Sprouts were able to convert S-carvone

  6. Different aspects of S-carvone, a natural potato sprout growth inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.

    1995-01-01

    After harvest, potato tubers are usually stored at a temperature of 6-8°C in combination with the application of a synthetic sprout inhibitor. Frequently used sprout inhibitors are isopropyl N-phenyl-carbamate (propham or IPC), isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) or

  7. The irradiation dose for the inhibition of the sprouting of Baraka variety potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Rivero, B.; Salcines, R.; Prieto, E.

    1990-01-01

    Baraka variety potatoes graded in the packing house, were irradiated with doses of 0.08; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20 kGy after a two weeks curing period. The potatoes were stored for five months at 12 0 +- 2 0 C and relative humidity of 85 to 95%, and to determine the percentages of sprouting, rotting and loss in weight. It was concluded that doses of 0.08 kGy or more inhibited definitively the sprouting process. Less total losses and better commercial quality were obtained with a dose of 0.08 kGy the last of the store. 13 refs

  8. Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon

  9. Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-02-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA(3) was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA(3). This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA(3)-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems.

  10. Sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1989-12-01

    Radiation technology for sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by irradiation were investigated. Dose distribution in the package filled with potatoes (depth 45cm, density: 0.56g/cm 3 ) was measured using Fricke dosimeter. When the package was irradiated at dose rate of 5 x 10 5 , 1 x 10 5 and 5 x 10 4 rad/hr, the dose uniformities were calculated as 1.79, 1,45 and 1.35, and the relative throughput capacities were 1.0, 0.26 and 0.14, respectively. After 7 months storage, the sprout of potatoes was not observed at 10 krad irradiation while 57% of potatoes was sprouted at 5 krad. The contents of oxalic and malic acids were slightly increased by irradiation up to 100 krad while that of citric and succinic acids were not changed. The change in contents of these organic acids during storage was almost the same in both unirradiated and irradiated samples. Sucrose content was reached maximum after 8 days in 15 krad irradiated sample while it was increased through 40 days storage in 300 krad irradiated sample. The increase in sucrose contents by irradiation was higher in cortical tissue than in medullary tissue. (author)

  11. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...

  12. Cereal cystatins delay sprouting and nutrient loss in tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Aurélie; Simon, Marie-Aube; Khalf, Moustafa; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-12-21

    Recent studies have reported agronomically useful ectopic effects for recombinant protease inhibitors expressed in leaves of transgenic plants, including improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions and partial resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we assessed the effects of these proteins on the post-dormancy sprouting of storage organs, using as a model potato tubers expressing cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin protein superfamily. Sprout emergence and distribution, soluble proteins, starch and soluble sugars were monitored in tubers of cereal cystatin-expressing clones stored for several months at 4 °C. Cystatin expression had a strong repressing effect on sprout growth, associated with an apparent loss of apical dominance and an increased number of small buds at the skin surface. Soluble protein content remained high for up to 48 weeks in cystatin-expressing tubers compared to control (untransformed) tubers, likely explained by a significant stabilization of the major storage protein patatin, decreased hydrolysis of the endogenous protease inhibitor multicystatin and low cystatin-sensitive cysteine protease activity in tuber tissue. Starch content decreased after several months in cystatin-expressing tubers but remained higher than in control tubers, unlike sucrose showing a slower accumulation in the transgenics. Plantlet emergence, storage protein processing and height of growing plants showed similar time-course patterns for control and transgenic tubers, except for a systematic delay of 2 or 3 d in the latter group likely due to limited sprout size at sowing. Our data point overall to the onset of metabolic interference effects for cereal cystatins in sprouting potato tubers. They suggest, in practice, the potential of endogenous cysteine proteases as relevant targets for the development of potato varieties with longer storage capabilities.

  13. Effect of sprouting on anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color intensity and color attributes in purple sweet potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudiono, K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes stored in a humid state will generally sprout, leading to them being deemed inedible by customers. During the sprouting process enzyme activities increase and as such it was assumed that there had been changes in the nutrition and secondary metabolism compounds, e.g. anthocyanins. The purpose of this research was to investigate the changes occurred in the characteristics of anthocyanins during the purple sweet potatoes’ sprouting. One-factor Randomized Block Design was used in the research design, i.e. the sprouting time in 6 stages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity is 51.61±2.11%, the highest color intensity is 0.72±0.72, and the lowest hue angle value or the lowest h is 30.75±0.93o, occurring in the 4th week of sprouting. While the highest total anthocyanin is 222.07±2.65 mg/kg wet weight, and the highest red color value or a* is 12.80±0.49, occurring in the 3rd week of sprouting. The major components that compose purple sweet potatoes are Cyanidin-3-0-glucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 286.50 to 287.50 and [M]+ = m/z 449 and Peonidin -3,5-0-diglucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 462.50 to 463.50 and [M]+ = m/z 625.

  14. The combined effect of CO2 and ethylene sprout inhibitor on the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the darkening of potato processing colour attributable to a trace concentration of ethylene gas is more severe when CO2 is also elevated. In view of the increasing use of ethylene gas for sprout suppression in potato storage facilities, it was considered important to

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  16. Isolation and chemoenzymatic treatment of glycoalkaloids from green, sprouting and rotting Solanum tuberosum potatoes for solanidine recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Grokoré Yvonne; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Due, Ahipo Edmond; Combes, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids. A simple chemo-enzymatic protocol comprising a partial acidic hydrolysis followed by an enzymatic treatment with the β-glycosidase from Periplaneta americana allowed the efficient conversion of α-chaconine to solanidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potato Sprout Inhibition and Tuber Quality after Post-Harvest Treatment with Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Leaves and Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talei, Daryush; Bina, Fatemeh; Valdiani, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Storage of potatoes is one of the most important concerns in maintaining freshness and nutritional quality in the storage process. To achieve this, an experiment was carried out with five different storage conditions at various temperatures using fresh rosemary leaves and branches with three...... replicates. The results revealed that storage of potatoes at 25°C with rosemary leaves and branches resulted in the lowest sprout development and weight loss after 10 weeks. This was significantly different from either 4°C or 30°C. The findings indicated the potential of rosemary fresh leaves and branches...

  18. Studies on sprout inhibition of potatoes and onions and shelf-life extensions of dates in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Small scale experiments were carried out with onions and potatoes to examine the effect of gamma irradiation on sprout inhibition under different storage conditions. Doses of 15 to 20 krad caused some physical damage to potatoes stored in an incubator at 4 to 10 0 C and 40 to 70% relative humidity. This damage was also observed when potatoes have been stored at room temperature. Sprouting appeared after 30 to 60 days storage. The best results were obtained when a dose of 10 to 12 krad was used. Studies on onions irradiated and stored at room temperature for ten months showed that 6 to 9 krad gave the best results, extending the storage for 10 months. No sprouting could be detected throughout the storage period. Shelf-life and organoleptic study was done on four varieties of Iraqi dates at different stages of development. The results showed that the eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation up to 270 krad and the duration of softening process (after-ripening) of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10 to 90 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. (author)

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation used to inhibit potato sprouting on potato tuber moth eggs, larvae and pupae Phthorimaea Operculella zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    2002-12-01

    Different age groups of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea Operculella zeller, eggs were exposed to gamma irradiation at incremental doses up to 150 Gy (the upper dose limit allowed for potato sprout inhibition). Young eggs were more sensitive to gamma irradiation than older eggs and the sensitivity level declined with eggs age. The exposure of 3 - 3.5 d-old eggs to 150 Gy resulted in an 26% increase in egg incubation period compared with unirradiated eggs. The minimum dose required to 75 Gy, 9.7% of larvae survived to the adult stage but emerged as deformed moths. At 100 and 125 Gy, 10.2 and 9.6% of larvae pupated, respectively; however no adult eclosion was recorded. Whereas at 150 Gy, the larvae remained in mid-instar stage and eventually died. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae and of different ages were exposed to doses equal or higher than 100 Gy, only 13 to 35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained . The exposure of 1 - 1.5 or 3 - 3.5 day old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity whereas, the reduction was less noticeable for 5 - 5.5 day-old pupae. Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting could used as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth eggs, larval and pupal infestations (authors)

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation used to inhibit potato sprouting on potato tuber moth eggs, larvae and pupae Phthorimaea Operculella zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    2003-01-01

    Different age groups of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea Operculella zeller, eggs were exposed to gamma irradiation at incremental doses up to 150 Gy (the upper dose limit allowed for potato sprout inhibition). Young eggs were more sensitive to gamma irradiation than older eggs and the sensitivity level declined with eggs age. The exposure of 3 - 3.5 d-old eggs to 150 Gy resulted in an 26% increase in egg incubation period compared with unirradiated eggs. The minimum dose required to 75 Gy, 9.7% of larvae survived to the adult stage but emerged as deformed moths. At 100 and 125 Gy, 10.2 and 9.6% of larvae pupated, respectively. However no adult eclosion was recorded. Whereas at 150 Gy, the larvae remained in mid-in star stage and eventually died. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae and of different ages were exposed to doses equal or higher than 100 Gy, only 13 to 35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained . The exposure of 1 - 1.5 or 3 - 3.5 day old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity whereas, the reduction was less noticeable for 5 - 5.5 day-old pupae. Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting could used as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth eggs, larval and pupal infestations (authors)

  1. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  2. Effects of foliar and tuber sprout suppressants on shelf life of ware potatoes under tropical ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of dietary carbohydrate and cash income for farmers in the tropical highlands of Kenya. The feasibility for cold storage at the farm level is limited due to the high costs of maintaining such a facility and there is limited data on the long-term post...

  3. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  4. O uso de substâncias inibidoras da brotação de tubérculos de batatinha Use op sprouting inhibiting substances on potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservação de tubérculos de batatinha para o consumo vem preocupando os pesquisadores em diferentes países, por se tratar de um produto fácilmente perecível. Além dos trabalhos sôbre frigorificação, já bem conhecidos, iniciou-se o emprêgo de substâncias químicas inibidoras da brotação e que impedem as podridões causadas por Fusarium. Dentre essas drogas sobressairam-se o éster metílico do ácido alfanaftaleno acético e o tetracloronitrobenzeno. Os resultados alcançados, embora contraditórios em alguns pontos, vieram demonstrar a viabilidade do seu uso, principalmente em países onde o inverno é rigoroso. Das experiências e observações feitas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas a partir de 1946, chegou-se à conclusão que as referidas drogas somente trouxeram bons resultados quando os tubérculos tratados foram conservados a baixa temperatura (4°C. Por outro lado, as batatinhas armazenadas a essa temperatura tornaram-se adocicadas e de má aceitação pelos consumidores, devido à formação de açúcares. Mantendo-se as temperaturas entre 18 e 26°C não houve, na maioria dos casos, influência nítida das drogas sôbre a redução da brotação, constatando--se, ao contrário, um aumento na porcentagem de tubérculos deteriorados devido à podridão mole causada por bactérias.Storage of Irish potato tubers under 3 to 5° C, with air moisture remaining between 70 and 90%, affords good results in preventing sprouting of the tubers. As this treatment enables sugar formation in the tubers, the latter should not be used for consumption due to their unpalatability. At temperatures above 8°C sprouting occurs with loss of weight and other disadvantages. In the experiments herein reported two hormonlike substances were used to prevent sprouting under different temperatures. The chemical used were the methyl ester of alphanaphtaleneacetic acid (MENA and 2, 3, 5, 6 tetrachloronitrobenzene (TCNB mixed with talc. Under room

  5. physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    of deep dormancy, during which potato seeds do not germinate after ... dormancy period and sprouting behaviour are major criteria ... develop once sprouting begins; such as changes ...... an example of plant information processing. Plant Cell ...

  6. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-03-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods.

  7. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-01-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods. (author)

  8. Irradiation of potatoes for long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srapenjanz, R.

    1976-01-01

    In the USSR gamma irradiation of potatoes is used for extending the storage life. The properties of potatoes are not changed, and the irradiation procedure is lower in cost than chemical treatments for sprout inhibition. Finally, a brief outline is given of investigations on sprout inhibition of potatoes in other socialist countries

  9. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  10. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  11. Economic feasibility study of potato preservation by irradiation in saudi arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, A A; Abulfaraj, W H; Mamoon, A M; Kamal, S E [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Comprehensive studies were carried out to investigate the economic feasibility of the preservation of potato crop by cobalt-60 gamma irradiation sprout inhibition by potato irradiation was approved by international organization and concerned authorities in many countries. The dose level range authorized for potato sprout inhibition extends from about 80-150 Gy depending on potato variety, time of irradiation after harvest, and post irradiation storage temperature. Sprout inhibition is most effective by irradiation after harvest, and after healing of any inflicted injuries, that when the potatoes are dormant. Irradiation at the recommended doses minimizes storage losses of potatoes that are refrigerated or stored on shelves. Despite the limited data available, an attempt was made to quantify the monetary value of preserving potato by irradiation. With economy scale taken in consideration, potato preservation by irradiation is economically feasible since at the local consumption rates there will be lot of potatoes that ned storage for off season use. 5 tabs.

  12. Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouani, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1987-01-01

    In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes

  13. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Paknejad, Farzad; Almassi, Morteza; Minaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers did not sprout. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. (author)

  14. Application of gamma irradiation for storage potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, M.; Almasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Since deficiency of controlled store in Iran and environmental problems of chemical material the use of gamma irradiation to control sprouting and increase the length of storage time of potatoes has been proposed as an alternative to cold storage or the use of chemical sprout suppressants. In this study potatoes of Agria Variety were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 KGY and stored along with the unirradiated controls at 12±3°C for a period of more than 6 month from October to April .After 4 month of storage the sprouting ranged from 5 to 12% in irradiated potatoes and 45 to 74% in unirradiated samples and after 6 month the unirradiated potatoes were discarded because of heavy sprouting and rotting. The rot attack was approximately double in unirradiated samples. It was found that losses through dehydration were 10.3 to 15.1 % in the irradiated potatoes. Also a comparative study of reducing and non-reducing sugars, vitamin-C content, total sugar, starch and protein was carried out between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The results suggested the efficacy of Gamma irradiation for ensuring availability of the storing quality of potato during lean periods from October to April. (author)

  15. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  16. Cancer-preventive Properties of an Anthocyanin-enriched Sweet Potato in the APCMIN Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Khalid; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Philpott, Martin; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2017-09-01

    Anthocyanin-rich foods and preparations have been reported to reduce the risk of life-style related diseases, including cancer. The SL222 sweet potato, a purple-fleshed cultivar developed in New Zealand, accumulates high levels of anthocyanins in its storage root. We examined the chemopreventative properties of the SL222 sweet potato in the C57BL/6J-APC MIN/+ (APC MIN ) mouse, a genetic model of colorectal cancer. APC MIN and C57BL/6J wild-type mice (n=160) were divided into four feeding groups consuming diets containing 10% SL222 sweet potato flesh, 10% SL222 sweet potato skin, or 0.12% ARE (Anthocyanin rich-extract prepared from SL222 sweet potato at a concentration equivalent to the flesh-supplemented diet) or a control diet (AIN-76A) for 18 weeks. At 120 days of age, the mice were anaesthetised, and blood samples were collected before the mice were sacrificed. The intestines were used for adenoma enumeration. The SL222 sweet potato-supplemented diets reduced the adenoma number in the APC MIN mice. These data have significant implications for the use of this sweet potato variant in protection against colorectal cancer.

  17. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Shirai

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP. Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood.

  18. Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Starr, A.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each crop. The effect of irradiation and storage on sprouting, rottage and weight loss of potatoes is presented. The sprouting initiated in the unirradiated samples after 2 months reaching 51, 80 and 100% on 4, 5 and 6 months storage respectively. Weight losses were observed in the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (A.B.)

  19. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  20. Some Results on Sprout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep

    2015-01-01

    secret key, there exist around 230 IVs for which the LFSR used in Sprout enters the all zero state during the keystream generating phase. Using this observation, we will first show that it is possible to enumerate Key-IV pairs that produce keystream bits with period as small as 80. We will then outline...

  1. Studies on potato irradiation in the G.D.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, Th.; Huebner, G.; Grahn, Ch.; Doellstaedt, R.

    1990-01-01

    The studies of potato irradiation have been conducted in the framework of the National Food Irradiation Research Project for 4 years. Although in the G.D.R. the use of chemical sprout inhibitors is allowed, potato irradiation can be an alternative technique for potato processing. Before irradiation a wound healing period of approx. 2 weeks is absolutely necessary to protect the potatoes from Fusarium. The method that presents the minimum risk of damage is irradiation in containers. Economic evaluations for the irradiation of potatoes are also made. (author)

  2. Study of the techno-economic feasibilities of potato and onion irradiation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Sharabi, N.; Midani, M.A.

    1991-06-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used for food preservation in many ways, among them sprout inhibition in onion and potato. Experiments showed that irradiation of these crops using doses between 50 - 150 Gy prevented sprouting for up to 6 months during storage. Priliminary experiments in Syria proved the effectiveness of such treatment in these two crops. In addition to the technical, social, and political feasibility, this study includes, general description of the suggested plant ( 60 Co 3.7 PBq), estimated cost, location, and the tentative operation schedual. The study showed that the cost of irradiation will be about $ 8.7 per ton, this will save the country about $ 3.760.000 per year. The study showed the possitive effect of establishing this plant. (author). 74 refs., 44 tabs., 15 figs

  3. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs

  4. WAY OF PRE-PLANTING TREATMENT OF EARLY-RIPENNING POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Semibratskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of pre-planting treatment of early-ripening potato increasing the volume of production in the Eastern forest-Steppe of Ukraine is presented. This technology is referred to development of organic-mineral container, which covers the surface of tubers and remains there until planting. During this period, the substance of the substrate has a direct impact on growth of apical points of tubers that stimulate its germination and development of root system, and prevent the breaking of sprouts. Comparative data of time of seedling emergence and yield of different potato varieties are presented.

  5. Comparative storage studies of selected varieties of potatoes treated with CIPC and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Karim, A.; Hossain, M.M.; Hossain, A.

    1990-01-01

    Three varieties of potatoes (Diamant, Kufri sinduri and Lal pakri) were treated with 8 Krad of gamma radiation and CIPC at the rate of 2 gm/kg of potatoes and were stored at 4 deg C, 15 deg. C and ambient temperature. The control, irradiated and CIPC treated potatoes at ambient temperature spoiled within 2 months of storage. Control potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost their market value due to sprouting and shrinkage after 6 months of storage. Irradiated potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost weight at a slower rate than CIPC treated samples stored at the same temperature and control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. All the potatoes in control samples sprouted within 3 months of storage at 15 deg. C whereas no sprouting was recorded in any variety of potatoes treated with radiation or CIPC and stored at 15 deg. C for 6 months. After 6 months of storage reducing sugar content was much lower in the irradiated or CIPC treated potatoes than the control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. The irradiated tubers stored at 15 deg. C and control tubers stored at 4 deg. C retained excellent physical appearance and market quality at the end of 6 months storage though irradiated potatoes were more attractive

  6. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  7. Healthy food trends - Brussels sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... belong to the cabbage family, which also includes kale, broccoli, collard greens, and cauliflower. In fact, Brussels ... Brussels sprouts rank high in antioxidants, just after kale and spinach. Antioxidants are substances that can help ...

  8. Radiation hormesis in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) part 1: Laboratory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.; Wiendl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers of two varieties. Bintje and Baraka, with gamma radiations of Cobalt-60 at a dose of: 0.0. 2.5. 5.0 and 7.5 Gy, at the dose rate of 150 Gy per hour. Twenty eight potatoes of each variety were irradiated with each dose. Half of these potatoes were planted individually into aluminium cages of about 15 X 10 X 3 cm, using circa 120 ml of vermiculite in each cage, immediately after radiation. After seven days the rest of the potatoes was planted under the same conditions. The whole experiment was conducted into a chamber under dark conditions and temperature between 23 and 27 centigrade. Almost every two or three days each potato received circa 50 ml of plain water. After 143 to 154 days of irradiation the experiment was finished, and the following parameter were determined. Weight of potatoes without sprouts or roots; number of the eyes on which occurred sprouting; length of the longest sprout of its respective eye; humid weight of the sprouts; dry weight of the sprouts; humid weight of the roots; dry weight of the roots. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  9. The effect of a sweet potato, footbath, and acupressure intervention in preventing constipation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Qiu, Jingbo; Wang, Xiaohua; Niu, Fenglin; Jiang, Tingbo

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common health problem that adversely affects quality of life and the prognosis of hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The purpose of this study was to develop and test the sweet potato/footbath/acupressure massage (SFA) intervention as a safe treatment for prevention of constipation and to increase satisfaction with bowel emptying in hospitalized patients with ACS. The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial with a sample of 93 patients (SFA group, n = 44; usual care group, n = 49). Patients in the SFA group received SFA intervention combined with usual care. The results showed that there were statistical differences between the two groups in terms of (1) the incidence of constipation; (2) the use of laxatives and enemas; (3) patients' subjective satisfaction with their bowel emptying during hospitalization; and (4) sensation of incomplete evacuation and anorectal obstruction/blockade. The SFA intervention was more effective, economical, and practical than usual care alone in managing constipation and satisfaction with defecation in patients hospitalized with ACS.

  10. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shihoro irradiation plant for potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Kenji

    1985-01-01

    There have been rapid moves toward the commercialization of food irradiation around the world since November, 1980, when a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO expert committee made a recommendation on the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. The bold US move toward the commercialization has had a great impact. Ahead of these move around the world, Japan built a commercial irradiation plant in 1974, which has been operated for inhibiting the sprouting of potatoes. This plant was built in Shihoro, Hokkaido, and two thirds of the 400 million yen construction cost was provided by the Government and Hokkaido authorities for five agricultural cooperative associations of four local townships. Since then, the plant has been under the joint management of these cooperatives. The aim and circumstance of the plant construction are described. The mechanism of the plant with conveyors, a turntable and a Co-60 source of 300,000 Ci is shown. The plant processes 15 tons of potatoes per hour with the dose from 60 to 150 Gy. Potato bruise and irradiation effect, irradiation time and effect, and post-irradiation storage temperature and potato quality are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Future problems on the storage of potatoes, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masato

    1981-01-01

    The effects of different storage methods on the composition, and the properties of potatoes and their suitability for processing were examined using 3 early and 3 late cultivars. When potatoes were stored at room temperature, although the results varied slightly with the cultivars, there was from 3 to 6% decrease in weight by the next spring, the content of starch decreased strikingly from the beginning of storage to around the end of February, the content of total free sugars increased rapidly from around December to the end of February, the amino acid content tended to increase during the storage period, and 65% of the total ascorbic acid in potatoes still remained early in April. Potatoes lost their shape during cooking more easily as they were stored longer. When potatoes were stored at constant temperature of 5 deg C, the decrease in weight occurred more slowly than that at 2 or 10 deg C. As the storage temperature was lower, the amount of both reduced and non-reduced sugars accumulated more, which make fried potatoes brownish. The potatoes stored at 10 deg C had the best color when they were fried, but began to sprout in mid-December. Thus, to ensure long-term supply for making good fried potatoes, potatoes should be stored at 5 deg C, then be kept at 20 - 25 deg C for 1 - 2 weeks to reduce the sugar content before processing. The sprouting of potatoes was inhibited prominently when MH-30 was given during the intermediate stage of tuber enlargement. The potatoes 40 days after harvest, irradiated with 7 or 15 krad and stored at normal temperature lost less weight than those which were not irradiated. (Kaihara, S.)

  13. Experience with irradiation of table potatoes in the CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the years 1976 to 1980 the effect of gamma radiation on potatoes was tested. The following parameters were monitored: weight losses of tubers, sprouting and weight of sprouts, changes in chemical composition of tubers, the development of storage diseases and the interest of consumers in irradiated potatoes. The tests were made on 5 potato species. Irradiation was carried out in three time intervals with 60 Gy, 100 Gy and 150 Gy applied from a source with an activity of 4.07x10 14 Bq. Weight losses were on average higher in irradiated potatoes than in the control group. Positive was the reduced sprouting rate at 100 Gy. No substantial changes were found in chemical composition. The development of storage diseases was found to be more dependent on previous gathering and sorting, in some species it increased after irradiation in others it dropped after the 100 Gy dose. The inquiry failed and the potatoes were sold without the buyers having expressed their views. (J.P.)

