WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent limit clean

  1. Chemical cleaning's role in tube failure prevention and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.J.; Dooley, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Properly applied, chemical cleaning is a valuable tool used to prevent tube failures involving overheating and corrosion due to waterside deposits. In many cases, however, cleaning becomes yet an additional cost associated with correction of tube failure incidents. Discussion is focused on approaches taken to appraise tube waterside cleanliness and determine the need to clean, as typically practiced in conventional fossil plants. Also presented is an assessment of the suitability and limitations of these approaches to plants with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) units. (orig.)

  2. Cleaning to prevent the spread of germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are cleaning up. Before you start cleaning, mark the area of the spill with tape or ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 282. Huskins WC, Sammons JS, Coffin ...

  3. Effectiveness of infection prevention measures featuring advanced source control and environmental cleaning to limit transmission of extremely-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai intensive care unit: An analysis before and after extensive flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Pinitchai, Uayporn; Warachan, Boonyasit; Warren, David K; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Hayden, Mary K

    2014-02-01

    Advanced source control (once-daily bathing and 4-times daily oral care with chlorhexidine aqueous solution) and thorough environmental cleaning were implemented in response to an increased incidence of colonization and infection with extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai medical intensive care unit (MICU). During the 12-month baseline period (P1), contact isolation, active surveillance for XDR A baumannii, cohorting of XDR A baumannii patients, twice-daily environmental cleaning with detergent-disinfectant, and antibiotic stewardship were implemented. In the 5.5-month intervention period (P2), additional measures were introduced. Sodium hypochlorite was substituted for detergent-disinfectant, and advanced source control was implemented. All interventions except cleaning with sodium hypochlorite were continued during the 12.5-month follow-up period (P3). Extensive flooding necessitating closure of the hospital for 2 months occurred between P2 and P3. A total of 1,365 patients were studied. Compared with P1 (11.1 cases/1,000 patient-days), the rate of XDR A baumannii clinical isolates declined in P2 (1.74 cases/1,000 patient-days; P control and thorough environmental cleaning to limit colonization and infection with XDR A baumannii in MICUs in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of rhamnolipid biosurfactant for membrane biofouling prevention and cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lan Hee; Jung, Yongmoon; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Chang-Min; Yu, Hye-Weon; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, In S

    2015-01-01

    Rhamnolipids were evaluated as biofouling reducing agents in this study. The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane was increased by rhamnolipids while the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not affected. The surface hydrophobicity was increased through the release of lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polymeric substances from the outer cell membrane. Rhamnolipids were evaluated as agents for the prevention and cleaning of biofilms. A high degree of biofilm detachment was observed when the rhamnolipids were used as a cleaning agent. In addition, effective biofilm reduction occurred when rhamnolipids were applied to various species of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater samples. Biofilm reduction using rhamnolipids was comparable to commercially available surfactants. In addition, 20% of the water flux was increased after rhamnolipid treatment (300 μg ml(-1), 6 h exposure time) in a dead-end filtration system. Rhamnolipids appear to have promise as biological agents for reducing membrane biofouling.

  5. Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Rachael M; Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-18

    Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was constructed to study MRSA concentration dynamics on high-touch and low-touch surfaces, and on the hands and noses of two patients (in two hospitals rooms) and a health care worker in a hypothetical hospital environment. Two cleaning interventions - whole room cleaning and wipe cleaning of touched surfaces - were considered. The performance of the cleaning interventions was indicated by a reduction in MRSA on the nose of a susceptible patient, relative to no intervention. Whole room cleaning just before first patient care activities of the day was more effective than whole room cleaning at other times, but even with 100% efficiency, whole room cleaning only reduced the number of MRSA transmitted to the susceptible patient by 54%. Frequent wipe cleaning of touched surfaces was shown to be more effective that whole room cleaning because surfaces are rapidly re-contaminated with MRSA after cleaning. Wipe cleaning high-touch surfaces was more effective than wipe cleaning low-touch surfaces for the same frequency of cleaning. For low wipe cleaning frequency (≤3 times per hour), high-touch surfaces should be targeted, but for high wipe cleaning frequency (>3 times per hour), cleaning should target high- and low-touch surfaces in proportion to the surface touch frequency. This study reproduces the observations from a field study of room cleaning, which provides support for the validity of our findings. Daily whole room cleaning, even with 100% cleaning efficiency, provides limited reduction in the number of MRSA transmitted to susceptible patients via the contact route; and should be supplemented with frequent targeted

  6. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within...

  7. Comparison of hydrocolloid with conventional gauze dressing in prevention of wound infection after clean surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalique, M.S.; Shukr, I.; Khalique, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    To compare hydrocolloid with conventional gauze dressing in prevention of infections after clean surgical procedures. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, CMH Rawalpindi from 22 Jan 2010 to 22 Aug 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 400 patients undergoing clean surgical procedures were randomly allocated in two equal groups, A and B by lottery method. In group A. simple gauze dressing was applied after clean surgical procedures while in group B hydrocolloid dressing was used. On 7th post operative day, patients were observed for presence of infection. Results: Mean age of sample was 42.08 +-11.112 years. In group A out of 200 Patients, 14 (7.0%) while in group B 10 (5%) developed infection postoperatively (p=0.709). Conclusion: There is no difference in the rate of infection when using a gauze dressing or a hydrocolloid dressing after clean surgical procedure. (author)

  8. Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 September 2011; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3; Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to August Week 5 2011; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &Other Non-Indexed Citations September 13, 2011; Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2011 Week 35; and EBSCO CINAHL (2008 to 9 September 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.

  9. Cleaning of metal-contaminated graphite tiles of the TEXTOR ALT-II pump limiter blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dippel, K.H.; Kohlhaas, W.; Stickelmann, C. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Wallura, E. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe)

    Graphite is the preferred material for plasma facing components in today's fusion experiments and it is a prime candidate material also for coming fusion devices. At least in the existing tokamaks it cannot be excluded that the graphite surface will become contaminated, e.g. with metals, which leads to undesired effects on the plasma. Instead of an expensive exchange for new graphite parts, an appropriate cleaning method should be applied. This paper describes comparative tests of different mechanical cleaning methods applied to metal contaminated graphite tiles of the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak. Scanning electron microscope techniques have been used to characterize the cleaning efficiency. Best results have been obtained by sandblasting the graphite surface with boron carbide grains, which proves to be a very effective, inexpensive and fast cleaning method. After reassembly of the tiles, in-situ tests by exposure to tokamak discharges showed undetectably low ({le}10{sup 5}) metal concentrations in the TEXTOR plasma. (orig.).

  10. A prospective study of floor surface, shoes, floor cleaning and slipping in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen Ruey; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Mittleman, Murray A; Ware, James H; Perry, Melissa J

    2011-04-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Few studies, however, have systematically examined risk factors of slipping outside the laboratory environment. This study examined the association between floor surface characteristics, slip-resistant shoes, floor cleaning frequency and the risk of slipping in limited-service restaurant workers. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants from three major chains in six states in the USA were recruited to participate in a prospective cohort study of workplace slipping. Kitchen floor surface roughness and coefficient of friction (COF) were measured in eight working areas and then averaged within each restaurant. The use of slip-resistant shoes was determined by examining the participant's shoes and noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Restaurant managers reported the frequency of daily kitchen floor cleaning. Participants reported their slip experience and work hours weekly for up to 12 weeks. The survey materials were made available in three languages: English, Spanish and Portuguese. The associations between rate of slipping and risk factors were assessed using a multivariable negative binomial generalised estimating equation model. The mean of individual slipping rate varied among the restaurants from 0.02 to 2.49 slips per 40 work hours. After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, education, primary language, job tenure and restaurant chain, the use of slip-resistant shoes was associated with a 54% reduction in the reported rate of slipping (95% CI 37% to 64%), and the rate of slipping decreased by 21% (95% CI 5% to 34%) for each 0.1 increase in the mean kitchen COF. Increasing floor cleaning frequency was significantly associated with a decreasing rate of slipping when considered in isolation but not after statistical adjustment for other factors. These results provide support for the use of slip-resistant shoes and measures to increase COF as preventive interventions to reduce slips

  11. The environmental impact of a nanoparticle-based reduced need of cleaning product and the limitation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Daoud, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nano-TiO2 and nano-SiO2 have emerged as important nanoparticles to confer a reduced need of cleaning. The overall environmental impact of a nanoparticle-based reduced need of cleaning is uncertain, because only limited information about direct and indirect environmental impacts is available. It

  12. Availability of clean tap water and medical services prevents the incidence of typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deog-Yong; Lee, Esther; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Seonghan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the factors that induced a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever were analyzed. Based on the study results, we propose a quantitative and concrete solution to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever. We analyzed the incidence and fatality rate of typhoid fever in Korea. Tap water service rate and the number of pharmacies, which affect the incidence rate of typhoid fever, were used as environmental factors. To prevent typhoid fever in the community, it is necessary to provide clean tap water service to 35.5% of the population, with an individual requiring 173 L of clean water daily. Appropriate access to clean water (51% service coverage, 307 L) helped the population to maintain individual hygiene and food safety practices, which brought about a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever, and subsequently a decrease in fatality rate, which was achieved twice. During the 8-year study period, the fatality rate decreased to 1% when the population has access to proper medical service. The fatality rate was primarily affected by the availability of medical services as well as by the incidence of typhoid fever. However, an analysis of the study results showed that the incidence of typhoid fever was affected only by the availability of clean water through the tap water system.

  13. Prevention of urethral stricture recurrence using clean intermittent self-catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, B; Walter, S; Bartholin, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) on prevention of urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 55 men who were randomly selected, 43 completed the investigation. Of these, 21 patients performed CIC weekly for 1...... year following Sachse's operation for urethral stricture and 22 patients formed the control group after the same operation. All had an objective examination for urethral stricture every 2 months after surgery. RESULTS: Significantly fewer (P urethral stricture...... within the first postoperative year in the CIC group (n = 4) compared with the control group (n = 15). No CIC complications were seen, and patients who completed the CIC programme considered the method fully acceptable. CONCLUSION: Weekly CIC is a simple method of reducing the frequency of urethral...

  14. STD prevention: why limit ourselves to just an ounce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, C W

    2015-01-01

    When Ben Franklin said, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" he was not likely referring to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Preventing an STD is greatly preferred to treating not just that STD but the ever-expanding circle of STDs which may arise from the index case. STD risk is closely linked to sexual behaviors, making effective prevention quite challenging. But there are more arrows in our prevention quiver than simply telling people to use condoms. Because many STDs are asymptomatic, there is a clear role for screening at-risk populations. Identifying those at-risk populations can only happen when we obtain meaningful sexual histories. Individuals diagnosed with STDs must be treated appropriately, but also treating their partners will limit further transmission. Expedited partner therapy is one approach to treating STD contacts. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is an under-utilized method of STD prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a recent development for HIV prevention in some high-risk individuals. Another recent strategy is HIV treatment as prevention, in which we reduce the pool of potential HIV transmitters. Each of these prevention tools is simply another building block to place upon the foundation of the ABCs: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use.

  15. Prevention and risks limitation of the radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Segundo, T.

    1983-01-01

    Associated risks to the ionizing radiation, in general, and to the radioactive installations, in particular, are exposed; as well as the prevention and limitation techniques applied in order to keep risk into acceptable levels are detatched. Finally, the effect in the human life of the radioactivity use and other activities are compared and man-made occupational and public exposures are explained. (author)

  16. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  17. Outcome Evaluation of "Cool and Clean", a Sports-Based Substance Use Prevention Programme for Young People in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Sandra; Stucki, Stephanie; Marmet, Simon; Annaheim, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of Cool and Clean, Switzerland's largest substance use prevention programme, targeted specifically at 10- to 20-year-olds who belong to a sports club and train as part of a team. Method: Based on a representative sample of young people who belong to a sports club and train as part of a team…

  18. Defining Design Limits of a Portable Radiation Dispersion Prevention System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Seong Woo; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To the eyes of the general public, however, reducing the chance of such accident is not enough. A typical engineer views a risk as a combination of both consequences and likelihoods, whereas an ordinary person may only consider consequences. The implementations of better regulations, improved human operator actions, and installations of extra safety systems may reduce the chance of having uncontrolled accident practically to zero, yet the public still fears having nuclear reactors. One such barrier system is a portable suction-based radiation dispersion prevention system, called Integrated Portable Suction-Centrifugal Filtration System (IPS-CFS). To design such systems, detailed information about the radioactive source term at the release point to the environment must be available to draw design limits. The preliminary design limits of the IPS-CFS are presented in this paper. It may seem challenging to design a comprehensive radioactive dispersion system that can successfully prevent such extreme accident conditions, especially due to the releases from high pressure. However, as more technologies develop and more realistic source term analyses are performed, it may be possible to develop such a public relief technology. With the development of such technology that can effectively prevent the dispersion of the uncontrolled radioactive releases in case of another Fukushima-like accident, it will result in increased safety of the nuclear power plants for both the public and the workers and may contribute to the increase in the public acceptance of nuclear energy.

  19. Impact of the Antibiotic Stewardship Program on Prevention and Control of Surgical Site Infection during Peri-Operative Clean Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juyuan; Li, Na; Hao, Jinjuan; Li, Yanming; Liu, Anlei; Wu, Yinghong; Cai, Meng

    2018-04-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and are associated with substantial healthcare costs, with increased morbidity and mortality. To investigate the effects of the antibiotic stewardship program on prevention and control of SSI during clean surgery, we investigated this situation in our institution. We performed a quasi-experimental study to compare the effect before and after the antibiotic stewardship program intervention. During the pre-intervention stage (January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2011), comprehensive surveillance was performed to determine the SSI baseline data. In the second stage (January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2016), an infectious diseases physician and an infection control practitioner identified the surgical patients daily and followed up on the duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis. From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2016, 41,426 patients underwent clean surgeries in a grade III, class A hospital. The rate of prophylactic antibiotic use in the 41,426 clean surgeries was reduced from 82.9% to 28.0% after the interventions. The rate of antibiotic agents administered within 120 minutes of the first incision increased from 20.8% to 85.1%. The rate at which prophylactic antimicrobial agents were discontinued in the first 24 hours after surgery increased from 22.1% to 60.4%. Appropriate antibiotic selection increased from 37.0% to 93.6%. Prophylactic antibiotic re-dosing increased from 3.8% to 64.8%. The SSI rate decreased from 0.7% to 0.5% (p < 0.05). The pathogen detection rate increased from 16.7% up to 41.8% after intervention. The intensity of antibiotic consumption reduced from 74.9 defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 bed-days to 34.2 DDDs per 100 bed-days after the interventions. Long-term and continuous antibiotic stewardship programs have important effects on the prevention and control of SSI during clean surgery.

  20. Evidence-based training as primary prevention of hand eczema in a population of hospital cleaning workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kim K B; Randbøll, Ingelise; Ryborg, Malene F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin disorders accounted for one third of all recognised occupational diseases in Denmark in 2010. Wet work is a risk factor for the development of occupational hand eczema. The consequences of occupational hand eczema include sick leave, loss of job and impaired quality of life....... OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate exposures related to cleaning and the effect of an evidence-based educational intervention on the prevention of hand eczema among hospital cleaners. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The intervention consisted of a 1 hr course in hand protective behaviour...

  1. Impact of donor arm cleaning with different aseptic solutions for prevention of contamination in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tanvi G; Shukla, Rinku V; Gupte, Snehalata C

    2013-03-01

    Transfusion associated sepsis cases are encountered occasionally and bacterial transmission remains the major cause. The goal of our study was to compare the efficacy of disinfectants in phlebotomy site preparation. After selection of donor the antecubital fossa area of the arm was disinfected with different types of disinfectants namely sprit (70% isopropyl alcohol), povidone iodine (0.5% w/v available iodine in distilled water), savlon (1.5% v/v chlorhexidine gluconate solution and 3.0% cetrimide solution) and combination of sprit and povidone iodine. Swabs were collected from 20 donors using a sterile forceps, after cleaning with different antiseptic solutions. Swab was streaked on blood agar plate aseptically and the plate was incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Colonies were counted and a single colony was re-cultured by growing on nutrient and Mac-Conkey agar. The biochemical characteristics were determined by performing Gram staining, Motility, Catalase and Oxidase tests. The mean values of colonies were significantly higher with savlon compared to other three solutions. The difference was statistically significant by "t" test (t values 1.7-3.0; P bag were aseptically inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles to be tested on BacT/Alert system. The bag containing donor's blood did not show any contamination when three cleanings were carried out using sprit, povidone iodine and spirit respectively.

  2. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  3. Providing a Clean Environment for Adolescents: Evaluation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Li Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1 to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2 to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70, grocery stores (n = 83, and betel nut stalls (n = 81. The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1% of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers’ ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1% to 59 (25.2% and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9% to 175 (74.8% after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ2 = 11.26, p < 0.001. Study II: A total of 476 (89.1% participants had received tobacco hazards prevention education and 58 (10.9% had not. Among the various residential areas, the highest percentage of participants that did not received tobacco hazards prevention education located in the plane regions (8.4%. The government organizations should continue to adopt counseling strategies to reduce the rate of disobedience of the Tobacco Hazards

  4. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60...

  5. Role of clean intermittent self catheterisation (CICS) in the prevention of recurrent urethral strictures after internal optical urethrotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Khan, R.A.; Ullah, A.; Haq, F.U.; Rahman, A.U.; Durrani, S.N.; Khan, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Urethral stricture is one of the oldest diseases Urethral dilatation Internal optical urethrotomy, were the only treatment. Clean Intermittent Self Catheterisation was introduced by Lapides has greatly decreased the recurrence of stricture. Objectives were to determine the role of Clean Intermittent Self Catheterisation (CISC) in the prevention of recurrence of urethral strictures after Internal Optical Urethrotomy and to study the frequency of any postoperative complications and tolerability for the patients associated with this procedure. Methods: A randomised controlled study conducted in the department of urology and renal transplantation, Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from June 2007 to June 2010. Total of 60 patients with mean age 48 years (range 20-73) were selected and randomly divided into Treatment Group (30 patients) and Control Group (30 Patients). Eight 'drop out' occurred in the treatment group and four 'drop out' occurred in the controlled group. All the patients were treated with Internal Optical Urethrotomy using Sachse method followed by indwelling catheter for 5 days. The treatment group was then taught to perform Clean Intermittent Self Catheterisation by inserting a Classic Neleton Catheter (No. 16 or 18) twice a day for 1 week, then once a day for another 4 weeks and then once weekly continued for one year. All the patients were followed up regularly at 1 month intervals during the first 6 months and then every 2 months for the next 6 months. Results: Total of 48 patients completed the study, 22 in the treatment group and 26 in the control group. Within the first year, 4 patients (22%) in the treatment group developed urethral stricture. In the control group, 12 patients (46%) developed urethral stricture within the first year, showing a significant difference (p<0.01). In the treatment group four patients developed simple UTIs while in the control group three patients developed UTIs, one with

  6. Forest fires prevention and limitation of the greenhouse effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of forest fires to the carbon budget and greenhouse effect is examined at global and national (Italian scale and forest management options directed to preventing fires are briefly outlined.

  7. Availability of Clean Tap Water and Medical Services Prevents the Incidence of Typhoid Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Deog-Yong; Lee, Esther; Park, HyeMin; Kim, SeongHan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the factors that induced a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever were analyzed. Based on the study results, we propose a quantitative and concrete solution to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever. Methods: We analyzed the incidence and fatality rate of typhoid fever in Korea. Tap water service rate and the number of pharmacies, which affect the incidence rate of typhoid fever, were used as environmental factors. Results: To prevent typhoid fever in the communit...

  8. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354(7):684–696. [PubMed Abstract] Gordon ... of colorectal adenomas. Calcium Polyp Prevention Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340(2):101–107. [PubMed Abstract] Bonithon- ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 64K ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe ...

  12. Factors limiting and preventing emerging farmers to progress to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings demonstrated that the specific limiting factors emerging farmers face are poor physical infrastructure such as poor roads, lack of transportation to the markets from the farms, lack of marketing skills and information, poor market infrastructure, and high transaction costs, insufficient land availability to expand ...

  13. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  14. Cleaning of SCALPEL next-generation lithography masks using PLASMAX, a revolutionary dry cleaning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, John J.; Novembre, Anthony E.; Bennett, Darryl A.; Kasica, Richard J.; Bailey, Brad; Blakey, Myrtle I.