  14. Effect of wound healing period and temperature, irradiation and post-irradiation storage temperature on the rot incidence of potatoes, after infection with Fasurium sulfurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, D.I.; Wolters, T.C.; Quan, V.H.; Oularbi, S.; Tayeb, Y.; Vroomen, L.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Losses during star age in potatoes are mainly due to sprouting and rotting. It has indicated that irradiation by low dose (50 to 100 Gy) during the dormancy period is most e ffective for sprout inhibition. Some investigators, however , stated an increase of storage rot after an irradiation

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the physical properties of some South African varieties of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the mass loss, specific gravity, firmness, sprouting, and rotting of five varieties of potatoes grown in South Africa have been studied. Doses of up to 15 krad inhibit sprouting without detrimental effects on other physical properties, and the culinary properties are expected to be unaffected. Excessive mass loss, shrinkage, and rotting found in some varieties are ascribed to unsuitable storage conditions rather than to irradiation. (orig.) [de

  17. Irradiation of potatoes - after cooking darkening - Fusarium susceptibility during storage. Part of a coordinated programme on the shelf-life extension of irradiated fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, H.

    1977-10-01

    The after-cooking discolouration of Bintje potatoes, cultivated from five different origins in the Netherlands, irradiated by gamma rays or electron was assessed. For comparison, samples of unirradiated potatoes treated by IPC/CIPC sprout inhibitor were also studied. Sprout inhibition and rotting of potatoes treated by different methods were also investigated. It appears that there exist differences in the degree of after-cooking discolouration of potatoes harvested from different origins. Slight discolouration was observed in electron-irradiated potatoes, those exposed to 0.5MeV showed less greying than those treated by 1MeV. Potatoes treated with IPC/CIPC showed the least, and those treated by gamma rays showed the strongest after-cooking darkening. No sprouting occurred in gamma irradiated samples. Sprouting of IPC/CIPC treated samples was minimal during storage but was enhanced after reconditioning. Those treated by electrons showed severe sprouting. Two to 4 weeks reconditioning at 15 0 C of irradiated potatoes, previously held at 7 - 10 0 C for several months, did not reduce the degree of after-cooking discolouration

  18. Substancias con actividad citoquinínica estimulan la brotación de yemas en tubérculos de papa Substâncias com atividade citocinínica estimulam a brotação de gemas em tubérculos de batata Cytokinin-like substences activity promotes shoot sprouting in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Flórez

    2009-09-01

    ção coordenada de vários fitorreguladores. A presença de citocininas em S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia e em S. tuberosum L. variedades ICA-Única e Tuquerreña foi determinada em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento do tubérculo: 00 - tubérculo em estádio de dormência; 03 - tubérculo no final da dormência e brotos com 2 a 3 mm de comprimento; e 40 - início da tuberização, espessamento das extremidades dos estolões ao dobro do diâmetro inicial. As citocininas foram extraídas por cromatografia de camada delgada e sua detecção e quantificação observadas por meio do bioensaio da massa cotiledonar de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. Na espécie precoce S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia a presença de citocininas foi detectada em quantidades significativas nos estádios 00 e 03. Por outro lado, nas variedades de S. tuberosum L. as citocininas foram significativamente maiores no estádio 03 para 'ICA-Única' (variedade precoce, e a sua presença não foi detectada na var. Tuquerreña (variedade tardia. Demonstrou-se a relação direta entre a concentração de citocininas e a precocidade das variedades analisadas durante a tuberização: as citocininas estiveram presentes nas variedades precoces e ausentes na tardia.Before sprouting, potato tubers pass through a period of dormancy which has an specific time for each variety. When the conditions are suitable for tuberset, stolon elongation stops and swelling starts between two last nodes of each stolon. Many factors are involved in this process, but an important and coordinated action between hormones is proposed. Cytokinins levels in both S. tuberosum L. varieties ICA-Única and Tuquerreña and S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia were quantified during different stages of tuber development: 00 - potato tuber in stage of dormancy; 03 - tubers in break dormancy with buds between 2 to 3 mm of length; and 40 - initiation of tuber formation; swelling and duplicating initial diameter

  19. The effect of lowdose irradiation on the physicochemical changes of potatoes during storage [in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Karim, A.; Langerak, D.I.; Hossain, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Potatoes were irradiated with 0.25,50,75 and 100 Gy and stored at 10°C and 85% R.H. for 180 days to find out a balanced dose for effective sprout inhibition and decreased rottage during storage in Bangladesh. Weight loss, sprouting, rotting, contents of vitamin C and sugar, and organoleptic properties of the stored potatoes were investigated the control tubers and those irradiated with 25 Gy were 100% sprouted within 45 and 135 days of storage respectively. At 50 Gy there was about 14% sprouting and about 7.3% rottage during 180 days of storage whereas at 75 and 100 Gy, sprouting was completely inhibited but the rottage was 10% and 14.7% respectively. Irradiation caused about 15% loss of vitamin C but during storage, the rate of loss of vitamin C was similar between control and irradiated tubers. Immediately after irradiation, potato tubers displayed a transient increase in total sugar content but during storage, the total sugar content of the irradiated potatoes decreased as compared to the control

  20. Can reconditioning prevent the after-cooking darkening of irradiated potatoes (research carried out in 1976/1977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, H.; Buitelaar, N.

    1977-09-01

    In order to investigate whether reconditioning of irradiated potatoes at the end of a storage period has any effect on the degree of grey discoloration after cooking and after par-frying french fries, an experiment was carried out in the 1976-1977 season with the variety Bintje originating from five different soil types. From the research it can be concluded that a two or four weeks reconditioning does not reduce the degree of grey discoloration

  1. Economic feasibility study of onion and potato irradiation in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; El-Den-Sharabi, N.; Midani, M.Ayman

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the economic and financial feasibility of a food irradiation project proposed by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The prime purpose of the project was to irradiate two important agricultural products, namely, onion and potato. The irradiation process has the effect of reducing sprouting significantly. In Syria onions are usually stored in well ventilated warehouses at ambient temperature. Our investigation showed that sprouting started after 1.5 months of storage. It is estimated that the sprouting rate reaches 100% after five months of storage. This implies a waste factor of 50%. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Effects of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting induced by botulinum toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S; Duchen, L W [National Hospital, London (UK); Hornsey, S [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1982-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting of motor nerves induced by botulinum toxin was examined. Muscles of one leg in the mouse were X-irradiated (15Gy) prior to the injection of a locally paralysing dose of botulinum toxin. It was found that axonal sprouting occurred as expected, but the sprouts remained unmyelinated and many degenerated. Fewer new end-plates were formed, muscles remained more severely atrophied and supersensitive to acetylcholine and recovery of neuromuscular transmission was greatly delayed when compared with the effects of botulinum toxin alone. X-irradiation did not prevent sprouting but, probably by impairing Schwann cell proliferation, altered axon-Schwann cell relationships and prevented the maturation of newly-formed axons and the differentiation of new end-plates.

  3. Impact of selenium enrichment on seed potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TURAKAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se enrichment on the growth of sprouts and growth vigour of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. stored for 2 to 8 months. Our results showed that Se did not affect the duration of dormancy. At the high addition levels (0.075 and 0.9 mg kg-1 quartz sand, Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts. The peak sprouting capacity was reached after 8 months of storage. The highest Se enrichment of tubers had some positive effect on the free putrescine content in sprouts. However, the better growth of sprouts was not consistent with the growth vigour of the seed tubers and yield produced. Selenium had no significant effect on the malondialdehyde (MDA or on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch. No significant effect of added Se on the early growth, stem and tuber numbers and yield parameters was observed. Irrespective of the level of Se added, the highest yield was harvested from plants produced with seed tubers stored for 6 months. Our results indicate that Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts, but it had no consistent effect on the growth vigour of seed tubers.;

  4. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds; Efecto del parenquina irradiado sobre el desarrollo de las yemas de tuberculos de patata tratados por radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Garcia Collantes, M A

    1976-07-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Temperature-dependent regulation of sugar metabolism in wild-type and low-invertase transgenic chipping potatoes during and after cooling for low-temperature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of sugar metabolism in cold-stored potato tubers has significant ramifications for potato chip and French fry producers and consumers. Though low-temperature storage reduces losses due to sprouting and disease, it induces accumulation of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. These rea...

  6. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K

    1980-01-01

    The practice of sprouting of cereal grains has become popular in the western world. Sprouted grains are thought of as having exceptional nutritive value. Sprouting is easy and can be done without sophisticated equipment. Untreated seeds of good quality and high germination percentage are placed in an environment of adequate water, a desirable temperature, and a certain composition of gases in the atmosphere for several days for sprouting. The sprouts can be kept for a few days to over a week under refrigeration. They can be used in many different foods including breakfast items, salads, soups, casseroles, pasta, and baked products. Sprouting of grains causes increased enzyme activity, a loss of total dry matter, an increase in total protein, a change in amino acid composition, a decrease in starch, increases in sugars, a slight increase in crude fat and crude fiber, and slightly higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals. Most of the increases in nutrients are not true increases, however. They simply reflect the loss of dry matter, mainly in the form of carbohydrates, due to respiration during sprouting. As total carbohydrates decreases, the percentage of other nutrients increases. There are no nutritional evaluations of cereal sprouts in humans. Animal studies with cattle, pigs, chickens, and rats have failed to show a superior nutritive value of sprouted grains over ungerminated grains. Studies with humans are not likely to produce more encouraging results.

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on glycoalkaloid and chlorophyll synthesis in seven potato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, M.F.B.; Griffiths, D.W.; Bain, H.; Goodman, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation to control sprouting and increase the length of storage time of potatoes has been proposed as an alternative to cold storage or the use of chemical sprout suppressants. Indeed, it is applied on a commercial-scale to potatoes in Japan. This research reports on the effects of different levels of gamma irradiation on seven potato cultivars in relation to chlorophyll and glycoalkaloid synthesis on subsequent exposure to light after a period of storage. There were significant genotype differences between cultivars in their response to gamma irradiation, with some cultivars exhibiting dramatically reduced levels of glycoalkaloid synthesis compared with others. Also, cultivars responded differently to variable irradiation levels. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to public health concerns and selection within potato breeding programmes

  8. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technology of the radio-inhibition of the germination of potatoes. Report on the semi-industrial scale tests, 1970--71 and 1971--72 seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandret, F.

    1973-12-31

    Semi-industrial experiments on the radiopreservation of potatoes were conducted in Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, and the Netherlands. General conditions of the experiments, such as variety of potatoes, treatment for sprout inhibition, and storage time are discussed. Determinations were made on weight loss and per cent of usable tubers. Culinary evaluations were made and changes in chemical composition during storage were noted. Evaluations were made of the quality of potato chips and other finished potato products. Legal aspects of potato irradiation are discussed. (HLW)

  10. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabash, M; Orabi, I O [National Center for research and radiation Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eloksh, I I; Abd-Alia, M A [Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs.

  11. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.; Orabi, I.O.; Eloksh, I.I.; Abd-Alia, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs

  12. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation and formulated essential oils on stored potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-El Seoud, M.A.; Helal, I.M.M.; Sarhan, M.M.; Galal, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Potato tubers were irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 K-Gy. Irradiated and non-irradiated tubers were soaked in biocides formulated from essential oils of fennel, peppermint and caraway oil. All treated and non-treated tubers were stored at room temperature (20 ±1 degree C) for period of 150 days. Samples were taken every 30 days for different quality determinations. Results showed that non-treated tubers were decayed and appear to be sprouted continuously alongside the different storage periods. However, exposing the studied tubers to gamma radiation induced a promising effect for retarding this decay and sprouting. Moreover, soaking potato tubers in the formulated biocides induced further interruption for tubers decay and sprouting. In addition, the applied treatment exhibited other positive effects for keeping the good quality of the studied tubers during storage.

  14. Effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation pf potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) during the storing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation of potato tubers stored during a period of six months is described by evaluating the loss by sprouting, transpiration and infections. The dose of 9 Krad inhibits sprouting with independence of the epoch in wich the treatment is made, on the other hand a dose of 6 Krad inhibits sprouting only if the tubers are irradiated during the resting period. The treatment with IPC gave similar results to those obtained with a dose of 9 Krad. (author) [es

  15. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  16. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  17. Preservation of potatoes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khattak, Y.I.; Khan, R.

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes (Varieties: Cardinal and Patrones) were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 kGy in Co-60 irradiator and stored at 20 degree centigrade for a period of 4 months. There was 5 and 3 percent rotting in control and 9 and 5 percent rotting in irradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones respectively at the end of 4 months storage period. The sprouting percentage at the end of 4 months was 51 and 59 in unirradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones varieties whereas no sprouting was observed in the irradiated potatoes in both the varieties. The weight loss was more (8.3 and 6.6%) in the control than the irradiated tubers (6.7 and 5.7%) in Cardinal and Patrones varieties at the end of 4 months storage period. Effect of radiation and storage was significant on ascorbic acid but negligible on sugars. Sensory quality was improved as a result of radiation treatment. The cost economics for food irradiation based on a source strength of 59 kCi was Rs. 290 per tone

  18. Long-term storage of irradiated potatoes for processing use, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Umeda, Keiji; Kameyama, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    In order to develop suitable storage conditions in potatoes for processing use, non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes var. Norin No. 1 were stored in containers and in bulk. The contents of reducing sugars were determined and the properties of potato chips were analysed. Reconditioning at 10 deg C and RH 90 % for 4 weeks during an early period of dormancy lowered the content of reducing sugars remarkably in both the non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes which were either stored in containers or in bulk. The optimum conditions for the storage of potatoes were 8 deg C and RH 90 %, which enabled the potatoes to retain their hardness while the content reducing sugars decreased. The potatoes stored under the above conditions gave chips with a fairly good color. In contrast, the non-irradiated potatoes stored for a period of 6 months or longer sprouted and aged, resulting in chips with unsatisfactory color. It was found necessary to use potatoes with low contents of both amino acids and reducing sugars to avoid the browning of chips. Bulk storage which was found to be effective for air circulation through potatoes caused creeping phenomenon. (author)

  19. Batch scale storage of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature; pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Yang, H.S.; Byun, M.W.; Lee, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop the commercial storage method of potatoes by irradiation combined with natural low temperature, two varieties of potatoes, Irish cobbler and Shimabara were stored at natural low temperature storage room (450x650x250cm; year round temperature change, 2-17 degC; 70-85% R.H.) on a batch scale followed by irradiation with optimum dose level. Irish cobbler and Shimabara were 100% sprouted after 3 months storage in control, whereas in 15Krad irradiated group, sprouting was completely inhibited at Irish cobbler for 9 months storage, and at Shimabara for 12 months. The extent of loss due to rot attack after 9 months storage was 6% in control, 6-8% in 10-15Krad irradiated group at Irish cobbler and weight loss was 16.5% in control, 5.1-5.6% in irradiated group, whereas rotting rate of Shimabara after 12 months storage was 100% in control, 15% in irradiated group and the weight loss of its was 12.6% in control, 7.3-7.4% in irradiated group. The moisture content in whole storage period of two varieties were 72-82% without remarkable changes. The total sugar and ascorbic acid contents were slightly decreased according to the dose increase and elapse of storage period, whereas reducing sugar content was increased. Irish cobbler was 90% markrtable after 9 months storage and 85% in Shimabara after 12 months storage. (Author)

  20. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  1. SproutCore web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keating, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Written as a practical, step-by-step tutorial, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for any person looking to write software for the Web or already writing software for the Web. Whether your background is in web development or in software development, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore will help you expand your skills so that you will be ready to apply the software development principles in the web development space.

  2. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  3. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  4. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  5. Changes of endogenous hormones in irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; El-Saeid, H.M.; Abou-Hadid, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Potato tubers Solatum tuberosum L. cv. Alpha were irradiated with 0.12 kgy and stored at room temperature. The endogenous hormones were extracted and determined using bioassay at dormant, budding and sprouting stages. The studied promoters were IAA, IAN, GA3 and Gibberellin like substances besides the inhibitors which included ABA and B-inhibitors. The results indicated that IAA was more sensitive to irradiation than IAN, GA3 but ABA was more stable than B-inhibitors during the dormancy. Irradiation decreased IAA and Gibberellin like substances and B-inhibitors but no change was observed in ABA content at dormant period. Irradiation caused a balance between promoters inhibitors at the end of tuber storage and after tubers sprouting

  6. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  7. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  8. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  9. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  10. Potato processing scenario in India: Industrial constraints, future projections, challenges ahead and remedies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, R S; Pandey, S K; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, S V; Kumar, Parveen

    2010-03-01

    Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry has emerged fast due to economic liberalization coupled with growing urbanization, expanding market options and development of indegenous processing varieties. India's first potato processing varieties 'Kufri Chipsona-1' and 'Kufri Chipsona-2' were developed in 1998, followed by an improved processing variety 'Kufri Chipsona-3' in 2005 for the Indian plains and first chipping variety 'Kufri Himsona' for the hills. These varieties have >21% tuber dry matter content, contain low reducing sugars (products. The availability of these varieties and standardization of storage techniques for processing potatoes at 10-12°C with sprout suppressant isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate have revolutionized the processing scenario within a short span of 10 years. Currently about 4% of total potato produce is being processed in organized and unorganized sector. Potato processing industry mainly comprises 4 segments: potato chips, French fries, potato flakes/powder and other processed products. However, potato chips still continue to be the most popular processed product. The major challenge facing the industries lies in arranging round the year supply of processing varieties at reasonable price for their uninterrupted operation, besides several others which have been discussed at length and addressed with concrete solutions.

  11. Economic feasibility studies on radiation preservation of dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Karim, A.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Bhuiya, A.D.; Matin, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes face enormous storage losses in Bangladesh due to insect infestation and sprouting. Research and development work was carried out to assess the suitability of introducing irradiation processing of these products in the country. Experiments showed that a dose of 0.04-0.68 kGy could inhibit sprouting in onions. Sprouting in potatoes could be inhibited at 0.10 kGy. Dried and cured fishery products could be disinfested of insects at a dose of 0.30 kGy. Infrastructure such as transportation, storage, marketing and existing systems of post-harvest handling were analysed. Post-harvest storage losses of onion and dried fish were more than 50% after 6 months of storage. Potatoes could not be kept at ambient conditions for over 3 months after the harvesting season. Irradiation of onions and dried fish, if they were stored in suitable conditions after proper packaging, could save significant storage losses. Irradiated potatoes could be stored at 14 deg. C instead of 2-4 deg. C as practised normally. On the basis of the data collected on dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes, economic feasibility studies were conducted. Assumptions for calculation of cost of the irradiation facility were: (i) strength of the irradiator source: 7.40 PBq of 60 Co; (ii) construction period: 2 years; (iii) operating time: 7200 hours per year; (iv) economic life: 20 years; (v) capacity utilization: 80-90%. In addition to dried and cured fish, potatoes and onions, this facility would also treat fresh fish and medical products in order to maximize its use. It would have an investment cost of US $1.9 million. The payback period was found to be less than 4 years. If additional warehouses could be built along with the facility, such a venture would be more profitable. 23 refs, 8 figs, 28 tabs

  12. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation and different modes of cooking on vitamin C content of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid content in control and gamma irradiated potatoes of four cultivars were studied during 15 degC storage and after cooking by different methods. Under identical prolonged storage conditions, control tubers suffered heavy losses of vitamin C and total marketability due to sprouting and shrinkage unlike irradiated tubers. Time consuming cooking destroys more vitamin C as compared to faster cooking methods. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  14. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. A cultivar (Allium cepa 'Copra') with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 degrees C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO(2) and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO(2) production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy.

  15. Detection of irradiated potato and garlic by thermoluminescence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.W.; Kwon, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Potato and garlic irradiated with gamma ray and electron beam at sprout-inhibition doses, 0.15 and 0.30 kGy were subjected to the detection whether they are irradiated or not by measuring thermoluminescence(TL) for the minerals adhering to the samples. Minerals extracted from the samples showed a high correlation coefficients between absorbed doses and corresponding TL responses. Nonirradiated samples, however, did not exhibit characteristic TL glowcurves. Major glowcurve peaks were observed at 200 to in all irradiated samples. TL intensity was proportional to irradiated doses, but it varied with the samples tested even at the same dose. It can be concluded from the results that detection of irradiated potato and garlic is possible by measuring TL for extracted minerals from the unknown samples

  16. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  17. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  18. Feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Wahid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a study conducted to explore the possibility of extending the storage life of potatoes, onions and garlic, which pose a serious storage problem in the hot summer months. Potatoes of the Ultimus and Desiree varieties, stored at ambient room temperature (25-40 0 C), R.H. 40-50% and irrespective of the treatment, started rotting only two weeks after storage began and all the lots were completely destroyed by rot attack after a storage period of 12 weeks. The irradiated tubers (10krad) of both Ultimus and Desiree, stored at low temperature (14-16 0 C) and R.H. 60-70%, showed complete inhibition of sprouting. Sprouting was completely inhibited in irradiated onions (10krad) stored at ambient and low temperature during the whole storage period. The extent of loss due to rot attack after 150 days of storage at room temperature was 35 and 36% in control and irradiated bulbs, whereas at low temperature this loss was 22 and 15% respectively. Irradiated garlic (10krad), stored at room and low temperatures, showed complete inhibition of sprouting up to 6 months. However, the rot attack in control and irradiated bulbs stored at ambient room temperature was 46 and 54% respectively. It is concluded that radiation followed by storage at 14-16 0 C is the optimum condition for storing potatoes, onions and garlic in good condition for more than 5 months in tropical countries like Pakistan. (author)

  19. Sprouting inhibition of rhizomes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Chosdu, Rahayu

    1985-01-01

    Sprouting inhibition by gamma irradiation to prolong the storage life of 4 species of rhizomes, namely curcuma domestica, kaemferia galanga, curcuma xanthoriza and curcuma aeruginosa, has been carried out. Two groups of samples were used, freshly harvested rhizomes and fresh rhizomes which have been stored for about two weeks. The samples were packed in a plastic net bag, each contained about 100 grams of rhizomes. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature at the doses of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kGy. Post irradiation storage was done at room temperature with relative humidity ranging between 85 and 95%. The results showed that irradiation doses of 0.06 to 0.08 kGy was sufficient to inhibit sprouting of freshly harvested rhizomes and prolonged its storage life for 6 weeks, while in the other group sprouting still occured at the dose of 0.25 kGy. Irradiation dose up to 0.25 kGy did not cause significant effect on moisture and volatile oil contents, as well as volatile oil characteristics of the samples. About 50% of weight losses were found either in irradiated or unirradiated samples after being stored for 8 weeks. Odour and texture were evaluated organoleptically while mould growth and insect damage were observed visually. (author)

  20. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Moccia, Eleonora; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgi, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2018-10-01

    In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  2. Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Alamar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

  3. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into

  4. WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  5. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on three Egyptian potato cultivars during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkazy, M.A.; Mahmoud, M.E.; Abd El-Galil, M.I.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The changes in starch, reducing, non reducing, sugars and ascorbic acid (vit. C) content of three important potato cultivars (sponta, Alpha and Diamonta) grown in Egypt which were subjected to gamma irradiation (0,0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) for sprout inhibition were studied. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had adverse effect on the sprouting of potato tubers during storage at 20-24. Increasing irradiation dose, resulted in a significant increase n rotted percent (5.9-6.6%) for potato cultivars irradiated at 2 kGy and stored for 4 weeks). The sucrose content of non-and irradiated tubers increased considerably during the experimental time. The content was dependent upon irradiation dose, and the maximum sucrose content was observed at dose of 1.0 kGy in tuber stored 4 weeks at 20-24 degree. The sucrose accumulation was accompanied by decrease in starch content in irradiated potato tubers, which suggested that gamma irradiation accelerated the conversion of starch into sucrose and accumulation was not caused by direct chemical reactions but by physiological reactions

  6. Preservation of potatoes and onions by irradiation and chemical treatments. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhavat, A.; Zare, Z.; Kudva, M.G.; Chopra, K.L.; Shariat Panahi, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Preservation of potatoes and onions is an urgent need in Iran, and an attempt has been made to gain experience in this field by applying ionizing radiation and chemicals. 60 Co gamma radiation doses of 5, 10, 12 and 15krad for three local varieties of potatoes and of 3, 6 and 9krad for one variety of onions, salicylic acid concentrations of 500, 1500 and 2500ppm, and combinations of different doses of radiation and salicylic acid were tried. Upon irradiation with doses of 12-15krad a significant reduction in the losses due to sprouting, rotting and dehydration was observed for all three varieties of potatoes after a storage period of nine months. Chemical treatment alone proved ineffective. Some doses of a combined treatment with salicylic acid plus irradiation yielded good results, but they need confirmation by further investigation. Organoleptic tests were carried out on two varieties of potatoes. Due to a delay in starting the treatment of onions after harvest, a high percentage had already begun to sprout and so the results obtained are only approximate values. (author)

  7. Preservation of Potatoes and Onions by Irradiation and Chemical Treatments. A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhavat, A.; Zare, Z.; Kudva, M. G.; Chopra, K. L.; Shariat Panahi, J. M. [Center for Research and for Application Of Radioisotopes, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1978-04-15

    Preservation of potatoes and onions is an urgent need in Iran, and an attempt has been made to gain experience in this field by applying ionizing radiation and chemicals. {sup 60}Co gamma radiation doses of 5, 10, 12 and 15 krad for three local varieties of potatoes and of 3, 6 and 9 krad for one variety of onions, salicylic acid concentrations of 500, 1500 and 2500 ppm, and combinations of different doses of radiation and salicylic acid were tried. Upon irradiation with doses of 12-15 krad a significant reduction in the losses due to sprouting, rotting and dehydration was observed for all three varieties of potatoes after a storage period of nine months. Chemical treatment alone proved ineffective. Some doses of a combined treatment with salicylic acid plus irradiation yielded good results, but they need confirmation by further investigation. Organoleptic tests were carried out on two varieties of potatoes. Due to a delay in starting the treatment of onions after harvest, a high percentage had already begun to sprout and so the results obtained are only approximate values. (author)

  8. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  9. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  10. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  11. Effect Of Sprouting On Available Lysine Content Of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sprouting on available Lysine content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour and the performance of the flour used for producing “moi – moi” (steamed bean cake). Cowpea seed was subjected to sprouting for different periods of 1 day, 2 days and 3 days for samples B, C and ...

  12. Chromium in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard-Gilbert, K.; Blincoe, C.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined, and tubes were labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate ( 51 Cr). A labeled chromium complex was isolated from preparations of raw, baked, or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg of Cr/g tissue, respectively. There was no correlation between the two, nor did they respond similarly to changes of variety or locations. No significant differences were apparent in relative migration of the isolated complexes except between raw and cooked extrinsically labeled preparations

  13. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  14. Technology of irradiation processing for checking garlic sprouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang

    1999-01-01

    Study on technology of irradiation processing for checking garlic sprouting was carried out. The results are as follows. 1. the suitable irradiation time of garlic could be prolonged when the garlic was preserved at low temperature (-2 +- 1 degree C). When the garlic was stored till the end of the year and then irradiated, the sprouting could be checked effectively. When the garlic was stored till the next March, the effect of sprouting inhibition decreased; 2. When garlic was irradiated at suitable time and then subsequently stored at low temperature, the effect of sprouting inhibition was the same as that with cold storage before irradiation. However, if the cold storage period was rather long, the effect was not as good as that with cold storage after irradiation; 3. Browning of irradiated garlic did not occur when the garlic was preserved at low temperature (-2 +- 1 degree C), indicating that the browning of sprout and bud was caused by higher storage temperature

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. You Say Potato!

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Elgy

    2001-01-01

    "If we are what we eat, as they are forever telling, then we're mostly potato" sayd travel writer, journalist and enthusiastic cook Elgy Gillespie Now Elgy has drawn on her travel experiences and her love of food to gather over 100 potato recipes from Ireland and around the world" Taken from the back cover. Published by Wolfhound Press Ltd., 68 Mountjoy Square, Dublin in 2001. Illustrated by Rebecca Wildsmith. Cover illustration Eva Byrne, cover photograph Richard Gibson, cover design W...

  17. In vitro development of buds from tubers of potato (Solanum tuUerosum L.) subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The 'in vitro' development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad is studied. The effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradication is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (author) [es

  18. Effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, F.; Badshah, N.; Jabeen, N.; Ayub, G.

    2004-01-01

    Research work was conducted to find out the effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes. Cultivar Raja was obtained from Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, and irradiated by Cobalt-60 source at different doses 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad at the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab during the year 2002. The samples were then stored for three months at the Horticultural Research Farm, Malakandher, at a room temperature of 30-39 degree C and relative humidity of 29-63%. Various tests carried out at Food Science laboratory revealed that irradiation significantly affected the weight loss, sugars, starch, ascorbic acid, sprouting and specific gravity. It was observed that maximum sprouting has occurred in control (42.1%) followed by 5 Krad irradiated tubers (6.4%). While irradiation doses of 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad completely inhibited sprouting. Maximum percent decrease in weight (42.66%), reducing sugars (0.57%), non reducing sugars (0.87%), starch (12%), ascorbic acid (32%) and specific gravity (4%) were recorded for control while minimum percent decrease in weight (31.40%), reducing sugars (0.19%), non-reducing sugars (0.27%), starch (8.0%), ascorbic acid (12%) and specific gravity (1.7%) were noted for IS Krad irradiated tubers. Irradiation dose of 7.5 Krad seems to be better for the extension of shelf life of potatoes

  19. Sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.K.; Hossain, M.A.; Choudhury, M.S.U.; Matin, M.A.; Amin, M.R.; Hossain, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Onions of a set grown local variety were gamma irradiated in the dose range of 2-8 Krad. The irradiated onions were then stored in 10 lb. bags and in single layer at an average ambient temperature of 83 0 F and 79% relative humidity. Radiation doses of 4 Krad and above were completely inhibitory to sprouting of onions. Weight loss and rot incidence were markedly reduced in irradiated samples up to 10 months in both jute bag and single layer storage. An analysis of the cost benefit revealed that commercial irradiation of onions is economically feasible in Bangladesh if post-irradiation of storage extends for a period of over 6 months. (author)

  20. Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Jawdat, D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg -1 . Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

  1. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  2. Examples of alien pathogens in Finnish potato production - their introduction, establishment and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. HANNUKKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens on potato have been imported into Finland via contaminated seed more than hundred years ago. The history of migration and the consequences for potato production of potato wart, blackleg and soft rot, Potato mop-top virus (PMTV and its vector powdery scab are reviewed as examples of economically important and biologically different potato pathogens. Potato wart spread alarmingly during 1920-1960. Plant quarantine acts and the use of resistant cultivars were successful in eradicating the disease. The pathogens causing blackleg and soft rot increased rapidly in 1960-1970. Development of seed certification schemes after the end of the 1970s decreased disease incidence and made the disease insignificant other than for seed potato production. Introduction of new strains of blackleg bacteria in 2003 caused the disease again to become a considerable threat to potato production. PMTV was imported into Finland in the 1970s where it spread rapidly, especially in starch potato production. Currently it is common in all potato production except that of seed potato. The disease cannot be eradicated but contamination of clean fields can be prevented. New diseases can spread to Finland in future but population changes of existing pathogens have recently caused more problems than species completely new to Finland.;

  3. Endogenous neurotrophin-3 promotes neuronal sprouting from dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Yang; Gu, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Shi-Wen; Gao, Wen-Wei; Tian, Heng-Li; Lu, Xiang-He; Zheng, Wei-Ming; Zhuge, Qi-Chuan; Hu, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous neurotrophin-3 in nerve terminal sprouting 2 months after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy. The left L1-5 and L7-S2 dorsal root ganglia in adult cats were exposed and removed, preserving the L6 dorsal root ganglia. Neurotrophin-3 was mainly expressed in large neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and in some neurons in spinal lamina II. Two months after rhizotomy, the number of neurotrophin-3-positive neurons in the spared dorsal root ganglia and the density of neurite sprouts emerging from these ganglia were increased. Intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against neurotrophin-3 decreased the density of neurite sprouts. These findings suggest that endogenous neurotrophin-3 is involved in spinal cord plasticity and regeneration, and that it promotes axonal sprouting from the dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy.

  4. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...... is substituted with low amounts of phosphate groups monoesterified to the C-3 and the C-6 carbons of the glucose units. They seem to align well in the granular structure and have tremendous effects on starch degradation in the potato and functionality of the refined starch. A specific dikinase catalyzes...

  5. Effect of Storage Methods and Period on the Physiological and Nutrient Components of Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculentus in Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeocha Chinelo Vanessa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Livingstone potato production in Nigeria is faced with the challenge of high postharvest losses. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of some storage methods on the physiological and nutritional quality of livingstone potato. Potatoes were separated and stored using eight different methods: potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with sand under the shade (T1, potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with ash under the shade (T2, potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with rice husk under the shade (T3, potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with a wood shavings under the shade (T4, potatoes spread on a bamboo platform under the shade(T5, potatoes spread on a raffia palm platform under the shade(T6, potatoes spread on concrete pavement inside the barn (T7, potatoes spread on the ground under the shade(T8, potatoes buried under the ground (T9. T8 was used as the control treatment. Temperature and relative humidity of the environment was monitored, the roots were weighed monthly to access the weight loss, sprouting and rot were observed visually and proximate composition of the stored roots were evaluated using standard methods. The lowest percentage weight loss was observed in samples stored in a pit covered with wood ash and those covered with river sand. Samples stored in pits and covered with wood shavings, wood ash and river sand had the lowest percentage of sprouting (1.63%, 3.45% and 6.06% respectively. The dry matter content increased with storage period in all the storage methods. The starch yield varied in the different storage methods with the samplescovered with river sand (13.45% and the samples buried underground in the field(10.53% giving the highest starch yield at the end of the storage period. Samples stored under rice husk had the highest ash content (4.77% while the crude fibre and crude protein contents were highest in the samples spread on raffia palm. The results showed that spreading on the floor

  6. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  7. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts.

  8. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Impedance measurement of irradiated potatoes: a method to identify radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The potato is firmly established in many parts of the world as a major staple food. Then, radiation processing of potato is approved in many countries for sprouting inhibition and extension of shelf life in a dose range from about 0.01 to 0.15 kGy of 60 Co. The use of electrical conductance methods for the detection of Salmonella, some virus or the action of herbicides on plant has been reported and differences have been observed between instruments in respect of the magnitude of conductance change or rates of change in conductance response. A reliable technique to identify potatoes or other food products has not been established so far, though several methods have been reported. Electrical impedance might thus serve for characterization of unirradiated and irradiated tissues and cells. In this work, potato tubers from an European variety, named Bintje, grown in Sao Paulo State were employed. Potatoes were punctured with steel electrodes and impedance measured at different frequencies (1 k Hz-100 k Hz) by passing 3-5 m A alternating current through it. The impedance ratio of 50 k Hz/5 k Hz calculated from ten replicate samples decreases with the increment of the dose when doses of O 0.75 and 0.15 kGy from a Gamma Cell 220 were utilized. The impedance measurement were slightly affected by the place of puncture. (author)

  10. Characteristics of starch breads enriched with red potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch breads may often be low in nutritional value, in comparison to traditional products, as they contain less dietary fibre, protein and micro and macro elements. As an effect a risk of mineral deficiencies and digestive problems caused by lack of dietary fibre could be expected in persons adhering to gluten free diet. To eliminate such problems, a continuous research on gluten-free bread nutritional enrichment, has been done in recent years. Raw material used to enrich gluten free products should include: inulin, lupine, radish, soy, lucerne sprouts, oilseeds, different type of dried fruits. Among the most commonly used raw materials, there are flours from gluten free cereals and pseudocereals such as buckwheat, amaranth and maize are very popular. It seem that valuable alternative could be considered a red, purple or pink potatoes as starch breads additives. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect addition of freeze-dried color potatoes on crude fiber, polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids and nutritional value of gluten free breads. It could be concluded, that freeze-dried color (red, purple, pink potatoes enriched the gluten free breads (starch breads with health promoting bioactive components, like polyphenols, and highly valuable protein. The most promising additive was Magenta Love red potato variety lyophilisates, because gluten free breads enriched with this component were characterized by high protein content and the highest content of free and bound polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins. The presence of all these components increased the nutritional and pro-health value of gluten free product as starch bread.

  11. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  12. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  13. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  14. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  15. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  16. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  17. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  18. Transport of calcium in stolones of potato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.; Marschner, H.

    1974-01-01

    In hydroculture tests with potato plants, the 45 Ca displacement into the stolons depending on the growth rate and the degree of supply of Ca of the tuber as well as on the relative air humidity in the region of stolons and tubers was investigated. 45 Ca was either applied via the roots or via the stolon surface. With the 45 Ca supply via the root, only a small 45 Ca displacement into the stolon or tuber takes place if the stolon tip or the tubers were additionally supplied exagenously with Ca (CaSO 4 solution) or if the relative humidity of the air in the region of the stolons or tubers was high. At high relative air humidity around the tubers, there was no 'sink' effect of the tuber on the 45 Ca displacement in the stolon even if the Ca supply of the tuber was bad. 45 Ca applied via the stolon surface at high relative air humidity in the stolon region was practically exclusively displaced to the direction of the sprout. At low air humidity in the region of the stolen and tuber, on the other hand, the 45 Ca was well displaced into the stolon in the direction of the sprout or tuber after application via the root as well as via the stolon. (GSE/LH) [de

  19. Irradiation of onions with the commercial potato irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Kawashima, Koji; Hayasi, Toru

    1983-01-01

    Three varieties of onion harvested in Hokkaido were irradiated with the Shohoro Potato Irradiator on 29th September, 1981. One ton of each of the varieties, Kitamiki (KI), Ohohtsuku (OH) and Furanui (FU), was used in this investigation. Onions had longer dormancy period in the order of FU>OH>KI. Higher sprouting percentage was obtained in the unirradiated onions, while they were stored at a higher temperature or stored for a longer period. Generally, unirradiated onions sprouted before they were deteriorated. Thus the number of deteriorated bulbs in the unirradiated onions was superficially less than that in the irradiated ones. When the onions which were taken from warehouses on 26th March, 1982 were stored at room temperature, the percentage of wholesome bulbs was higher in KI and OH than FU. Small buds in some of the irradiated onions turned dark after a long storage time. Quantitative estimation of this phenomena is left to be resolved. There was little relationship between the weight loss and the number of wholesome onions. (author)

  20. Effect of irradiation on vitamin C content of strawberries and potatoes in combination with storage and with further cooking in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.D.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    The vitamin C content of four varieties of strawberry was determined before and after treatment with ionising radiation at doses of 1, 2 or 3 kGy and after storage for 5 and 10 days at 6°C, and also in potatoes which, having been allowed a period of one month to recover from the effects of post-harvest stress, were irradiated at a sprout inhibition dose of 0.15 kGy, followed by storage and cooking. Total ascorbic acid (TAA), ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) concentrations were measured using the technique of ion-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. Results from analysis of the strawberry samples showed the DHAA content increased immediately following irradiation and must, therefore, be taken into account when reporting vitamin C levels in irradiated produce. In addition it was observed that whilst irradiation did affect the vitamin C concentration in all varieties of strawberry, the change was small in comparison with the large variations observed between varieties. With regard to potatoes results showed that, whilst irradiation, storage and cooking all had the effect of reducing vitamin C concentration, irradiated samples stored for 5 months had similar or marginally higher levels than their non-irradiated counterparts. Cooking did not markedly reduce TAA content of irradiated potatoes compared to non-irradiated potatoes and it was also noted that microwave cooking was more destructive than boiling in lightly salted water

  1. Influence of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy, growth and physiological activity of seed potato (solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, Z. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To observe the stimulating effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy breaking and growth of potato with different storage duration and conditions, potato were irradiated with the dose of 1 {approx} 16 Gy. Though varied with storage duration and conditions, sprouting rate of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was promoted at the 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to 20 .deg. C in the light. The field growth of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was highly increased at the 2, 4, 8 Gy irradiation group. The CAT activity of potato was increased by about 20% at 1,8 and 16 Gy irradiation group. POD activity was also increased by 7 {approx} 16% at 1, 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to the control. Fv/Fm was not changed by the low dose {gamma} radiation. However, the effective quantum yield of PSII was slightly increased by about 12% at 1 and 16 Gy irradiation group. Seedling irradiated with low dose {gamma} radiation showed the lower excitation pressure on PSII (1- {sub q}P), while NPQ was greatly increased by 45% at 4 Gy irradiation group. These results clearly showed the positive effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the seedling growth of potato via increasing photoprotective capacities of photosynthetic apparatus.

  2. Influence of low dose γ radiation on the dormancy, growth and physiological activity of seed potato (solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, Z. C.

    2002-01-01

    To observe the stimulating effect of low dose γ radiation on the dormancy breaking and growth of potato with different storage duration and conditions, potato were irradiated with the dose of 1 ∼ 16 Gy. Though varied with storage duration and conditions, sprouting rate of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was promoted at the 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to 20 .deg. C in the light. The field growth of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was highly increased at the 2, 4, 8 Gy irradiation group. The CAT activity of potato was increased by about 20% at 1,8 and 16 Gy irradiation group. POD activity was also increased by 7 ∼ 16% at 1, 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to the control. Fv/Fm was not changed by the low dose γ radiation. However, the effective quantum yield of PSII was slightly increased by about 12% at 1 and 16 Gy irradiation group. Seedling irradiated with low dose γ radiation showed the lower excitation pressure on PSII (1- q P), while NPQ was greatly increased by 45% at 4 Gy irradiation group. These results clearly showed the positive effect of low dose γ radiation on the seedling growth of potato via increasing photoprotective capacities of photosynthetic apparatus

  3. Studies on sprout inhibition of onions by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Limaye, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    Sprout inhibition of onions by gamma irradiation was found to be influenced by the physiological state of the bulbs at the time of irradiation, radiation dose and the storage temperature after irradiation. Sprouting was minimal during storage at ambient temperature (26 to 32 0 C) while exposure to low temperature (4 to 20 0 C) or widely fluctuating diernal temperature (20 0 C min to 30 0 C max) accelerated it. Six to nine Krad inhibited sprouting during storage under the above conditions only if the bulbs were irradiated within a fortnight of harvest when they were in the dormant state. Twenty-five Krad caused a transient stimulation of sprouting regardless of the time of irradiation while 6 to 12 Krad only stimulated sprouting when the time interval between harvest and irradiation exceeded three weeks. Irradiation at all dose levels cause discoloration of the growth centre, the extent of which was minimal in bulbs exposed to low doses soon after harvest and in those stored at ambient temperature. (author)

  4. Survival of pathogens of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea Gemifera group) in crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Vlaswinkel, M.E.T.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Kastelein, P.; Hoof, van R.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Krijger, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosphaerella brassicicola (ringspot), Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae (dark leaf spot) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (black spot) can infect leaves of Brussels sprouts resulting in yield losses. Infections of outer leaves of sprouts cause severe losses in quality. Crop

  5. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  6. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  7. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-09-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15/sup 0/C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10/sup 0/C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28/sup 0/ +- 2/sup 0/C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential.

  8. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15 0 C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10 0 C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28 0 +- 2 0 C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential. (author)

  9. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  10. A simple kit for rapid field diagnosis of potato virus Y by latex serological test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarne Kurppa

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple kit for rapid detection of potato virus Y by latex serological test was developed. The test is carried out on a white cardboard sheet and the results can be read by naked eye in two minutes. A test card of 10 x 6 cm holds latex sensitized antibodies, buffers and other necessary ingredients as dry blue colored formulate on the ringed areas of the card. A test card includes space for six tests and positive and negative controls. The kit also includes disposable plastic sticks for mixing the samples with test reagents and a hand press with disposable plastic tips. For testing, dried reagents are dissolved in drops of sample and mixed. After gentle rotation, samples containing virus appear clearly granulated while samples from healthy plants remain unagglutinated. The testing of undiluted extracts of evenly developed tuber sprouts resulted in over 91 % identity with the results obtained with ELISA that was used as a control method. Testing of diluted leaf extracts reached the same reliability but undiluted leaf extracts from glasshouse grown potatoes were not well suitable as test samples because of their dark green color. No such problems occurred with field grown material and a complete identity with the ELISA readings was true when the samples included secondarily infected potato plants. No reaction to other potato viruses than PVY was obtained by the test kit.

  11. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  12. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  13. The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions

  14. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  15. Research on sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuan; He Jianzhong; Li Ruijun

    2005-01-01

    This paper researches the sprout inhibition effect by irradiation on refrigerated garlic. The results shows that, the garlic is still in the period of dormancy within 7 days after taken out from the refrigerated warehouse, and irradiation have a good sprout inhibition effect on it. The irradiation dose is 40-90 Gy, the same as that of the post harvest irradiation treatment on garlic. Refrigerate the Zhongmu Garlic (at -2 degree C-0 degree C) until the middle ten days of February the next year, place it at the room temperature (10 degree C-15 degree C) for 1-7 days after taking it out of the warehouse, then use 60 Co γ-ray to irradiate it until the absorbed dose reaches 40-90 Gy, the sprout inhibition effect can be realized. The test also indicates that the deposited time after taking out of the refrigerated warehouse is crucial to the sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation. (authors)

  16. Factors affecting seed set in brussels sprouts, radish and cyclamen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murabaa, El A.I.M.

    1957-01-01

    If brussels sprouts were, self-fertilized, seed setting increased with age of the flower buds until a maximum some days before buds opened. After that, set decreased rapidly. Warmth shortened the period over which selfing was possible and shortened the period to the opening of the flowers. Most

  17. Oak sprouts grow better than seedlings under drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pietras, Justyna; Stojanović, Marko; Knott, R.; Pokorný, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 529-535 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : drought stress * sap flow * transpiration * biomass Production * sessile Oak * sprout * seedling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  18. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  19. Effects of Growth Hormones on Sprouting and Rooting of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the effect of growth hormone on sprouting and rooting ability of Jatropha curcas (L). Stem cuttings from mature plants were treated with two types of growth hormones: Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid while the untreated cuttings were used as control.

  20. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  1. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... the activities of some enzymes were increased by magnetic field treatment. ... field were sown separately in five plastic dishes (Φ 25 cm, each containing 100 ..... products on germination of mung bean seeds and microbial quality of sprouts. ... Carbohydrate degradation during germination. In J. Kigel & G.

  2. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  3. Growth and Survival of Northern Hardwood Sprouts After Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Root collar sprouting of nine hardwoods was measured annually after a prescribed burn. Basswood, red oak, and paper birch were the most vigorous sprouters; sugar maple and yellow birch the least; and American elm, bur oak, ironwood and red maple were intermediate. Parent tree diameter influenced spreading.

  4. Effect of sprouting and pre-gelatinization on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sprouted (96-hour) and pregelatinized (780C) sorghum grains were milled and blended with graded proportion of pigeon-pea and used in formulating flaked breakfast cereal. A commercial ready-to-serve breakfast cereal served as product control. The flour blends and formulated products were subjected to the ...

  5. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  6. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  7. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  8. Studies on sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany imports about 97% of the onions for human consumption, especially from the Netherlands and from 7 other countries. The onions are distributed for sale immediately without long storage in storehouses. Therefore the objective of this study was not primarily to clear the irradiation and storage processing but to obtain better information about the quality of imported irradiated onions and about the parameters influencing the quality. Seven varieties cultivated in Germany with different physical and sensory properties were irradiated with 10MeV electrons at doses of 5 or 10krad and stored at temperatures of +4, +9, +10 or +20 0 C. The time between harvest and irradiation and the storage conditions for this time were also varied. In all periods physical, chemical and sensory properties of fresh and cooked bulbs were tested and statistically analysed during the storage periods of 8 to 10 months after harvest. It could be demonstrated that a dose of 5krad of 10MeV electrons was high enough to inhibit sprouting in all varieties, independent of the storage conditions, if the irradiation was applied within 4 weeks after harvest. If more time elapsed between harvest and irradiation, reduced sprout suppression was obtained. The sensory quality of the onion bulbs, irradiated and stored for 8 months, was evaluated as only 1 or 2 points lower than at the beginning of storage, when tested as cooked vegetables. The influence of the variety and storage conditions on the properties was more evident than the influence of irradiation, apart from sprouting. However, the browning in the growth centre of the irradiated onion bulbs could not be ignored. Varying the time between harvest and irradiation had no effect, and different storage conditions demonstrated only that lower storage temperatures delayed the browning but did not prevent it. This will probably not influence the marketability of the onions and would be compensated by lower prices for the

  9. Potatoes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  10. Regulation, overexpression, and target gene identification of Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) – a class-I KNOX gene in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ameya S.; Kondhare, Kirtikumar R.; Rajabhoj, Mohit P.; Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Tejashree; Ravindran, Nevedha; Habib, Farhat; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Banerjee, Anjan K.

    2016-01-01

    Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) is a KNOX-I (Knotted1-like homeobox) family gene in potato that is orthologous to Shoot Meristemless (STM) in Arabidopsis. Despite numerous reports on KNOX genes from different species, studies in potato are limited. Here, we describe photoperiodic regulation of POTH15, its overexpression phenotype, and identification of its potential targets in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena). qRT-PCR analysis showed a higher abundance of POTH15 mRNA in shoot tips and stolons under tuber-inducing short-day conditions. POTH15 promoter activity was detected in apical and axillary meristems, stolon tips, tuber eyes, and meristems of tuber sprouts, indicating its role in meristem maintenance and leaf development. POTH15 overexpression altered multiple morphological traits including leaf and stem development, leaflet number, and number of nodes and branches. In particular, the rachis of the leaf was completely reduced and leaves appeared as a bouquet of leaflets. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of 35S::GUS and two POTH15 overexpression lines identified more than 6000 differentially expressed genes, including 2014 common genes between the two overexpression lines. Functional analysis of these genes revealed their involvement in responses to hormones, biotic/abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. qRT-PCR of selected candidate target genes validated their differential expression in both overexpression lines. Out of 200 randomly chosen POTH15 targets, 173 were found to have at least one tandem TGAC core motif, characteristic of KNOX interaction, within 3.0kb in the upstream sequence of the transcription start site. Overall, this study provides insights to the role of POTH15 in controlling diverse developmental processes in potato. PMID:27217546

  11. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  12. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  13. Involvement of bacterial quorum-sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although...... the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads) were isolated from commercial sprouts, and strains that were both proteolytic and pectinolytic were capable of causing soft-rot spoilage in bean...... sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic...