    1999-12-01

    Due to mechanical and exposure considerations, NGL mask technology lacks the ability to use a pellicle to prevent mask contamination. The PLASMAX (Plasma Mechanical Activation and Extraction of Particle Contamination) process represents a technology, which acts as the functional replacement of a pellicle for the NGL mask. This dry environmentally benign cleaning technology can be directly integrated into the exposure system and serves as an in-situ creative mask cleaning process. Unlike other, more conventional cleaning methods, PLASMAX lifts surface particles from the mask, then suspends, traps and channels these particles down the vacuum port, thus preventing particle redeposition on the mask surface. Originally demonstrated on wafers, this plasma/mechanical cleaning technology has demonstrated its ability to remove particles from the surface of NGL masks such as SCALPEL (Scattering with Angular Limitation in Projection Electron Beam Lithography) masks. PLASMAX uses the combined action of a gentle plasma with simultaneous vibration to clean the mask. Unlike all other methods of mask cleaning, PLASMAX uses no water or hazardous acids, thus reducing the cost of each cleaning step and eliminating the environmental impact of today's aqueous cleaning technologies. Initial work with SCALPEL masks showed them to be highly stable and robust in the PLASMAX environment while yielding cleaning efficiencies of 90% removal of polyester particles 0.8 micron and larger. The PlASMAX technology was proven to be effective in removing particles from the patterned front side and strutted backside of the mask. This paper focuses on the ongoing development of PLASMAX to enhance the cleaning efficiency of SCALPEL masks down to 0.25-micron particles. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of various particle materials will be studied. Sandia National Laboratories is providing software model simulations of the PLASMAX technology to assist in the development effort.

  15. Clean Air Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  16. Comparison of the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate versus povidone iodine as preoperative skin preparation for the prevention of surgical site infections in clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Anirudh; Kaman, Lileswar; Raj, Prithivi; Gautam, Vikas; Dahiya, Divya; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Rajinder; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine-gluconate versus povidone iodine in preoperative skin preparation in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) in clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial conducted on patients undergoing clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries. A total of 351 patients 18-70 years old were randomized into two groups; chlorhexidine and povidone iodine skin preparation before surgery. The incidence of SSIs in the chlorhexidine group was 10.8 %, in comparison to 17.9 % in the povidone iodine group. The odds ratio was 0.6 in favor of chlorhexidine use, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.06). In the first postoperative week, SSIs developed in 7 % of patients in the chlorhexidine group and 14.1 % in the povidone iodine group (P = 0.03), and in the second postoperative week, SSIs were present in 4.1 % of the patients in the chlorhexidine group and 4.4 % in the povidone iodine group, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.88). The incidence of SSIs after clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries was lower with the use of chlorhexidine skin preparation than with povidone iodine preparation, although the results were not statistically significant. However, the odds ratio between the two groups favored the use of chlorhexidine over povidone iodine for preventing SSIs.

  17. Youth Voice and HIV Prevention: Discursive Opportunities, Limitations and Productive Impossibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andree

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on engagements with "voice" in youth studies and "student voice" work in order to interrogate the limits and opportunities of the call to "youth voice" in HIV prevention discourses. Building on the limitations and opportunities within the debates of the "who", "what" and "how" of speaking and the construction of the youth subject,…

  18. Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Water Quality Limited Segments, California, 2006, State Water Resources Control Board

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 2006 303d List of Water Quality Limited Segments that: 1) Require Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLS), 2) Are being addressed by USEPA approved TMDLs 3) Are being...

  19. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  20. Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Prevention: The Role and the Limitations of Currently Available Antiplatelet Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tufano

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of currently available antiplatelet drugs in primary and secondary prevention of vascular events in diabetic patients and the limitations of these drugs, and it discusses the role of novel and more potent antiplatelets and of new agents currently under clinical development.

  1. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-09-13

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.

  2. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. (author)

  3. Microfinance and HIV/AIDS prevention: assessing its promise and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Blankenship, Kim

    2009-06-01

    Researchers increasingly argue that poverty and gender inequality exacerbate the spread of HIV/AIDS and that economic empowerment can therefore assist in the prevention and mitigation of the disease, particularly for women. This paper critically evaluates such claims. First, we examine the promises and limits of integrated HIV/AIDS prevention and microfinance programs by examining the available evidence base. We then propose future research agendas and next steps that may help to clear current ambiguities about the potential for economic programs to contribute to HIV/AIDS risk reduction efforts.

  4. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsoudis, Anna; Kwaan, Leith; Thomson, Mairi

    2010-10-01

    One of the most exciting areas of HIV research is that of prevention of vertical transmission from mother to child, since it accounts for 90% of childhood HIV infections, and therefore prevention in this context has an enormous potential impact on the spread of HIV among children. Focused research has yielded highly successful strategies for reducing infant infection rates, particularly in the developed world, and much work is underway to implement appropriate strategies in resource-limited settings, although this is not without challenges. Although transmission rates in some settings have been reduced to approximately 1%, scale-up and widespread implementation and application of strategic interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding are needed in the developing world.

  5. Comparing a combination of penicillin G and gentamicin to a combination of clindamycin and amikacin as prophylactic antibiotic regimens in prevention of clean contaminated wound infections in cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Hassan, S.Sh.; Khalifa, H.I.; Safa, M.M.E.; Khafagy, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Appropriate antibiotic selection and timing of administration for prophylaxis are crucial to reduce the likelihood of surgical site infection (SSI) after a clean contaminated cancer surgery. Our aim is to compare the use of two prophylactic antibiotic (PA) regimens as regards efficacy, timing, and cost. Patients and methods: Two hundred patients with gastric, bladder, or colorectal cancer were randomized to receive preoperative PA, group A received penicillin G sodium and gentamicin and group B received clindamycin and amikacin intravenously. The demographic data of patients were collected, and they were observed for wound infections. Results: Infected wounds occurred in 19 patients with a rate of 9.5%. Highest incidence of SSI was among bladder cancer patients (14.2%); p = 0.044. The rate of SSI was 11 % in group A, and 8% in group B, p = 0.469. The cost of PA administered in group A was significantly less than that of group B (21.96 ± 3.22 LE versus 117.05 ± 12.74 LE, respectively; p < 0.001). SSI tended to be higher among those who had longer time for antibiotic and incision (≥ 30 min) than those who had shorter time interval (<30 min), (13% vs. 6.5%, respectively). Conclusion: Both penicillin + gentamicin and clindamycin + amikacin are safe and effective for the prevention of SSI in clean contaminated operative procedures. In a resource limited hospital, a regimen including penicillin + gentamicin is a cost-effective alternative for the more expensive and broader coverage of clindamycin + amikacin. Timing of PA is effective in preventing SSIs when administered 30 min before the start of surgery

  6. Prevention for climatic changes: the mechanism for clean development and the prospects of working with developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavard, D.; Cornut, P.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of the mechanism for clean development (MDP) is one of the principal topics of the sixth Conference of the Parties (COP6) which is to be held in November 2000 at The Hague. The enforcement of the Kyoto protocol is dependant on the industrialized countries ratifying it, which will only be the case if flexible mechanisms have been written in. The MDP holds a key role as it could come into play as of 2000, if its conditions of operating are established, thereby allowing industrialized countries to carry out lower-cost emission reductions. Developing countries have put great hopes in the implementation of this new mechanism, likely to contribute to their economic development whilst helping them to adopt growth trajectories which are more environmentally friendly. The key question raised by the MDP about the collectivity of projects has not as yet been resolved. The regulations that will be introduced at The Hague as regards this matter are, to a large extent, going to affect the environmental efficiency and the scope the mechanism. However, for a certain number of countries, the project approach of the MDP will always be too restrictive. In view of the economic stakes that the carbon credit market represents, the MDP does not seem to be in a position to offer adequate prospects to the semi-industrialized countries who also wish to take part in the discussions at the same level as the industrialized countries in transition. (authors)

  7. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  8. Research document no. 21 bis. How could developing countries participate in climate change prevention: the clean development mechanism and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavard, D.; Cornut, P.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-10-01

    An agreement on CDM rules is important both for industrialized and developing countries. As a flexibility mechanism, it will allow industrialized countries to benefit from low cost emission reductions but the CDM, as a main goal, should also stimulate a more sustainable economic development in DCs. The CDM is the sole instrument, with GEF, proposed for DCs participation into climate change prevention. This situation satisfies a majority of DCs, but CDM may not offer sufficient perspectives for some countries with rapid industrialization given the huge economic stakes linked to the creation of a carbon credits market between Annex I countries. The operationality of the CDM is not yet established and important questions, as environmental additionality, are still unresolved. Here we first examine the rules in order to validate project additionality and their possible consequences on the effectiveness and the scope of the mechanism. The different reactions of major DCs groups on the structure of the mechanism will then be analysed. This will lead us to examine the possibilities to enlarge participation of DCs in climate change prevention according to the apparent wish of semi-industrialized countries. (author)

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of antiseptic agents for meatal cleaning in the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasugba, O; Koerner, J; Mitchell, B G; Gardner, A

    2017-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections. Antiseptic cleaning of the meatal area before and during catheter use may reduce the risk of CAUTIs. To undertake a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effectiveness of antiseptic cleaning before urinary catheter insertion and during catheter use for prevention of CAUTIs. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and compared across intervention and control groups using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was estimated using the I 2 statistic. In total, 2665 potential papers were identified; of these, 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. There was no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs when comparing antiseptic and non-antiseptic agents (pooled OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.73-1.10; P=0.31), or when comparing different agents: povidone-iodine vs routine care; povidone-iodine vs soap and water; chlorhexidine vs water; povidone-iodine vs saline; povidone-iodine vs water; and green soap and water vs routine care (P>0.05 for all). Comparison of an antibacterial agent with routine care indicated near significance (P=0.06). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =0%; P>0.05). Subgroup analyses showed no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs in terms of country, setting, risk of bias, sex and frequency of administration. There were no differences in CAUTI rates, although methodological issues hamper generalizability of this finding. Antibacterial agents may prove to be significant in a well-conducted study. The present results provide good evidence to inform infection control guidelines in catheter management. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clean Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Diesel Program offers DERA funding in the form of grants and rebates as well as other support for projects that protect human health and improve air quality by reducing harmful emissions from diesel engines.

  11. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  12. Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  13. Clean Air Technology Center Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  14. Feasibility and acceptability of clean birth kits containing misoprostol for self-administration to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in rural Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Walep, Elizabeth; Moses, Michael; Tom, Marynne; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Vallely, Andrew; Nataraye, Eluo; Ninnes, Caroline; Mola, Glen D; Morgan, Chris; Kaldor, John M; Wand, Handan; Whittaker, Andrea; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-06-01

    To determine the feasibility and acceptability of providing clean birth kits (CBKs) containing misoprostol for self-administration in a rural setting in Papua New Guinea. A prospective intervention study was conducted between April 8, 2013, and October 24, 2014. Eligible participants were women in the third trimester of pregnancy who attended a prenatal clinic in Unggai Bena. Participants received individual instruction and were then given a CBK containing 600μg misoprostol tablets for self-administration following an unsupervised birth if they could demonstrate their understanding of correct use of items in the CBK. Data regarding the use and acceptability of the CBK and misoprostol were collected during postpartum follow-up. Among 200 participants, 106 (53.0%) had an unsupervised birth, and 99 (93.4%) of these women used the CBK. All would use the CBK again and would recommend it to others. Among these 99 women, misoprostol was self-administered by 98 (99.0%), all of whom would take the drug again and would recommend it to others. The findings strengthen the case for community-based use of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in remote communities. Large-scale interventions should be planned to further evaluate impact and acceptability. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Success and limitations in the prevention of violence: a case study of nine Brazilian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Gomes

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the success of Brazilian experiences engaged in prevention of violence as well as their limitations, and seeks to show ways for a solution of the problem. The investigation underlying this article consisted in a case study of nine experiences, using triangulation of methods. For this purpose, we used questionnaires and interviewed individuals and groups. Successful results were mainly: informed citizenship, work preparation, involvement of children and adolescents in recreating and educative activities, and increased self-esteem of the children and teens involved in the experiences. The greatest difficulties found were the lack of funds and of articulation of proposals with other groups and institutions. These experiences are not the only successful ones carried out in the country, but they point to a new horizon by innovating and creating a different practical approach to violence.

  16. Limited evidence for calcium supplementation in preeclampsia prevention: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Reuben; Tang, Ing Ching; Henry, Amanda; Welsh, Alec

    2015-05-01

    This article synthesises evidence for calcium supplementation in preeclampsia prevention. Major databases and trial registries were searched, and comparisons were made against other meta-analyses. Calcium supplementation reduced the overall risk of preeclampsia in 10 trials (n = 24 787; risk ratio (RR) 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.81). Its effect was larger in two subgroups: low-baseline calcium intake (RR 0.42 [0.23-0.76]) and increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders (RR 0.36 [0.10-0.98]). This effect was not significant amongst larger studies (RR 0.93 [0.83-1.04]). Funnel plotting suggested possible publication bias. Some evidence for calcium supplementation exists, but its utility is limited by the possibility of publication bias and a lack of large trials.

  17. [Exists an Obligation to be Healthy? Ethical Limits of Medical Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, K

    2016-02-01

    An obligation to be healthy in the sauce of a categorical imperative "You shall change your life!" (P. Sloterdijk) does not exist. There is however a moral responsibility to shape ones own life in such a way that the resulting potentials for development can be realized within one owns possibilities (I. Kant). The example of predictive medicine illustrates, why the right not to know can be a responsible way of self governance when dealing with the knowledge of modern biomedicine. This allows the setting of limits within prevention, which preserve the quality of life of the exposed as well as enabling the individual the "acceptance of self" (R. Guardini). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Attributable risks for childhood overweight: evidence for limited effectiveness of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Kehden, Britta; Landsberg, Beate; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Arnold, Christiane; Graf, Christine; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Müller, Manfred James

    2012-10-01

    Calculation of attributable risks (ARs) of childhood overweight to estimate effectiveness of prevention strategies. We used pooled data of 4 population-based German studies including 34240 children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years to calculate the impact of familial, social, "early life", and lifestyle factors on overweight. ARs (joint for all determinants as well as partial risks) were calculated. The prevalence of childhood overweight was 13.4%. Successfully tackling all determinants can reduce overweight by 77.7% (ie, from 13.4% to 3.0%; = joint AR) with partial effects of treating parental overweight (42.5%); improving social status (14.3%); reducing media time to lifestyle) the effect is 9.2%. Media time has the strongest effect. The determinants identified explained 78% of the prevalence of overweight. Taking into account the partial ARs, the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to prevent overweight in children is limited. Our data argue in favor of interventions aimed at families and social environments, with a major focus on promoting a lower screen time and computer use in children.

  19. 75 FR 82535 - Limitation of Approval of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Provisions Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ..., Kentucky, Development Section, Mississippi, North Air, Pesticides and Carolina, South Toxics Management... greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. These actions include, as they are commonly called, the... engines contribute to the greenhouse gas air pollution that endangers public health and welfare under CAA...

  20. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  1. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  2. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  3. Cholesterol and prevention of atherosclerotic events: limits of a new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luís Eduardo Teixeira de; E, Faerstein

    2017-01-12

    Control of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - a highly prevalent condition and one of the main causes of mortality in Brazil and worldwide - is a recurrent subject of great interest for public health. Recently, three new guidelines on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis prevention have been published. The close release of these important publications is a good opportunity for comparison: the Brazilian model has greater sensitivity, the English model does not work with risk stratification, and the American model may be overestimating the risk. This will allow reflection on current progress and identification of controversial aspects which still require further research and debate. It is also an opportunity to discuss issues related to early diagnosis and its efficiency as a preventive strategy for atherosclerotic disease: the transformation of risk into disease, the gradual reduction of cut-off points, the limitations of the screening strategy, and the problem of overdiagnosis. RESUMO O controle da doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica - morbidade de alta prevalência e uma das principais causas de mortalidade no Brasil e no mundo - continua sendo tema de grande interesse para a Saúde Pública. Recentemente, três novas diretrizes sobre dislipidemia e prevenção da aterosclerose foram divulgadas. A convergência no tempo dessas importantes publicações constitui boa oportunidade para sua comparação: o modelo brasileiro tem maior sensibilidade, o inglês não trabalha com risco estratificado e o norte-americano parece estar superestimando o risco.Isso permitirá reflexões acerca dos avanços que já foram alcançados e identificação de aspectos ainda controversos, que seguem exigindo novas pesquisas e debates. É também uma oportunidade para discutir questões relacionadas ao diagnóstico precoce e sua eficiência como estratégia preventiva da doença aterosclerótica: as transformações do risco em doença, a diminuição progressiva de pontos de

  4. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  5. Success and limitations in the prevention of violence: a case study of nine Brazilian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the success of Brazilian experiences engaged in prevention of violence as well as their limitations, and seeks to show ways for a solution of the problem. The investigation underlying this article consisted in a case study of nine experiences, using triangulation of methods. For this purpose, we used questionnaires and interviewed individuals and groups. Successful results were mainly: informed citizenship, work preparation, involvement of children and adolescents in recreating and educative activities, and increased self-esteem of the children and teens involved in the experiences. The greatest difficulties found were the lack of funds and of articulation of proposals with other groups and institutions. These experiences are not the only successful ones carried out in the country, but they point to a new horizon by innovating and creating a different practical approach to violence.O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar os êxitos e os limites de experiências nacionais na prevenção da violência e indicar possibilidades de enfrentamento do problema. A pesquisa que dá origem ao artigo consistiu num estudo de caso de nove experiências, seguindo princípios da triangulação de métodos. Foram aplicados questionários quantitativos e realizadas entrevistas (individuais e em grupo. Os resultados apontam que os principais êxitos relatados são: informação para a cidadania; preparação para o trabalho; envolvimento de crianças e adolescentes em atividades lúdicas e educativas; e o fortalecimento da auto-estima dos jovens e crianças participantes. As maiores dificuldades das experiências são a manutenção financeira e a articulação de suas propostas com as de outros grupos e instituições. O estudo leva a concluir que essas experiências, ainda que não sejam as únicas bem-sucedidas no país, apontam para um horizonte novo pela forma como atuam, inovando e criando uma práxis diferenciada na abordagem

  6. Robust prevention of limit cycle for nonlinear control systems with parametric uncertainties both in the linear plant and nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Jay

    2007-10-01

    A new method is proposed to compute all feasible robust stabilizing controllers for preventing the generation of limit cycle of nonlinear control systems with parametric uncertainties both in the linear plant and nonlinearity. The describing function analysis method is employed to approximate the behaviors of the nonlinearity. The Kharitonov theorem is utilized to characterize parametric uncertainties in the linear plant and nonlinearity. Necessary conditions for limit cycles are established. Boundaries for the generation of limit cycle and boundaries for asymptotic stability are portrayed exploiting the stability equation method. The region for prescribed limit cycle behavior and the region for asymptotic stability are located. An admissible specification-oriented Kharitonov region is found directly on the controller parameter plane. The region is non-conservative and constitutes all of the feasible controller gain sets to achieve robust prevention of limit cycle for the considered uncertain nonlinear control systems. The way to tune the controller gains is suggested. Finally, for comparison purpose, two illustrative examples proposed in the literature are given to show how the proposed algorithm can be effectively applied to tune a robust controller to achieve a prescribed limit cycle behavior and accomplish robust limit cycle amplitude suppression and prevention.

  7. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  8. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  9. Genocide Prevention and Western National Security: The Limitations of Making R2P All About Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen S. Hiebert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The case for turning R2P and genocide prevention from principle to practice usually rests on the invocation of moral norms and duties to others. Calls have been made by some analysts to abandon this strategy and “sell” genocide prevention to government by framing it as a matter of our own national interest including our security. Governments’ failure to prevent atrocities abroad, it is argued, imperils western societies at home. If we look at how the genocide prevention-as-national security argument has been made we can see, however, that this position is not entirely convincing. I review two policy reports that make the case for genocide prevention based in part on national security considerations: Preventing Genocide: A Blue Print for U.S. Policymakers (Albright-Cohen Report; and the Will to Intervene Project. I show that both reports are problematic for two reasons: the “widened” traditional security argument advocated by the authors is not fully substantiated by the evidence provided in the reports; and alternate conceptions of security that would seem to support the linking of genocide prevention to western security—securitization and risk and uncertain—do not provide a solid logical foundation for operationalizing R2P. I conclude by considering whether we might appeal instead to another form of self interest, “reputational stakes”, tied to western states’ construction of their own identity as responsible members of the international community.