  14. Bacterial bioeffectors modify bioactive profile and increase isoflavone content in soybean sprouts (Glycine max var Osumi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, Elena; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; García-Villaraco, Ana; Sierra, M Dolores Saco; Gómez, M Soledad Martín; Gutiérrez-Mañero, F Javier

    2013-09-01

    The effect of two bacterial strains to enhance bioactive contents (total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and isoflavones) and antioxidant activity on 3-day-old soybean sprouts were investigated. To identify bacterial determinants responsible for these effects, viable and UV-treated strains were delivered to wounded seeds at different concentration. Multivariate analysis performed with all the evaluated parameters indicated the different effectiveness of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N5.18 and Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4 based on different structural and metabolic determinants for each. N21.4 increased total phenolics and isoflavones from the genistein family, while N5.18 triggered biosynthesis of daidzein and genistein families coupled to a decrease in total phenolics, suggesting different molecular targets in the phenilpropanoid pathway. Only extracts from N5.18 treated seeds showed an improved antioxidant activity according to the β-carotene bleaching prevention method. In summary, bioeffectors from both bacterial strains are effective tools to improve soybean sprouts quality; structural elicitors from N5.18 also enhanced antioxidant activity, being the best alternative for further development of a biotechnological procedure.

  15. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts. - Highlights: ► Investigated the germination rate and the sprouts length after irradiation. ► Indicated the effect of irradiation on the antioxidants of the soybean sprouts. ► Evaluated the visual and olfactory quality of irradiated samples.

  16. Effect of low-temperature storage, gamma irradiation and iso-propyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl carbamate) treatment on the processing quality of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.S.; Chen, R.Y.; Tsai, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    In Taiwan commercial storage of potatoes (CV Kennebec, Wu-Foon, Cardinal) at 2°C. 85% RH, can supply the fresh market all year round. However, reducing sugar and total sugar which accumulate in the tubers will reduce the processing quality of potatoes. Reconditioning of tubers from cold stores was undertaken at ambient temperature (20°C) for up to 6 weeks. The optimum temperature for Kennebec and Cardinal reconditioning ranged from 20 to 25°C. However, after storage at 2°C for a long period, the sugar content of potato tubers cannot be reduced to a satisfactory level. When newly harvested potatoes were pretreated with CIPC (300–500 μg litre −1 ) and stored at 10°C, 80 % RH, sprouting was inhibited effectively. The quality of potatoes was retained well and reducing sugar remained at a low level for up to 8 months. MENA was found to be ineffective. Gamma irradiation of potatoes at 0.175-0 20·0-10–0.125 and 0.125 kGy for Cardinal, Kennebec and Wu-Foon respectively was found to be effective in controlling the sprouting of tubers stored at 10°C, 80 % RH, for 9 months. A rapid increase in sugar content was found in irradiated Cardinal and Wu-Foon after storage for 7 months, while the reducing sugar in irradiated Kennebec was still below 0°2 % after 8 month's storage. Gamma irradiation had no adverse effect on the ascorbic acid content, and higher firmness retention was obtained in irradiated tubers throughout storage at 10°C

  17. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper Foged; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...

  18. Effect of Se on Yield and Vegetative Characteristics of Brussels Sprouts in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rozita khademi astaneh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is a non-metallic, rare chemical element and essential for many organisms but this element is not mentioned as an essential element for plants. Due to its presence in antioxidant defense systems and hormonal balance, selenium is known to be necessary in human and animal health Plants exhibit a variety of physiological responses to selenium.Some species accumulate large amount of selenium, while many plant species are sensitive to presence of large amounts of selenium in soil and water. The mean, the maximum and tolerance level of selenium required for humans is 45, 55 and 400 micrograms, respectively (Dietary Reference. but acute toxicity level in animals are found with a concentration of 1000 ppm. Plants absorb and storage selenium in chemical form and concentration depends on pH, salinity and calcium carbonate content. High contents of selenium reduce plant growth and plant dryness, however in some plants low selenium concentrations improved growth and increase stress resistance by maintenance of chloroplast enzymes. Positive response to the use of selenium were mentioned in lettuce, potato, mustard, crap, darnel, soybean (Glycinemax L, potatoes and green tea leaves. Research has shown that there is a positive relationship between selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity, which is a reason to delay aging and increase growth of aging plants. The results of this study had shown that the application of selenium treatments increased leaf area of plants and, consequently, the higher availability of asmilates, can increase plant growth. The results of the studies also indicated that all vegetative characteristics of plants are increased due to the concentration of selenium and the accumulation capacity of plants affected by selenium application. Since there is no research on the effect of selenium on cabbage, it seems that the use of this element can affect the growth and development of this plant. Materials

  19. Mechanisms of lumen formation during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gebala, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    During development, vascular networks expand following a process known as sprouting angiogenesis. New vascular branches arise from pre-existing vessels through the coordinated migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, and eventually connect to form new vascular loops. The functionality of these new vessel segments is dependent on the opening of a central lumen to allow perfusion. While mechanisms of lumen formation during the establishment of the primary vasculature by vasculogenesis ...

  20. [The Process of Healing Child Physical Abuse: Sprouting and Twining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tseng, Ren-Mei

    2018-06-01

    Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse. A qualitative research design using grounded theory was applied. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit survivors of childhood physical abuse who had experienced healing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used and data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The process of healing child physical abuse in this study was a process of sprouting and twining. Three core categories emerged: thriving, relationships, and ethics. The healing process was analogous to a seed growing in poor soil, sprouting out from the ground, and striving to live by seeking support. The survivors constantly established interactive relationships with their selves and with others and struggled to keep family bonds grounded and growing within the frame of ethics. The healing process of sprouting and twining for child physical abuse survivors in Taiwan integrates thriving, relationships, and ethics. Professionals working with child-physical-abuse survivors must recognize conflicts in ethics. Strategies should be developed to assist survivors to cope with the impact of childhood trauma in order to facilitate the healing process.

  1. ESTIMATION OF BIOMASS COMMERCIAL SPROUTS OF Ilex paraguariensis A.ST.-HIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Vuaden

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing some models that allow estimating the biomass of commercial green shoots of Ilex paraguariensis after pruning, at 10 years-old. In September 2007, 40 Ilex paraguariensis were pruned. One year after the first pruning, in 2008, they were evaluated dendrometrically and their biomass was determined from the commercial harvest of 16 individuals. To the others, the commercial biomass was estimated by the sum of the biomass of shoots.  The result obtained is that the biomass of commercial sprouts can be estimated as a function of the length of the rolls sprouting, with specific models for sprouts short, simple and compound average sprouts and long sprouts compounds. The models used to estimate the biomass of commercial sprouts using the length sum rolls and rolls of the length as independent variables underestimate the values of biomass with a margin of error of only 2.6%.

  2. Feasibility of Radiation Processing for Post-Harvest Storage of Potatoes Under Tropical Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A. N.; Padwal-Desai, S. R.; Ghanekar, A. S.; Shirsat, S. G.; Pendharkar, M. B.; Nair, P. M.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10 krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 Degree-Sign C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 Degree-Sign C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 Degree-Sign C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 Degree-Sign C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  3. Feasibility of radiation processing for post-harvest storage of potatoes under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Shirsat, S.G.; Pendharkar, M.B.; Nair, P.M.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 0 C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 0 C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 0 C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 0 C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation-induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  4. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  5. Control of weight loss and sprouting of ginger rhizome in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paull, R.E.; Chen, N.J.; Goo, T.T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Methods were investigated to control weight loss and sprouting of stored ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc), including waxing, sprout inhibitors, and gamma irradiation. Rhizomes stored for 3 months at 22°C and 70% RH lost about 20% weight. Waxing of the rhizome did not reduce water loss. Some wax treatments increased the number and length of sprouts. Preharvest application of maleic hydrazide significantly increased the number and reduced the length of sprouts. Postharvest CIPC application significantly reduced the length of sprouts. Vacuum infiltration increased the effectiveness of CIPC in reducing sprout length. Gamma and X-ray irradiation also reduced sprout number and length. Minimum doses of gamma radiation for sprout control was 25 Gy and 120 to 150 Gy for X-ray irradiation if the rhizome was stored for more than 3 months at 22°C. At higher dose of irradiation (500 Gy) was required if complete sprout growth control was needed for storage periods < 3 months at 22.degree. Suberization occurred during curing at 22°C, but the suberin layer did not completely protect the cut surface

  6. POTENCY OF MUNG BEAN SPROUT AS ENZYME SOURCE (α-AMILASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarni Suarni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean sprouts contain enzyme of α-amylase. A research on the effect of the sprout age and sprout varieties to the α-amylase activity and the protein level has been carried out in Laboratorium Bioproses BB Pascapanen Bogor using  Full Factorial Random Design with two factorials (1 sprout age; 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days as well as (2 varieties of mung bean; Kenari, Bhakti and Parkit.  Parameters observed were water and protein content of sprout, pH, activities of α-amylase, and dissolved protein in the enzyme extract. Results showed that the optimum temperature of α-amylase was 30 ºC, the highest protein level of sprout and the highest activity of α-amylase were given by the sprout of Bhakti at the age of three days. The water content in sprout was 65.23%, the protein level was 12.93 %, the dissolved protein in the enzyme extract was 2.88743 mg/mL, pH was 5.45, and the activity of enzyme was 4.09 Unit/mL. The potency of enzyme found in mung bean can be utilized in industries processing materials having high starch content, such as maize flour.   Keywords;  sprout of mung bean, activity of α-amylase, protein

  7. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  8. Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.

  9. Detection of irradiated potatoes by conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherz, H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows that the conductivity of irradiated potatoes measured by a sticking electrode depend on the irradiation dose and is independent on the potato variety. The measured values remain constant over a six month storage period

  10. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  11. Wholesomeness of irradiated foods, especially potatoes, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Tsuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Food irradiation was established under the auspices of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission. In 1967, studies on the efficacy of food irradiation, irradiation techniques and wholesomeness of irradiated foods were begun on potatoes and 6 other items (onions, rice, wheat, vienna sausage, fish-paste products, and mandarin orange) by a project team consisting of scientists from various broad academic fields under the sponsorship of the Science and Technology Agency. Wholesomeness of irradiated foods generally includes the following three points. The first one is the toxicity consisting of chronic toxicity test which predicts the effect when food is continuously ingested for long time, e.g., carcinogenicity test, teratogenicity test which predicts the effect of reproduction and generation for multigeneration, and mutagenicity test which detects the cytogenic possibility. The second is the nutritional adequacy as evaluated by effect on growth, physiological function and nutritional contents. The last one is microbiological safety concerning to microorganic resistance and tolerance by irradiation. In 1972, on the basis of the reports on toxicological aspects that we mainly carried out, nutritional and other aspects, 0.15 kGy level for sprout inhibition of potato which was the first practical use for food irradiation in Japan was permitted by Food Sanitation Act. The safety of food contaminants and food additives, its object for use the same as food irradiation, is confirmed by toxicity test employed experimental animals. Limitation of food additives and residual limitation of food contaminants are decided by the results in toxicity test. And these insure humansafety. It is important and necessary to choose the irradiation or chemicals for food in view of human health. (author)

  12. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...

  13. Potato Organic Farming in Batu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Sulistiono, Rudi; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Soemarno, Soemarno

    2013-01-01

    Organic potato cultivation was an effort to improve declining quality of potato agroecosystems and to preserve soil fertility. This study was conducted to analyze pattern of farming system and land management on the area of organic potatoes in Batu city. Research was conducted by the survey method, respondents were determined by the method of stratified cluster sampling. Farmer respondents were experienced organic potato farmer and as "expert leaders". Results show that the mindset of farmer...

  14. Preliminary study on the effect of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the conservation of potato tubers for consumption (Solanum tuberosum l.), during the storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque Roldan, R.

    1984-03-01

    The object of the thesis is the study of the inhibiting effect of the sprouting of potato tubers, variety Loman, after Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Krads) as well as after treatment with the chemical inhibitor Isopropyl-N-Phenyl Carbonate (IPC). These treatments were applied to different groups of tubers, after 15 and 45 days from harvesting, stored under two illumination conditions: darkness (closed room), and indirect light (straw hut). The number, length and thickness of the sprouts, as well as the weight, humidity contents and infection of the tubers were recorded twice a month. A random 2x2x7x4 multifactorial design, with 3 repetitions, was used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Variance and multiple regression analysis, as well as Tukey tests were performed on the IBM/370 computer of the San Carlos University (Guatemala). It was found that both the 4 and 6 Krad doses and the IPC treatments have no effect on the sprouting inhibition. The irradiation with the 8, 10, and 12 Krad doses inhibited the sprouting in an irreversible way, with insignificant loss of weight and moisture, regardless of the irradiation epoch and light condition. However, the tubers stored in darkness, showed ideal characteristics for consumption, and the 8 Krad dose, applied at 15 days after harvesting is concluded to be the best

  15. Storage properties of irradiated potatoes and onions. Part of a coordinated programme on the Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1984-12-01

    Quality changes with regard to browning of inner buds and sprouting of irradiated onions variety Kitamiki and Ohotsuku were investigated. One ton of each variety was irradiated with either 38.1 or 65.2 Gy at the Commercial Potato Irradiator in Shihoro and stored either at 0 deg. C or 5 deg. C. After 6 months of storage, they were taken out to be stored at room temperature. It was observed that green inner buds developed in most unirradiated onions which showed no external sprouting irrespective of storage temperature. Irradiated onions show no external or internal sprouting but exhibited browning of small inner buds. Unirradiated onions rooted slightly during storage at low temperature. None of the irradiated samples showed rooting. Neither of the samples spoiled significantly during storage. It was concluded that storage at room temperature accelerated sprouting and development of green inner buds of unirradiated onions and browning of small inner buds in irradiated ones. During off-seasons, only irradiated onions stored at low temperatures have qualities of commercial significance

  16. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  17. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  18. Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Фурдига

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varie­ties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above cha­racteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.

  19. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....

  20. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  1. Potato proteins : their properties and nutritive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labib, A.I.

    1962-01-01

    Physical and biological investigations were carried out on the nitrogenous substances in the potato tuber. The importance of the potato as a food was considered in the introduction. By paper electrophoresis proteins in potato tuber sap could be separated into at least six fractions. The protein

  2. Effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy breaking and physiological activity of 'Dejima' seed potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, D. H.; Baek, M. H.; Lee, Y. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. B. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose {gamma}-radiation on the dormancy breaking and physiological activity, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) were irradiated at the dose of 0.5 {approx} 30 Gy. Low dose {gamma}-radiation had promoting effects on the srouting rate the optimum dose of 1 Gy and 2 Gy and on the sprout length at the optimum dose of 2 Gy and 4 Gy. In case of number of sprouts, there were increased in all of the low dose irradiation groups and period storages, which showed very significant promoting effects at 4,8,16 Gy of 15 DAP. The field growth of 45 DAP were increased at all of the low dose irradiation group, which particularly were very significant promoting effect at 4 Gy irradiation group. Irradiation didn't have significant effects on the antioxidant enzyme activity of potato plantlet, but the peroxidase activity of 45 DAP plantlet increased at 4 Gy irradiation group.

  3. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffening independent of changes in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Tyler; Ouyang, An; Berrones, Adam J; Campbell, Marilyn S; Du, Bing; Fleenor, Bradley S

    2017-08-01

    We hypothesized a sweet potato intervention would prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced aortic stiffness, which would be associated with decreased arterial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Young (8-week old) C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (60% fat), low-fat sweet potato (LFSP; 10% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato), or high-fat sweet potato diet (HFSP; 60% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato) for 16 weeks. Compared with LF and LFSP, HF- and HFSP-fed mice had increased body mass and percent fat mass with lower percent lean mass (all, P Sweet potato intervention did not influence body composition (all, P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity and ex vivo mechanical testing of the elastin region elastic modulus (EEM) was greater in HF compared with LF and HFSP animals (all, P sweet potato attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffness independent of body mass and composition, which is associated with a normalization of arterial oxidative stress possibly due to mitochondrial uncoupling.

  4. Technology of sprouting inhibition by irradiation for ginger storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shuangqing; Wang Shoujing; Yu Zihou; Sun Shouyi; Zou Jiwan; Lei Peng

    2003-01-01

    The study results showed that the proper irradiation dose for ginger sprouting inhibition was 0.08-0.40 kGy and the maximum tolerable irradiation dose for ginger was 0.4 kGy. Treatment with proper irradiation combined with PE film package could keep ginger fresh after 120 days of storage and the fresh ratio was above 90%. In order to obtain good storage results, keeping lower absorbed dose ununiformity was necessary. Content of V C and Ca was not affected by the irradiation with 0.08-0.25 kGy

  5. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  6. Batch scale storage of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature; pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Lee, C.H.; Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Yang, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two varieties of potatoes, Irish cobbler and Shimabara stored for seven and nine months respectively by irradiation combined with natural low temperature (year-round temperature change: 2-17degC) on a batch scale were investigated on the suitability for processing of potato chip. Nine months after storage, irradiated potatoes (Irish cobbler) tended to maintain somewhat better texture and sensory quality than untreated in potatoe chip processing. Peel rate, closely related to potato chip yield, of untreated potatoes were 20-25% higher than those of irradiated and Agtron color determination of potato chip from both irradiated were commercially acceptable. Preservation of potatoes by irradiation combined with natural low temperature was evaluated as an alternative method of the supply for raw materials of potato chip processing in the off-season in Korea. (Author)

  7. Biochemical mechanism of radiation-induced dormancy in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.M.; Ussuf, K.K.; Janave, M.T.; Satyanarayana, V.; Pendharkar, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    The studies described here will show that after gamma irradiation the dormant bud tissue of potato exhibits a transient metabolic activation. During this period of active metabolic state, the tissue is capable of synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein. Apart from this there is increased utilization of carbohydrate for the production of the energy source ATP, to meet the demand for these processes. The site of active protein synthesis during this transient phase of activation has been recognized as nuclei of the bud tissue and the synthesis of new proteins of the nuclei takes place within one to two hours after irradiation. The synthesis of nuclear acidic proteins was increased to about 3 to 5 fold during the activation period compared to unirradiated bud tissue. The increase in acidic protein synthesis lasted for 4.5 hr. During the time there was no synthesis of histones. The synthesis of histones started only 7 hr after irradiation showing about 10 fold increase over the control bud tissue. The increase in the concentration of non-histone protein prior to active RNA synthetic phase (2 hr) is suggestive of their involvement in the metabolic activation ensured after gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation adversely affected the IAA synthesising system and the production of IAA. Treatment with low concentrations of IAA within 6 hr after irradiation could restore the IAA synthesising capacity as well as reversal of sprout inhibition. (author)

  8. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  9. The Sprouting Potential of Dormant Buds on the Bole of Pole-Size Sugar Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1970-01-01

    A study of epicormic sprouting in pole-size sugar maples showed that all visible dormant buds on the bole were capable of producing epicormic shoots. The buds were induced to break dormancy by applying four methods of crown removal known to stimulate sprouting. The amount of crown removed determined the year that the buds broke dormancy; this may be accounted for by...

  10. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  11. The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Axon Guidance in Mossy Fiber Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Koyama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether mossy fiber sprouting is epileptogenic has not been resolved; both sprouting-induced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuit hypotheses have been experimentally (but not fully supported. Therefore, whether mossy fiber sprouting is a potential therapeutic target for epilepsy remains under debate. Moreover, the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting have attracted the interest of neuroscientists. Sprouting of mossy fibers exhibits several uncommon axonal growth features in the basically non-plastic adult brain. For example, robust branching of axonal collaterals arises from pre-existing primary mossy fiber axons. Understanding the branching mechanisms in adulthood may contribute to axonal regeneration therapies in neuroregenerative medicine in which robust axonal re-growth is essential. Additionally, because granule cells are produced throughout life in the neurogenic dentate gyrus, it is interesting to examine whether the mossy fibers of newly generated granule cells follow the pre-existing trajectories of sprouted mossy fibers in the epileptic brain. Understanding these axon guidance mechanisms may contribute to neuron transplantation therapies, for which the incorporation of transplanted neurons into pre-existing neural circuits is essential. Thus, clarifying the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting could lead to an understanding of central nervous system (CNS network reorganization and plasticity. Here, we review the molecular and cellular mechanisms of axon guidance in mossy fiber sprouting by discussing mainly in vitro studies.

  12. Predicting stump sprouting and competitive success of five oak species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; Chao-Ying Joanne Peng

    2002-01-01

    We measured 2188 oak trees (Quercus spp.) on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana before and 1, 5, and 10 years after clear-cutting to determine the influence of parent tree age, diameter breast height, and site index on the probability that there was one or more living sprouts per stump: (i) 1 year after clear-cutting (sprouting...

  13. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  14. The spatial and temporal rooting pattern of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.L.; Booij, R.; Werf, van der A.

    1996-01-01

    Rooting intensity and root distribution of Brussels sprouts and leeks were assessed in field experiments and in the Wageningen Rhizolab, a rhizotron facility built in 1990, in relation to their contrasting N uptake behaviour (Brussels sprouts usually take up N rapidly after planting, resulting in

  15. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  16. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  17. Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the top twenty countries where potato contributes substantially for the human diet. Enhancing adoption of improved potato varieties could impact on farmer’s income, household food and nutritional security. As such, using a multistage sampling procedure, a study was conducted to assess the determinants of improved potato varieties adoption in Nepal covering 180 samples in four districts, two in hills and two in Tarai region. The study revealed that; Kavre and Bardiya districts in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by improved potato varieties adoption. On the other hand, Dhankuta and Jhapa in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by local potato varieties adoption. The informal seed sources followed by agro-vet and market were the major sources for improved varietal adoption. Farmers’ accesses to training and formal seed sources were important factor determining improved potato varietal adoption. However, households with larger farm size were less likely to allocate more area for improved potato varieties as many of farmers were reluctant to take potato cultivation as agri-business and still follow subsistence farming. Potato R&D programs, therefore, need to strengthen formal seed system to enhance access to quality potato seeds and build producer’s capacity through regular training and exposer visits in order to improve adoption of improved potato varieties in Nepal.

  18. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  19. Promoter activity of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein genes of potato responds to environmental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Nathaniel M; Hannapel, David J

    2012-12-01

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) proteins are RNA-binding proteins that target specific RNAs for post-transcriptional processing by binding cytosine/uracil motifs. PTBs have established functions in a range of RNA processes including splicing, translation, stability and long-distance transport. Six PTB-like genes identified in potato have been grouped into two clades based on homology to other known plant PTBs. StPTB1 and StPTB6 are closely related to a PTB protein discovered in pumpkin, designated CmRBP50, and contain four canonical RNA-recognition motifs. CmRBP50 is expressed in phloem tissues and functions as the core protein of a phloem-mobile RNA/protein complex. Sequence from the potato genome database was used to clone the upstream sequence of these two PTB genes and analyzed to identify conserved cis-elements. The promoter of StPTB6 was enriched for regulatory elements for light and sucrose induction and defense. Upstream sequence of both PTB genes was fused to β-glucuronidase and monitored in transgenic potato lines. In whole plants, the StPTB1 promoter was most active in leaf veins and petioles, whereas StPTB6 was most active in leaf mesophyll. Both genes are active in new tubers and tuber sprouts. StPTB6 expression was induced in stems and stolon sections in response to sucrose and in leaves or petioles in response to light, heat, drought and mechanical wounding. These results show that CmRBP50-like genes of potato exhibit distinct expression patterns and respond to both developmental and environmental cues.