  10. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Merchant vessels are equipped with antifouling systems to prevent accumulation of marine organisms on the hull—a phenomenon known as fouling. In many cases, however, fouling accumulates and in-water hull cleaning is required. Hull cleanings are part of a hull management scheme, and although...... with the frequency of hull cleanings within the hull management scheme. Our analysis revealed a convex relationship between the frequency of hull cleanings and fuel savings. The higher the frequency of hull cleanings, the less fuel savings can be achieved per cleaning. In terms of costs, from some point on the costs...... of the service are likely to offset the savings—especially if fuel prices are low. In regards to climate change, avoided emissions due to fuel savings are likely to outweigh the limited impacts from the service itself. Last, while ecosystem impacts from marine, terrestrial, and freshwater eco-toxicity are likely...

  11. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  12. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  13. Age related intrinsic limitations in preventing a trip and regaining balance after a trip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine directions for prevention of falls among the elderly by establishing causal factors for falls resulting from a trip. The literature on risk factors for falls is briefly reviewed, but the main emphasis is on experimental studies to complement

  14. [Obesity prevention--is there any limits for primary care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovanu, Rodica; Coman, Adorata Elena; Petrovanu, Cynthia; Murariu, G C; Popa, Elena; Grigore, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    What does obesity mean? One of the people's health markers is the nutritional steady-state, the mean ponderal equilibrium. The normal weight means the longest life expectancy assuring body weight, from all points of view. The body weight increasing means adipose tissue accumulation and the onset of obesity. Obesity quantification could be made by BMI (body mass index)--normal range 22-24 kg/m2- waist to hip ratio--normal range 0.8-0.9--and abdominal perimeter--normal range up to 80 cm. Why should we do obesity prevention? Because obesity means a high risk factor for cardio-vascular disease, cancer, bone diseases, general mortality. By 10 kg weight loss, real benefits are achieved: left ventricle hypertrophy reduction, decreasing of cardio-vascular risk, pulmonary function improve, reducing of atherosclerotic symptoms by 91%, of arterial pressure by 10-20 mmHg, of diabetes mortality by 30%, cancer by 40% and general mortality by 20%. In our country, 53% of population is overweight and obese, predominantly urban population. Obesity costs are high: about 4-8% of health budget are spent for screening, diagnosis and obesity management, including economical losses. When should we do obesity prevention? Primary care physicians must control all health indexes. If the patient passes over normal ranges of body weight, we should take account and intervene efficiently, by specific and non-specific therapeutic methods. How could we do obesity prevention? General care physicians and specialists could prevent efficiently this disease by taking apart obesity causes and risk factors: genetics, life-style, drug intake, smoking, professional and endocrine factors. Primary and secondary care physicians have to screen high risk persons, to analyze professional, familial and social conditions, to appreciate educational and economical status. All these realize an integral obesity management, together with the psychologist and the sociologist. Secondary prevention means obesity treatment

  15. Analysis of the variability of the pharmacokinetics of multiple drugs in young adult and elderly subjects and its implications for acceptable daily exposures and cleaning validation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Anthony J; Faria, Ellen C

    2017-06-01

    The elderly constitute a significant, potentially sensitive, subpopulation within the general population, which must be taken into account when performing risk assessments including determining an acceptable daily exposure (ADE) for the purpose of a cleaning validation. Known differences in the pharmacokinetics of drugs between young adults (who are typically the subjects recruited into clinical trials) and the elderly are potential contributors affecting the interindividual uncertainty factor (UF H ) component of the ADE calculation. The UF H values were calculated for 206 drugs for young adult and elderly groups separately and combined (with the elderly assumed to be a sensitive subpopulation) from published studies where the pharmacokinetics of the young adult and elderly groups were directly compared. Based on the analysis presented here, it is recommended to use a default UF H value of 10 for worker populations (which are assumed to be approximately equivalent to the young adult groups) where no supporting pharmacokinetic data exist, while it is recommended to use a default UF H value of 15 for the general population, to take the elderly into consideration when calculating ADE values. The underlying reasons for the large differences between the exposures in the young adult and elderly subjects for the 10 compounds which show the greatest separation are different in almost every case, involving the OCT2 transporter, glucuronidation, hydrolysis, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 or CYP3A5. Therefore, there is no consistent underlying mechanism which appears responsible for the largest differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between young adult and elderly subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Kori unit one and unit two experience with SG chemical cleaning and prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwang-Kyu; Moon, Jeon-Soo; Yoon, Seok-Won

    2004-01-01

    The transport and deposition of corrosion products in PWR stream generators remains a continuing problem. The sludge deposited in the secondary side and scale on the tubes of steam generator cause corrosion degradations of tubes and hinder heat transfer. Therefore, corrosion deposit accumulations should be removed properly for mitigating propagation of existing corrosion attacks and as a preventive measure. There are several mechanical cleaning methods such as water lancing, pressure pulse cleaning and upper bundle lancing. However, the restricted geometry of steam generator tube bundles tends to limit the effectiveness of mechanical cleaning attempts. The use of chemical cleaning methods has been recognized as an effective means to remove corrosion deposit accumulations from steam generators. The steam generators of Kori unit two was the first one chemically cleaned by domestic organizations, while the steam generators of Kori unit one was chemically cleaned by foreign company, ABB/PNS. In this paper, the results of chemical cleaning at Kori unit two will be reviewed and compared to those of unit one. And then, strategies on steam generators chemical cleaning in Korea will be described. (author)

  17. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  18. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  19. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  20. About the Clean Air Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  1. Will nutrient and light limitation prevent eutrophication in an anthropogenically-impacted coastal lagoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rita B.; Guerra, Cátia C.; Barbosa, Ana B.; Galvão, Helena M.

    2017-06-01

    The Ria Formosa coastal lagoon (southern Portugal) is a highly productive and valuable temperate ecosystem, subjected to strong anthropogenic impacts and highly vulnerable to climate change. The main goal of this work is to understand ecosystem susceptibility to eutrophication, by evaluating the isolated and combined effects of nutrient (N, P and Si) and light enrichments on phytoplankton growth and community composition during autumn, winter and spring. Microcosms of natural phytoplankton collected in the lagoon were subjected to different nutrient and light treatments and incubated in situ for 48 h. Nutrient consumption, and phytoplankton growth and community structure were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods, and inverted and epifluorescence microscopy. Diatoms were the only group potentially limited by nitrogen, and only during spring. Increased nutrient consumptions were observed for all nutrient additions in all seasons, not associated with phytoplankton growth, suggesting that luxury consumption was used to build up intracellular nutrient pools. Responses to light enrichment were inconsistent among phytoplankton groups, probably due to a high taxonomic seasonal variability. Positive responses to light enrichment were mostly observed during winter. Negative synergistic interactions between nutrients and light were also observed. We conclude that eutrophication is currently not a problem in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, but future nutrient enrichments may lead to accelerated growth of specific functional groups and species, if light is not limiting.

  2. The preparation of tourists to the ski sports tours in a limited time in order to prevent injuries and accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Toporkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare indicators of testing tourist skiers at different stages of the preparatory period to ski sports hike of third grade. Determine the effectiveness of training programs created to the tourists Categorical ski sports to prevent injuries and accidents in a limited time. Material: The study involved 13 people aged from 21 to 65 (4 women and 9 men with different experiences of hiking trails and various levels of total tourist preparedness. Results: The test results obtained before beginning the process of preparation are treated upon its completion, and immediately after passing categorical hike. In practice, the effectiveness of the proposed training programs of tourists to ski sports tours is proved. Conclusions : The created program can be recommended to tourist clubs, associations and organizations as the base in preparation for ski sports campaigns for the prevention of accidents and injuries.

  3. [The concept of social marketing--potential and limitations for health promotion and prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Lang, K; Ultsch, S; Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E

    2006-07-01

    "Social marketing" is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programmes to promote socially beneficial behaviour changes. In the field of health promotion and prevention, the systematic planning process of social marketing can offer new ideas and perspectives to the traditions of social science. Major characteristics of social marketing encompass continuous market research focussing on attitudes, motives and behavioural patterns of the target group, an integrated mix of strategic key elements, and the perpetual evaluation of all procedures. So far, however, it is unclear in how far social marketing is actually more effective than other concepts of programme planning. Furthermore, it has to be discussed whether the underlying philosophy of social marketing and its implicit understanding of relationships to the public are reconcilable with health promotion principles. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the social marketing concept has achieved widespread application and is subject to controversial scientific discussions, whereas this approach is hardly considered in German health promotion research and practice. Given the increasing call for quality management and evaluation of health promotion interventions, the social marketing concept may contribute useful insights at an operational level and thus add to a discussion on effective approaches for programme planning.

  4. Physician-patient communication in the prevention of female reproductive tract infections: some limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Y. Makuch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the information that women with tubal infertility recalled having received from physicians when they consulted for a reproductive tract infection (RTI and the information physicians reported having provided to women consulting for RTIs. Interviews were conducted with 16 women presenting primary tubal infertility selected on the basis of purposeful sampling criteria. Also, 15 physicians working in the public health network in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were selected at random and interviewed. Analysis of the women's statements concerning previous RTI-related medical consultations showed that they did not recall having received any information on either prevention or the impact of RTI on their reproductive future. Analysis of interviews with physicians showed that the information they provided to women consulting for RTIs was incomplete and unclear. The information women recalled having received and that which physicians remembered having provided at the time of treating a patient with RTI was similar. In conclusion, these women lacked adequate or complete information and that it was probably not possible for them to adopt measures to avoid repetition of RTI and minimize risk of tubal infertility.

  5. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  6. Limited effectiveness of HIV prevention for young people in sub-Saharan Africa: studying the role of intervention and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K.

    2013-01-01

    On average, 2,500 young people (15-24 years) get infected with HIV every day; 80% of which live in sub-Saharan Africa. Since no cure or vaccine is available, reducing sexual risk behaviour in this group is crucial in tackling the epidemic. The general objective of this doctoral study was to improve the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa. First, we assessed the overall effectiveness of such interventions (systematic literature review, meta-analysis). Secondly, we evaluated a school-based peer-led HIV prevention interventions in Rwanda (longitudinal, non-randomized controlled trial), to get insight into how interventions are developed, implemented and evaluated. While the first two objectives demonstrated limited effectiveness, the third objective aimed to identify reasons for this limited effectiveness: a) baseline characteristics of respondents that predict participation were identified (using data from objective 2); b) we studied determinants of young people’s sexual behavior using a qualitative ‘mailbox study’ that assessed the spontaneous thoughts of Rwandan adolescents on sexuality; c) we assessed the role of one specific structural factor: education (literature review and analysis of existing datasets); d) we assessed the theoretical underpinnings of existing HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa (literature review). Based on these studies, we discuss two main reasons for the observed limited effectiveness: factors associated with the intervention (strong focus on cognitions and moral, and implementation issues), and with evaluation (design, power, indicators). Recommendations for improving interventions, evaluations and for further research are provided. PMID:24753945

  7. Institutional context and VCT practitioner narratives: possibilities and limitations for HIV prevention in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Claudia; Monteiro, Simone; Moreira, Carlos Otávio Fiúza

    2017-12-04

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is an HIV prevention strategy that promotes the principles of confidentiality and informed consent. International research has highlighted VCT counselors' isolation from service planning and the contradictions they negotiate between local values and global testing recommendations. In Brazil, studies have identified many limitations, including counselors' difficulties to implement a vulnerability approach to HIV prevention as recommended in the country's national guidelines. These studies, however, have not considered the particularities of the institutional contexts where counselors work. This research addresses these gaps in the VCT literature by exploring how VCT services are organized and how counselors perceive and perform their practices in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a case study of VCT services in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The research design included individual structured interviews with seven VCT service coordinators and twenty individual semi-structured interviews with VCT counselors. Participants were sampled according to gender, undergraduate degree and work trajectory to capture a diverse range counselor narratives. The VCT services were relatively homogenous in terms of functioning and had a similar restricted roll of activities including individual counseling and occasional external prevention activities with groups vulnerable to HIV. All VCT services reported reductions in staff size. Some counselors used dialogical practices to build trust, guarantee confidentiality and adjust their practices in accordance with their clients' values and practices. Others emphasized imperative messages or focused on risk and individual responsibility. Connections between how counselors perceive their practices and the organization of their work environment were observed. Due to the importance of counseling as a prevention strategy we recommend rethinking the relationship between counselors' practices and the

  8. Functional levels of floor surface roughness for the prevention of slips and falls: clean-and-dry and soapsuds-covered wet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ju; Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Literature has shown a general trend that slip resistance performance improves with floor surface roughness. However, whether slip resistance properties are linearly correlated with surface topographies of the floors or what roughness levels are required for effective slip resistance performance still remain to be answered. This pilot study aimed to investigate slip resistance properties and identify functional levels of floor surface roughness for practical design applications in reducing the risk of slip and fall incidents. A theory model was proposed to characterize functional levels of surface roughness of floor surfaces by introducing a new concept of three distinctive zones. A series of dynamic friction tests were conducted using 3 shoes and 9 floor specimens under clean-and-dry as well as soapsuds-covered slippery wet environments. The results showed that all the tested floor-shoe combinations provided sufficient slip resistances performance under the clean-and-dry condition. A significant effect of floor type (surface roughness) on dynamic friction coefficient (DFC) was found in the soapsuds-covered wet condition. As compared to the surface roughness effects, the shoe-type effects were relatively small. Under the soapsuds-covered wet condition, floors with 50 μm in Ra roughness scale seemed to represent an upper bound in the functional range of floor surface roughness for slip resistance because further increase of surface roughness provided no additional benefit. A lower bound of the functional range for slip resistance under the soapsuds-covered wet condition was estimated from the requirement of DFC > 0.4 at Ra ≅ 17 μm. Findings from this study may have potential safety implications in the floor surface design for reducing slip and fall hazards. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Suicide prevention and method restriction: evaluating the impact of limiting access to lethal means among young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    Given the finite resources allocated to suicide prevention, it is necessary to direct resources into interventions that are most likely to have an impact. This article tests for possible impacts on youth suicides of a cost-intensive Australian policy change (increased firearms restriction) that limited access to a means of suicide. Suicide rates by different age groups and methods were examined for structural breaks, using Zivot-Andrews and Quandt tests. No breakpoint was found in firearm suicide among Australian youth around the time of the 1996 legislative changes. Method restriction in the form of firearms legislation could not be tied to a corresponding impact on youth suicide.

  10. Strategy for Coordinated EPA/Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Implementation of the Chemical Accident Prevention Requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) share responsibility for prevention: OSHA has the Process Safety Management Standard to protect workers, and EPA the Risk Management Program to protect the general public and environment.

  11. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  12. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C

    2005-01-01

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  13. Does limited data availability prevent adequate water use estimates on farm scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatz, Benjamin; Kuster, Benjamin; Percy, Barbara; Hillier, Jonathan; Freese, Dirk; Wattenbach, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Increasing food production for a growing world population and at the same time mitigating climate change as well as adapting to its consequences is one of the key global challenges. Therefore producing crops with fewer resources such as water and fertilizers and less emissions of greenhouse gases is an important question that has to be answered on farm scale. The cool farm tool (CFT) is a farm scale emission calculator and was developed in 2010 to help farmers to reduce their carbon footprint. In order to adapt to future climate change an easy to use and at the same time robust water footprinting tool is needed for the CFT to take a more holistic approach on environmental sustainability. However data on farm level is often scarce. We investigated the effect of limited data on actual evapotranspiration using the FAO56 standard to assess the quality of farm water footprint estimates. Calculations are based on various agricultural sites from the Fluxnet database and estimates are compared to eddy covariance measurements. Results show that higher data availability is not directly linked to more accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration. Estimates based only on temperature and relative humidity are still able to reproduce daily patterns. However cumulative values over one growing season show a considerable offset to eddy covariance observations for all data input levels. Finding the optimum between data requirements and an accuracy that fulfills farmer needs is crucial. Engagement of farmers and using a global network as the Fluxnet database will help to achieve this goal.

  14. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  15. Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Kayleigh J; Pahl, Sabine; Holland, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C

    2017-06-01

    Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals' behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students ( n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions.

  16. Applicability of chemical cleaning process to steam generator secondary side, (1). Outline of the investigation and cleaning effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Kawamura, Hirotaka; Kanbe, Hiromi; Hirano, Hideo; Takiguchi, Hideki; Yoshino, Kouji; Yamamoto, Shuuichi; Shibata, Toshio; Ishigure, Kenkichi

    2004-01-01

    The application of the chemical cleaning process to dissolve and remove scales and sludge by chemicals is being planned at the Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in order to maintain a high heat transfer condition and to prevent the steam generator tube degradation. In this paper, fundamental characteristics and cleaning effectiveness of the EPRI process and the KWU process, which are typical cleaning processes, were investigated. Both processes showed a satisfactory cleaning effectiveness for sludges and scales, and the cleaning effectiveness of the standard KWU process was improved by tailoring it to crevice cleaning conditions. (author)

  17. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  18. Exploring the microbiota of the red-brown defect in smear-ripened cheese by 454-pyrosequencing and its prevention using different cleaning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Carafa, Ilaria; Tuohy, Kieran; Cervantes, Gonzalo; Vernetti, Luca; Barmaz, Andrea; Larcher, Roberto; Franciosi, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Red-brown pigmentation can occasionally form in smeared-ripened cheese such as Fontina during the ripening process. This reaction is due to over-development of the typical microbiota present on the rind. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between red-brown pigmentation and the traditional utilization of wooden shelves during cheese ripening. The first part of the paper focuses on the characterisation of yeast and bacterial microbiota: plate counts and 454-pyrosequencing were performed in spoiled (n = 6) and non-spoiled cheeses (n = 6) and on the wooden shelves used during ripening. The second part shows different systems tested for cleaning the wooden shelves and avoiding the development of the red-brown defect in cheese: washing with hot water and ozone treatment. Actinobacteria, dominated on the wooden shelves, suggesting to be responsible for the red-brown pigmentation; they were also found in traces in the defected cheese samples. Galactomyces and Debaryomyces were the main species characterizing the yeast population, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant species on the shelves used during ripening of the red-brown defective cheese. Hot water treatment reduced the microbial contamination of shelves, whereas only the ozone treatment ensured complete elimination of both yeast and bacteria, resulting in the cheese rind not having the red-brown defect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  20. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  3. Systemic constraints continue to limit coverage of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in southeast Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kirstie J; Ba-Break, Maryam M

    2013-06-01

    Factors limiting coverage of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Tanzania were explored from the perspective of health workers, in order to make recommendations to improve service delivery. Recent data estimates coverage of the recommended two doses of IPTp at 26.3%, far short of the national target of 80%. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 health workers and 2 health managers during June 2011 in Ikwiriri, southeast Tanzania. Delivery of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was severely constrained by drug shortages and widespread stock-outs, indicative of ongoing difficulties in the wider health system. While SP was well known and attitudes towards IPTp were positive, health workers were often not informed of up-to-date dosing schedules, limiting coverage. Recent literature suggests this could be due to inconsistent and conflicting national guidelines. In addition, it was found that two pills, instead of the recommended three pills, per dose of IPTp were frequently given to pregnant women, a finding previously unreported. To maximize IPTp coverage, sufficient and consistent supplies of SP to both public and private health facilities are a necessity, combined with effective communication of revised dosing schedules. Further research is warranted to investigate the aberrant administration of two pills per dose, as it may exacerbate drug resistance.

  4. A Study on an Executive Technique and Activation of Clean Production in Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Seong Yong; Lee, Hee Seok; Kim, Kang Seok [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Clean production does not only make the sustainable development possible through preventing the deterioration of the environmental pollution from the expansion of industrialization but also enhance the company's competitiveness. Clean production is required by all industrial fields but is the most important in chemical industry. The Government has made efforts to change the domestic industrial structure to the environmental-friendly structure through developing the research. However, the domestic industry has not yet activated overall except some large companies, which has concretized the activation of clean production. Especially, the medium and small companies are more sluggish due to the inferiority of capital and technology. With recognizing that the main body of clean production is a company, the effort based on the Government and the academic world, without companies' positive, will cannot help being limited in effects. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger the schemes that urge the companies' motivation to show the effects from the support that have concentrated in hardware like technology until now. It seems to be very important that the guidebook for clean production, which a company can easily adopt, is developed and spread. This report provides the guidebook for clean production that managers and engineers can easily understand and approach in a producing field and presents the scheme to promote clean production, for chemical industry that is seriously required clean production. Even if the presented contents are not perfect, they can be applied to the development of the Government's policy and the administrative activities of companies for clean production as a useful data. 53 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  8. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Patient-physician language concordance and use of preventive care services among limited English proficient Latinos and Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jih, Jane; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fernandez, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Patient-physician language concordance among limited English proficient (LEP) patients is associated with better outcomes for specific clinical conditions. Whether or not language concordance contributes to use of specific preventive care services is unclear. We pooled data from the 2007 and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys to examine mammography, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, and influenza vaccination use among self-identified LEP Latino and Asian (i.e., Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese) immigrants. We defined language concordance by respondents reporting that their physician spoke their non-English language. Analyses were completed in 2013-2014. Language concordance did not appear to facilitate mammography use among Latinas (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72, 1.45). Among Asian women, we could not definitively exclude a negative association of language concordance with mammography (AOR=0.55, 95% CI 0.27, 1.09). Patient-physician language concordance was associated with lower odds of CRC screening among Asians but not Latinos (Asian AOR=0.50, 95% CI 0.29, 0.86; Latino AOR=0.85, 95% CI 0.56, 1.28). Influenza vaccination did not differ by physician language use among either Latinos or Asians. Patient-physician language concordance was not associated with higher use of mammography, CRC screening, or influenza vaccination. Language concordance was negatively associated with CRC screening among Asians for reasons that require further research. Future research should isolate the impact of language concordance on the use of preventive care services from health system factors.

  10. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  11. Fuel assembly cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable efficient and sufficient cleaning of a fuel assembly even in corners without disassembling the assembly and to effectively remove crud. Constitution: Cleaning water mixed with abrasive is injected into a fuel assembly contained within a cleaning device body to remove crud adhering to the fuel assembly. Since a coolant passage from the opening of the bottom surface is of the fuel assembly to the opening of the top surface is utilized as the cleaning water passage at this, the crud can be removed by the abrasive in the water stream even from narrow gaps of the fuel assembly. (Aizawa, K.)

  12. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    water molecules and form cluster ions which are attracted to airborne particles. The cluster ion surrounds the airborne particle, and the positive and negative ions react to form hydroxyls. These hydroxyls steal the airborne particle’s hydrogen atom, which creates a hole in the particle’s outer protein membrane, thereby rendering it inactive. Because influenza is primarily acquired by large droplets and direct and indirect contact with an infectious person, any in-room air cleaner will have little benefit in controlling and preventing its spread. Therefore, there is no role for the Plasmacluster ion air purifier or any other in-room air cleaner in the control of the spread of influenza. Accordingly, for purposes of this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat presents no further analysis of the Plasmacluster. Review Strategy The objective of the systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of in-room air cleaners with built in UVGI lights and HEPA filtration compared with those using HEPA filtration only. The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, INAHATA (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment), Biosis Previews, Bacteriology Abstracts, Web of Science, Dissertation Abstracts, and NIOSHTIC 2. A meta-analysis was conducted if adequate data was available from 2 or more studies and where statistical and clinical heterogeneity among studies was not an issue. Otherwise, a qualitative review was completed. The GRADE system was used to summarize the quality of the body of evidence comprised of 1 or more studies. Summary of Findings There were no existing health technology assessments on air cleaning technology located during the literature review. The literature search yielded 59 citations of which none were retained. One study was retrieved from a reference list of a guidance document from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which

  13. How clean is clean?---How clean is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of cleaning qualifications used in a variety of industries: from small-scale manufacturer's of precision-machined products to large-scale manufacturer's of electronics (printed wiring boards and surface mount technology) and microelectronics. Cleanliness testing techniques used in the production of precision-machined products, will be described. The on-going DOD program to obtain high-reliability electronics, through the use of military specifications for cleaning and cleanliness levels, will be reviewed. In addition, the continually changing cleanroom/materials standards of the microelectronics industry will be discussed. Finally, we will speculate on the role that new and improved analytical techniques and sensor technologies will play in the factories of the future. 4 refs., 1 tab

  14. Preventing slips and falls through leisure-time physical activity: findings from a study of limited-service restaurants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Caban-Martinez

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been shown to be beneficial at improving health in some medical conditions and in preventing injury. Epidemiologic studies suggest that physical activity is one factor associated with a decreased risk for slips and falls in the older (≥ 65 years adult population. While the risk of slips and falls is generally lower in younger than in older adults; little is known of the relative contribution of physical activity in preventing slips and falls in younger adults. We examined whether engagement in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA was protective of slips and falls among a younger/middle-aged (≤ 50 years old working population.475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in six states in the U.S. were recruited to participate in a prospective cohort study of workplace slipping. Information on LTPA was collected at the time of enrollment. Participants reported their slip experience and work hours weekly for up to 12 weeks. We investigated the association between the rate of slipping and the rate of major slipping (i.e., slips that resulted in a fall and/or injury and LTPA for workers 50 years of age and younger (n = 433, range 18-50 years old using a multivariable negative binomial generalized estimating equation model.The rate of major slips among workers who engaged in moderate (Adjusted Rate Ratio (RR  = 0.65; 95% Confidence Interval (CI  =  [0.18-2.44] and vigorous (RR = 0.64; 95%CI  =  [0.18-2.26] LTPA, while non-significant, were approximately one-third lower than the rate of major slips among less active workers.While not statistically significant, the results suggest a potential association between engagement in moderate and vigorous LTPA and the rate of major slips in younger adults. Additional studies that examine the role of occupational and non-occupational physical activity on the risk of slips, trips and falls among younger and middle aged adults appear warranted.

  15. Update on asthma and cleaning agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folletti, Ilenia; Siracusa, Andrea; Paolocci, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Asthma due to cleaning products has been known for 20 years, and the interest in this topic is still large because of the number of cleaning workers with respiratory problems. In this review, we sought to highlight the most recent findings on the relationship between exposure to cleaning products and asthma and to summarize the specific literature published between 2013 and 2016. Women are confirmed as most of workers exposed to cleaning products and have a higher frequency than men of work-related respiratory symptoms and diseases. Many cases of asthma due to cleaning products occur in healthcare occupations. The increased risk of asthma has been shown to be related to the number of years in the job and to early life disadvantage. Recent evidence suggests that predisposition to adult-onset asthma may be related to interaction between genes and occupational exposure to low-molecular weight agents/irritants. There is some evidence that an irritant mechanism is more common, although several case reports showed animmunologic mechanism (e.g. disinfectants, amine compounds, aldehydes and fragrances). The review updated recent findings on epidemiology, cleaning agents and their mechanism, and prevention of asthma due to cleaning agents. This article provides new information on the level of exposure, which is still high in professional cleaners and even more in domestic cleaners, and on the frequency of asthma in professional and domestic cleaners. An irritant mechanism is more common, although an immunological mechanism is possible, especially in healthcare workers exposed to disinfectants.

  16. Clean Air Act Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  17. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  18. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  19. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  20. Animation-based education as a gambling prevention tool: correcting erroneous cognitions and reducing the frequency of exceeding limits among slots players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; Christie, Kelly-Lyn; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-09-01

    In light of the financial harm that often accompanies problem gambling, and the difficulty in resolving it, there is a pressing need for prevention resources. In the present study, we examined the preventive effects of an animation-based video that educated participants on how slot machines function, the prudence of setting financial limits, and strategies to avoid problems. Non-problem gamblers (N = 242) at a slots venue were randomly assigned to watch either an animation or a control video. Compared to participants who watched the control video, those who watched the animation endorsed strategies to gamble within financial limits, reported greater behavioral intentions to use the strategies, and exceeded their pre-set limits less frequently during their subsequent gambling session. Some effects waned over a 30-day period suggesting booster sessions may be required for long term sustainability. The effectiveness of animation-based education as a prevention tool and the need for adjunctive measures is discussed.

  1. Limited end-user knowledge of methotrexate despite patient education: an assessment of rheumatologic preventive practice and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Evin; Hassan, Wajid; Gooden, Ann; Jepson, Bridget; Kausor, Tamsheela; Shafait, Ifraz; Haque, Sahena; Brockbank, John E; Ley, Robert W; Teh, Lee-Suan

    2012-04-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a first-line disease-modifying agent and anchor drug for biologic therapy used in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory rheumatic disorders. Adverse effects are a common cause of drug discontinuation and include preventable serious incidents that may result in patient harm or death. The objective of this study was to audit adherence by health professionals to national and international guidelines for patient education and risk reduction in patients prescribed MTX for inflammatory rheumatic diseases. A combination of interviews, case record reviews, and self-administered patient knowledge questionnaires with individual patient feedback was used. The setting was the rheumatology outpatient department of a district general hospital. Fifty-one patients participated in the audit. The mean age was 58.6 (SD, 13.1) years and median duration of disease was 3.7 years (interquartile range, 1.7-7.6 years). Nurse-led patient education was documented at baseline for 94.1% of participants. Despite this, only 11.8% of participants recognized the potentially lethal drug-drug interaction with trimethoprim/Septrin (co-trimoxazole), and less than 60.8% recognized possible major adverse effects related to MTX. Although lifestyle implications relating to alcohol consumption and pregnancy/breast-feeding were recognized by the majority, only 52.9% of males were aware of recommendations in relation to conception. Univariable and multivariable analyses identified male sex, not speaking English as a first language, and a longer duration of therapy as predictors of lower levels of patient knowledge. Despite consistent baseline patient education, end-user knowledge and awareness pertinent to MTX safety are limited. Good-quality written information in the most appropriate language, patient feedback on educational programs, follow-up testing of patient knowledge, and targeted reeducation are recommended to address individual deficiencies in core knowledge.

  2. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Robert; Sparks, Michael; Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Before-after trial. Newly built community hospital. 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  3. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  4. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  5. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  6. Build clean-operate clean-plant wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocki, P.; Schneider, B.; Roberts, J.

    2012-01-01

    reverse walk-down’ ii. Step two is calculation of SG CPT ingress for a year of steady operation for a typical well-operated plant iii. Having discussed ingress, there can then be discussion of the distribution within the steam generator of such ingress – including the small but very troublesome amount which may deposit and cause blockage at the tube supports iv. Having discussed ingress during steady operation, we can then reflect upon what ingress might be during startup and other transient operating conditions Having discussed ‘Operate Clean’ we can then reflect upon ‘Build-Clean Plant-Wide’. Having developed a focus on ‘operate-clean’ and on the realization that ‘everything ends up in the steam generators’, the concept of ‘build-clean plant-wide’, while not the least bit easy to achieve, is a simple concept to understand. Build-clean means doing all welding, grinding, mill-scale cleanup, flow-passage cleanup, foreign materials exclusion (FME) and system close-up in such a way that upon startup, equipment such as steam generators which are built-clean, will be able to quickly achieve their CPT ingress objective – all without suffering an excessive crud-burst or ingress of any foreign object or anything else that may be life-limiting. (author)

  7. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  8. Limit of detection and threshold for positivity of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assay for factor VIII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C H; Boylan, B; Shapiro, A D; Lentz, S R; Wicklund, B M

    2017-10-01

    Essentials Immunologic methods detect factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in some inhibitor-negative specimens. Specimens were tested by modified Nijmegen-Bethesda assay (NBA) and fluorescence immunoassay. The NBA with preanalytical heat inactivation detects FVIII inhibitors down to 0.2 NBU. IgG 4 frequency validates the established threshold for positivity of ≥ 0.5 NBU for this NBA. Background The Bethesda assay for measurement of factor VIII inhibitors called for quantification of positive inhibitors by using dilutions producing 25-75% residual activity (RA), corresponding to 0.4-2.0 Bethesda units, with the use of 'more sensitive methods' for samples with RA closer to 100% being recommended. The Nijmegen modification (Nijmegen-Bethesda assay [NBA]) changed the reagents used but not these calculations. Some specimens negative by the NBA have been shown to have FVIII antibodies detectable with sensitive immunologic methods. Objective To examine the performance at very low inhibitor titers of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-modified NBA (CDC-NBA), which includes preanalytic heat inactivation to liberate bound anti-FVIII antibodies. Methods Specimens with known inhibitors were tested with the CDC-NBA. IgG 4 anti-FVIII antibodies were measured by fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results Diluted inhibitors showed linearity below 0.4 Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU). With four statistical methods, the limit of detection of the CDC-NBA was determined to be 0.2 NBU. IgG 4 anti-FVIII antibodies, which correlate most strongly with functional inhibitors, were present at rates above the background rate of healthy controls in specimens with titers ≥ 0.2 NBU and showed an increase in frequency from 14.3% at 0.4 NBU to 67% at the established threshold for positivity of 0.5 NBU. Conclusions The CDC-NBA can detect inhibitors down to 0.2 NBU. The FLI, which is more sensitive, demonstrates anti-FVIII IgG 4 in some patients with negative (NBA, supporting the need for

  9. Detergents - Zeolites and Enzymes Excel Cleaning Power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and reverse osmosis membranes used for concentration, clarifi- cation and sterilization of liquid foods like skim milk, whey, egg white, fruit juices and beverages; and. (iii) for cleaning delicate Chinaware as they prevent the erosion of design and colours. Future Perspectives. In our opinion, enzymes in detergent formulations ...

  10. Characteristics of wet work in the cleaning industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, F H W; Van Der Harst, J J; Schuttelaar, M L; Groothoff, J W; Coenraads, P J

    Wet work is the main cause of occupational contact dermatitis in the cleaning industry. Dermatologists and occupational physicians need to base their primary and secondary prevention for workers in the cleaning industry on the characteristics of wet work exposures. We quantified the burden of wet

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean ... been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May 5, ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 69,414 views 3:10 Hand Washing ...

  13. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... 652 views 7:11 Hand Hygiene for Health Care Workers - Germ Smart - Duration: 5:45. Saskatchewan Health ...

  15. Clean Diesel National Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  16. Clean Diesel Tribal Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DERA Tribal Program awards clean diesel grants specifically for tribal nations. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication Numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  17. Clean Air Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Air Markets implements regulatory programs such as the Acid Rain Program and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule to reduce air pollution from the power sector that contributes to human health and environmental issues.

  18. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  19. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  20. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015; we plan to develop a new solvent or solvent...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  2. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  4. First Experience with Dry-Ice Cleaning on SRF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Reschke, D

    2004-01-01

    The surface of superconducting (s.c.) accelerator cavities must be cleaned from any kind of contaminations, like particles or chemical residues. Contaminations might act as centers for field emission, thus limiting the maximum gradient. Today's final cleaning is based on high pressure rinsing with ultra pure water. Application of dry-ice cleaning might result in additional cleaning potential. Dry-ice cleaning using the sublimation-impulse method removes particulate and film contaminations without residues. As a first qualifying step intentionally contaminated niobium samples were treated by dry ice cleaning. It resulted in a drastic reduction of DC field emission up to fields of 100 MV/m as well as in the reduction of particle numbers. The dry ice jet caused no observable surface damage. First cleaning tests on single-cell cavities showed Q-values at low fields up to 4x1010

  5. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE): implications for public health and drug policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons) and psychiatric (26 French prisons) units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST), HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence) to 10 (maximum adherence) and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66%)) of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners) of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5]) but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions. PMID:21619573

  6. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE: implications for public health and drug policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Jerôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons and psychiatric (26 French prisons units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST, HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence to 10 (maximum adherence and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66% of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5] but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions.

  7. Neutrality: A Tool or a Limit for Preventing Mass Atrocitiy Crimes and Genocide? The Case of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Persoz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to confront the Swiss practice regarding the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities in Swiss foreign policy and its particularities shaping its international relations. Neutrality, a core part of Switzerland's identity on both the internal political level and the international level, will be at the center of our analysis. Indeed, how can a country engage in prevention activities while keeping its neutral status? How does neutrality influence these activities throughout times? What foreseeable impact could neutrality have on them? To answer these questions, the article will be divided as follow: the first part will be an overview of the Swiss government and the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. We will then lay out Switzerland's characteristics shaping its international relations, especially neutrality, before presenting its foreign policy principles and objectives, with a special focus on peace promotion policy. This contextualization of Swiss institutions and foreign policy aims to enable a better understanding of how activities pertaining to the prevention of mass atrocity crimes and genocide are embedded in Switzerland's political environment. The following part will present the evolution of Switzerland's activities regarding prevention of genocide and mass atrocities, as well as the actual mechanism — the Task Force Dealing with the Past and Prevention of Atrocities. The argument will consider how the Task Force is related to other areas of the government and the international community, what are its areas and countries of activities, which procedures it follows to start a project as well as the challenges it ought to overcome in the future. Finally, the last part of this article will present a critical analysis of the Swiss mechanism through the lens of its foreign policy and neutrality, to establish if – and how – it is compatible with Switzerland’s neutral status. From the conclusion reached, the

  8. Functional role of long-lived flowers in preventing pollen limitation in a high elevation outcrossing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Mary T K; Pacheco, Diego Andrés; Dudley, Leah S

    2017-11-01

    Low pollinator visitation in harsh environments may lead to pollen limitation which can threaten population persistence. Consequently, avoidance of pollen limitation is expected in outcrossing species subjected to habitually low pollinator service. The elevational decline in visitation rates on many high mountains provides an outstanding opportunity for addressing this question. According to a recent meta-analysis, levels of pollen limitation in alpine and lowland species do not differ. If parallel trends are manifested among populations of alpine species with wide elevational ranges, how do their uppermost populations contend with lower visitation? We investigated visitation rates and pollen limitation in high Andean Rhodolirium montanum . We test the hypothesis that lower visitation rates at high elevations are compensated for by the possession of long-lived flowers. Visitation rates decreased markedly over elevation as temperature decreased. Pollen limitation was absent at the low elevation site but did occur at the high elevation site. While initiation of stigmatic pollen deposition at high elevations was not delayed, rates of pollen arrival were lower, and cessation of pollination, as reflected by realized flower longevity, occurred later in the flower lifespan. Comparison of the elevational visitation decline and levels of pollen limitation indicates that flower longevity partially compensates for the lower visitation rates at high elevation. The functional role of flower longevity, however, was strongly masked by qualitative pollen limitation arising from higher abortion levels attributable to transference of genetically low-quality pollen in large clones. Stronger clonal growth at high elevations could counterbalance the negative fitness consequences of residual pollen limitation due to low visitation rates and/or difficult establishment under colder conditions. Visitation rates on the lower part of the elevational range greatly exceeded community rates

  9. Developing a typology of African Americans with limited literacy based on preventive health practice orientation: implications for colorectal cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas F; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ruzek, Sheryl B; Wolak, Caitlin; Rovito, Michael J; Ruggieri, Dominique G; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Greener, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Preventive health messages are often tailored to reach broad sociodemographic groups. However, within groups, there may be considerable variation in perceptions of preventive health practices, such as colorectal cancer screening. Segmentation analysis provides a tool for crafting messages that are tailored more closely to the mental models of targeted individuals or subgroups. This study used cluster analysis, a psychosocial marketing segmentation technique, to develop a typology of colorectal cancer screening orientation among 102 African American clinic patients between the ages of 50 and 74 years with limited literacy. Patients were from a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital, a subpopulation known to have high rates of colorectal cancer and low rates of screening. Preventive screening orientation variables included the patients' responses to questions involving personal attitudes and preferences toward preventive screening and general prevention practices. A k-means cluster analysis yielded three clusters of patients on the basis of their screening orientation: ready screeners (50.0%), cautious screeners (30.4%), and fearful avoiders (19.6%). The resulting typology clearly defines important subgroups on the basis of their preventive health practice perceptions. The authors propose that the development of a validated typology of patients on the basis of their preventive health perceptions could be applicable to a variety of health concerns. Such a typology would serve to standardize how populations are characterized and would provide a more accurate view of their preventive health-related attitudes, values, concerns, preferences, and behaviors. Used with standardized assessment tools, it would provide an empirical basis for tailoring health messages and improving medical communication.