  20. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  1. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  2. Use of radiation for inducing mutants in potatoes through tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Meristem-tips obtained from sprouts of potato tubers, cv. 'Diamant' (Solanum tuberosum) were cultured on MS-medium and multiplied into plantlets through micropropagation. After 2-3 weeks, the micropropagated plantlets had 5-6 nodes each. The plantlets were irradiated with 20 to 40 Gy gamma rays at 27.7 rad/sec. Irradiated plantlets were cut into single nodes and cultured on MS-medium supplemented with 2 g NaCl. Salt resistant plantlets were transferred to MS-liquid medium supplemented with 2g NaCl/l 5.2, and microtubers were collected after 6 weeks. Minitubers were produced under the same level of salinity. (author). 2 tabs

  3. Assessing the processing quality of different potato cultivars during storage at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Butt, M.S.; Asghar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Processing industry needs continuous supply of tubers for fries/chips preparation throughout the year. Storage is obligatory to meet the increasing demand of population. Objective of this study was to evaluate the processing and quality characteristics of different potato cultivars (Lady Rosetta, Sante, Hermes, Crozo, Kuroda and Asterix) during storage with 75-80 percent relative humidity for the period of 160 days at various temperatures (3 degree C, 7 degree C, 11 degree C). Quality parameters such as specific gravity, sprouting, weight loss, dry matter, starch content, ascorbic acid, sugar content and invertase enzyme activity were determined to estimate the processing potential of each cultivar. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with amino (NH2) column and Refractive Index Detector (RID) was used for the identification and quantification of sugars. The findings of the present work showed that temperature significantly (p Hermes > Crozo > Sante > Asterix > Kuroda. (author)

  4. Effect of irradiation and cooking methods on ascorbic acid levels of four potato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid (AA) contents in control and in tubers irradiated to 100 Gy gamma rays for sprout inhibition were studied by HPLC and iodophenol titrimetry methods in four potato cultivars as a function of storage at 15 degC and after cooking by different methods. Both reduced and total ascorbic acid levels decreased in control tubers during the first 3 months in storage recording respectively 22 to 35% and 26 to 45% losses depending on the cultivar. Irradiated tubers recorded additional losses of 5 to 10% and 6.5 to 13%, respectively in reduced and total ascorbic acid levels during the same period but remained in good marketable conditions. Cooking of tubers in boiling water showed maximum loss in vitamin C content, whereas pressure and microwave cooking recorded least losses. The magnitude of losses in reduced and total vitamin C during cooking was comparable in control and in irradiated tubers. (author)

  5. Use of radiation for inducing mutants in potatoes through tissue culture technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabash, M T [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-07-01

    Meristem-tips obtained from sprouts of potato tubers, cv. `Diamant` (Solanum tuberosum) were cultured on MS-medium and multiplied into plantlets through micropropagation. After 2-3 weeks, the micropropagated plantlets had 5-6 nodes each. The plantlets were irradiated with 20 to 40 Gy gamma rays at 27.7 rad/sec. Irradiated plantlets were cut into single nodes and cultured on MS-medium supplemented with 2 g NaCl. Salt resistant plantlets were transferred to MS-liquid medium supplemented with 2g NaCl/l 5.2, and microtubers were collected after 6 weeks. Minitubers were produced under the same level of salinity. (author). 2 tabs.

  6. Tortuous Microvessels Contribute to Wound Healing via Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Diana C; Yu, Zhixian; Brighton, Hailey E; Bear, James E; Bautch, Victoria L

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing is accompanied by neoangiogenesis, and new vessels are thought to originate primarily from the microcirculation; however, how these vessels form and resolve during wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of the smallest capillaries during wound healing to determine their spatial organization and the kinetics of formation and resolution. We used intravital imaging and high-resolution microscopy to identify a new type of vessel in wounds, called tortuous microvessels. Longitudinal studies showed that tortuous microvessels increased in frequency after injury, normalized as the wound healed, and were closely associated with the wound site. Tortuous microvessels had aberrant cell shapes, increased permeability, and distinct interactions with circulating microspheres, suggesting altered flow dynamics. Moreover, tortuous microvessels disproportionately contributed to wound angiogenesis by sprouting exuberantly and significantly more frequently than nearby normal capillaries. A new type of transient wound vessel, tortuous microvessels, sprout dynamically and disproportionately contribute to wound-healing neoangiogenesis, likely as a result of altered properties downstream of flow disturbances. These new findings suggest entry points for therapeutic intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. [Establishment of sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, You-Ji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jin-Lan; Wang, Zack; Chen, Tong

    2008-10-14

    To establish a sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo. Human embryonic stem were (hESCs) were cultured on the mouse embryo fibroblasts and then were induced to differentiate to form three-dimensional EB. The hEBs were cultured in media containing various angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endostatin, angiostatin, and platelet factor (PF)-4 of different concentrations for 3 days to observe the sprouting of the hEBs. 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (Dil-AcLDL) was added onto the hEBs foe 4 h Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe if Dil-AcLDL was absorbed and if CD31 was expressed so as to determine the existence of embryonic endothelial cells in the sprouting structures. The ideal culturing condition was analyzed. The differentiated EBs formed sprouting structures in the collagen I matrix containing VEGF and FGF. The sprouts among individual EBs were able to link to each other and form vascular network-like structures. In the presence of VEGF and FGF, the sprouts branching from the EBs assimilated Dil-AcLDL, expressed CD31 and formed a 3-dimensional cylindrical organization. The concentrations of growth factors ideally stimulating sprouting growth were 100 ng/ml of VEGF and 50 ng/ml of FGF. The networks among the EBs were abolished by the angiostatin, endostatin, and PF4. The sprouting from hEBs accumulates embryonic endothelial cells and the sprouting network-like structures are indeed endothelial in nature. Inducing of sprouting EBs is an ideal model that mimics early embryonic vasculogenesis in humans.

  8. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  9. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  10. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  11. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  12. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  13. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; McDonald, G M

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.

  14. Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes and associated damage to potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, J.

    1993-01-01

    Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN; Globoderarostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida Stone) and their interactions with potato plants are insufficiently understood to explain variations of population

  15. Infestation of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on re-sprout of cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of cotton crop residues at the end of the crop cycle is a key strategy for the phytosanitary crop management, since its off-season re-sprout can provide sites for feeding and oviposition of pests such as the boll weevil. This study aimed to evaluate the re-sprout capacity of cotton cultivars, as well as their infestation by Anthonomus grandis. A randomized blocks design, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three cultivars (FM 910, DeltaOPAL and NuOPAL, two mowing heights (10 cm and 20 cm and four replications, was used. Weekly evaluations were carried out for measuring the percentage of plant re-sprout for both mowing heights, percentage of flower buds infested by the boll weevil and number of adults per re-sprout. Plants mowed at 10 cm presented a lower sprout capacity and consequently less flower buds, reducing the boll weevil population density in the area, while plants mowed at 20 cm showed high re-sprouts rates, seven days after mowing. The FM 910 cultivar had the highest number of re-sprout plants, while the DeltaOPAL cultivar showed the highest number of flower buds and adults per plant, as well as the highest percentage of buds damaged by the boll weevil.

  16. Small GTPases are involved in sprout formation in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Maximilian B; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Sator, Michael; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The corpus luteum (CL), develops from the ruptured follicle after gonadotropin stimulation. Based on intracellular reorganization of the cytoskeleton an human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dependent sprouting and migration of luteinizing granulosa cells (LGCs) and endothelial cells is observed. Rho-GTPases are shown to be key regulators of cytoskeletal restructuring. In the present study we analyzed the role of Rho-GTPases in the sprouting activity of LGCs. We used the Rho-GTPase-inhibitors Toxin A and -B and the Cdc42-activator Bradykinin in a LGC-spheroid sprouting assay to determine the effect of these modulators in LGCs. Toxin A and Toxin B reduces sprout formation in LGC spheroids. However, the reduction is less than in hCG treated cells. The usage of Bradykinin demonstrates both, a reduction of sprouts in untreated spheroids and an increase of sprouting in previous hCG treated spheroids. The presented results let us suggest that small Rho-GTPases may regulate the sprouting activity of LGCs after stimulation by hCG and that this mechanism may play a role in CL formation.

  17. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  18. Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato ... Viable, commercial seed schemes and appropriate low cost storage methods are ..... national Potato Centre (CIP), Lima, (Peru). In-.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Urek; S Širca; Stare Geric; B Dolničar; P Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultiva...

  20. Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of potatoes, Solanum section Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...

  1. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee locally...

  2. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Sugiyama, Junnichi; Otobe, Kazuki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1993-01-01

    The impedance ratio at 5kHz to 50kHz (Z 6K /Z 50K ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of potato tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radian treatment. Irradiated potatoes of 10 cultivars could be detected with this method, and potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at Shihoro could be distinguished from unirradiated 'Danshaku'. (author)

  3. Hygiene assessment of irradiated potato mutagenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uralova, M.; Grunt, J.; Patzeltova, N.

    1977-01-01

    Albino rat males were fed on gamma-irradiated potatoes for one month and mated with two intact female rats each. The dominant lethal mutation method was then used for the study of possible mutagenic activity of the irradiated potatoes. No statistically significant differences were observed and no mutagenic activity was found. Thus, the test showed that potatoes irradiated with a dose of 10 krad of gamma radiation does not present genetic hazards for albino rats. (L.O.)

  4. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedniece, Vivita; Spalvins, Kriss; Ivanovs, Kaspars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-12-01

    The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  5. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priedniece Vivita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  6. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  7. Resistance of neurofilaments to degradation, and lack of neuronal death and mossy fiber sprouting after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in the developing rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Picon, Francisco; Puustinen, Niina; Kukko-Lukjanov, Tiina-Kaisa; Holopainen, Irma E

    2004-12-01

    Neurofilament (NF) proteins, the major constituent of intermediate filaments in neurons, have an important role in cellular stability and plasticity. We have now studied the short-term (hours) and long-term (up to 1 week) effects of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) on the reactivity of NF proteins, and mossy fiber (MF) sprouting and neuronal death up to 4 weeks in 9-day-old rats. In Western blotting, the expression of the phosphorylation-independent epitopes of NF-L, NF-M, and NF-H rapidly but transiently increased after the treatment, whereas the phosphorylated NF-M remained elevated for 7 days. However, the treatment did not change the immunoreactivity of NF proteins, and no neuronal death or mossy fiber sprouting was detected at any time point. Our findings indicate seizure-induced reactivity of NF proteins but their resistance to degradation, which could be of importance in neuronal survival and may also prevent MF sprouting in the developing hippocampus.

  8. Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gyu Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts have been widely consumed all around world due to their great abundance of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid-rich common buckwheat sprout (CBS and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS extracts were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from male BALB/c mice. Based on the reversed-phase HPLC analysis, the major flavonoids in CBS were determined to be C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, and rutin, whereas TBS contained only high amounts of rutin. The TBS extract exhibited higher inhibitory activity as assessed by the production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages than CBS extract. In addition, TBS extract suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B activation by preventing inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the TBS extract markedly reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TBS extract can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents that may influence macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders.

  9. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; Brossa, Ricard; Gil, Luis; Pita, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of abscisic acid found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN) and stomatal conductance (gS) in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM) and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  10. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana eLópez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of ABA found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN and stomatal conductance (gS in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m-2 s-1 AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  11. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  12. Neuronal sFlt1 and Vegfaa determine venous sprouting and spinal cord vascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Raphael; Klems, Alina; Takamiya, Masanari

    2017-01-01

    Formation of organ-specific vasculatures requires cross-talk between developing tissue and specialized endothelial cells. Here we show how developing zebrafish spinal cord neurons coordinate vessel growth through balancing of neuron-derived Vegfaa, with neuronal sFlt1 restricting Vegfaa......-Kdrl mediated angiogenesis at the neurovascular interface. Neuron-specific loss of flt1 or increased neuronal vegfaa expression promotes angiogenesis and peri-neural tube vascular network formation. Combining loss of neuronal flt1 with gain of vegfaa promotes sprout invasion into the neural tube. On loss...... of neuronal flt1, ectopic sprouts emanate from veins involving special angiogenic cell behaviours including nuclear positioning and a molecular signature distinct from primary arterial or secondary venous sprouting. Manipulation of arteriovenous identity or Notch signalling established that ectopic sprouting...

  13. Perforant path lesioning induces sprouting of CA3-associated fibre systems in mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøjdahl, Nina; Hegelund, Iørn V; Poulsen, Frantz R

    2002-01-01

    mice. We found that lesioning led to translaminar sprouting of Timm stained regio inferior hippocampus (CA3)-associated fibre systems into the denervated termination zones of the CA3 and dentate gyrus, from the adjacent non-denervated stratum radiatum of CA3. Differences were seen in the Timm staining...... pattern of the two strains of mice, while the response to lesioning appeared similar albeit less pronounced than that observed in the rat. We also observed an intensified acetylcholine esterase staining reflective of cholinergic sprouting in the denervated perforant path termination zones, which...... was particularly prominent in areas with sprouting of Timm stained CA3-associated fibres. Finally, we showed that some of the sprouting fibres within the CA3 were myelinated, due to an increased density of silver impregnated myelinated fibres in this region after lesioning. These results show that the basic...

  14. Is stump sprout treatment necessary to effectively control Phytophthora ramorum in California's wildlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Richard Cobb; David Rizzo; Brendan Twieg; Chris Lee; Radoslaw Glebocki

    2013-01-01

    In California, wildland hosts that support sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum, such as California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh), also develop prolific basal sprouts following...

  15. Tip cell overtaking occurs as a side effect of sprouting in computational models of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Sonja E M; Merks, Roeland M H

    2015-11-21

    During angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, endothelial cells differentiate into tip and stalk cells, after which one tip cell leads the sprout. More recently, this picture has changed. It has become clear that endothelial cells compete for the tip position during angiogenesis: a phenomenon named tip cell overtaking. The biological function of tip cell overtaking is not yet known. From experimental observations, it is unclear to what extent tip cell overtaking is a side effect of sprouting or to what extent it is regulated through a VEGF-Dll4-Notch signaling network and thus might have a biological function. To address this question, we studied tip cell overtaking in computational models of angiogenic sprouting in absence and in presence of VEGF-Dll4-Notch signaling. We looked for tip cell overtaking in two existing Cellular Potts models of angiogenesis. In these simulation models angiogenic sprouting-like behavior emerges from a small set of plausible cell behaviors. In the first model, cells aggregate through contact-inhibited chemotaxis. In the second model the endothelial cells assume an elongated shape and aggregate through (non-inhibited) chemotaxis. In both these sprouting models the endothelial cells spontaneously migrate forwards and backwards within sprouts, suggesting that tip cell overtaking might occur as a side effect of sprouting. In accordance with other experimental observations, in our simulations the cells' tendency to occupy the tip position can be regulated when two cell lines with different levels of Vegfr2 expression are contributing to sprouting (mosaic sprouting assay), where cell behavior is regulated by a simple VEGF-Dll4-Notch signaling network. Our modeling results suggest that tip cell overtaking can occur spontaneously due to the stochastic motion of cells during sprouting. Thus, tip cell overtaking and sprouting dynamics may be interdependent and should be studied and interpreted in combination. VEGF

  16. The potato chips and dry mashed as products of potato rational processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The percentage of potato processing for food products in the former Soviet Union decreased to 1%, at the same time in some countries of Europe and the USA the share of potato processing is 60-80%. Numerous works have shown the economic feasibility of potato processing for food products. Materials and methods. In laboratory and industrial conditions of the open stock company «Mashpishcheprod» (Maryina Gorka, Minsk region, Belarus researches have been conducted on increase of efficiency of technological processes potato processing. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard and special methods of analysis. Results and discussion. Potato varieties suitable for the production of dry mashed potatoes and potatocrisps have been determined, acclimatization before processing ensures minimumthe content of the reducing sugars, which provide high quality of the finished product. Studies have shown that the process of kneading potato at temperatures close to cooking temperature is optimal, in which the process of destruction cells is hardly taking place. Pneumatic dryers for drying boiled potato provide high product quality due to the low temperature of heating and short contact of a powdered product with a drying agent. However, the contents of damaged cells in the finished product do not exceed 1.3-2.6%. The optimum modes and parameters of potato crisps production have been defined, the processes of cutting, blanching, treatment with salt, drying and roasting have been scientifically grounded, that provide a finished product with fat content not more than 27.7%. Conclusion. Economic expediency of processing the following varieties of potato Desire, Temp, Synthesis for dry mashed potato and potato crisps has been proved. The processes of kneading and drying potato are decisive stages of the processing, because they determine the number of destroyedcells in the finished product. Optimal parameters of production

  17. Effect of corona discharge plasma jet on surface-borne microorganisms and sprouting of broccoli seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Je-Wook; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2017-01-01

    Different pathogenic microorganisms have been reported to cause sprouts-associated outbreaks. In order to sterilise and enhance the germination of seeds, non-thermal plasma has been increasingly investigated in the field of agricultural science as an alternative to the traditional pre-sowing seed treatments. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) on disinfection of the natural bio-contaminants of broccoli seed and also studied the plasma effect on sprout seed germination rate and physico-chemical properties of sprouts. Aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, B. cereus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. were detected on the broccoli seed surface. After 0-3 min treatment using CDPJ, the detected microorganisms were reduced in the range of 1.2-2.3 log units. Inactivation patterns were better explained using pseudo-first-order kinetics. The plasma treatment of seeds up to 2 min exhibited a positive effect on germination rate, seedling growth. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of sprouts were unaffected due to the CDPJ treatment of their respective seeds. Corona discharge plasma jet can potentially be used for microbial decontamination of broccoli seeds. In addition, the plasma treatment of broccoli sprout seeds has enabled a significant enhancement in their germination rate and seedling growth without compromising physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of their corresponding sprouts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Study the relationship between the multi embryo and the sprout inhibition of onion by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2006-04-01

    To determine the possible effect on sprout inhibition of onions, Indolbutyric acid (IBA) and cytokinins (5000 ppm), low doses of gamma irradiation (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy) in a 60 Co package irradiator, combined treatment of IBA and cytokinin followed by irradiation, were applied on the cultivars Baladi red and Baladi white produced in middle and south area of Syria. Treatments were done immediately and after 4, 7, 10 weeks of harvest. After treated and untreated samples were stored at room temperature. Weight loss, sprouting percentage and length of sprouting were determined after 8 months of storage. Results indicated that, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in weight loss, sprouting percentage and length of sprouting between the treated and untreated bulbs with IBA and cytokinin. Gamma irradiation reduced the weight loss, and inhibited the sprouting when the irradiation were done after 4 weeks of harvest, and reduced it when the irradiation were done after 7 or 10 weeks of harvest. (author)

  19. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour and green gram flour (sprouted as well as unsprouted were blended in different proportions with apple pulp, sugar, milk and water for formulation of 12 hypoallergic diets. The formulations were studied for physico-chemical properties, antinutrient content (phytate and oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility. Blending and sprouting significantly affected all the studied parameters. Sprouting significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, while carbohydrate content and antinutrients decreased significantly. Nutrition profile of water-based diets met RDA guidelines only after addition of sprouted green gram flour and were comparable to control (commercial weaning food. Water-based formulation showed lower sensory score than milk-based diets; however, addition of sprouted green gram flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved their overall acceptability. It could be concluded that by incorporating sprouted green gram flour, milk could be replaced with water for production of hypoallergic weaning foods without affecting the nutritional and sensory attributes of formulations and thereby making the production more economical, especially for underdeveloped countries.

  20. Enrichment of Probiotic Yogurt with Broccoli Sprout Extract and its Effect on Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Sadeghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic consumption is the main way to cure infection induced by Helicobacter pylori. On the other hand, antibiotics have side effects on human body. So, finding an efficient way to replace antibiotic consumption seems necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of broccoli sprout extract on the viability of probiotic bacteria and yogurt’s physicochemical properties, and examine the synergistic effect of this extract with probiotics on Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition.Material and Methods: Four levels of broccoli sprout extract (22.5, 45, 90 and 180 mg ml-1 were prepared and their effect on probiotic yogurt samples was examined. Moreover, their anti- Helicobacter pylori effect was determined.Results and Conclusion: The research results revealed that Broccoli sprout extract did not have any inhibitory effect on Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The variations in acidity of the samples were not significant during storage. A positive correlation was observed between broccoli sprout extract concentration and syneresis. The findings showed the synergistic effect of broccoli sprout extract and probiotics on Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition. Therefore, using broccoli sprout extract and probiotic bacteria, we can produce a yogurt that is effective on the growth inhibition of Helicobacter pylori.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  1. Radiation-induced sprout and growth inhibition in vegetables with special reference to the susceptibility to microbial attacks and the effect of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skou, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    Experiments have shown ionizing irradiation to be an effective method for sprout and growth inhibition but it is necessary to keep the doses at the absolute minimum in order to avoid unwanted by-effects One of the by-effects is an increased susceptibility to storage rot in potatoes, onions and carrots. This effect is connected with the wounding and bruising caused by digging up and handling as the wound healing process is inhibited simultaneously with the sprout inhibition. Patogens increase tissue permeability during pathogenesis and, as irradiation has an analogous effect on tissues it might facilitate the growth of the pathogens. Irradiation softens the tissue and mobilizes the calcium in the tissue; this may thereby make the tissue more accessible to microbial attack. An external supply of calcium increases the firmness of tissue, reduces tissue permeability, and may compensate for the loss of calcium in irradiated tissue mainly as a result of a surplus of calcium in the wounds. Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were some of the most wide spread and serious pathogens in carrots, which vegetable were the main object of the studies. Culture filtrates of these fungi had a strong macerating activity on carrot tissues. The effect, which results from activity and interaction of pectolytic enzymes and oxalic acid, could be reduced or nullified by calcium. A diversity of the groups of pectolytic enzymes are widely distributed among organisms and not confined to plant pathogens. Because of this, because there exists pectolytic enzymes for every condition and pectic substances, and because calcium is not very inhibiting to all kinds of pectolytic enzymes it is not to be expected that the protective effect of calcium will always be expressed to the same extent on storage of the products. (author)

  2. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  3. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  4. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  5. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  6. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  7. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  8. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Otobe, K.; Sugiyama, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potato is one of the major food items to be treated with ionising radiation and potatoes are irradiated on a large scale in several countries. Every year around 15,000 t of potatoes are irradiated at doses of 60 to 150 Gy (average dose is about 100 Gy) in Japan. Although various methods to detect irradiated potatoes have been investigated, no established method has been reported. Measuring electrical conductivity or impedance of potatoes has been reported as a promising method for the detection of irradiated potatoes. In previous studies it has been found that the ratio of impedance magnitude at 50 kHz to that at 5 kHz, measured immediately after puncturing a potato tuber, is dependent upon the dose applied to the tuber, independent of storage temperature and stable during storage after irradiation. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for impedance measurement and to examine the applicability of the impedance measuring method to various cultivars (cv.) of potatoes. (author)

  9. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  10. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  11. Induction and use of artificial mutants in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumine, Shokichi

    1984-01-01

    X-ray, ethylene imine, 32 P and 60 Co were used as mutagen for sweet potato mutation breeding and visible variations were observed for all mutagen. In the case of 60 Co irradiation, mutation rate of skin color is 0.5-1.3% based on cutting. Direction and variation of dry matter and tuber yield of mutants which were induced by 32 P and/or 60 Co irradiation showed more deteriorative variation than progressive variation but some induced mutant lines show same or superior characters than original line. In the case of 32 P irradiation to tuber, obstruction is not so much up to dese of 10,000 μci per tuber but treatment of 330 μci per cutting approximate to LD 50 . By tuber treatment with 60 Co gamma rays, suppression of sprouting occurred in dose of 30kR. Tendency to increase a variation was not observed at higher doses. 50-200 μci per cutting or 300-500 μci per tuber in 32 P treatment and 15 kR in 60 Co gamma-irradiation for tuber seemed to be optimum dosages. Hybrid seed of mutant selected for dry matter content was compared with that of original line and it was concluded that the variation of selected line was genetic. Mutant induced by 32 P and 60 Co treatment was used as a parental material and progeny of the cross was selected for practical characters. As a result, a line of higher starch yield with high resistance to pest and disease was selected and this line was used as parental material of further breeding. (author)

  12. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  13. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  14. Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
    associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter

  15. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  16. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2015-07-01

    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  18. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  19. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  20. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen french fried potatoes 78/g; dried instant mashed potatoes, 1.1 x 10(3)/g; and potato salad, 3.6 x 10(3)/g. Mean values of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were less than 10/g. PMID:6758695

  1. Effect of sprouting of soybean on the chemical composition and quality of soymilk and tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, D Agrahar

    2014-05-01

    The effect of sprouting of soybean and preparing soymilk and tofu on the yield, nutritional quality, anti-nutritional profile, colour attributes, organoleptic quality and texture profile (tofu) of four commonly used varieties of India were studied to assess the feasibility of using sprouting as a non-chemical, non-thermal tool to improve quality of soy products. Soymilk was prepared from sprouted and unsprouted seeds with process parameters of 121 °C for 25 min. Coagulation of soymilk was done with 3% CaSO4 at 80 °C. Products from sprouted varieties showed an increase in protein (fb) of 7% in milk and 13% in tofu across varieties; a reduction in fat (fb) of 24% in milk and 12% in tofu; in trypsin inhibitor (db) of 73% in milk and 81% in tofu; in phytic acid (db) of 59% in milk and 56% in tofu across varieties. Tofu from sprouted seeds had higher protein and whiteness index but tofu strength was around 43% lesser than its unsprouted counterpart. Taste acceptability showed an increase of 10% and 6.3%; flavour of 23.2% and 11.6% and overall acceptability of 9.9% and 4.4% in milk and in tofu respectively from sprouted varieties. The improvements in composition and quality parameters was seen in all the varieties tested showing that sprouting could be beneficial for product development across varieties. The time and temperature used for production of soymilk was conventional (121 °C for 25 min). Evaluation of time and/temperature reductions could be tried out to reduce the heat requirement and intensity, which could result in better nutritional and functional quality products.