  10. A perspective study on green cleaning for Malaysian public hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, N. A.; Zawawi, E. M.; Arif, N. R. M.; Mahbob, N. S.; Sulaiman, Z.; Zainol, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Cleaning being a major contributor to the operations and maintenance expenditure and also Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) issues. Improper and ineffective cleaning can harm the environment and poses greatest risk to health. The use of traditional cleaning products presents a variety of human health and ecological concerns; and may contribute to poor IEQ. As an effort to reduce the issue of operations and maintenance costs and IEQ issues in a building, it is important to establish a green cleaning programme to ensure that the buildings are cleaned in a green way. Numbers of scholars has pointed out the factors which had prevented the green cleaning implementation in hospital buildings. Nonetheless, the significance of these factors has yet to be practically explored in the Malaysian context. Hence, the aim of the paper is to identify the most critical factor that prevents the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. A questionnaire survey and personal communication (i.e. interview) was conducted which involved two groups of respondents. They are the hospital maintenance staff (Cleansing Service Department) and cleaning contractors. Frequency and criticality index calculations have been used to rank these factors according to the level of importance. The result showed that an “unclear components and requirements of green cleaning” indicated as the most critical factor that prevent the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. In the concern for a successful implementation of green cleaning, it is hope that the findings of these studies can be enlightenment to the cleaning contractors as well as the hospital maintenance management team in Malaysia.

  11. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  12. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  13. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  14. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE): implications for public health and drug policy

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Laurent; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Blanche, Jerôme; Maguet, Olivier; Calderon, Christine; Cohen, Julien; Carrieri, Patrizia M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons) and psychiatri...

  15. Coolant clean-up apparatus for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekawa, Yasumasa; Akita, Minoru; Moritani, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the occurrence of heat fatigue crackings due to the temperature difference between cleaned water and feed water at the portion on the pipeway where the two fluids are joined. Constitution: In the coolant clean-up system of a BWR type reactor, coolants are taken out from the side of the recycling system pump cooled by way of a regenerative heat exchanger and a non-regenerative heat exchanger and then flow into a filtering desalter for purification. Then, the purified water is joined with the feed water and returned to the inside of the reactor. Coolants for the auxiliary equipment cooler are recycled through non-regenerative heat exchanger and the flow control valve for the coolants is adjusted such that the temperature for the cleaned water accords with that of the feed water, whereby the temperature of the purified water is controlled to eliminate the temperature difference with the feed water. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. The polypill in cardiovascular prevention: evidence, limitations and perspective - position paper of the European Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Antonio; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Cifkova, Renata; Manolis, Athanasios J; Redón, Josep; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    : Antihypertensive, lipid lowering, antidiabetic and antiplatelet treatments all substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbid and fatal events. In real life, however, effective implementation of these treatments is rare, and thus their contribution to cardiovascular prevention is much less than it could be, based on research data. This article reviews the pros and cons of cardiovascular prevention by the polypill approach. It is argued that the high prevalence of individuals with a multifactorial risk profile provides a strong rationale for a therapeutic strategy based on the combination in a single tablet of drugs against different risk factors. It is further argued that other important favourable arguments exist. First, in real-life adherence to all above treatments is very low, leading to a major increase in the incidence and risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Second, although a large number of factors are involved, adherence is adversely affected by the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen and can be considerably improved by treatment simplification. Third, recent studies in patients with a history of manifest cardiovascular disease have documented that different cardiovascular drugs can be combined in a single tablet with no loss of their individual efficacy or unexpected inconveniences and this does favour adherence to treatment and multiple risk factor control, supporting use of the polypill in secondary cardiovascular prevention. It is finally also mentioned, however, that the polypill may have some drawbacks and that at present no evidence is available that this approach reduces cardiovascular outcome to a greater degree than standard treatment strategies. Trials are under way to provide an answer to this question and thus allow the therapeutic value of this approach to be known.

  17. The Volume Limit in Fluid Resuscitation to Prevent Respiratory Failure in Massively Burned Children without Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Okabayashi, Kiyoshi; Ohtani, Minako; Yamanoue, Takao; Sera, Akihiko; Wada, Seishi; Inoue, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Yasumasa

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accurate fluid requirement to prevent respiratory failure during the postresuscitation period in the resuscitation of massively burned children without inhalation injury. Forty-nine children were treated by similar fluid resuscitation and physiologic support protocols. Using a retrospective chart review, the children were divided into three groups as follows: Group N (no lung injury, n = 33, 41.4 ± 18. 7%TBSA burned), Group M (mild-to-moderate lung injury, n = 11, 73.7 ± 17.1...

  18. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  19. Measuring cavitation and its cleaning effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of techniques for measuring the presence and amount of cavitation, and for quantifying the removal of contaminants, are provided. After reviewing chemical, physical, and biological studies, a universal cause for the cleaning effects of bubbles cannot yet be concluded.

  20. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.; Bush, C.E.; Gentile, C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; HIll, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C; Owens, D.K.; Pearson, G.; Schivell, J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Vannoy, C.; Wong, K.L.

    1991-05-01

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 10 5 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  1. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  2. Laser-assisted cleaning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of ...

  3. Dry Cleaning, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Albert J.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this course are to prepare students for employment in dry cleaning occupations and to assist them in completing their high school graduation…

  4. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services...

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views 1:36 WHO: SAVE LIVES - Clean Your Hands - No action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 67,269 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson ...

  6. Coroners' records on suicide mortality in Montréal: limitations and implications in suicide prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, J; Guillou-Ouellette, C

    2014-02-01

    In Montréal, the characteristics of suicide cases may vary between different areas. The information collected by coroners during their investigations of suicides could be used to support local suicide-prevention planning actions. This study analyzes all coroners' records on suicide in Montréal from 2007 to 2009 to (1) determine the usefulness of the data available; (2) develop a profile of cases; (3) examine local differences by comparing two areas, one with the highest suicide rate and the other with the lowest. The data collected revealed the lack of a systematic, standardized procedure for recording information about deaths by suicide. The rates of missing data varied, but were very high for antecedents of suicide attempts and recent events that could have precipitated the suicide. We observed differences in the characteristics of suicide cases according to area of residence. By adopting a standardized procedure for collecting information on cases of suicide, coroners could provide local decision makers with a more accurate portrait of the people who die by suicide in their area. Local adjustments may improve suicide prevention strategies.

  7. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9646-9] Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions...) proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). EPA is proposing to add 1004 water...

  8. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9724-6] Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions... notice announces EPA's decision to identify certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2) on New York's list of impaired...

  9. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9811-4] Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions... announces the availability of EPA's action identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public...

  10. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    , during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts did not exceed drinking water guideline values but ATP concentrations in the water were high right after......Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  11. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Mollerup, Finn

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before......, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts did not exceed drinking water guideline values but ATP concentrations in the water were high right after...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  12. Towards the year 2000: Critical issues in the global environment. A summary of the 9th World Clean Air Congress of the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rector, A.B. (Air Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The global impact of environmental issues, such as sustainable development, technology transfer North to South and the link between economics and environmental protection, was a central theme at the 9th World Clean Air Congress. The Congress supported increased cooperation among individuals, organizations, governments and companies by providing a forum to share environmental concerns and problem-solving approaches.

  13. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  14. Proposal for a limit value reduction scenario for road vehicles compatible with the German national traffic noise prevention. Package II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, Heinz [Data Analysis and Consultancy, Heinsberg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    With COM(2011) 856 final from 09.12.2011 the EU Commission launched a proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the sound level of motor vehicles. This proposal is related to motor vehicles having at least four wheels. Objective and aim are described as follows: ''The objective of the proposal is to ensure a high level of health and environmental protection and to safeguard the Internal Market for motor vehicles as regards their sound level. The proposal aims at reducing environmental noise by introducing a new test method for measuring noise emissions, by lowering the noise limit values, by including additional sound emission provisions in the type-approval procedure...'' (see paragraph 1 of the explanatory memorandum). Under the bullet point ''- new limit values'' of paragraph 1 of the explanatory memorandum the following statements are listed: ''On the basis of the results of the monitoring data an impact assessment has been prepared with different policy options for the noise test method and corresponding limit values. According to the most preferable option the limit values for light and medium size vehicles will be lowered in two steps of each 2 dB(A) and for heavy vehicles in a first step of 1 and a second step of 2 dB(A). This will result in a reduction of the noise impact of about 3 dB(A) for free flowing traffic and up to 4 dB(A) for intermittent traffic. The reduction of the number of highly annoyed people will be 25 %. The cost-benefit ratio for this measure is estimated to be around 20 times in favour of the noise reduction compared to no action taken.'' The forecast for the reduction of the noise impact in real traffic is far too optimistic. It is highly unlikely that the reduction of limit values by 3 to 4 dB will lead to a reduction of the noise impact in real traffic by the same amount without any deterioration factor. Own calculations with the TRANECAM

  15. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Eliminate or minimize contact with ...

  16. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  17. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  18. Poor quality of external validity reporting limits generalizability of overweight and/or obesity lifestyle prevention interventions in young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, S R; Juan, S J-H; McGeechan, K; Bauman, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a high-risk life stage for weight gain. Evidence is needed to translate behavioural approaches into community practice to prevent weight gain in young adults. This systematic review assessed the effectiveness and reporting of external validity components in prevention interventions. The search was limited to randomized controlled trial (RCT) lifestyle interventions for the prevention of weight gain in young adults (18-35 years). Mean body weight and/or body mass index (BMI) change were the primary outcomes. External validity, quality assessment and risk of bias tools were applied to all studies. Twenty-one RCTs were identified through 14 major electronic databases. Over half of the studies were effective in the short term for significantly reducing body weight and/or BMI; however, few showed long-term maintenance. All studies lacked full reporting on external validity components. Description of the intervention components and participant attrition rates were reported by most studies. However, few studies reported the representativeness of participants, effectiveness of recruitment methods, process evaluation detail or costs. It is unclear from the information reported how to implement the interventions into community practice. Integrated reporting of intervention effectiveness and enhanced reporting of external validity components are needed for the translation and potential upscale of prevention strategies. © 2014 World Obesity.

  19. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Clean Cities National Partner Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    U. S. DOE Clean Cities Program has awarded its National Partner awards for 2002, and the awards will be presented at the Clean Cities Conference in May 2002. This fact sheets describe the winners and their contributions.

  2. PTEN dephosphorylates AKT to prevent the expression of GLUT1 on plasmamembrane and to limit glucose consumption in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Alessandra; Morani, Federica; Follo, Carlo; Isidoro, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    GLUT1 is the facilitative transporter playing the major role in the internalization of glucose. Basally, GLUT1 resides on vesicles located in a para-golgian area, and is translocated onto the plasmamembrane upon activation of the PI3KC1-AKT pathway. In proliferating cancer cells, which demand a high quantity of glucose for their metabolism, GLUT1 is permanently expressed on the plasmamembrane. This is associated with the abnormal activation of the PI3KC1-AKT pathway, consequent to the mutational activation of PI3KC1 and/or the loss of PTEN. The latter, in fact, could antagonize the phosphorylation of AKT by limiting the availability of Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Here, we asked whether PTEN could control the plasmamembrane expression of GLUT1 also through its protein-phosphatase activity on AKT. Experiments of co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro de-phosphorylation assay with homogenates of cells transgenically expressing the wild type or knocked-down mutants (lipid-phosphatase, protein-phosphatase, or both) isoforms demonstrated that indeed PTEN physically interacts with AKT and drives its dephosphorylation, and so limiting the expression of GLUT1 at the plasmamembrane. We also show that growth factors limit the ability of PTEN to dephosphorylate AKT. Our data emphasize the fact that PTEN acts in two distinct steps of the PI3k/AKT pathway to control the expression of GLUT1 at the plasmamembrane and, further, add AKT to the list of the protein substrates of PTEN. PMID:27829222

  3. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  4. The UN Secretary-General’s Human Rights Up Front Initiative and the Prevention Of Genocide: Impact, Potential, Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Strauss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon adopted the Human Rights Up Front (HRUF initiative and communicated his decision in a letter to staff in November through a recommitment, on behalf of the senior leadership and all staff, to uphold the responsibilities the Charter assigns them whenever there is a threat of serious and large-scale violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. His successor, Secretary-General Gutierrez appears determined to continue the initiative based on his explicit reference to it in his vision statement as a means to mainstream human rights and his congratulating his predecessor in general terms on HRUF during his remarks on taking the oath of office. Given the confidentiality that surrounds the initiative arising from fear of adverse Member States’ reaction, it remains difficult to identify all of its elements and assess its current status of implementation. However, based on publicly available UN documents, recent academic writing and public statements by UN officials, it is possible to attempt a preliminary evaluation of the impact of the HRUF initiative and its potential contribution to the prevention of genocide and other mass atrocity crimes.

  5. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  6. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  7. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  8. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Johannes M; Joshi, Vineet K; Hu, Zhen; Medvedovic, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score). The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at . The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView). Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the conclusions made about clusters of co

  9. Prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an Aspergillus nidulans cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures. Copper has been reported as a key element for tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for melanin production. Ascorbic acid (0.44g/L) stopped melanin accumulation, did not affect growth parameters and resulted in AAO activity that was more than two-fold greater than a control treatment with no ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  11. [Preventing lower limb amputations in patients suffering from diabetic foot syndrome and peripheral vascular disease - opportunities and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, S; Ritter, R G; Rice, A; Frerichs, O; Wehage, I C; Fansa, H

    2011-12-01

    The number of patients suffering from a diabetic foot syndrome is increasing. In many cases large plantar or heel defects can only be reconstructed by using a free flap. The free parascapular flap is an alternative to free muscle flaps in the reconstruction of plantar or heel defects. Donor site morbidity is low. Autologous bypass reconstruction or an angioplasty can increase extremity perfusion. PATIENTS AND OPERATIONS: 52 patients with a diabetic foot syndrome have been reconstructed since 2007. 23 of them required a free tissue transfer. On average these patients were 68.7 years of age. A parascapular flap was used in 15 cases, a latissimus dorsi flap with a skin graft in 4 cases, a gracilis muscle flap with a skin graft in 3 cases. In one case a free instep flap of the contralateral foot, which had to be amputated, was used. In 13 cases the flap was anastomosed to the autologous bypass, in one case an AV loop was used. 22 flaps healed primarily. Only 1 patient was not able to walk at discharge. There was one flap loss. 4 patients required an amputation later on due to bypass failure or infection. 2 patients died due to cardiac arrest at the rehabilitation clinic. If the correct indication is met, free flaps can prevent diabetes-derived amputations of the lower limb. The parascapular flap can be used for plantar and heel defects. Flap harvesting is quick due to the constant vascular anatomy. The donor site morbidity is low. Reconstruction requires revascularisation in an interdisciplinary setting including vascular surgeons and radiologists. Limb salvage reduces mortality and improves quality of life. Revascularisation and reconstruction should best be done in a single surgical procedure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Electric Utility Generating Units: Repealing the Clean Power Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Power Plan established emission guidelines for states to follow in limiting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing power plants. EPA is proposing to repeal the CPP and rescind the accompanying legal memorandum.

  13. HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease in Resource-Limited Settings: A Case for “Prevention Is Better Than Cure”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita O. Oladele

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal disease remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality for people living with HIV, especially in resource-limited settings. The recently updated estimate of cryptococcal disease revealed a global incidence of 223,100 cases annually with 73% of these cases being diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, 75% of the estimated 181,100 deaths associated with cryptococcal disease occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Point-of-care diagnostic assays have revolutionised the diagnosis of this deadly opportunistic infection. The theory of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenaemia as a forerunner to symptomatic meningitis and death has been conclusively proven. Thus, cryptococcal antigenaemia screening coupled with pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been demonstrated as a cost-effective strategy with survival benefits and has been incorporated into HIV national guidelines in several countries. However, this is yet to be implemented in a number of other high HIV burden countries. Flucytosine-based combination therapy during the induction phase is associated with improved survival, faster cerebrospinal fluid sterilisation and fewer relapses. Flucytosine, however, is unavailable in many parts of the world. Studies are ongoing on the efficacy of shorter regimens of amphotericin B. Early diagnosis, proactive antifungal therapy with concurrent management of raised intracranial pressure creates the potential to markedly reduce mortality associated with this disease.

  14. Using forum play to prevent abuse in health care organizations: A qualitative study exploring potentials and limitations for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, A Jelmer; Persson, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Abuse in health care organizations is a pressing issue for caregivers. Forum play, a participatory theater model, has been used among health care staff to learn about and work against abuse. This small-scale qualitative study aims to explore how forum play participants experience the potentials and limitations of forum play as an educational model for continued professional learning at a hospital clinic. Fifteen of 41 members of staff of a Swedish nephrology clinic, primarily nurses, voluntarily participated in either one or two forum play workshops, where they shared experiences and together practiced working against abuse in everyday health care situations. Interviews were conducted after the workshops with 14 of the participants, where they were asked to reflect on their own and others' participation or nonparticipation, and changes in their individual and collective understanding of abuse in health care. Before the workshops, the informants were either hesitant or very enthusiastic toward the drama-oriented form of learning. Afterward, they all agreed that forum play was a very effective way of individual as well as collective learning about abuse in health care. However, they saw little effect on their work at the clinic, primarily understood as a consequence of the fact that many of their colleagues did not take part in the workshops. This study, based on the analysis of forum play efforts at a single hospital clinic, suggests that forum play can be an innovative educational model that creates a space for reflection and learning in health care practices. It might be especially fruitful when a sensitive topic, such as abuse in health care, is the target of change. However, for the effects to reach beyond individual insights and a shared understanding among a small group of participants, strategies to include all members of staff need to be explored.

  15. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    through a multi stage filtration unit on the surface. Solids greater than 50 micron are separated through a 1st stage separator and deposited into a disposal bin. Filtrate is then pumped through a series of high flow, back-flushable filters that remove particulate material greater than 5 micron. After the 1st and 2nd stage filtration the filtrate is then disinfected by passing through an automated UV reactor where the treated water is then released back into the ocean. This advancement in hull cleaning technology will allow vessels to be cleaned in areas where dry docking is not possible or viable along with being a preventive measure to reduce Biofouling in the environment. The in-water hull cleaning system certainly has earned its place as being an innovative leader in improving efficiencies and reducing environmental impact. https://www.linkedin.com/groups?mostRecent=&gid=6724648&trk=my_groups-tile-flipgrp

  16. A brief history of the air cleaning conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    I have been asked to prepare a history of the air cleaning conferences. Undertaking such a task is, of course, a wonderful opportunity for reminiscences and a chance to retell old war stories. I must admit that it has taken much longer than I anticipated because I found myself so completely engrossed rereading the old records that time seemed to stop, although the hours passed. But a history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences means more than a stroll down memory lane. The 23 recorded air cleaning conference proceedings reflect an important aspect of the history of major nuclear developments, both military and civilian, because engineered safety features designed to prevent dispersion of radioactive products to the environment have always been a necessity for progress in this field. For this reason, I hope the history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences will not only be enjoyable, but also have meaning for young people entering this field. The air cleaning conferences were an outgrowth of the operations of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) Stack Gas Working Group established in 1948 to review air cleaning operations at AEC installations. AEC's Division of Engineering sponsored and funded air cleaning research and development at Harvard University's School of Public Health, beginning about the same time. In addition to research and development, the Harvard contract called for consulting and educational services. The latter provided the opportunity for meetings devoted to information on air cleaning that could be applied to ongoing and anticipated nuclear operations

  17. Clean air handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, F.W.; Zeugin, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    This handbook provides a starting point for understanding the complex series of regulatory requirements imposed by the Clean Air Act. It offers first a brief introduction to the history and structure of the Act, in order to provide a framework for evaluating the Act and the recent 1990 Amendments. It then discusses in greater detail the principal regulatory programs of the Act. The purpose of this discussion is to give one a conceptual basis for evaluating compliance obligations, for establishing priorities for participation in regulatory proceedings, and for formulating compliance strategies

  18. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  19. Clean Room Apparel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    American Hospital Supply Corporation (AHSC), Baxter Healthcare Corporation's predecessor, used the NASA informational base on contamination control technology to improve industrial contamination control technology. When a study determined that microscopic body particles escaping through tiny "windows" in woven garments worn by workers were the greatest source of contamination, AHSC developed TYVEK. This non-woven material filters 99% of all particulate matter larger than half a micron. Baxter Healthcare added a polyimide coating which seals and ties down any loose fibers, providing greater durability. Stress points along seams have been minimized to make the garment almost tearproof. Micro-Clean 212 garments are individually packaged and disposable.

  20. Alternatives to perchloroethylene-based garment care: Assessing the viability of professional wet cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, R.; Sinsheimer, P.; Goodheart, J.; Tranby, C.; Bechtel, L.

    1997-12-01

    The report analyzes the viability of Cleaner by Nature, a 100% professional wet cleaner, and whether professional wet cleaning represents a viable pollution prevention approach in eliminating perchloroethylene (PCE), a chemical solvent used in dry cleaning. The analysis includes a comprehensive plant level case study, and comparative performance, financial, and environmental assessments of wet cleaning and PCE-based dry cleaning. The major issues associated with the viability analyses were identified and specific information was collected in relation to how the clothes were cleaned (a customer garment profile, a problem garment analysis, a technical evaluation or repeat clean test, a wearer survey, and customer satisfaction surveys); how wet cleaning did financially (a start-up cost analysis and a profit/loss analysis); what environmental impacts were identified (water, energy, and chemical inputs and outputs); and what contributing factors (technology changes, garment manufacturing and labeling, and regulator or legislative actions) influence the viability of professional wet cleaning.

  1. Cleaning up a biodiesel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The project at Biodiesel Producers Limited in Victoria involved remediation of a wastewater treatment process containing a large covered anaerobic lagoon, an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a series of downstream open ponds. The pond downstream of the SBR was heavily loaded with a thick hard grease cap. The CAL was believed to have a metre-plus grease cap and the SBR had developed a thick foam cap that prevented aeration and mixing. Environmental Biotech was called in to assist with bioremediation using its Grease Eradication System bacteria cultures, with the aim of reducing the fats, oil and grease in the CAL discharge to less than 150 milligrams per litre, eliminating the stable fat foam in the SBR to allow the denitrification sequencing program to be reinstated and to clean up the hard fat layer from the surfaces of the comany's open ponds. The inflow to the CAL was designed for a flow of 210kL per day with a loading of 6900mg/L biochemical oxygen demand and FOG of 425mg/L. The actual load, as measured by Environmental Biotech, was 100kL with 20,000mg/L BOD and 1800mg/L (180kg) FOG. The CAL had been in use for more than two years, generating methane but assumed to be working well in the breakdown of chemical oxygen demand and FOG. In December 2009 the quality of the effluent began to decrease, overloading the SBR with FOG. It caused the formation of dense foam on aeration and mixing. The foam would not break down despite a variety of methods being employed and would overflow from the walls of the SBR. “Due to the foaming issue the SBR became a large holding tank for the fat and because of the reduced mixing, the solids were settling on the bottom of the tank,” Environmental Biotech project manager and franshisee Craig Barr said. “We were brought in to start work inApril 2010 and initially we slug dosed the CAL with 400 litres of GES bacteria in addition to a constant metered dosing rate of 400 litres per fortnight with the

  2. Financing clean energy market creation. Clean energy ventures, venture capitalists and other investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teppo, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Development and Management in Industry

    2006-07-01

    , technology, regulatory control, and exits. The four cognitive risk factors were investment outcome history, VC risk preferences, investment domain familiarity, and venture framing. Third, the study developed a model showing that parent firm organizational culture affects the performance of a CVC fund. The effect of the organizational culture is moderated by risk-taking practices in the parent firm's decision-making process and the parent firm's skills in managing, measuring, and compensating fund success. The main contribution of this dissertation is in identifying theoretical models that explain the clean energy venture entrepreneurial challenges, how VCs view clean energy ventures from a risk perspective, and how the organizational culture of a firm affects its CVC activity. The findings of the study suggest several managerial implications to policy makers, corporations planning to launch CVC fund activities, venture capitalists, and clean energy ventures. The findings and limitations of the study suggest several avenues for future research. First of all, the developed models and propositions should be quantitatively tested and further refined. Furthermore, the effect of the parent firm's organizational culture on the CVC fund performance warrants further investigation, preferably in some other than clean energy context. In addition, future research could explore the two other clean energy venture entrepreneurial challenges, growth management and market education, in more detail. The role of institutions and energy policy in the formation of clean energy markets, especially from the perspective of clean energy ventures and investors, would also be worth exploring in future research. (orig.)

  3. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  4. Method of cleaning up coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Kikuchi, Makoto; Uchida, Shunsuke.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the dose rates of the pipeways outside of reactors by charging adsorbents in a primary coolant circuits and recovering adsorbed solid impurities and ionic impurities in a reactor clean up system. Method: An addition device incorporating cleaning agents (adsorbents: metal oxide such as TiO 2 ) is connected to a feedwater pipe and a mixer for reacting the cleaning agent and solid impurities in feedwater is also provided. The cleaning agents added from the adding device into the feedwater are agitated in the mixer, adsorb the solid impurities in the feedwater and enter the reactor as reactor water while suspended in the feedwater. The reactor water is passed through reactor water clean up pipeway by a pump and removed with the cleaning agents and the solid impurities adsorbed thereon through the filter. (Seki, T.)

  5. Aviation, Carbon, and the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the policy options available to the United States for regulating greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft under existing law: the Clean Air Act (CAA). Europe has unilaterally and controversially moved to include aviation emissions in its Emissions Trading System. The United States can, however, allow its airlines to escape this requirement by imposing “equivalent” regulation. U.S. aviation emissions rules could also have significant environmental benefits and would limit dom...

  6. Aqueous alternatives for metal and composite cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, Joann

    1994-01-01

    For many years the metalworking industry has cleaned metal and composite substrates with chlorinated solvents. Recently, however, health and disposal related environmental concerns have increased regarding chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, or Freon'. World leaders have instituted a production ban of certain ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) by 1996. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has instituted worker vapor exposure limitations for virtually all of the solvents used in solvent-based cleaners. In addition, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined nearly all solvent-based cleaners as 'hazardous'. Cradle to grave waste responsibility is another reason manufacturers are trying to replace chlorinated solvents in their cleaning processes. Because of these factors, there now is a world wide effort to reduce and/or eliminate the use of chlorinated solvents for industrial cleaning. Waterbased cleaners are among the alternatives being offered to the industry. New technology alkaline cleaners are now available that can be used instead of chlorinated solvents in many cleaning processes. These waterbased cleaners reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by as much as 99 percent. (The definition and method of calculation of VOC's now varies from region to region.) Hazardous waste generation can also be significantly reduced or eliminated with new aqueous technology. This in turn can ease worker exposure restrictions and positively impact the environment. This paper compares the chemical and physical properties of this aqueous cleaners versus chlorinated solvents.

  7. Clean water, clean hands or new vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    Throughout human history, pathogens transmitted through feces from person to person have caused substantial mortality. Over a century ago civil engineers in high income countries developed approaches to collect and remove feces from the environment that in communities with high incomes and strong governments markedly reduced the burden of enteric disease. These approaches, however, have not been successfully extended to impoverished communities in low income countries. Water/sanitation/hygiene professionals have attempted, with only limited success, to reduce fecal exposure and human disease in the absence of definitive civil engineering approaches. Medical professionals have worked to develop vaccines against some of the most important fecal oral pathogens. Each of these approaches needs further development and adaptation to optimally address the burden of fecally transmitted diseases in impoverished communities. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  9. Topologically clean distance fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulassy, Attila; Duchaineau, Mark; Natarajan, Vijay; Pascucci, Valerio; Bringa, Eduardo; Higginbotham, Andrew; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the results obtained from material simulations is important in the physical sciences. Our research was motivated by the need to investigate the properties of a simulated porous solid as it is hit by a projectile. This paper describes two techniques for the generation of distance fields containing a minimal number of topological features, and we use them to identify features of the material. We focus on distance fields defined on a volumetric domain considering the distance to a given surface embedded within the domain. Topological features of the field are characterized by its critical points. Our first method begins with a distance field that is computed using a standard approach, and simplifies this field using ideas from Morse theory. We present a procedure for identifying and extracting a feature set through analysis of the MS complex, and apply it to find the invariants in the clean distance field. Our second method proceeds by advancing a front, beginning at the surface, and locally controlling the creation of new critical points. We demonstrate the value of topologically clean distance fields for the analysis of filament structures in porous solids. Our methods produce a curved skeleton representation of the filaments that helps material scientists to perform a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of pores, and hence infer important material properties. Furthermore, we provide a set of criteria for finding the "difference" between two skeletal structures, and use this to examine how the structure of the porous solid changes over several timesteps in the simulation of the particle impact.

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hygiene Saves Lives - Duration: 5:12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 94,291 views 5:12 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  11. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  12. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  13. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  14. Therapeutic hypercapnia prevents bleomycin-induced pulmonary hypertension in neonatal rats by limiting macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewing, A Charlotte P; Kantores, Crystal; Ivanovska, Julijana; Lee, Alvin H; Masood, Azhar; Jain, Amish; McNamara, Patrick J; Tanswell, A Keith; Jankov, Robert P

    2012-07-01

    Bleomycin-induced lung injury is characterized in the neonatal rat by inflammation, arrested lung growth, and pulmonary hypertension (PHT), as observed in human infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Inhalation of CO(2) (therapeutic hypercapnia) has been described to limit cytokine production and to have anti-inflammatory effects on the injured lung; we therefore hypothesized that therapeutic hypercapnia would prevent bleomycin-induced lung injury. Spontaneously breathing rat pups were treated with bleomycin (1 mg/kg/d ip) or saline vehicle from postnatal days 1-14 while being continuously exposed to 5% CO(2) (Pa(CO(2)) elevated by 15-20 mmHg), 7% CO(2) (Pa(CO(2)) elevated by 35 mmHg), or normocapnia. Bleomycin-treated animals exposed to 7%, but not 5%, CO(2), had significantly attenuated lung tissue macrophage influx and PHT, as evidenced by normalized pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular systolic function, decreased right ventricular hypertrophy, and attenuated remodeling of pulmonary resistance arteries. The level of CO(2) neither prevented increased tissue neutrophil influx nor led to improvements in decreased lung weight, septal thinning, impaired alveolarization, or decreased numbers of peripheral arteries. Bleomycin led to increased expression and content of lung tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which was found to colocalize with tissue macrophages and to be attenuated by exposure to 7% CO(2). Inhibition of TNF-α signaling with the soluble TNF-2 receptor etanercept (0.4 mg/kg ip from days 1-14 on alternate days) prevented bleomycin-induced PHT without decreasing tissue macrophages and, similar to CO(2), had no effect on arrested alveolar development. Our findings are consistent with a preventive effect of therapeutic hypercapnia with 7% CO(2) on bleomycin-induced PHT via attenuation of macrophage-derived TNF-α. Neither tissue macrophages nor TNF-α appeared to contribute to arrested lung development induced by bleomycin. That 7% CO(2

  15. Three Mile Island Nuclear Station steam generator chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Three Mile Island-1 steam generators were chemically cleaned in 1991 by the B and W Nuclear Service Co. (BWNS). This secondary side cleaning was accomplished through application of the EPRI/SGOG (Electric Power Research Institute - Steam Generator Owners Group) chemical cleaning iron removal process, followed by sludge lancing. BWNS also performed on-line corrosion monitoring. Corrosion of key steam generator materials was low, and well within established limits. Liquid waste, subsequently processed by BWNS was less than expected. 7 tabs

  16. Clean Slate 2 Revegetation and Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Anderson

    1998-01-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at Clean Slate 2 located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Clean Slate 2 were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Excavation of contaminated soils at Clean Slate 2 will follow procedures similar to those used during the cleanup of the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 sites. A maximum of approximately 33 cm (12 in) of the surface soils will be excavated and removed from the site. Near ground zero, where contamination levels are highest, approximately 2 m (7 ft) of soil may be removed. The maximum area to be excavated is estimated to be 18.4 hectares (45.4) acres. In addition to the disturbance associated with soil excavation, approximately 2.0 hectares (5.0) acres will be disturbed by the construction of staging areas and placement of support facilities. Short term stabilization consists of an application of a chemical soil stabilizer and long-term stabilizations involves the establishment of a permanent vegetative cover using selective native plant species, site preparation techniques, increasing organic matter and water holding capacity, irrigation to ensure seed germination and plant establishment. The cleanup site will be monitored to ensure success of revegetation and resuspension of soil particles is within established limits

  17. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  18. Reactor vessel stud cleaning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavada, D.R.; Golick, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described for cleaning and decontaminating an elongate member having a three dimensional surface topography comprising: an enclosure; means for rotatingly supporting the elongate member proximate the ends thereof within the enclosure; means for driving the elongate member supporting means, to rotate the elongate member; a supply tank for holding water; a spray nozzle connected to the supply tank and disposed within the enclosure operable to move transversely with respect to the elongate member for spraying a cleaning agent comprising high pressure water and abrasive grit against the rotating elongate member; a self-contained means for supplying the cleaning agent to the spray nozzle and removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, the self-contained means including the supply tank and means for disposing of any contaminated solids in the spent cleaning agent. The means for disposing further comprises means for removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, means for removing solid particles from the spent cleaning agent and means for recycling water from the spent cleaning agent back to the spray nozzle; and a control system for selectively controlling at least one of the rate of rotation of the elongate member and rate of trasversal of the elongate member and by the spray nozzle in accordance with the topography of the elongate member

  19. Cleaning Challenges of High-κ/Metal Gate Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-12-20

    High-κ/metal gates are used as transistors for advanced logic applications to improve speed and eliminate electrical issues associated with polySi and SiO2 gates. Various integration schemes are possible and will be discussed, such as dual gate, gate-first, and gate-last, both of which require specialized cleaning and etching steps. Specific areas of discussion will include cleaning and conditioning of the silicon surface, forming a high-quality chemical oxide, removal of the high-κ dielectric with selectivity to the SiO2 layer, cleaning and residue removal after etching, and prevention of galvanic corrosion during cleaning. © 2011 Scrivener Publishing LLC. All rights reserved.

  20. Cleaning device for steam units in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamuro, Takemi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination upon dismantling and inspection of steam units such as a turbine to a building containing such units and the peripheral area. Constitution: A steam generator indirectly heated by steam supplied from steam generating source in a separate system containing no radioactivity is provided to produce cleaning steam. A cleaning steam pipe is connected by way of a stop valve between separation valve of a nuclear power plant steam pipe and a high pressure turbine. Upon cleaning, the separation valve is closed, and steam supplied from the cleaning steam pipe is flown into a condenser. The water thus condensated is returned by way of a feed water heater and a condenser to a water storage tank. (Nakamura, S.)

  1. A validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of Irinotecan hydrochloride residues for cleaning validation in production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in pharmaceutical industry. The main purpose of cleaning validation is to prove the effectiveness and consistency of cleaning in a given pharmaceutical production equipment to prevent cross contamination and adulteration of drug product with other active ingredient. Objective: a rapid, sensitive and specific reverse phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of irinotecan hydrochloride in cleaning validation swab samples. Method: the method was validated using waters symmetry shield RP-18 (250mm x 4.6mm 5 µm column with isocratic mobile phase containing a mixture of 0.02 M potassium di-hydrogen ortho-phosphate, pH adjusted to 3.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid, methanol and acetonitrile (60:20:20 v/v/v. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min with column temperature of 25°C and detection wavelength at 220nm. The sample injection volume was 100 µl. Results: the calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 0.024 to 0.143 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation were below 3.2%. The recoveries obtained from stainless steel, PCGI, epoxy, glass and decron cloth surfaces were more than 85% and there was no interference from the cotton swab. The detection limit (DL and quantitation limit (QL were 0.008 and 0.023 µg ml-1, respectively. Conclusion: the developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The overall procedure can be used as part of a cleaning validation program in pharmaceutical manufacture of irinotecan hydrochloride.

  2. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  3. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  4. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  5. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  6. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  7. LEAPS Vaccine Incorporating HER-2/neu Epitope Elicits Protection That Prevents and Limits Tumor Growth and Spread of Breast Cancer in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken S. Rosenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prototype J-LEAPS T cell vaccine for HER-2/neu breast cancer (J-HER consists of the murine HER-2/neu66–74 H-2d CD8 T cell epitope covalently attached through a triglycine linker to the J-immune cell binding ligand (ICBL (human β2 microglobulin38–50 peptide. The J-ICBL was chosen for its potential to promote Th1/Tc1 responses. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability of J-HER to prevent or treat cancer was tested in the TUBO cell-challenged BALB/c mouse model for HER-2/neu-expressing tumors. The J-HER vaccine was administered as an emulsion in Montanide ISA-51 without the need for a more potent adjuvant. When administered as a prophylactic vaccination before tumor challenge, J-HER protected against tumor development for at least 48 days. Despite eliciting protection, antibody production in J-HER-immunized, TUBO-challenged mice was less than that in unimmunized mice. More importantly, therapeutic administration of J-HER one week after challenge with TUBO breast cancer cells limited the spread of the tumors and the morbidity and the mortality in the challenged mice. The ability to elicit responses that prevent spread of the TUBO tumor by J-HER suggests its utility as a neoimmunoadjuvant therapy to surgery. Individual or mixtures of J-LEAPS vaccines can be readily prepared to include different CD8 T cell epitopes to optimize tumor therapy and customize treatment for individuals with different HLA types.

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Hand Hygiene - Duration: 1:53. Salem Health 12,138 views 1:53 Proper Hand Washing For ... 5:07 Hand Hygiene Saves Lives - Duration: 5:12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 94, ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 620,296 views 7:25 Vacation Nightmare: Sun, Sand, Prostitutes? | ABC World News Tonight | ABC News - Duration: 7:11. ABC News 3,271,501 views 7:11 Hand Hygiene Saves Lives - Duration: 5:12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 95,256 views 5:12 ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5: ... Prevention (CDC) 97,277 views 5:12 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States ...

  11. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...

  12. Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philippa; Bowen, Asha; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew; Prince, Sam; Andrews, Ross; Currie, Bart; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-09-23

    Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Likewise, a synthesis of the evidence for public health control within endemic populations is also lacking. We propose a systematic review of the evidence for the prevention, treatment and public health management of skin infections in resource-limited settings, to inform the development of guidelines for the standardised and streamlined clinical and public health management of skin infections in endemic populations. The protocol has been designed in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols statement. All trial designs and analytical observational study designs will be eligible for inclusion. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature will include PubMed, Excertpa Medica and Global Health. Grey literature databases will also be systematically searched, and clinical trials registries scanned for future relevant studies. The primary outcome of interest will be the clinical cure or decrease in prevalence of impetigo, scabies, crusted scabies, tinea capitis, tinea corporis or tinea unguium. Two independent reviewers will perform eligibility assessment and data extraction using standardised electronic forms. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Data will be tabulated and narratively synthesised. We expect there will be insufficient data to conduct meta-analysis. The final body of evidence will be reported against the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation grading system. The evidence

  13. Applicability of chemical cleaning process to steam generator secondary side, (3). Effect of chemical cleaning on long term integrity of steam generator tube after chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Kanbe, Hiromi; Hirano, Hideo; Takiguchi, Hideki; Yoshino, Kouji; Yamamoto, Shuuichi; Shibata, Toshio; Ishigure, Kenkichi

    2006-01-01

    The application of the chemical cleaning process to dissolve and remove scales and sludge by chemicals is being planned at the Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in order to maintain a designed heat transfer condition and to prevent the steam generator (SG) tube degradation. In this paper, the affects of the EPRI process and the KWU process on the long term integrity of SG tubing were investigated under the simulated SG condition using a SG model boiler test facility. No adverse effect of the both chemical cleaning processes on the long term integrity of SG tubing were observed. (author)

  14. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  15. Translating vaccine policy into action: a report from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Consultation on the prevention of maternal and early infant influenza in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Ahonkhai, Vincent I; Gellin, Bruce G; Salisbury, David M; Read, Jennifer S; Adegbola, Richard A; Abramson, Jon S

    2012-11-26

    Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is a promising strategy to protect the mother, fetus, and young infant from influenza-related diseases. The burden of influenza during pregnancy, the vaccine immunogenicity during this period, and the robust influenza vaccine safety database underpin recommendations that all pregnant women receive the vaccine to decrease complications of influenza disease during their pregnancies. Recent data also support maternal immunization for the additional purpose of preventing disease in the infant during the first six months of life. In April 2012, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended revisions to the WHO position paper on influenza vaccines. For the first time, SAGE recommended pregnant women should be made the highest priority for inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. However, the variable maternal influenza vaccination coverage in countries with pre-existing maternal influenza vaccine recommendations underscores the need to understand and to address the discrepancy between recommendations and implementation success. We present the outcome of a multi-stakeholder expert consultation on inactivated influenza vaccination in pregnancy. The creation and implementation of vaccine policies and regulations require substantial resources and capacity. As with all public health interventions, the existence of perceived and real risks of vaccination will necessitate effective and transparent risk communication. Potential risk allocation and sharing mechanisms should be addressed by governments, vaccine manufacturers, and other stakeholders. In resource-limited settings, vaccine-related issues concerning supply, formulation, regulation, evidence evaluation, distribution, cost-utility, and post-marketing safety surveillance need to be addressed. Lessons can be learned from the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative as well as efforts to increase vaccine coverage among pregnant

  16. Preemptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy of acute cytomegalovirus infection prevents lethal disease, limits the burden of latent viral genomes, and reduces the risk of virus recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H P; Kurz, S; Holtappels, R; Reddehase, M J

    1998-03-01

    In the immunocompetent host, primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is resolved by the immune response without causing overt disease. The viral genome, however, is not cleared but is maintained in a latent state that entails a risk of virus recurrence and consequent organ disease. By using murine CMV as a model, we have shown previously that multiple organs harbor latent CMV and that reactivation occurs with an incidence that is determined by the viral DNA load in the respective organ (M. J. Reddehase, M. Balthesen, M. Rapp, S. Jonjic, I. Pavic, and U. H. Koszinowski. J. Exp. Med. 179:185-193, 1994). This predicts that a therapeutic intervention capable of limiting the load of latent viral genome should also reduce the risk of virus recurrence. Here we demonstrate the benefits and the limits of a preemptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy of CMV infection in the immunocompromised bone marrow transplantation recipient. Antiviral CD8 T cells prevented CMV disease and accelerated the resolution of productive infection. The therapy also resulted in a lower load of latent CMV DNA in organs and consequently reduced the incidence of recurrence. The data thus provide a further supporting argument for clinical trials of preemptive cytoimmunotherapy of human CMV disease with CD8 T cells. However, CD8 T cells failed to clear the viral DNA. The therapy-susceptible portion of the DNA load differed between organs and was highest in the lungs. The existence of an invariant, therapy-resistant load suggests a role for immune system evasion mechanisms in the establishment of CMV latency.