  2. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  3. Image recognition on raw and processed potato detection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-nan; Lü, Cheng-xu; Zhang, Jun-ning; Li, Ya-shuo; Zeng, Zhen; Mao, Wen-hua; Jiang, Han-lu; Yang, Bing-nan

    2018-02-01

    Objective: Chinese potato staple food strategy clearly pointed out the need to improve potato processing, while the bottleneck of this strategy is technology and equipment of selection of appropriate raw and processed potato. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advanced raw and processed potato detection methods. Method: According to consult research literatures in the field of image recognition based potato quality detection, including the shape, weight, mechanical damage, germination, greening, black heart, scab potato etc., the development and direction of this field were summarized in this paper. Result: In order to obtain whole potato surface information, the hardware was built by the synchronous of image sensor and conveyor belt to achieve multi-angle images of a single potato. Researches on image recognition of potato shape are popular and mature, including qualitative discrimination on abnormal and sound potato, and even round and oval potato, with the recognition accuracy of more than 83%. Weight is an important indicator for potato grading, and the image classification accuracy presents more than 93%. The image recognition of potato mechanical damage focuses on qualitative identification, with the main affecting factors of damage shape and damage time. The image recognition of potato germination usually uses potato surface image and edge germination point. Both of the qualitative and quantitative detection of green potato have been researched, currently scab and blackheart image recognition need to be operated using the stable detection environment or specific device. The image recognition of processed potato mainly focuses on potato chips, slices and fries, etc. Conclusion: image recognition as a food rapid detection tool have been widely researched on the area of raw and processed potato quality analyses, its technique and equipment have the potential for commercialization in short term, to meet to the strategy demand of development potato as

  4. DNA marker-assisted evaluation of potato genotypes for potential resistance to potato cyst nematode pathotypes not yet invading into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tsuda, Shogo; Nishinaka, Mio; Tamiya, Seiji

    2012-06-01

    One of major objectives of crop breeding is conferring resistance to diseases and pests. However, large-scale phenotypic evaluation for many diseases and pests is difficult because strict controls are required to prevent their spread. Detection of disease resistance genes by using DNA markers may be an alternative approach to select potentially resistant accessions. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeders in Japan extensively use resistance gene H1, which confers nearly absolute resistance to potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) pathotype Ro1, the only pathotype found in Japan. However, considering the possibility of accidental introduction of the other pathotypes, breeding of resistant varieties is an important strategy to prevent infestation by non-invading pathotypes in Japan. In this study, to evaluate the prevalence of resistance genes in Japanese genetic resources, we developed a multiplex PCR method that simultaneously detects 3 resistance genes, H1, Gpa2 and Gro1-4. We revealed that many Japanese varieties possess not only H1 but Gpa2, which are potentially resistant to other pathotypes of potato cyst nematode. On the other hand, no genotype was found to have the Gro1-4, indicating importance of introduction of varieties having Gro1-4. Our results demonstrate the applicability of DNA-marker assisted evaluation of resistant potato genotypes without phenotypic evaluation.

  5. Potential Use of Insecticides and Mineral Oils for the Control of Transmission of Major Aphid-Transmitted Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses occurring in Serbia and other countries in the region are a huge problem constrainingseed potato production. At lower altitudes, in lowland and hilly regions, wheretable potato production is widely distributed, more than 50% of healthy plants becomeinfected with potato virus Y during one growing season. Under these conditions, seed potatoproduction is hindered due to a high infection pressure of potato virus Y which spreads farmore rapidly compared to leaf roll virus, virus S and other viruses hosted by this plant species.This study tended to clarify a frequent dilemma regarding the use of insecticides in preventingthe infection of healthy plants with potato virus Y and leaf roll virus, given the oraland written recommendations from pesticide manufacturers, agronomists and scientistsin the field of crop protection arising from a logical conclusion that aphid vector controlresults in virus transmission control.The present findings, which are in agreement with reports of authors from other countries,show that the use of insecticides is ineffective in preventing potato virus Y which isnonpersistently transmitted by aphids from an external source of infection.However, insecticides can exhibit efficacy in preventing potato virus Y transmissionfrom infected plants to healthy plants within a crop, which can have an overall positiveeffect only if seed potato is grown in areas that have no external source of infection.The present results and those of other authors show that insecticides are effective inpreventing the infection of healthy plants with persistently transmitted leaf roll virus.Mineral oils provide effective control of potato virus Y by preventing the infection ofpotato plants with the virus. They can be combined with other management practices toprotect seed potato crops against the virus.Given the fact that the initial first-year infection of healthy potato plants with virus Y inrelation to leaf roll virus is approximately 10

  6. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  7. Identification of irradiated potatoes by impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Antaryami; Wadhawan, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical impedance of potatoes irradiated at 60, 90, 150 and 1000 Gy was measured using various frequencies of alternating current. The impedance of the irradiated potatoes was higher than the unirradiated potatoes particularly in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The ratio of the impedance at 5 kHz to that at 50 Hz (Z5k/Z50) was found to be the best indicator for detection of radiation treatment. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. Initiating genomic selection in tetraploid potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Janss, Luc; Byrne, Stephen

    Breeding for more space and resource efficient crops is important to feed the world’s increasing population. Potatoes produce approximately twice the amount of calories per hectare compared to cereals. The traditional “mate and phenotype” breeding approach is costly and time-consuming; however......, the completion of the genome sequence of potato has enabled the application of genomics-assisted breeding technologies. Genomic selection using genome-wide molecular markers is becoming increasingly applicable to crops as the genotyping costs continue to reduce and it is thus an attractive breeding alternative...... selection, can be obtained with good prediction accuracies in tetraploid potato....

  9. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  10. Effect of application of Chlorpropham in sprouting of olluco tubers (Ullucus tuberosus L. under storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Aliaga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of Chlorpropham on the sprouting of root’s tubers vegetables (Ullucus tuberosum L. Tarmeño variety during storage at 15 °C and RH of 85 %, the treatments were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg of Chlorpropham / kg of tubers, in a completely random design with 4 repetitions. After 60 days of storage the sprouts, length for the control without Chlorpropham was 9.63 cm and for the treatments with Chlorpropham from 0.22 to 0.71 cm after 90 days the length of the sprouts were kept the same and some of them began to dry up, except the control where increased in size from 15 to 20 cm. After 90 days of storage, weight loss for the treatments with Chlorpropham was averaged of 21 % and for the witness of 37.35 %. All Chlorpropham treatments showed a lower number of sprouts per tuber, lower length of buds, fewer number of tubers with sprouts and less weight loss, with a p <0.05, Duncan test showed don’t exist significant differences between treatments with Chlorpropham for the assessed variables, but significant differences with the control treatment

  11. Dietary broccoli sprouts protect against myocardial oxidative damage and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Bandy, Brian

    2010-09-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are known for antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In the current study we asked whether dietary broccoli sprouts can protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion. Rats were fed either control diet (sham and control groups) or a diet mixed with 2% dried broccoli sprouts for 10 days. After 10 days the isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia for 20 min and reperfusion for 2 h, and evaluated for cell death, oxidative damage, and Nrf2-regulated phase 2 enzyme activities. Broccoli sprouts feeding inhibited markers of necrosis (lactate dehydrogenase release) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) by 78-86%, and decreased indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aconitase inactivation) by 82-116%. While broccoli sprouts increased total glutathione and activities of the phase 2 enzymes glutamate cysteine ligase and quinone reductase in liver, they did not affect these in ischemic-reperfused heart. While the mechanism is not clear, the results show that a relatively short dietary treatment with broccoli sprouts can strongly protect the heart against oxidative stress and cell death caused by ischemia-reperfusion.

  12. Agent-based model of angiogenesis simulates capillary sprout initiation in multicellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, J; Chappell, J C; Cluceru, J G; Mac Gabhann, F; Bautch, V L; Peirce, S M

    2015-09-01

    Many biological processes are controlled by both deterministic and stochastic influences. However, efforts to model these systems often rely on either purely stochastic or purely rule-based methods. To better understand the balance between stochasticity and determinism in biological processes a computational approach that incorporates both influences may afford additional insight into underlying biological mechanisms that give rise to emergent system properties. We apply a combined approach to the simulation and study of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing networks. This complex multicellular process begins with selection of an initiating endothelial cell, or tip cell, which sprouts from the parent vessels in response to stimulation by exogenous cues. We have constructed an agent-based model of sprouting angiogenesis to evaluate endothelial cell sprout initiation frequency and location, and we have experimentally validated it using high-resolution time-lapse confocal microscopy. ABM simulations were then compared to a Monte Carlo model, revealing that purely stochastic simulations could not generate sprout locations as accurately as the rule-informed agent-based model. These findings support the use of rule-based approaches for modeling the complex mechanisms underlying sprouting angiogenesis over purely stochastic methods.

  13. Glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) as conditioned by sulphate supply during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Balibrea, Santiago; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Sulphur (S) fertilization is essential for primary and secondary metabolism in cruciferous foods. Deficient, suboptimal, or excessive S affects the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in adult plants. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the influence of S fertilization on sprouts and seedlings. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of S fertilization, supplied as K(2)SO(4) at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts during the germination course of 3, 6, 9, and 12 d after sowing. Glucosinolate concentration was strongly influenced by germination, causing a rapid increase during the first 3 d after sowing, and decreasing afterwards. The S supply increased aliphatic and total glucosinolate content at the end of the monitored sprouting period. S-treated sprouts, with S(15), S(30), and S(60) at 9 and 12 d after sowing presented enhanced glucosinolate content. Overall, both germination time and S fertilization were key factors in maximizing the bioactive health-promoting phytochemicals of broccoli. Practical Application: Germination with sulphate is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain sprouts that contain much higher levels of glucosinolates (health promoting compounds), than the corresponding florets from the same seeds.

  14. Increased antioxidant activity and polyphenol metabolites in methyl jasmonate treated mung bean (Vigna radiata sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Mung bean sprouts are a popular health food both in China and worldwide. We determined the optimal concentration of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA for the promotion of the sprouting in mung beans (Vigna radiata. The 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging test showed that MeJA application resulted in significantly improved antioxidant capacity in the sprouts 72 h later. Measurement of total polyphenols in MeJA-treated beans from 0 to 168 h, using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetry, showed that the polyphenols changing was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. The main polyphenols isovitexin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, daidzein, genistein, isoquercitrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/QqQ MS and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. MeJA promoted the production of polyphenols, metabolites, and antioxidants in the sprouts; therefore, its use may allow sprouts to be prepared more quickly or increase their nutritional value.

  15. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  16. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  17. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  18. Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Heating foods immersed in oil during frying provides many attractive sensorial attributes including taste, flavor and color. However, some toxic compounds formed during frying of potatoes such as furan and acrylamide may constitute an increased cancer risk for consumers. The objective of this work...... was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which...

  19. Radiation sterilization of potato starch and Sedonik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Saidov, R.P. et al.

    2016-01-01

    The raw material of pharmaceutical preparations potato starch and sedative means of Sedonik are sterilized at the electron's accelerator Electronics U-003. It is established that at 20.3 kGy absorbed dose and electron's energy 3 - 5 MeV the results of microbiological analysis showed sterility of potato starch and Sedonik and correspondence of their physical-optical properties to the requirements of normative documents. (authors)

  20. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, tempera......A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels...

  1. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19±1 0 C and 42±2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author)

  2. Sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study on sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger of a local variety was carried out. Fresh ginger was irradiated at the doses of 0, 25, 50 and 80 Grays (Gy) and stored at temperature 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity ranging from 76-96% for 4 months. The parameters observed were physiological weight loss, sprouting, external appearance, fungal infection, moisture content, water activity, crude fiber content and total sugar. The results show that irradiation at the doses studied effectively inhibited sprouting in ginger when compared to the nonirradiated samples. However, radiation was unable to extend the shelf-life as all samples started to deteriorate after 2 months storage

  3. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  4. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  5. [Resistance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to preharvest sprouting: an association analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart'ianov, S P; Dobrotvorskaia, T V

    2012-10-01

    A statistical analysis of the data about 1422 bread wheat accessions with estimated preharvest sprouting was carried out. Close associations of preharvest sprouting resistance with the grain color and with resistance to Fusarium head blight were revealed, as well as weak, but statistically significant, associations with the type of development, awnedness, and reduced height genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 (insensitive to gibberellin GA3). The pedigree analysis showed that the cluster structures of the gene pools of the North American red-grained and white-grained varieties are practically identical. In both groups, varieties that are resistant to preharvest sprouting differ from susceptible ones in the percentage of the contributions of the Crimean and Mediterranean landraces. Resistance is associated with a high contribution by the Crimean landrace and susceptibility is associated with a high contribution by the Mediterranean landrace.

  6. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  7. Effect of potato used as a trap crop on potato cyst nematodes and other soil pathogens and on the growth of a subsequent main potato crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment in which main-crop potatoes were grown every other year was conducted on a sandy soil from 1994 to 1999. The aim of the experiment was to control soil-borne pathogens of potato with ecologically sound methods. Potato grown as a trap crop from the end of April to the end of June (8

  8. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Long-term effects of burning on woody plant species sprouting on the False thornveld of Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ratsele, C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting allows woody plant species to persist in a site after a wide range of disturbances (e.g. prolonged fire), where opportunities for seedling establishment are limited. A study to investigate long-term effects of fire sprouting of woody...

  10. Survival and sprouting responses of Chihuahua Pine after the Rodeo-Chediski Fire on the Mogollon Rim, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth H. Baumgartner; Peter Z. Fule

    2007-01-01

    Chihuahua pines (Pinus leiophylla Schiede and Deppe var. chihuahuana Engelmann) were surveyed on 11 study plots on the Mogollon Rim in east central Arizona to compare characteristics of trees that sprouted from the base or root collar after the Rodeo-Chediski fire with those of trees that did not sprout. The differences in trees...

  11. Characteristics of soybean sprout locally cultivated in the Jeonju region, used for Bibimbap and Kongnamul-gukbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Soybean sprouts cultivated using Chinese soybeans in Jeonju were better in the overall acceptability than those grown in other regions because the Jeonju product contained two to three times less amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, than the other regional products, which tasted bitter. The cultivating water may affect the free amino-acid content of soybean sprouts and their taste.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) sprout and weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikulvadhana, Suda; Prompubesara, Chavangsakdhi.

    1979-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32+-3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows: after 1 month storage at 32 deg C both irradiated and non-irradiated ginger weight losses were 15-18% and water contents decreased from 88.67 to 81.82%. Only non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1 cm. in length by average at this time. Weight loss after three month storage of irradiated 0, 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger increased to 36.37, 32.67, 34.95 and 35.95% respectively, and the water contents decreased to 69.33, 72.00, 73.33 and 70.66% respectively. No sprout also, was found in 4-10 Krad ginger. The weight loss of non-irradiated ginger stored at 20 deg C for 6 months was lower than those irradiated ginger, i.e. only 21.07 for 0 Krad but 26.55, 28.07 and 34.30% for 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger respectively. In addition, water contents were found to be highest in non-irradiated ginger (76.00%) but lowest in irradiated ginger, at 10 Krad (66,66%). However, non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1.5 cm but no sprout was found in irradiated ginger. In conclusion, radiation only 4 Krad inhibited ginger sprout and did not decrease ginger weight (P<.01). Furthermore, cool temperature at 20 deg C delayed ginger sprout up to 4 months and decreased ginger weight loss

  13. LA sprouts randomized controlled nutrition and gardening program reduces obesity and metabolic risk in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention ("LA Sprouts") on dietary intake, obesity parameters, and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. The randomized controlled trial involved four elementary schools [two schools randomized to intervention (172 third-through fifth-grade students); two schools randomized to control (147 third-through fifth-grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and postintervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1-vs. 0.04-point decrease, respectively; P = 0.01) and WC (-1.2 cm vs. no change; P < 0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. -15.5%; P = 0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (-3.6% vs. -26.4%; P = 0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LA Sprouts and control subjects. LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  15. Influence of γ-irradiation on drying of slice potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Chao Yan; Fu Junjie; Wang Jianping

    2001-01-01

    A new technology is introduced to dry food products by hot-air after pretreated by irradiation. The influence of different dosage of irradiation, temperature of hot air, thickness of the slice potato on the rate of dehydration temperature of irradiated potato were studied. A conclusion is reached that the 3 factors, irradiation dosage, hot-air temperature and thickness of slice potato, affect the rate of dehydration and temperature of slice potato. The higher the dosage is, the greater the rate of dehydration of potato becomes, and the higher the temperature of the slice potato gets. (authors)

  16. Relationship between grain colour and preharvest sprouting-resistance in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    BASSOI, M.C.; FLINTHAM, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since red alleles (R) of the genes that control grain colour are important for the improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat and there are three independently inherited loci, on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D of hexaploid wheat, it is possible to vary the dosage of dominant alleles in a breeding program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dosage effect of R genes on preharvest sprouting, in a single seed descent population, named TRL, derived from the cross between Timgal...

  17. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.N. E-mail: pellegri@criba.edu.ar; Croci, C.A.; Orioli, G.A

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic. (author)0.

  18. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major

    2010-01-01

    be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... groups. Diastolic blood pressure stayed essentially unchanged in both groups, while the systolic blood pressure showed a small non significant decrease (9 mm Hg) in the interventional group from a value of 153 mm Hg at start. CONCLUSION: Daily ingestion of 10 g dried broccoli sprouts does not improve...

  19. Density separation as a strategy to reduce the enzyme load of preharvest sprouted wheat and enhance its bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaerts, Heleen; De Bondt, Yamina; Courtin, Christophe M

    2018-02-15

    As preharvest sprouting of wheat impairs its use in food applications, postharvest solutions for this problem are required. Due to the high kernel to kernel variability in enzyme activity in a batch of sprouted wheat, the potential of eliminating severely sprouted kernels based on density differences in NaCl solutions was evaluated. Compared to higher density kernels, lower density kernels displayed higher α-amylase, endoxylanase, and peptidase activities as well as signs of (incipient) protein, β-glucan and arabinoxylan breakdown. By discarding lower density kernels of mildly and severely sprouted wheat batches (11% and 16%, respectively), density separation increased flour FN of the batch from 280 to 345s and from 135 to 170s and increased RVA viscosity. This in turn improved dough handling, bread crumb texture and crust color. These data indicate that density separation is a powerful technique to increase the quality of a batch of sprouted wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that

  1. Localization of potato leafroll virus in leaves of secondarily-infected potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Blank, de C.M.; Peters, D.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) antigen was localized by immunogold labelling in semi-thin leaf sections of secondarily-infected potato plants cv. Bintje. Viral antigen was present in all cell types of the phloem tissue. but occurred most abundantly in the companion cells. Detectable amounts of PLRV

  2. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  3. Symptom expression of Potato virus Y across all market classes of U.S. potato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) can cause a range of foliar and tuber symptoms that can lead to reduced yield and quality defects in the daughter tubers. Five strains of PVY were used to inoculate 70 potato varieties in aphid screened greenhouses in Idaho and New York. Three to five isolates per strain were ...

  4. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  5. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 ... (2004), bulkiness and perishability affect post- ..... credit makes it possible for farmers to purchase .... Promotion of the Sweet Potato for the Food Industry.

  6. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  7. Root sprouting in Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae): effects of polyploidy, soil origin and nutrient availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří; Kolář, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 6 (2015), s. 901-911 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : root-sprouting * ploidy * Knautia arvensis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2015

  8. Bioavailability of Isothiocyanates From Broccoli Sprouts in Protein, Lipid, and Fiber Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and

  9. Chopper GEN2 + Glyphosate efficacy for height classes of hardwood sprouts recolonizing six clearcut pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmie Yeiser; Andrew Ezell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess sprout size as a determinant of subsequent control by a standard, single rate of imazapyr +glyphosate applied during site preparation. All study sites were in the hilly upper coastal plain of Mississippi (Winston or Oktibbeha Counties) or Louisiana (Sabine or Winn Parishes) and supported loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations...

  10. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Nair, Vimal; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-06-26

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV). Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVA L , UVA H ) or UVB (UVB L , UVB H ) with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m², respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v / v ) extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVB H treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVA L radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%), 4- O -caffeoylquinic acid (~42%), gallic acid derivative (~48%) and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%). Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%), gallotannic acid (~48%) and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121%) were observed with UVB H Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  11. Vasohibin inhibits angiogenic sprouting in vitro and supports vascular maturation processes in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Johann; Steurer, Michael; Gastl, Günther; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Untergasser, Gerold

    2009-01-01

    The murine homologue of human vasohibin (mVASH1), a putative antiangiogenic protein, was investigated for its effects on in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. Cell growth and migration were analyzed in murine fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Angiogenic sprouting was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the spheroid sprouting assay. In vivo effects on blood vessel formation were investigated in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in the C57BL/6 melanoma xenograft model. Purified murine and human VASH1 protein induced apoptosis of murine fibroblasts in vitro, but not of vascular aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) or endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of murine and human VASH1 inhibited capillary sprouting of HUVECs in the spheroid assay. Administration of recombinant murine and human VASH1 inhibited growth of large vessels in the CAM assay and promoted the formation of a dense, fine vascular network. Murine VASH1-overexpressing B16F10 melanomas displayed a reduction in large vessels and vascular area. Moreover, tumors showed more microvessels that stained positive for the mural cell markers α-smooth muscle cell actin (ASMA) and proteoglycan (NG2). Our data imply that murine VASH1 causes angiogenic remodelling by inhibiting angiogenic sprouting and large vessel growth, thereby supporting the formation of a vascular bed consisting predominantly of mature microvessels

  12. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khaniki, Gholam Reza Jahed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran.

  13. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  14. Growth performance of broilers fed on sprouted-roasted guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Muchapa, Lorraine; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Bakare, Archibold G; Masaka, Lawrence

    2017-06-01

    In a completely randomized block design with 96 Cobb-500 broilers, a study was conducted to evaluate the potential of dietary inclusion of sprouted then roasted guar bean in broiler diets. The 96 male day-old broiler chicks, blocked by pen into equal weight groups of six chicks replicated four times per treatment, were randomly allocated to treatment diets containing graded levels of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal (GBM) at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g kg -1 inclusion level. The guar bean was sprouted and roasted to reduce guar gum effect. Total feed intake decreased significantly as the guar bean meal content increased in the starter phase (P  0.05) were observed. Diets containing 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM recorded significantly higher total feed intake compared to the diet containing 150 g kg -1 GBM. Although average weight gain was not significantly different in birds fed 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM diets, it was significantly higher than in birds fed on 100 and 150 g kg -1 GBM diets. Feed conversion ratio was not significantly different among treatment groups (P > 0.05) but showed a general decreasing trend with increasing guar bean meal inclusion level, the effect being more pronounced during the starter phase. In conclusion, the optimum inclusion level of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal in broiler diets is 50 g kg -1 .

  15. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  16. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV. Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH or UVB (UVBL, UVBH with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%, gallic acid derivative (~48% and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%. Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%, gallotannic acid (~48% and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121% were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  17. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MG SPROUTS: A Project-in-a-Box Approach to Educational Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn,Sheri; Slagle, Krissy

    2016-01-01

    MG SPROUTS was developed as a "project-in-a-box" program, a self-contained educational programming tool for Extension agents working with master gardener Extension volunteers (MGEVs). The program design incorporates programmatic materials and project management materials and follows best management practices for volunteer management. MG…

  19. Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Won; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-04

    Samples prepared from fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts by water distillation or freeze-drying were examined for antioxidant activity using three assays. All samples exhibited dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity ranged from 74.48 ± 0.46% (less volatile sample) to 93.2 ± 0.2% (dichloromethane extract sample) at the level of 500 μg/mL. Both dichloromethane extract samples from a water distillate of broccoli sprouts and freeze-dried broccoli sprouts showed potent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to that of BHT. Among the 43 compounds positively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 5-methylthiopentylnitrile (31.64 μg/g) was found in the greatest concentration, followed by 4-methylthiobutylisothiocyanate (14.55 μg/g), 4-methylthiobutylnitrile (10.63 μg/g), 3-methylthiopropylisothiocyanate (3.00 μg/g), and 4-methylpentylisothiocyanate (2.48 μg/g). These isothiocyanates are known to possess antioxidant properties. Possible phenolic antioxidants found are 4-(1-methylpropyl)phenol (0.012 μg/g), 4-methylphenol (0.159 μg/g), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (0.009 μg/g). The present study demonstrates that broccoli sprouts are a good source of natural antioxidants.