  17. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  18. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  19. Êxitos e limites na prevenção da violência: estudo de caso de nove experiências brasileiras Success and limitations in the prevention of violence: a case study of nine Brazilian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar os êxitos e os limites de experiências nacionais na prevenção da violência e indicar possibilidades de enfrentamento do problema.A pesquisa que dá origem ao artigo consistiu em um estudo de caso de nove experiências, seguindo princípios da triangulação de métodos. Foram aplicados questionários quantitativos e realizadas entrevistas (individuais e grupais. Os resultados apontam que os principaisêxitos relatados são: informação para a cidadania; preparação para o trabalho; envolvimento de crianças e adolescentes em atividades lúdicas e educativas e o fortalecimento da auto-estima dos jovens e crianças participantes. As maiores dificuldades das experiências são a manutenção financeira e a articulação de suas propostas com as de outros grupos e instituições. O estudo leva a concluir que essas experiências, ainda que não sejam as únicas bem-sucedidas no País, apontam para um horizonte novo pela forma como atuam, inovando e criando uma práxis diferenciada na abordagem da violência.The present study analyzes the success of Brazilian experiences engaged in prevention of violence as well as their limitations, and seeks to show ways for a solution of the problem. The investigation underlying this article consisted in a case study of nine experiences, using triangulation of methods. For this purpose, we used questionnaires and interviewed individuals and groups. Successful results were mainly: informed citizenship,work preparation, involvement of children and adolescents in recreating and educative activities, and increased self-esteem of the children and teens involved in the experiences. The greatest difficulties found were the lack of funds and of articulation of proposals with other groups and institutions. These experiences are not the only successful ones carried out in the country, but they point to a new horizon by innovating and creating a different practical approach

  20. Affordances and Constraints: Second Language Learning in Cleaning Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömmer, Maiju

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines opportunities for language learning in a cleaning job, which is a typical entry-level job for immigrants. An ethnographic case study approach is taken to investigate examples of the conditions that allow or prevent language learning for the focal participant, a sub-Saharan man who works as a cleaner in Finland. This case…

  1. Manual cleaning of hospital mattresses: an observational study comparing high- and low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, J; Hakizimana, B; Meintjes, W A J; Nillessen, M; de Both, E; Voss, A; Mehtar, S

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) are more frequently encountered in low- than in high-resource settings. There is a need to identify and implement feasible and sustainable approaches to strengthen HAI prevention in low-resource settings. To evaluate the biological contamination of routinely cleaned mattresses in both high- and low-resource settings. In this two-stage observational study, routine manual bed cleaning was evaluated at two university hospitals using adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Standardized training of cleaning personnel was achieved in both high- and low-resource settings. Qualitative analysis of the cleaning process was performed to identify predictors of cleaning outcome in low-resource settings. Mattresses in low-resource settings were highly contaminated prior to cleaning. Cleaning significantly reduced biological contamination of mattresses in low-resource settings (P cleaning in both the high- and low-resource settings seemed comparable. Cleaning with appropriate type of cleaning materials reduced the contamination of mattresses adequately. Predictors for mattresses that remained contaminated in a low-resource setting included: type of product used, type of ward, training, and the level of contamination prior to cleaning. In low-resource settings mattresses were highly contaminated as noted by ATP levels. Routine manual cleaning by trained staff can be as effective in a low-resource setting as in a high-resource setting. We recommend a multi-modal cleaning strategy that consists of training of domestic services staff, availability of adequate time to clean beds between patients, and application of the correct type of cleaning products. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. McClean Lake. Site Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    Located over 700 kilometers northeast of Saskatoon, Areva's McClean Lake site is comprised of several uranium mines and one of the most technologically advanced uranium mills in the world - the only mill designed to process high-grade uranium ore without dilution. Areva has operated several open-pit uranium mines at the McClean Lake site, and is evaluating future mines at and near the site. The McClean Lake mill has recently undergone a multimillion-dollar upgrade and expansion, which has doubled its annual production capacity of uranium concentrate to 24 million pounds. It is the only facility in the world capable of processing high-grade uranium ore without diluting it. The mill processes the ore from the Cigar Lake mine, the world's second largest and highest-grade uranium mine. The McClean Lake site operates 365 days a year on a week-in/week-out rotation schedule for workers, over 50% of whom reside in northern Saskatchewan communities. Tailings are waste products resulting from milling uranium ore. This waste is made up of leach residue solids, waste solutions and chemical precipitates that are carefully engineered for long-term disposal. The TMF serves as the repository for all resulting tailings. This facility allows proper waste management, which minimizes potential adverse environmental effects. Mining projections indicate that the McClean Lake mill will produce tailings in excess of the existing capacity of the TMF. After evaluating a number of options, Areva has decided to pursue an expansion of this facility. Areva is developing the Surface Access Borehole Resource Extraction (SABRE) mining method, which uses a high-pressure water jet placed at the bottom of the drill hole to extract ore. Areva has conducted a series of tests with this method and is evaluating its potential for future mining operations. McClean Lake maintains its certification in ISO 14001 standards for environmental management and OHSAS 18001 standards for occupational health

  3. Wastewater Cleaning in Army Camps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brasser, P

    1999-01-01

    .... As a result the surroundings of these camps can be quite polluted. Therefore a literature study has been initiated, to study the possible usage of a portable wastewater cleaning plant in these camps...

  4. Dry Cleaning Sector (NAICS 8123)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry cleaning sector includes establishments engaged in providing laundry services and industrial launderers. Find environmental regulatory information for perchloroethylene (PERC) cleaners as well as hazardous waste regulations for dry cleaners.

  5. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  8. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges

  9. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges.

  10. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  11. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  12. Clean exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, K.A.; Schulz, V.

    1994-01-01

    Brown-coal coke has properties that make it a suitable base material for adsorbents and catalysts of the types used for the purification of flue gas from waste incineration plants. It is less expensive than activated carbon. Brown-coal coke makes it possible to keep pollutant concentrations well within the limit values laid down in the relevant regulations. (orig.) [de

  13. A brief history of the air cleaning conferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    I have been asked to prepare a history of the air cleaning conferences. Undertaking such a task is, of course, a wonderful opportunity for reminiscences and a chance to retell old war stories. I must admit that it has taken much longer than I anticipated because I found myself so completely engrossed rereading the old records that time seemed to stop, although the hours passed. But a history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences means more than a stroll down memory lane. The 23 recorded air cleaning conference proceedings reflect an important aspect of the history of major nuclear developments, both military and civilian, because engineered safety features designed to prevent dispersion of radioactive products to the environment have always been a necessity for progress in this field. For this reason, I hope the history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences will not only be enjoyable, but also have meaning for young people entering this field. The air cleaning conferences were an outgrowth of the operations of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC) Stack Gas Working Group established in 1948 to review air cleaning operations at AEC installations. AEC`s Division of Engineering sponsored and funded air cleaning research and development at Harvard University`s School of Public Health, beginning about the same time. In addition to research and development, the Harvard contract called for consulting and educational services. The latter provided the opportunity for meetings devoted to information on air cleaning that could be applied to ongoing and anticipated nuclear operations.

  14. Cost effectiveness of option B plus for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited countries: evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Adam; Paintsil, Elijah; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Long, Elisa F

    2015-03-18

    Achieving the goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) necessitates increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Option B provides ART through pregnancy and breastfeeding, whereas Option B+ recommends continuous ART regardless of CD4 count, thus potentially reducing MTCT during future pregnancies. Our objective was to compare maternal and pediatric health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Option B+ versus Option B in Ghana. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate HIV progression in mothers and transmission (in utero, during birth, or through breastfeeding) to current and all future children. Clinical parameters, including antenatal care access and fertility rates, were estimated from a retrospective review of 817 medical records at two hospitals in Ghana. Additional parameters were obtained from published literature. Modeled outcomes include HIV infections averted among newborn children, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness ratios. HIV-infected women in Ghana have a lifetime average of 2.3 children (SD 1.3). Projected maternal life expectancy under Option B+ is 16.1 years, versus 16.0 years with Option B, yielding a gain of 0.1 maternal QALYs and 3.2 additional QALYs per child. Despite higher initial ART costs, Option B+ costs $785/QALY gained, a value considered very cost-effective by World Health Organization benchmarks. Widespread implementation of Option B+ in Ghana could theoretically prevent up to 668 HIV infections among children annually. Cost-effectiveness estimates remained favorable over robust sensitivity analyses. Although more expensive than Option B, Option B+ substantially reduces MTCT in future pregnancies, increases both maternal and pediatric QALYs, and is a cost-effective use of limited resources in Ghana.

  15. Risk Management Programs under Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Guidance for Implementing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

  16. International school of innovative technologies for cleaning the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The International School of Innovative Technologies for Cleaning the Environment was established in 1989. This School is located at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Sicily, Italy. The School primarily organizes and hosts training courses, technical conferences and advanced study workshops addressing state-of-the-art technologies to clean the environment, minimize waste generation, prevent pollution, and identify strategies for sustainable development. The most recent workshop, {open_quotes}Risk Management Strategies Applied to Environmental Cleanup in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE),{close_quotes} will be discussed in detail.

  17. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  18. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  19. Reactor vessel closure stud cleaning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennerstrom, E.A.; Brown, J.S.; Milligan, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    A stud cleaning machine whereby the threaded portion of very large studs can be cleaned to a semi-bright finish. The cleaning machine is designed to completely enclose the studs during the cleaning operation, so that none of the loosened oxides, residues, and caked lubricants are discharged into the surrounding atmosphere. The contaminated particles are retained in the cleaning machine and removed through an attached vacuum cleaner. 3 claims

  20. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  1. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  2. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  3. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  4. Method of cleaning nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi; Terai, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To remove cladding without increasing the volume of a cleaning apparatus. Constitution: A discharge port is provided to a cleaning vessel for containing fuels and a filter is connected to the discharge port by way of a pressure-reduction valve and a water feeder. Further, a communication port is provided to the bottom of the cleaning vessel and a pressurizer equipped with an electrical heater connected to the communication port by way of an air valve and a communication pipeway. Then, after filling water within the vessel, the pressurizer and the communication pipe and closing the pressure-reduction valve, water is heated by a heater. Subsequently, by closing the air valve and opening the pressure-reduction valve, water in the vessel violently boils under a reduction pressure to strip claddings from the surface of fuel rods and release the same into the water due to impact shocks resulted from the generation of gas bubbles. (Sekiya, J.)

  5. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  6. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in 2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  7. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  8. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  9. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  10. Communication Skills for Patient Engagement: Argumentation Competencies As Means to Prevent or Limit Reactance Arousal, with an Example from the Italian Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of argumentative competencies for the achievement of patient engagement through communication in doctor-patient consultations. The achievement of patient engagement is being proposed by recent studies as a condition that can facilitate in particular patient adherence, which involves behavior change. One obstacle to behavior change that has been observed is reactance, i.e., resistance to persuasive messages when a threat to freedom is perceived. In the medical field, reactance theory has been mostly applied in the field of mental health, less frequently to understand non-adherence in general. However, a few studies have revealed that reactance can actually explain in part the motives behind non-adherence. These studies propose that the arousal of reactance could be limited or prevented by adopting relational measures aimed at giving patients the feeling that they still hold some control over the process of care and that the "impositions" on their freedoms are acceptable because they have had the opportunity to decide about them. However, they do not discuss how these strategies should be operationalized at the dialogical level. A debated issue in the study of reactance is the role played by knowledge. It seems that pure information regarding an issue is likely to represent a threat in itself. Complementary to this is the finding that quality of argument does not impact on the degree of reactance. These findings pose a problem in view of the goal of patient education, itself considered as a necessary premise for any process of patient engagement and adherence. It seems necessary to move away from a conception of education as mere transmission of information and look for more effective ways of transferring knowledge to patients. With regard to this issue, the paper argues that useful insights can be found in studies on science education, in which it is shown experimentally that argumentative processes favor learning and understanding

  11. Communication Skills for Patient Engagement: Argumentation Competencies as Means to Prevent or Limit Reactance Arousal, with an example from the Italian healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bigi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of argumentative competencies for the achievement of patient engagement through communication in doctor-patient consultations. The achievement of patient engagement is being proposed by recent studies as a condition that can facilitate in particular patient adherence, which involves behavior change. One obstacle to behavior change that has been observed is reactance, i.e. resistance to persuasive messages when a threat to freedom is perceived. In the medical field, reactance theory has been mostly applied in the field of mental health, less frequently to understand non adherence in general. However, a few studies have revealed that reactance can actually explain in part the motives behind non adherence. These studies propose that the arousal of reactance could be limited or prevented by adopting relational measures aimed at giving patients the feeling that they still hold some control over the process of care and that the ‘impositions’ on their freedoms are acceptable because they have had the opportunity to decide about them. However, they do not discuss how these strategies should be operationalized at the dialogical level. A debated issue in the study of reactance is the role played by knowledge. It seems that pure information regarding an issue is likely to represent a threat in itself. Complementary to this is the finding that quality of argument does not impact on the degree of reactance. These findings pose a problem in view of the goal of patient education, itself considered as a necessary premise for any process of patient engagement and adherence. It seems necessary to move away from a conception of education as mere transmission of information and look for more effective ways of transferring knowledge to patients. With regard to this issue, the paper argues that useful insights can be found in studies on science education, in which it is shown experimentally that argumentative processes favor learning

  12. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  13. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  14. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  15. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent possible reexposure and reinfestation. Bedding and clothing worn or used next to the skin anytime during the 3 days before treatment should be machine washed and dried using the hot water and hot dryer cycles or be dry-cleaned. ...

  16. Cleaning and Processing RSS measurements for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Handling variations in sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) is neassary for achieving robust location fingerprinting (LF). Current research has only proposed limited system-specific models for how to handle the cleaning of RSS variations. However, this paper propose a novel model for both...

  17. Clean elements in abelian rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equivalent to being clean for an abelian ring is 'topologically boolean'. In line with [1] we say that a ring R (not necessarily commutative) is right (resp. left) topologically boolean, or a right (resp. left) tb-ring for short, if for every pair of distinct maximal right (resp. left) ideals of R there is an idempotent in exactly one of them.

  18. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  19. Air cleaning in accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Although safe operation of nuclear facilities requires containment behind suitable barriers of the radiotoxic and/or chemitoxic materials involved, it is sometimes necessary to breach the containment, in particular to provide ventilation. This book reviews the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident situations, and outlines outstanding problems and their safety significance

  20. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  1. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  2. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  3. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  4. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  5. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  6. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  7. 76 FR 20664 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9294-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List... notice announces the availability of EPA's action identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for...

  8. 78 FR 79484 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On December 24, 2013, the Department... Crawfordsville (``City'') has violated the Clean Water Act, because discharges from the City's wastewater... limitations on copper and other pollutants and includes requirements for proper operation, maintenance, and...

  9. 75 FR 68783 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9223-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List... action announces the availability of EPA decisions identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in California to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act section 303(d)(2), and requests...

  10. 77 FR 27770 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9670-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List...: This notice announces EPA's decision identifying certain water quality limited waterbodies, and the associated pollutant, in Utah to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests...

  11. 75 FR 71431 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9230-1] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List... FR 68783 announcing the availability of EPA decisions identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in California to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act section 303(d)(2), and requests...

  12. 75 FR 52735 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9189-7] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List...: This notice announces the availability of EPA's decision identifying 12 water quality limited waterbodies and associated pollutants in South Dakota to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303...

  13. 76 FR 74057 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9498-4] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List... notice announces the availability of EPA's action identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for...

  14. Sanitary impact of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck: evaluation and prevention. Synthesis of available data and recommendations; Impact sanitaire des operations de nettoyage consecutives a la pollution engendree par le naufrage de l'Erika: evaluation et prevention. Synthese des donnees disponibles et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The I.N.E.R.I.S. (Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques) report relative to the consequences of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck gives the following conclusions: whatever the pollutants are, the carcinogen risks by pulmonary way are negligible for people assigned to the beaches cleaning; the general carcinogen effects, linked to benzopyrene in organism after skin crossing, have been evaluated as negligible; there is a non negligible risk for the embryo-fetal development linked to the benzopyrene skin crossing; It is not possible to tell if the skin cancer risk is or not negligible, because of the uncertainty of the dose effectively absorbed by the skin and the lack of acceptable toxicological references; the risks linked to the volatile organic compounds are negligible; an uncertainty exists on the risks linked to the thiophene family that have not been determined, because of the deficiency of base data. For the second study, whatever the studied scenario, the R.I.V.M. (Riijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en mileuhygiene) Dutch organism report concludes to a risk qualified as acceptable for the voluntary workers and professionals, included the birds cleaners. The risk of skin cancer consecutive to the skin exposure has been characterized with a dose response relationship model coming from previous works of the R.I.V.M. (N.C.)

  15. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: ICIS-NPDES Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Limits data set for Clean Water Act permitted...

  16. Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mop). Vacuuming and wet wiping achieved lead reductions of 92% ± 4% and 91%, ± 4%, respectively, while the electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mops achieved lead reductions of only 89 ± 8% and  81 ± 17%, respectively.

  17. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2013-11-13

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer in combination with silica-based sol-gel chemistry and preformed TiO2 nanocrystals. The spontaneous dense packing of copolymer micelles followed by a condensation reaction results in an inverse opal-type silica morphology that is loaded with TiO2 photocatalytic hot-spots. The very low volume fraction of the inorganic network allows the optimization of the antireflecting properties of the porous ARC despite the high refractive index of the embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanocrystals. The resulting ARCs combine high optical and self-cleaning performance and can be deposited onto flexible plastic substrates. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. The governance of clean energy in India: The clean development mechanism (CDM) and domestic energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jon; Newell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which clean energy is being governed in India. It does so in order to improve our understanding of the potential and limitations of carbon finance in supporting lower carbon energy transitions, and to strengthen our appreciation of the role of politics in enabling or frustrating such endeavors. In particular we emphasize the importance of politics and the nature of India's political economy in understanding the development of energy sources and technologies defined as ‘clean’ both by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and leading international actors. By considering the broad range of institutions that exert formal and informal political influence over how the benefits and costs of the CDM are distributed, the paper highlights shortcomings in the narrow way in which CDM governance has been conceptualized to date. This approach goes beyond analysis of technocratic aspects of governance – often reduced to a set of institutional design issues – in order to appreciate the political nature of the trade-offs that characterize debates about India's energy future and the relations of power which will determine how, and on whose terms, they are resolved. - Highlights: • Clean energy governance in practice is shaped by political power and influence. • Governance of clean energy requires strong institutions from local to global levels. • Un-governed areas of energy policy are often as revealing of the exercise of power as areas where there explicit policy is in place. • Climate and carbon finance interventions need to better understand the landscape of political power which characterises India’s energy sector

  19. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  20. Clean Air Act Permitting in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Clean Air Act permitting in Nevada in Nevada and EPA's oversight. Clean Air Act permitting in Nevada is the shared responsibility of one state and two local agencies, along with EPA Region 9.