  20. Natural seedlings and sprouts after regeneration cuttings in old-growth redwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1975-01-01

    Natural regeneration of harvested old-growth stands of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is one way to start a new forest that is needed quickly for continuous timber production. Natural seedlings and sprouts developing after stands were cut were studied on the Redwood Experimental Forest, northern California. Three types of regeneration cuttings were...

  1. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  2. WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  3. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  4. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  5. The Extracellular Environment of the CNS: Influence on Plasticity, Sprouting, and Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lindsey H.

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) becomes highly structured and organized as the nervous system matures. The extracellular space of the CNS along with its subdomains plays a crucial role in the function and stability of the CNS. In this review, we have focused on two components of the neuronal extracellular environment, which are important in regulating CNS plasticity including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and myelin. The ECM consists of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and tenascins, which are organized into unique structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs associate with the neuronal cell body and proximal dendrites of predominantly parvalbumin-positive interneurons, forming a robust lattice-like structure. These developmentally regulated structures are maintained in the adult CNS and enhance synaptic stability. After injury, however, CSPGs and tenascins contribute to the structure of the inhibitory glial scar, which actively prevents axonal regeneration. Myelin sheaths and mature adult oligodendrocytes, despite their important role in signal conduction in mature CNS axons, contribute to the inhibitory environment existing after injury. As such, unlike the peripheral nervous system, the CNS is unable to revert to a “developmental state” to aid neuronal repair. Modulation of these external factors, however, has been shown to promote growth, regeneration, and functional plasticity after injury. This review will highlight some of the factors that contribute to or prevent plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. PMID:29849554

  6. Performance stability of potato genotypes under rainfed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YDessalegn

    The prevailing average monthly maximum temperature is higher in the irrigated potato production system than in the rainfed system. The average monthly minimum temperature is low and causes frost injury to the plant during the irrigated potato production system. Therefore, irrigated potato production is affected both by the.

  7. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be...

  8. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Potatoes were used to study the metabolic stress effects in irradiated vegetable products. The changes of the contents of specific target compounds (glycoalkaloids, phenolic acids and coumarins) in alcoholic extracts of gamma irradiated potatoes were studied for metabolic irradiation stress. Doses of up to 3 kGy were applied to potatoes of several varieties. (Auth.)

  9. Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain

  10. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  11. Evaluation of five pre-emergence herbicides for volunteer potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...

  12. Developmental dynamics of Globodera ellingtonae in field-grown potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globodera ellingtonae is a recently described nematode parasite of potato, which is closely related to the economically-significant potato cyst nematodes, G. rostochiensis and G. pallida. Because of the close relationship of G. ellingtonae to the potato cyst nematodes, a greater understanding of its...

  13. Increasing genetic gain by reducing ploidy in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    While potato cultivars in major world production regions are tetraploid, wild and cultivated potatoes in the crop’s center of origin range from diploid to hexaploid. Landrace potato varieties cannot be distinguished based on ploidy. Contrary to popular belief, tetraploidy does not appear to be neces...

  14. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  15. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a...

  17. Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that calcium soil amendments reduce blackleg and soft rot diseases under Zimbabwe's growing seasons in red fersiallitic soils. Compound S produces better results in potato production than compound D and farmers should be encouraged to use compound S when growing potatoes. Key words: potato ...

  18. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service is making corrections to its Potato Research and... potatoes by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (Customs). This document also corrects Customs' name within...

  19. Reduction of greening in potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes which are exposed to light gradually turn green at the surface due to the formation of chlorophyll. Since these potatoes are unattractive to the consumer, various methods have been used to delay the rate of greening. This paper describes a method whereby potatoes were irradiated within one week of harvest and then exposed to continuous fluorescent light

  20. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  1. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in

  2. Pinpointing the weed sources of potato psyllid in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major challenge in controlling zebra chip disease of potatoes is our inability to predict what potato fields are likely to be colonized by potato psyllid, the vector of the pathogen that causes zebra chip. Researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, WA developed a novel method to identify w...

  3. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?

    Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large

  4. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  5. Pre-harvest Sprouting and Grain Dormancy in Sorghum bicolor: What Have We Learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Benech-Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining sorghum grains with quality to match the standards for a diversity of end-uses is frequently hampered by the susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS displayed by many elite genotypes. For these reasons, obtaining resistance to PHS is considered in sorghum breeding programs, particularly when the crop is expected to approach harvest maturity under rainy or damp conditions prevalence. As in other cereals, the primary cause for sprouting susceptibility is a low dormancy prior to crop harvest; in consequence, most research has focused in understanding the mechanisms through which the duration of dormancy is differentially controlled in genotypes with contrasting sprouting behavior. With this aim two tannin-less, red-grained inbred lines were used as a model system: IS9530 (sprouting resistant and Redland B2 (sprouting susceptible. Redland B2 grains are able to germinate well before reaching physiological maturity (PM while IS9530 ones can start to germinate at 40–45 days after pollination, well after PM. Results show that the anticipated dormancy loss displayed by Redland B2 grains is related reduced embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and increased levels of GA upon imbibition. In turn, transcriptional data showed that ABA signal transduction is impaired in Redland B2, which appears to have an impact on GA catabolism, thus affecting the overall GA/ABA balance that regulates germination. QTL analyses were conducted to test whether previous candidate genes were located in a dormancy QTL, but also to identify new genes involved in dormancy. These analyses yielded several dormancy QTL and one of them located in chromosome 9 (qGI-9 was consistently detected even across environments. Fine mapping is already in progress to narrow down the number of candidate genes in qGI-9.

  6. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  7. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  8. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...... of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" renders the concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes...... below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes....

  9. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  10. ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION OF PLANT GENOTYPE AND STRAIN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS IN BREEDING OF POTATO RESISTANCE TO COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis I Bogomaz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of potato transformation depends on plant genotype and bacterial strain. Genotypes with high regeneration ability have high transformation ability. It is shown, that transgenosis of Bt gene increases potato resistance to collorado potato beetle, transgenosis of ipt gene does not influence on resistance.

  11. Melatonin Attenuates Potato Late Blight by Disrupting Cell Growth, Stress Tolerance, Fungicide Susceptibility and Homeostasis of Gene Expression in Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans is the causal agent of potato late blight, which caused the devastating Irish Potato Famine during 1845-1852. Until now, potato late blight is still the most serious threat to potato growth and has caused significant economic losses worldwide. Melatonin can induce plant innate immunity against pathogen infection, but the direct effects of melatonin on plant pathogens are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on P. infestans. Exogenous melatonin significantly attenuated the potato late blight by inhibiting mycelial growth, changing cell ultrastructure, and reducing stress tolerance of P. infestans. Notably, synergistic anti-fungal effects of melatonin with fungicides on P. infestans suggest that melatonin could reduce the dose levels and enhance the efficacy of fungicide against potato late blight. A transcriptome analysis was carried out to mine downstream genes whose expression levels were affected by melatonin. The analysis of the transcriptome suggests that 66 differentially expressed genes involved in amino acid metabolic processes were significantly affected by melatonin. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes associated with stress tolerance, fungicide resistance, and virulence were also affected. These findings contribute to a new understanding of the direct functions of the melatonin on P. infestans and provide a potential ecofriendly biocontrol approach using a melatonin-based paradigm and application to prevent potato late blight.

  12. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  13. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  14. Radiation induced variation in potato for tolerance to salinity using tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Meristem-tips of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. 'Diamant', obtained from tuber sprouts, were cultured on MS medium, and multiplied into plantlets through micropropagation. To induce variation for salt tolerance, the obtained plantlets were irradiated with 0, 20, and 40 Gy gamma rays at 27.7 rad/sec. Irradiated plantlets were cut into single nodes and cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 2000 and 4000 ppm NaCI. Salt tolerant plantlets were transferred for tuberization on MS liquid medium supplemented with the same concentration of NaCI. Micro-tubers, collected after 6 weeks of culture, had fresh weight between 0.03 to 0.3 g. Mini-tubers were obtained by planting micro-tubers in 25 cm pots under insect proof greenhouse. Mini-tuber number per plant ranged from 3 to 6, and the mini-tuber weight ranged from 0.5-3.0 g, depending upon the treatment. Further studies are in progress to produce conventional tubers under salinity stress from the promising variants, specially those tolerant to 4000 ppm, and to assure the stability of the obtained variants. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation and CIPC treatment- on processing quality of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The processing quality of 5 potato cultivars, after inhibition of sprouting by irradiation or chloroisopropyl phenyl carbamate (CIPC) treatment, was compared during storage at 20, 15 and 10 degC upto 9 months. Cultivars K. Jyoti, K Lavkar, Gujrat-S, and Talegaon, with initial reducing sugar levels of 120 to 240 mg/100 g. yielded light coloured chips and French fries. Neither of the treatments affected the processing quality of these cultivars, when stored at 15 and 20 degC up to 6 months, but the storage at 10 degC resulted in darker products, due to higher levels of reducing sugars. In tubers, stored for more than 6 months at 15 degC, reconditioning at 27-32 degC or blanching improved the colour of the products. Cultivars K. Badshah, with initial reducing sugar levels of 310 to 440 mg/100 g was not suitable for processing. In vitro infiltration studies showed that glucose contributed to browning more than fructose or sucrose. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. after irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANESA G.M. SOARES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L., including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2 and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  17. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Das, A; Gopal, J; Gosal, S S [Biotechnology Centre, Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana, Punjab (India)

    1997-07-01

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. `Kufri Jyoti` and `Kufri Chandramukhi` of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs.

  18. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Das, A.; Gopal, J.; Gosal, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi' of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Salt Tolerant Mutants in Potato sp. Cara Induced by Gamma Irradiation and Tissue Culture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.; Mohamed, A.A.; Ahmed, F.A.; Afifi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Sprouts of 2-3 cm length were cut off from potatoes cv. Cara tubers and sterilized. Apical meristemic tips were sown to produce virus free plantlets. After 6-8 weeks, the new plantlets became at 5-7cm heights. Micro-propagation was begun to obtain sufficient number of plantlets. Plantlets obtained from micro-propagation stage were divided into 3 groups to be exposed to 0.0,20 or 40Gy gamma rays. The dose rate was 27.7rad/sec. Irradiated and unirradiated plantlets were trimmed to be with 5-6 nodes and without leaves. They were transplanted onto 1/2MS [1] liquid medium supplemented with sodium chloride at different concentrations, i.e.,0.0, 2000 or 4000 ppm. Healthy plantlets were chosen, and all unfit ones were excluded. The plantlets were sub-cultured six times on the same fresh medium with the same concentrations of NaCI, with insisting to exclude all unfit plantlets. All maintained healthy plantlets, in the sixth vegetative generation (M 1 V 6 ), grown under salinity stress, whatever the concentration of NaCI, were considered as mutant lines

  20. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  1. Effect of radiation on potato susceptibility to plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The average world production of potatoes is about 7 billion bushels, having a value nearly, if not quite, equal to that of wheat. Hence, it has for years been recognized as the world's leading food crop (Thompson, 1949). Potato is the world's leading vegetable crop and rivals wheat in total value. There is probably no food article in daily diet of the white race more common than the potato. Potato tuber contains nearly 80 per cent water in it's uncooked state. Most of the remainder consists of about 2 per cent protein and 18 per cent starch. The potato is one of the cheapest and most common sources of carbohydrate food

  2. Effects of heat stress on the endogenous contents of hormones and related gene expression in developing axillary tubes of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are a cool season crop and optimum tuber initiation, development, yield, and quality require growing temperatures between 15 -20°C. At temperatures above 30°C, tuber initiation is delayed or prevented and developing tubers exhibit decreased starch content, increased malformation, chain-tube...

  3. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei

    2018-05-28

    Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.

  4. Immunodetection and quantification of insulin-like antigens in sprouts: development of an efficient functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormone Insulin is a drug used for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Insulin used in this experiment is derived from bovine and pork pancreas, as well as through recombinant technology. Patients with diabetes mellitus face an inability to utilize glucose from blood due to either less secretion of insulin, or the inability of the insulin to act; As a result of this glucose levels in the blood rise. The prevention and treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus one is world’s major public health issues. Natural alternatives have a big role to play in this field. This study aims at discovering functional foods rich in Insulin like proteins. Here we are reporting Insulin-like proteins synthesizing during the embryo development stage of Glycine max: soybean, Vigna radiata: moong and Vigna unguiculata: cowpea seeds. Hence, germination transforms these seeds containing human insulin like proteins.Methods: In our investigation we have provided protein extraction with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The plant materials weighing 1g were crushed in mortar and pestle, and the protein from the plant materials was extracted with 20 ml of 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.6. The suspensions were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 min, and the clear supernatants were subjected to Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of insulin-like proteins. We have used USDA nutritional data sources for the analysis of new products. Results: Our results demonstrate that Insulin is not expressed in dry mature dormant seeds, but is expressed only during the embryo development stage. Dry mature dormant seeds and the seeds germinated for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours of Glycine max, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata, were investigated for expression of insulin through immunodetection using anti-insulin antibodies. Dry dormant seeds of all the three seeds showed zero expression at 450 nm for insulin, while

  5. The potential of soil fungi associated with potato rhizosphere to control root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin

    2018-02-01

    The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.

  6. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  7. Improved health-relevant functionality in dark germinated Mucuna pruriens sprouts by elicitation with peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Reena; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-10-01

    The health-relevant functionality of Mucuna pruriens was improved by priming the seeds with elicitors of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) such as fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), lactoferrin (LF) and oregano extract (OE) followed by dark germination. FPH elicited the highest phenolic content of 19 mg/g FW on day 1, which was 38% higher than control sprouts. OE enhanced Parkinson's disease-relevant L-DOPA content by 33% on day 1 compared to control sprouts. Anti-diabetes-relevant alpha-amylase inhibition percent (AIP) and alpha-glucosidase inhibition percent (GIP) were high in the cotyledons and decreased following elicitation and sprouting. For potential anti-diabetic applications, low AIP and high GIP with moderate L-DOPA content on day 4 of dark germination could be optimal. Improved L-DOPA concentrations in a soluble phenolic and antioxidant-rich M. pruriens background on day 1 sprouts have potential for Parkinson's disease management.

  8. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  11. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  12. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  13. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  14. Potato developments in a changing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection

  15. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  16. Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungan, Carl E

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics

  17. Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, Carl E [Physics Department, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5002 (United States)], E-mail: mungan@usna.edu

    2009-05-15

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics.

  18. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymundo, Rubi; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Condori, Bruno; Bowen, Walter; Wolf, Joost; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Dong, Qiaoxue; Zotarelli, Lincoln; Gastelo, Manuel; Alva, Ashok; Travasso, Maria; Arora, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels,

  19. Responses of potatoes plants inoculated with arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was set to examine the impact of the foliar litter (Hardwickia binata and Azadirachta indica) and an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the development of two varieties of potato plants (Aida, Atlas). Three litter doses (0, 25 and 50 g) were applied to the pots after bedding plantlets. The plants were ...

  20. Resistance to Black Dot in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...

  1. Comparing methods of ploidy estimation in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploidy manipulation and the resulting need for rapid ploidy screening is an important part of a potato research and breeding program. Determining ploidy by counting chromosomes or measuring DNA in individual cells is definitive, but takes time, technical skills and equipment. We tested three predi...

  2. Pink eye in potato is problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall of 2017 was a challenging harvest season for potato growers in Central Wisconsin because of the less-than-ideal patterns of temperature and precipitation. Late September had several days with high temperatures above 85'F that shut down most harvest operations. Early October brought in quite a f...

  3. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  4. Use of induced mutations for potato improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, H.; Das, B.; Subramanyam, K.N.; Chandra, R.; Upadhya, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The investigations aim at the utilization of induced mutations for potato improvement. The effect of γ-rays was tested on selfed seeds and hybrid seeds as well as on tubers of several potato varieties. Chemical mutagens have been successfully employed to produce daylength neutral clones. An attempt to induce resistance against Pseudomonas solanacearum did not give conclusive results. Potato improvement in relation of yield and other characters of economic significance like maturity and attributes of tubers has been handicapped by several technical considerations world over. The crux of the problem lies in the narrow genetic base (variability) for potato breeders to work with. The use of mutation breeding, therefore, offers a good tool for this. Improvement by mutation breeding for the quantitative characters besides the resistance to disease and pest has been demonstrated in other crops like white mustard variety Primex (Anderson and Olsson, 1954), barley (Gustafsson, 1965) and peanut (Gregory, 1956). Keeping these in view and the success we had in isolating photoperiod insensitive types (Upadhaya et al, 1973, 1974) study was enlarged to use mutagens to increase as wide a spectrum as possible of the variability for quantative and qualitative characters. (author)

  5. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  6. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  7. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  8. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher

  9. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional and sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saroj, Sunil D.; Dhokane, Varsha S.; Shashidhar, R.; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, radiation processing of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts was carried out at doses 1 and 2 kGy. The effect of this treatment on different quality parameters like vitamin C content, total carotenoids content, sensory quality, texture, and color was determined over a storage period of 12 days at two different temperatures, a 4 and 8 deg. C. It was observed that treatment of irradiation (1 and 2 kGy) and storage period did not have any significant effect on vitamin C content of control as well as irradiated sprout samples stored at 4 and 8 deg.C. Total carotenoids content of sprouts stored at 4, as well as at 8 deg. C, for 12 days remained almost unchanged after irradiation as well as during storage. Sensory evaluation studies showed that irradiation had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the ratings of any of the sensory attributes in green gram as well as garden pea sprouts and, thus, did not alter the overall acceptability of the irradiated sprouts. Textural studies revealed that there was no significant change (p>0.05) in the firmness of irradiated sprouts (1 and 2 kGy) as compared to control samples at both the temperatures. Storage period of 12 days also did not affect the firmness of sprouts significantly. Color measurement results indicated no drastic change in the color coordinates of the green gram samples except greenness of controls stored at both the temperatures, which showed insignificant decrease in the a * values. Thus, the nutritional as well as sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts did not alter significantly after gamma irradiation with a dose of 1 and 2 kGy

  10. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  12. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Torres, Carlos; Mosquera Gamboa, Ferley; Gonzalez, Robert Tulio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  14. Axonal sprouting regulates myelin basic protein gene expression in denervated mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B

    2000-01-01

    to 35 days after transection of the entorhino-hippocampal perforant path axonal projection. In situ hybridization analysis showed that anterograde axonal and terminal degeneration lead to upregulated oligodendrocyte MBP mRNA expression starting between day 2 and day 4, in (1) the deep part of stratum...... axonal and terminal degeneration, myelin degenerative changes, microglial activation and axotomi-induced axonal sprouting. Oligodendrocyte MBP mRNA expression reached maximum in both these areas at day 7. MBP gene transcription remained constant in stratum radiatum, stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens...... of CA1, areas that were unaffected by perforant path transection. These results provide strong evidence that oligodendrocyte MBP gene expression can be regulated by axonal sprouting independently of microglial activation in the injured adult CNS....

  15. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Gamma Irradiation To Induce New Mutants In Potatoes Cv. Diamant Through Tissue Culture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.; Ali, Amina A. M.; Ahmed, F. A.; Afifi, Abd El-Moneim M.

    2004-01-01

    The excess salt, usually NaCl, inhibits potato plant growth and decreases tubers yield. The use of gamma irradiation to induce new mutants in potato cv. Diamant through tissue culture technique was the main task of this study. Sterilized meristemic tips of potato tubers were cultured on aseptic solid MS-medium, pH 5.7, and were incubated at 20 ± 2 d eg C and 16 hrs day length of 3000-Lux light intensity, to produce virus-free plantlets. Micro-propagation started after 6-8 weeks and plantlets were sub-cultured every 3-4 weeks to increase plantlets population. Plantlets were exposed to 0, or 40 Gy, dose rate 27.7 rad / sec., using Co 60 source at the National Center for Research and Radiation Technology, Cairo, Egypt. Irradiated and unirradiated plantlets were transplanted into 60 ml liquid 1/2MS-medium, pH 5.7, and supplemented with 0, 2000 or 4000 ppm NaCl. And, they were incubated for 2 weeks under the same conditions of temperature and light till the new plantlets were grown up. Healthy plantlets were selected, and micro-propagated up to the sixth vegetative generation (M 1 V 6 ), under the same conditions of salinity and incubation conditions Thereafter, the plantlets were transferred to tuberization liquid 1/2MS-medium, supplemented with the same mentioned concentrations of NaCl, to obtain microtubers. The microtubers were collected after 6-8 weeks and preserved at 10 deg C for 3 months approximately, to break the dormancy. Sprouted microtubers were sown to obtain minitubers, and subsequently macrotubers. All cultures were performed in 30-cm pots in a protected greenhouse, and were irrigated with the same concentrations of NaCl. It could be elicited that cv. Diamant is salinity sensitive. This was evidenced by the decrease in the average number of tubers per plant and average fresh weight of tuber under salinity stress up 4000 ppm NaCl, comparing to unsaline control treatment. Potato plants, which still healthy and produced tubers under salinity stress up to

  17. Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Zhang, Yuesheng; Talalay, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a striking reduction in the risk of developing a variety of malignancies, it is of interest that a number of edible plants contain substantial quantities of compounds that regulate mammalian enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, edible plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and genus Brassica (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) contain substantial quantities of isothiocyanates (mostly in the form of their glucosinolate precursors) some of which (e.g., sulforaphane or 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) are very potent inducers of phase 2 enzymes. Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10–100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates can be efficiently extracted from plants, without hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, by homogenization in a mixture of equal volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile at −50°C. Extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts (containing either glucoraphanin or sulforaphane as the principal enzyme inducer) were highly effective in reducing the incidence, multiplicity, and rate of development of mammary tumors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated rats. Notably, sprouts of many broccoli cultivars contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis. Hence, small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect

  18. Disturbance is an important factor in the evolution and distribution of root-sprouting species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Herben, Tomáš; Martínková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 387-399 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19245S; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : disturbance * root-sprouting species * bud bank Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  19. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase.

  20. Bioavailability of Isothiocyanates From Broccoli Sprouts in Protein, Lipid, and Fiber Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and lipid gels. Methods and results: Five participants took part in a cross-over study and collected timed urine samples up to 24 h after consumption of proteins, dietary fibers, and lipid gels containing ...

  1. Optimization of bioactive compounds in buckwheat sprouts and their effect on blood cholesterol in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Yang, Ya-Lu; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-02-27

    Nutrient levels in buckwheats that were maximized in day 8 sprouts (D8SP) included total phenolics, quercetin, and l-ascorbic acid, whereas those of oxalic, malic, tartaric, and citric acids, rutin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were found to reach maximum levels on day 10. Ethanolic extract of D8SP (2.5 mg/mL) revealed potent free-radical scavenging (FRS) and antioxidative (ANO) capabilities. However, its Fe2+-chelating capability was only moderate. To further study the hypolipidemic activity of D8SP, 36 Syrian hamsters were grouped into six groups and fed for 28 days, respectively, with (i) control meal, (ii) high fat plus high cholesterol meal, (iii) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of buckwheat seeds, (iv) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of buckwheat seeds, (v) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of D8SP, and (vi) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of D8SP. High seed meal prominently enhanced body weight gain, whereas high sprout meal exhibited the highest feed efficiency. Ratios of liver/body weight (L/B) were significantly lowered by all BS meals. Although low seed meal reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (pcholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly suppressed by all buckwheat meals (pcholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased, however, insignificantly. Nutraceutically more meaningful is that both LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly lowered (p<0.01). Apparently, hepatic TC levels were significantly reduced, whereas hepatic TG levels were totally unaffected. Conclusively, sprouting triggers a variety of nutritional changes in buckwheats. Day 8 sprouts, consisting of high polyphenolic and moderate quercetin contents, are nutraceutically maximized when hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, and antioxidative activities are concerned.

  2. Economic viability and commercial experience with shihoro potato irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.

    1985-01-01

    A commercial potato irradiation plant was established in 1973 at Shihoro in Hokkaido, Japan, with a capacity of about 10,000 tons per month using large baskets containing 1.5 tons of potatoes. For twelve seasons potatoes have been irradiated and marketed by the plant. The paper will discuss the experience with the Shihoro potato irradiator from the technical and economic viewpoints. From the technical viewpoint, the following are the main factors that have contributed to the success of potato irradiation. First, the Japanese government initiated research on food irradiation as a national project and provided financial support. Second, the presence of the Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association which handles a large amount of potatoes; and third, the mock-up test for the conceptual design of irradiation was conducted using large baskets for storage and transportation. The cost of the irradiation plant was about 389 million yen, of which 253 million yen was provided by the government. The irradiation plant processes about 15,000 tons of potatoes a year and the costs are 2,000 to 4,500 yen per ton. This accounts for 2 to 3% of the potato price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price fluctuations during the off-season

  3. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qajarbeygi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  4. Redundant dopaminergic activity may enable compensatory axonal sprouting in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadir, David; Bergman, Hagai; Fahn, Stanley

    2014-03-25

    Neurodegenerative diseases become clinically apparent only after a substantial population of neurons is lost. This raises the possibility of compensatory mechanisms in the early phase of these diseases. The importance of understanding these mechanisms cannot be underestimated because it may guide future disease-modifying strategies. Because the anatomy and physiology of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways have been well described, the study of Parkinson disease can offer insight into these early compensatory mechanisms. Collateral axonal sprouting of dopaminergic terminals into the denervated striatum is the most studied compensatory mechanism in animal (almost exclusively rodent) models of Parkinson disease and is correlated with behavioral recovery after partial lesions. This sprouting, however, does not respect the normal anatomy of the original nigrostriatal pathways and leads to aberrant neuronal networks. We suggest here that the unique physiologic property of the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum, namely redundancy of information encoding, is crucial to the efficacy of compensatory axonal sprouting in the presence of aberrant anatomical connections. Redundant information encoding results from the similarity of representation of salient and rewarding events by many dopaminergic neurons, from the wide axonal field of a single dopaminergic neuron in the striatum, and from the nonspecific spatial effect of dopamine on striatal neurons (volume conductance). Finally, we discuss the relevance of these findings in animal models to human patients with Parkinson disease.

  5. VEGF-A/Notch-Induced Podosomes Proteolyse Basement Membrane Collagen-IV during Retinal Sprouting Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Spuul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During angiogenic sprouting, endothelial tip cells emerge from existing vessels in a process that requires vascular basement membrane degradation. Here, we show that F-actin/cortactin/P-Src-based matrix-degrading microdomains called podosomes contribute to this step. In vitro, VEGF-A/Notch signaling regulates the formation of functional podosomes in endothelial cells. Using a retinal neovascularization model, we demonstrate that tip cells assemble podosomes during physiological angiogenesis in vivo. In the retina, podosomes are also part of an interconnected network that surrounds large microvessels and impinges on the underlying basement membrane. Consistently, collagen-IV is scarce in podosome areas. Moreover, Notch inhibition exacerbates podosome formation and collagen-IV loss. We propose that the localized proteolytic action of podosomes on basement membrane collagen-IV facilitates endothelial cell sprouting and anastomosis within the developing vasculature. The identification of podosomes as key components of the sprouting machinery provides another opportunity to target angiogenesis therapeutically.

  6. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  7. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Urek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultivar Desiree, the resistant cultivars White Lady, Miranda, Aladin, Sante and Adora, and the clone KIS 94-1/5-14. The yield of cv. White Lady was the highest and that of susceptible cv. Desiree the lowest. The influence of several resistant and one susceptible potato cultivars on population dynamics of G. rostochiensis was also determined. The total number of cysts/100 cm3 and the number of eggs and juveniles per cyst increased in the susceptible cv. Desiree and decreased in the resistant cultivars White Lady, Sante and Adora.

  9. Presence and Distribution of Economically Important Potato Viruses in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zindović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out, in the period 2002-2004 in order to determine the presence and distribution of potato viruses at 12 different locations and on 9 different potato varieties grown in Montenegro. The research included collecting of samples in seed potato crops and testing of six economically important potato viruses: Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus A (PVA i Potato virus M (PVM. Using the direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA and commercial antisera specific for six potato viruses, it was found that PVY was the most frequent virus during the three-year research period. The second frequent virus was PVS, followed by PVA, PLRV, PVM and PVX. Single and mixed infections were detected, and the most prevalent were the single infections of PVY. Also, in the period 2002-2004, PVY had the highest distribution and the number of present viruses was different at different localities and on different potato varieties. Further investigations were related to detailed characterization of the most prevalent virus (PVY, which is at the same time economically the most important one. Serological characterization of PVY was performed utilizing DAS-ELISA kit with commercial monoclonal antibodies specific for detection of the three strain groups of PVY, and the two straingroups - necrotic (PVYN/PVYNTN and common (PVYO, were identified. Necrotic strains were prevalent in 2002 and 2004, while in 2003 PVYO was the most frequent strain in virus population. The presence of stipple streak strain (PVYC was not detected in any of the testedsamples.

  10. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Yoshiharu; Hogetsu, Daisuke; Okuyama, Norio; Manabe, Takashi; Sasagawa, Tatsuru.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes of the ''Danshaku'' variety and their chemical aspects were studied. The final concentrate of alcohol extracts from potatoes showed pH values of 3 -- 4. The o-quinones or ''radiotoxins'' reported by Kuzin, et al. were not detected in the alcohol extracts from potatoes of this variety by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, paper chromatography and the model enzymatic experiment. (author)

  11. Synthetic Hexaploids Derived from Wild Species Related to Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOTANI, Itaru; KAWASE, Tsuneo; 塩谷, 格; 川瀬, 恒男

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of germplasm of the wild species in sweet-potato breeding has been conducted for the last three decades. Such attempts brought some remarkable achievments in improving root yield, starch content and resistance to the nematodes of sweet potato. Some wild plants in polyploid series may have many genes potentially important for further improvement of the agronomic traits. However, the genomic relationship between the wild relatives and hexaploid sweet potato (2n=6x=90) has been u...

  12. Study on the cytogenetic activity of freshly irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, A.N.; Osipova, I.N.

    1978-01-01

    Cytogenetic activity of potatoes, subjected to gamma irradiation in the dose of 10 Krad, feeding the animals in a day after irradiation, has been investigated. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice, who obtained newly irradiated raw or baked potatoes, has no substantial difference from the analogous mutageneity index of mice from the control group. The data obtained are of practical importance when considering the problem of using gamma-irradiated potatoes in the people nourishment

  13. Infection of potato mesophyll protoplasts with five plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, H; Harrison, B D

    1982-12-01

    Methods are described for preparing potato mesophyll protoplasts that are suitable for infection with inocula of virus nucleoprotein or RNA. The protoplasts could be infected with four sap-transmissible viruses (tobacco mosaic, tobacco rattle, tobacco ringspot and tomato black ring viruses) and with potato leafroll virus, which is not saptransmissible. No differences were observed in ability to infect protoplasts with potato leafroll virus strains differing either in virulence in intact plants or in aphid transmissibility.

  14. Combination processes for improving storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, P.; Nair, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Various combined treatments of harvested potatoes to reduce microbial spoilage of irradiated potatoes in storage were studied. Treatments studied were irradiation in conjunction with hot water dip, cold or hot salicylic acid dip, dusting with salicylic acid powder, and sodium hypochlorite wash followed by storage in well aerated containers. Microbial spoilage in irradiated potatoes was found to be greatly reduced by storage at 10deg or 15degC in well aerated containers. (M.G.B.). 9 refs., 1 tab

  15. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-03

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  16. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun-Ming

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71% and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing.

  17. Neuroimmune processes associated with Wallerian degeneration support neurotrophin-3-induced axonal sprouting in the injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Shine, H David

    2013-10-01

    Lesions of the spinal cord cause two distinctive types of neuroimmune responses, a response at the lesion site that leads to additional tissue destruction and a more subtle response, termed Wallerian degeneration (WD), that occurs distal to the lesion site. We have evidence that the neuroimmune response associated with WD may support tissue repair. Previously, we found that overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) induced axonal growth in the spinal cord after a unilateral corticospinal tract (CST) lesion, but only if the immune system was intact and activated. We reasoned that a neuroimmune response associated with WD was involved in this neuroplasticity. To test this, we compared NT-3-induced axonal sprouting in athymic nude rats that lack functional T cells with rats with functional T cells and in nude rats grafted with CD4(+) T cells or CD8(+) T cells. There was no sprouting in nude rats and in nude rats grafted with CD8(+) T cells. However, nude rats grafted with CD4(+) T cells mounted a sprouting response. To determine which CD4(+) subtype, type 1 T helper (Th1) or type 2 T helper (Th2) cells, was responsible, we grafted Th1 and Th2 cells into nude rats and tested whether they would support sprouting. Axonal sprouting was greater in rats grafted with Th2 cells, demonstrating that the Th2 subtype was responsible for supporting axonal sprouting. These data suggest that WD activates Th2 cells that, along with the direct effects of NT-3 on CST axons, act to support axonal sprouting in the lesioned spinal cord. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of Listeria monocytogenes recoveries from spiked mung bean sprouts by the enrichment methods of three regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchon, Kaitlin E; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2017-09-01

    Three selective enrichment methods, the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA method), the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service's (USDA method), and the EN ISO 11290-1 standard method, were assessed for their suitability for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from spiked mung bean sprouts. Three parameters were evaluated; the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from singly-spiked sprouts, the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from doubly-spiked (L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua) sprouts, and the population differential resulting from the enrichment of doubly-spiked sprouts. Considerable L. monocytogenes inter-strain variation was observed. The mean enrichment L. monocytogenes populations for singly-spiked sprouts were 6.1 ± 1.2, 4.9 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 2.3 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and EN ISO 11290-1 methods, respectively. The mean L. monocytogenes populations for doubly-spiked sprouts were 4.7 ± 1.1, 5.5 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.4 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and ISO 11290-1 enrichment methods, respectively. The corresponding mean population differentials were 2.8 ± 1.1, 3.3 ± 1.3, and 3.6 ± 1.4 Δlog CFU/mL for the same three enrichment methods, respectively. The presence of L. innocua and resident microorganisms on the sprouts negatively impacted final levels of L. monocytogenes with all three enrichment methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  20. HIF-2α Expression Regulates Sprout Formation into 3D Fibrin Matrices in Prolonged Hypoxia in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Tessa D; Duyndam, Monique C A; Weijers, Ester M; van Hinsbergh, Victor M W; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    During short-term hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (particular their subunits HIF-1α and HIF-2α) regulate the expression of many genes including the potent angiogenesis stimulator VEGF. However, in some pathological conditions chronic hypoxia occurs and is accompanied by reduced angiogenesis. We investigated the effect of prolonged hypoxia on the proliferation and sprouting ability of human microvascular endothelial cells and the involvement of the HIFs and Dll4/Notch signaling. Human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs), cultured at 20% oxygen for 14 days and seeded on top of 3D fibrin matrices, formed sprouts when stimulated with VEGF-A/TNFα. In contrast, hMVECs precultured at 1% oxygen for 14 days were viable and proliferative, but did not form sprouts into fibrin upon VEGF-A/TNFα stimulation at 1% oxygen. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting, whereas HIF-1α or HIF-3α by si-RNA had no effect. No involvement of Dll4/Notch pathway in the inhibitory effect on endothelial sprouting by prolonged hypoxia was found. In addition, hypoxia decreased the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), needed for migration and invasion, without a significant effect on its inhibitor PAI-1. This was independent of HIF-2α, as si-HIF-2α did not counteract uPA reduction. Prolonged culturing of hMVECs at 1% oxygen inhibited endothelial sprouting into fibrin. Two independent mechanisms contribute. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting pointing to a HIF-2α-dependent mechanism. In addition, reduction of uPA contributed to reduced endothelial tube formation in a fibrin matrix during prolonged hypoxia.

  1. A method for estimating the contribution of seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare in field infestations with potato cyst nematodes on a national scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeminne, M; Demeulemeester, K; Viaene, N

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a cost benefit analysis for the management of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, we developed a method to estimate the relative importance of three basic distribution channels of potato cyst nematodes: seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare. The baseline is determined by the area planted with potatoes, the area infested with potato cysts, the proportion of resistant potato cultivars and the distribution of cysts trough different channels. This quantification forms a basis for the evaluation of the effects of different control measures for potato cyst nematode on a national scale. The method can be useful as an example for application in other countries.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  3. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK; Taşkın POLAT

    2017-01-01

    Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified...

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on potato meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds in potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 8 and 12 Krad is studied at histological level. The irradiation was supplied at the beguining and end of the resting period, and the irradiated buds were observed at different stages of their development. Meristem's sensitivity depends on the state of activity involved at the moment of irradiation. Different parts of the meristem present different radiosensitivity, being the most radioresistant. (author) [es

  5. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that {sup 137}Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of {sup 137}Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The

  6. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  7. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...... potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170...

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Chao, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn; Chao, Y

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes.

  10. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato

  11. THE STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF POTATO PRODUCED IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BULARCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed and interpreted the main statistical indicators of potato produced in Romania. First of all, we start by presenting some information about potatoes: origin and appearance, their importance and necessity in the life of people and animals. Then on the basis of the specific statistical indicators, it was interpreted the evolution of the cultivated area, the percentage of the main counties in the cultivated area with potatoes, the average yield per hectare, as well as the import and export of potatoes in a given period. Each indicator was analyzed and corresponding remarks and conclusions have been drawn.

  12. Storage of irradiated potatoes under artificially humidified conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Thomas, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes of the BPI, Up-to-Date, and Pimpernel varieties have been irradiated and stored for sixteen weeks at a relative humidity of 69 per cent to counteract shrinkage caused by low humidity. Moisture loss is reduced by approximately one-quarter compared with storage at ambient humidity (average 42 per cent), and the appearance of the potatoes is considerably improved. The higher humidity causes very few changes in either chemical or physical properties of the potato, except for a slight increase in reducing sugars which is not sufficiently large to preclude the use of the potatoes for processing

  13. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  14. Mutation breeding on potato by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Potato breeding is one of the most frequent cases in terms of production and growing distinct after cultivation of cereals. The utilization of potato increases everyday since the nodes of potato are available for using fresh food and also chipping, producing starch, alcohol as well as animal feed. At the present day, potatoes are more significant as a result of uses of them. The most productive country in potato is china. According to data 2007, Turkey produces 4280 million ton potatoes every year. Potato is in the group of nodule plants. Even though potato production is frequent every place in Turkey, the most productive place is Central part of Turkey especially Nigde and Nevsehir. 43.2% of production is obtained in these cities. According to 2007 data, potato production area 158.500 ha in Turkey. The most significant input is seed for potato since potatoes are reduced by nodes as being vegetative. Even though amount of used seed is predicated on aim, ecologic circumstances, breed, is 200-300 kg/da. Seed registration certification system have been started since 1972 in potato. Until 2007, 68 variety breed were registered but all of them except. Pasinler and Nif are brought from abroad. Pasinler and Nif which are cultivated in Turkey does not hold a place among seed program. There is no domestic breed in potato - seed. For that reason, mutant diversities, which are highly acclimatized to adapt, fertile, substantial against diseases, pests and substantial for storage, are aimed to grow to provide them for farmers. These diversities also must have different elaboration periods and highly weedy starch to being useful for industries. In this study, we used Marfona potato variety which has been grown in large areas for a long time in Turkey. Marfona potato which is registered in 1991 in our country is in middle-early maturity growing group, also it has light yellow as well as peel with its white bloom and big node. Marfona which is highly substantial against virus

  15. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  16. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  17. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined physico-chemical treatments based on enterocin AS-48 for inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria in soybean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo Molinos, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Omar, Nabil Ben; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Enterocin AS-48 was tested for decontamination of soybean sprouts against Gram-negative bacteria. Although treatment with bacteriocin alone had no effect on Salmonella enterica, a synergistic antimicrobial effect was detected at pH 9.0 and in combination with moderate heat treatment. Greatest inactivation was achieved for sprouts heated for 5 min at 65 degrees C in an alkaline (pH 9.0) enterocin AS-48 solution of 25 microg/ml. Bactericidal activity against S. enterica increased greatly when enterocin AS-48 was used in washing solutions in combination with several chemical compounds: EDTA, lactic acid, peracetic acid, polyphosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, and hydrocinnamic acid. The combined treatment of enterocin AS-48 and polyphosphoric acid was tested against several other Gram-negative bacteria inoculated on sprouts. The bacteria tested showed great differences in sensitivity to polyphosphoric acid, but synergism with enterocin AS-48 was confirmed in all cases. Combinations of enterocin AS-48 (25 microg/ml) and polyphosphoric acid in a concentration range of 0.1 to 2.0% significantly reduced or inhibited growth of the populations of S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens in sprout samples stored at 6 degrees C and 15 degrees C. The combined treatment could therefore be applied to reduce the risks of Gram-negative pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria on sprouts.

  19. Increased expression of fructan 1-exohydrolase in rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea during sprouting and exposure to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asega, Amanda Francine; do Nascimento, João Roberto O; Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2011-04-15

    Rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea, an Asteraceae found in the Brazilian Cerrado, store high amounts of fructans that vary in composition over the phenological cycle. Fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity is detectable during the sprouting phase, mainly in the proximal regions of rhizophores, of plants induced to sprout by defoliation and/or cold storage. We found an increase in 1-FEH gene expression during natural and induced sprouting and further enhancement through low-temperature treatment. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of 1-FEH gene expression in different regions of the rhizophores during the transition from dormancy to sprouting is presented. Transcripts were detected mainly in the proximal region, coinciding with high 1-FEH activity and a high concentration of free fructose. Low temperature promoted the accumulation of fructans of a low degree of polymerization (DP) and enhanced 1-FEH activity and gene expression. It is hypothesized that a set of 1-FEH proteins acts in two different ways during fructan mobilization: (1) by hydrolyzing fructo-oligosaccharides and -polysaccharides in sprouting plants (naturally or induced) for carbon supply and (2) by hydrolyzing preferably fructo-polysaccharides under low temperature to maintain the oligosaccharide pool for plant cold acclimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Regeneration Dynamics of Coast Redwood, a Sprouting Conifer Species: A Review with Implications for Management and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex. D. Don Endl. is unique among conifer species because of its longevity, the great sizes of individual trees, and its propensity to reproduce through sprouts. Timber harvesting in the native redwood range along the coast of the western United States has necessitated restoration aimed to promote old forest structures to increase the total amount of old forest, the connectivity between old forests, and to enhance the resiliency of these ecosystems. After disturbance or harvest, healthy redwood stumps sprout vigorously, often producing dozens of sprouts within two years of disturbance. These sprouts form highly aggregated spatial patterns because they are clustered around stumps that may number less than 50 ha−1. Thinning of sprouts can accelerate individual tree growth, providing an effective restoration strategy to accelerate formation of large trees and old forest structures or increase stand growth for timber production. However, management, including restoration activities, is a contentious issue throughout the native range of redwood because of the history of overexploitation of this resource and perceptions that overexploitation is continuing. This paper reviews the science of early stand dynamics in coast redwood and their implications for restoration and other silvicultural strategies.

  1. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  2. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effect of different process parameters on the quality of soymilk and tofu from sprouted soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, Dipika Agrahar

    2015-05-01

    The effect of grinding cum blanching (GCB) of sprouted soybean at different temperatures on milk and tofu quality was studied. Three temperatures (121 °C-T1,100 °C-T2 and 80 °C-T3) for GCB were used to produce soymilk and tofu from sprouted soybean which were analysed for the yield, nutritional, anti-nutritional profile, colour attributes, particle size, organoleptic quality and texture profile. Unsprouted Soybeans with GCB at 121 °C served as control (C). There was significant difference (P Hardness (N) of tofu was around 11.22 in C and reduced to 8.9, 8.6 and 4.4 in T1, T2 and T3 respectively. L values of soymilk ranged from 83.4 in C to 85.8 in T3; in tofu from 83.1(T3) to 87.2 (C) and decreased with the increase in heating temperature and time. Particle size d [3, 2] and volume d [4, 3] between treatments varied significantly (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0038). Overall acceptability scores on 9 point hedonic scale for all treatments for milk and tofu were above 5. The texture scores of tofu for T3 were very low due to its soft structure. From the above investigations 100 °C was the optimal temperature for GCB of sprouted soybean for the production of good quality soymilk and tofu.

  4. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  5. Effects of a Brussels sprouts extract on oxidative DNA damage and metabolising enzymes in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, B.R.; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2001-01-01

    and catalase activity was also assessed in the kidneys. In order to examine a possible effect of the Brussels sprouts related to oxidative stress, we measured oxidative DNA damage in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation...... on MDA levels were found. The present results support the data obtained in several studies that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is capable of inducing various phase II enzyme systems. However, the observed increase in oxidative DNA damage raises the question of whether greatly increased ingestion...

  6. A Collaborative Breeding Strategy for Organic Potatoes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Average potato yields in Dutch organic farming are rather low and variable, due to the disease known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Potato breeding companies, organic farmers and breeding scientists from the Louis Bolk Institute and Wageningen University, have joined forces in an umbrella

  7. Performance Stability Analysis of Potato Varieties under Rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, farmers cultivate potato both in the rainy season under rainfed condition and the dry season using irrigation. Despite the variation in climatic condition and production constraints between the two systems, farmers grow the same variety both in rainfed and irrigated potato production systems. Moreover ...

  8. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  9. A century of potato breeding: improvement, diversification, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding within potato has relied almost entirely on phenotypic selection and little is known of the underlying genetic elements being acted upon. To characterize the effects of this selection on phenotypic and genotypic diversity within cultivated potato, the SolCAP 8300 Infinium SNP chip was utili...

  10. Mapping genetic factors controlling potato - cyst nematode interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The thesis describes strategies for genetic mapping of the genomes of the potato cyst nematode and potato. Mapping in cyst nematodes was achieved by AFLP genotyping of single cysts and subsequent segregation analysis in a family of sibling populations. The genetic map of Globodera

  11. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  12. Influence of ventilation and media on potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of.

  13. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  14. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  15. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  16. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  17. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  18. Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2016-01-01

    Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food.

  19. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30–2,300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato...

  20. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  1. Removing potatoes from children's diets may compromise potassium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2–18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 200...

  2. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  3. New varieties of potato can feed the poor | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... According to estimates, farmers spend about 6% of their potato crop income on chemicals to control late blight and other diseases — a high cost that also has environmental ... The project also aims to produce a more nutritious potato by selecting cultivars that can store more minerals, such as zinc and iron.

  4. Bacterial microbiome and nematode occurrence in different potato agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 gr of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to ...

  5. Potato landraces: description and dynamics in three areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteros, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to fill the gap of information on the potato landrace diversity present in farmer fields of Ecuador. Passport data from previous collections (1970’s and 1980’s) were used to identify Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja as representative areas of potato diversity. The status of on-farm

  6. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  7. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  8. Detection of latent infection by Ralstonia solanacearum in potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... solanacearum in potato tuber seed certification schemes more so in screening for presence of R. solanacearum in seed ... Bacterial wilt is, after late blight, the most important ... with respect to tuber-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and those ... The potato crop was preceded by maize. Bacterial wilt ...

  9. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas in inbred potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted mutagenesis using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has been well established in several important crop species, but is in need of improvement in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). For over a century, potatoes have been bred as autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), relying on F1 selections and clona...

  10. In potato breeding, fewer chromosomes may be better

    Science.gov (United States)

    The autotetraploid nature of the potato crop hinders breeding progress. In this paper, I describe the advantages of moving to a diploid inbred-hybrid system. This will allow us to reduce the genetic load in potato while assembling desirable combinations of genes. This effort requires us to generate ...

  11. Diversity and evolution of potato mop-top virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuch, Ulrike; Beuch, Sofia; Åkerblom, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Nearly complete sequences of RNA-CP and 3′-proximal RNA-TGB were determined for 43 samples of potato mop-top virus (PMTV) originating from potato tubers and field soil from Sweden, Denmark and the USA. The results showed limited diversity and no strict geographical grouping, suggesting only a few...

  12. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw of...

  13. The Potato Association of America: Working for you since 1913

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history and contributions of the Potato Association of America (PAA) to the advancement of the potato industry will be given with specific examples of how the industry has benefitted from the research and extension activities of the PAA. The primary purpose of the poster being to further familia...

  14. Potato carbohydrates: what’s in the middle counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is one of the world’s most important foods. Accumulation of starch in potato tubers depends on photosynthesis. Maintenance of 100% light capture per unit land area during the target growing season maximizes yields. Warm temperatures increase shoot and tuber respiration rates and depress tuber...

  15. Genetic mapping and pyramiding of resistance genes in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, M.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous pathogens can infect potato, but late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) and potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are most damaging. Several species of root knot nematodes (RKN) are an emerging threat. Breeders have successfully deployed disease

  16. Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, Lj.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.

  17. Ecology and control of Dickeya spp. in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Potato blackleg caused by pectinolytic Pectobacterium and Dickeya species is a bacterial disease creating serious economic losses in (seed)potato production worldwide. Effective management to control blackleg is absent and validated, cost-effective detection protocols for blackleg bacteria do not

  18. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  19. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  20. Quality control in the storage of potatoes for industrial processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijck, G.J.C.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    A novel control structure for a potato storage facility is presented that is directly geared at the optimal preservation of product quality. The quality of the stored potatoes is defined as frying colour that depends on sugar concentration. The optimal storage conditions are estimated using models