  1. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  3. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  4. Recent results on cleaning and conditioning the ATF vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Clark, T.L.; Glowienka, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for cleaning and conditioning the vacuum vessel of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) and its internal components are described. The vacuum vessel cleaning technique combines baking to 150/degree/C and glow discharges with hydrogen gas. Chromium gettering is used to further condition the system. The major internal components are the anodized aluminum baffles in the Thomson scattering system, a graphite-shielded ICRF antenna, two graphite limiters, and a diagnostic graphite plate. Three independent heating systems are used to bake some of the major components of the system. The major characteristics used for assessing cleanliness and conditioning progress are the maximum pressure attained during bakeout, the results of gas analysis, and relevant plasma parameters (e.g., time to radiative decay). Details of the various cleaning and conditioning procedures and results are presented. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  6. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  7. A biomechanical comparison of successful and unsuccessful power clean attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kristof; Meinerz, Carolyn

    2017-06-01

    Although the power clean is an almost ubiquitous exercise in the strength and conditioning setting, relatively little is known about the biomechanics of successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts. The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical differences between successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts in male collegiate athletes. Fifteen male lacrosse players (Age: 20.1 ± 1.2; Height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m; Body mass: 80.4 ± 8.1 kg; Relative one-repetition maximum power clean: 1.25 ± 0.13 kg/kg) were videotaped during a lifting session that required the completion of maximal effort power cleans to establish a one-repetition maximum. The position of the barbell was digitised and used to calculate the displacement, velocity, acceleration, and acceleration vector of the barbell. The results revealed that unsuccessful attempts were characterised by differences during the second pull phase. Unsuccessful lifts exhibited greater peak forward barbell displacement, lower backward barbell velocities, and lower resultant acceleration angles during the second pull. Strength and conditioning coaches should therefore emphasise limited forward motion of the barbell during the second pull and instruct athletes to generate a more backward-directed force during the second pull in order to lift greater loads during testing and subsequent lifting sessions.

  8. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  9. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...... relatively simple and thus practically efficient, partly due to the development of a new simple algorithm for computing the connected components of a graph embedded in the plane. A version of our cleaning algorithm has already been incorporated in a commercial product....

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  16. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell is...

  17. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a...

  19. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  20. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  1. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  2. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  3. TCV mirrors cleaned by plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors exposed in TCV tokamak were cleaned by plasma in laboratory. A gold (Au mirror was deposited with 185–285nm of amorphous carbon (aC:D film coming from the carbon tiles of TCV. Another molybdenum (Mo mirror had a thicker deposit due to a different location within the tokamak. The thickness measurements were carried out using ellipsometry and the reflectivity measurements performed by spectrophotometry revealed a decrease of the specular reflectivity in the entire range (250–2500nm for the Mo mirror and specifically in the visible spectrum for the Au. Comparison of the simulated reflectivity using a refractive index of 1.5 and a Cauchy model for the aC:D gives good confidence on the estimated film thickness. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency directly applied to a metallic plate where the mirrors were fixed demonstrated the ability to remove the carbon deposits. A mixture of 50% hydrogen and 50% helium was used with a −200V self-bias. Due to the low sputtering yield of He and the low chemical erosion of hydrogen leading to volatile molecules, 20h of cleaning were needed for Au mirror and more than 60h for Mo mirror. Recovery of the reflectivity was not complete for the Au mirror most likely due to damage of the surface during tokamak exposure (breakdown phenomena.

  4. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L.-S.

    2007-03-01

    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  5. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  6. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  7. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Cleaning of livestock buildings is the single most health-threatening task in the agricultural industry and a transition to robot-based cleaning would be instrumental to improving working conditions for employees. Present cleaning robots fall short on cleanness quality, as they cannot perform con...

  9. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  10. Streams in Iowa Listed as Impaired in 2010 Under the Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states are required from "time to time" to submit a list of waters for which effluent limits will not be sufficient to...

  11. Lakes in Iowa Listed as Impaired in 2010 Under the Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states are required from "time to time" to submit a list of waters for which effluent limits will not be sufficient to...

  12. Letters initiating Clean Water Act 404(c) review of mining at Pebble deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correspondence between EPA and the Pebble Limited Partnership and the State of Alaska initiating review under section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act of potential adverse environmental effects associated with mining the Pebble deposit in southwest Alaska.

  13. Asthma and exposure to cleaning products: a European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force consensus statement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siracusa, A.; Blay, F. de; Folletti, I.; Moscato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Quirce, S.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Sastra, J.; Tarlo, S.M.; Walusiak-Skorupa, J.; Zock, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Professional and domestic cleaning is associated with work-related asthma (WRA). This position paper reviews the literature linking exposure to cleaning products and the risk of asthma and focuses on prevention. Increased risk of asthma has been shown in many epidemiological and surveillance

  14. Chemical cleaning as an essential part of steam generator asset management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiepani, C.; Ammann, F.; Jones, D.; Evans, S.; Harper, K.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of deposits is intrinsic for the operation of Steam Generators in PWRs. Such depositions often lead to reduction of thermal performance, loss of component integrity and, in some cases to power restrictions. Accordingly removal of such deposits is an essential part of the asset management of the Steam Generators in a Nuclear Power Plant. Every plant has its individual condition, history and constraints which need to be considered when planning and performing a chemical cleaning. Typical points are: Sludge load amount and constitution of the deposits; Sludge distribution in the steam generator; Existing or expected corrosion problems; Amount and treatment possibilities for the waste generated. Depending on these points the strategy for chemical cleaning shall be evolved. The range of treatment starts with very soft cleanings with a removal of approx 100 kg per steam generator and goes to a full scale cleaning which can remove up to several thousand kilograms of deposits from a steam generator. Depending on the goal to be achieved and the steam generator present an adequate cleaning method shall be selected. Flexible and 'customizable' cleaning methods that can be adapted to the individual needs of a plant are therefore a must. Particular for the application of preventive cleanings where repeated or even regular application are intended, special focus has to be put on low corrosion and easy waste handling. Therefore AREVA has developed the 'C3' concept, Customized Chemical Cleaning concept. This concept covers the entire range of steam generator cleaning. Particular for the preventive maintenance cleanings processes with extreme low corrosion rates and easy waste handling are provided which make repeated applications safe and cost efficient. (author)

  15. [Pediatrician-parent interaction and early prevention : A review about the limits in addressing psychosocial risks during well-child visits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Pediatricians can be a door opener to early prevention for families at risk. The German well-child program is well-established, but there is a gap between the structural possibilities and the observed placements. The aim of this review is to show how pediatricians and parents talk about psychosocial risks under the very structured conditions of well-child visits. The challenges and traps of the framed interactions will be described and options for early prevention will be shown. The review is primarily based on the work of conversational and ethnomethodological studies reconstructing the pediatrician's discussion with parents about psychosocial issues in the family. Well-child visits are a highly routinized practice. Talking about family issues for both partners is a difficult task. Discussions about psychosocial issues are seldom and vague . Predominantly, they work cooperatively on reciprocal normalization of the child's development. Based on this shared orientation, pediatricians make an early, mostly general, prescription of parental tasks, supporting the child in the next developmental step. This kind of routine anticipatory counselling puts some pressure on the parents. Parents under unknown stress could be overburdened with this advice. In the script of well-child visits, there are no slots that indicate to pediatricians and parents when, which, how and for what purpose psychosocial issues can be discussed and negotiated. For implementing such slots in well-child visits, three steps are necessary: a structured and regular assessment of psychosocial issues, a trained pediatrician in motivational interviewing and a social worker guiding the family in the network of early prevention.

  16. Cleaning protocols for crystallization robots: preventing protease contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naschberger, Andreas; Fürnrohr, Barbara G.; Dunzendorfer-Matt, Theresia; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Wright, David; Scheffzek, Klaus; Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The protease in the commonly used commercial low-foam enzyme cleaner Zymit cannot be completely blocked by EDTA, a widely used inhibitor of metalloproteases, at concentrations of up to 5 mM. Severe protein degradation was observed in crystallization drops after EDTA-containing wash steps unless residual Zymit protease was removed with NaOH at a concentration of at least 0.1 M. Wash steps with 0.1% SDS were also ineffective in completely removing the remaining Zymit activity. Protocols including wash steps with at least 0.1 M NaOH, as for example specified in the original ZENM protocol, are recommended to completely deactivate Zymit protease activity. PMID:25615978

  17. Novel Self-Cleaning Surfaces for Biofouling Prevention, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most problematic issues that facing efficient water reclamation processes for long duration space missions is biofilm growth and biofouling on RO membrane...

  18. The effect of statin treatment on the prevention of stent mediated flow limited edge dissections during PCI in patients with stable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Fatih; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Yayla, Cagrı; Canpolat, Ugur; Murat, Sani Namık; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2016-10-01

    The effect of statin therapy before PCI with direct stenting may reduce the development of flow limited edge dissections (ED) in patients with stable angina. Flow limited ED after PCI is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Statin therapy induces important changes in the plaque composition which have been previously identified as strong predictors of ED. 100 patients complicated with flow limited ED and 100 control patients with successful procedure were enrolled into the study. EDs were described as the 5-mm regions that were immediately adjacent to the stent borders, both distally and proximally on the coronary angiography. Rate of statin use and duration of statin use were significantly higher in patients with non-ED group (63%) versus ED group (25%) (p<0.001). In addition, patients in ED group had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) at admission (9.9mg/dL (5.89-16.45) vs. 4.40mg/dL (3.5-7.09), respectively, p=0.014). Our findings suggested that maintenance statin treatment before PCI with direct stenting may reduce the development of flow limited ED in patients with stable angina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A REVIEW ON CONCEPT OF CLEANING VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikant; Prashar Bharat; Kumar Satinder

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers must validate their cleaning process to ensure compliance with standard regulatory authorities. Manufacturing and cleaning equipment must be designed for effective and consistent cleaning to avoid cross-contamination and the cleaning processes must be verified as effective. This article provide introduction on cleaning validation and the associated regulations, level/degree of cleaning, approaches to cleaning validation, elements of cleaning validation, validatio...

  20. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  1. Bed Bug Prevention, Detection and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tips in this brochure include inspecting and cleaning second-hand furniture, inspection and prevention in hotel rooms, recognizing bites, integrated pest management, safe pesticide use, signs of infestation, and using mattress and box spring encasements.

  2. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  3. Gas cleaning with Granular Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Natvig, Ingunn Roald

    2007-01-01

    The panel bed filter (PBF) is a granular filter patented by A. M. Squires in the late sixties. PBFs consist of louvers with stationary, granular beds. Dust is deposited in the top layers and on the bed surface when gas flows through. PBFs are resistant to high temperatures, variations in the gas flow and hot particles. The filter is cleaned by releasing a pressure pulse in the opposite direction of the bulk flow (a puff back pulse). A new louver geometry patented by A. M. Squires is the filte...

  4. Markkinointisuunnitelma case: Clean Water Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Ida-Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on luoda Clean Water Oy:n uudelle tuoteryhmälle markkinointisuunnitelma. Tuoteryhmänä on kuluttajakäyttöön suunnitellut jätevesijärjestelmät. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena on löytää markkinoinnilliset ratkaisut uuden tuoteryhmän lanseeraukseen. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään niitä osa-alueita, joita käsitellään myös itse markkinointisuunnitelmassa. Markkinointi on jaettu perinteisiin markkinointikeinoihin ja digitaaliseen markk...

  5. Effectiveness of various cleaning and disinfectant products on Clostridium difficile spores of PCR ribotypes 010, 014 and 027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenters, N.; E. Huijskens (Elisabeth); de Wit, S.C.J.; Sanders, I.G.J.M.; J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); E. Kuijper; Voss, A.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested

  6. Effectiveness of various cleaning and disinfectant products on Clostridium difficile spores of PCR ribotypes 010, 014 and 027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenters, N.; Huijskens, E.G.; Wit, S.C.J. de; Sanders, I.; Rosmalen, J. van; Kuijper, E.J.; Voss, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their

  7. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Featured Activities Create a Handwashing Campaign Help prevent school absenteeism by creating a handwashing campaign for your school community. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Resources for ...

  8. [The HIV infection - the limits of prevention concepts. Consideration with respect to responsibilities incumbent on the infected individual, politics and society at large].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennin, R H; Doese, D; Theobald, W; Lafrenz, M

    2007-04-01

    Despite the introduction of campaigns to prevent the continued spread of HIV/AIDS in Germany, the number of annual firsttime HIV-diagnoses is continuing steadily. The concepts behind the current campaigns are largely based on models of New Public Health, of which social learning strategies are an essential element. The established personal and individual rights should be unimpeachable but the right not to know the status of HIV infection should be questioned for those people who spread their HIV infection intentionally and wilfully. Confronted with more than 10,000 people in Germany unconscious of their HIV infection, easy access to HIV testing and access of opportune therapy should be offered with the goal of reducing the number of new infections. Expanded strategies on the responsibility to one's personal health and that of the partner, understandable and adapted to special groups of the society, should be established and maintained at a high level of awareness. All measures must be performed voluntarily.

  9. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  10. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  11. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  12. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  13. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  14. Chemical cleaning of AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.V.; Moore, W.; Rantell, A.

    1978-01-01

    AGR boilers are likely to require post service chemical cleaning to remove accumulated oxides at intervals of 15 - 35 kh. The need to clean will be based on an assessment of such factors as the development of flow imbalances through parallel tubes induced by the formation of rough oxide surfaces, an increasing risk of localised corrosion as the growth of porous oxides proceeds and the risk of tube blockage caused by the exfoliation of steam-grown oxides. The study has shown what heterogeneous multilayer oxides possessing a range of physical and chemical properties form on the alloy steels. They include porous and compact magnetites, chromium spinels and sesquioxide. Ammoniated citric acid has been shown to remove deposited and water-grown magnetites from the carbon and alloy steels but will not necessarily remove the substituted spinels grown on the alloy steels or the potentially spalling steam-grown magnetite on the A1SI 316 superheater. Citric acid supplemented with the reducing agent glyoxal completely removes all oxides from the boiler except the protective inner spinel formed on the 316. Removal of the spinels and compact magnetites occurs more by undercutting and physical detachment than by the dissolution. (author)

  15. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuete M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Kuete,1,2 HongFang Yuan,1 Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou,2 Emmanuel Ancel Songo,2 Fan Yang,1 XiuLan Ma,1 ChengLiang Xiong,1 HuiPing Zhang1 1Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Center, Family Planning and Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Main Maternity of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yaounde Central Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon Background: Integration of family planning services (FPS into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results: Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported

  16. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  17. PHT clean up demineralizer system and condensate polishing unit of advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, N.R.; Dhawan, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of corrosion and ionic impurities are important in reliable operation of nuclear plant to maintain water coolant chemistry. PHT clean up system and condensate polishing units are the purification systems in PHT to control the coolant chemistry and to protect the PHT system piping and equipment against corrosion. The above clean up system removes the fission and activation products from the coolant and minimise the activity (high dose) problems in operation and maintenance of the plant. It also serves as potential decontamination facility for periodic clean up of the PHT piping and equipment. The paper describes the estimation of corrosion products in PHT, selection of clean up flow to limit the crud concentration and design of ion exchangers for clean up system and condensate polishing unit of AHWR. (author)

  18. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  19. Modelling the relationship between antiretroviral treatment and HIV prevention: limitations of the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model in a changing policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2007-08-01

    This paper shows how two publicly available epidemiological modelling packages, namely the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model and the ASSA2003 AIDS and Demographic Model, predict very different impacts from rolling out highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on new HIV infections. Using South Africa as a case study, it shows that the ASSA2003 model predicts a significant drop in new HIV infections as HAART is rolled out, whereas the Spectrum model assumes that HAART does not have a preventative impact (and in fact generates a small increase in new HIV infections). Users will thus draw different conclusions about the public health benefits of HAART depending on which modelling package they use. Despite being presented as a policy-oriented modelling tool capable of exploring 'what if' questions about the impact of different policy choices, the Spectrum model is illequipped to do so with regard to a HAART rollout. Unlike Spectrum, ASSA2003 is more flexible and its assumptions are clear. Better modelling and more information (including about the relationship between HAART and sexual risk behaviour) is required to develop appropriate public-policy modelling for the HAART era.

  20. Morphologically intelligent underactuated robot for underwater hull cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Daniel; Faina, Andres; López-Peña, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a new type of robot for underwater hull cleaning on ships with non-magnetic hulls. This robot is based on the concept that cleaning hulls regularly, without waiting to take them out of the water, will improve the efficiency of the ships and will permit a reduction...... in the use of the chemicals that are usually employed to prevent the growth of marine life on the hull and which are generally harmful to the environment. The robot described in this paper is an underactuated morphologically adapted robot that through an appropriate morphology and making use of the forces...... it an ideal candidate for completely autonomous operation. A description of the design of the robot as well as a series of examples of its operation are provided....

  1. Retail Deli Slicer Cleaning Frequency--Six Selected Sites, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G; Hoover, E Rickamer; Ripley, Danny; Matis, Bailey; Nicholas, David; Hedeen, Nicole; Faw, Brenda

    2016-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths (an estimated 255) in the United States annually, after nontyphoidal Salmonella species and Toxoplasma gondii (1). Deli meats are a major source of listeriosis illnesses, and meats sliced and packaged at retail delis are the major source of listeriosis illnesses attributed to deli meat (4). Mechanical slicers pose cross-contamination risks in delis and are an important source of Listeria cross-contamination. Reducing Listeria contamination of sliced meats in delis will likely reduce Listeria illnesses and outbreaks. Good slicer cleaning practices can reduce this foodborne illness risk. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) studied how often retail deli slicers were fully cleaned (disassembled, cleaned, and sanitized) at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code-specified minimum frequency of every 4 hours and examined deli and staff characteristics related to slicer cleaning frequency. Interviews with staff members in 298 randomly-selected delis in six EHS-Net sites showed that approximately half of delis fully cleaned their slicers less often than FDA's specified minimum frequency. Chain-owned delis and delis with more customers, more slicers, required manager food safety training, food safety-knowledgeable workers, written slicer-cleaning policies, and food safety-certified managers fully cleaned their slicers more frequently than did other types of delis, according to deli managers or workers. States and localities should require deli manager training and certification, as specified in the FDA Food Code. They should also consider encouraging or requiring delis to have written slicer-cleaning policies. Retail food industry leaders can also implement these prevention efforts to reduce risk in their establishments. Because independent and smaller delis had lower frequencies of slicer cleaning, prevention efforts should focus on these types of

  2. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  3. Fouling Issues in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs for Wastewater Treatment: Major Mechanisms, Prevention and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros K. Gkotsis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is one of the most important considerations in the design and operation of membrane systems as it affects pretreatment needs, cleaning requirements, operating conditions, cost and performance. Given that membrane fouling represents the main limitation to membrane process operation, it is unsurprising that the majority of membrane material and process research and development conducted is dedicated to its characterization and amelioration. This work presents the fundamentals of fouling issues in membrane separations, with specific regard to membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs and the most frequently applied preventive-control strategies. Feed pretreatment, physical and chemical cleaning protocols, optimal operation of MBR process and membrane surface modification are presented and discussed in detail. Membrane fouling is the major obstacle to the widespread application of the MBR technology and, therefore, fouling preventive-control strategies is a hot issue that strongly concerns not only the scientific community, but industry as well.

  4. Comparison of interdental cleaning methods: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margaret A; Kellett, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V; Clerehugh, Valerie

    2006-08-01

    Although interdental cleaning is an integral component of home plaque control for periodontally involved patients, limited data exist on the periodontal benefits of commonly used interdental cleaning methods before definitive root surface debridement is undertaken. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a customized interdental brushing technique and a customized flossing technique on clinical periodontal outcomes prior to root surface debridement in chronic periodontitis cases. This was a single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. Seventy-seven patients with chronic periodontitis were measured for plaque, relative interdental papillae level, Eastman interdental bleeding index, probing depths, and bleeding on probing at interdental sites and underwent a 10-minute hand scaling to remove easily accessible calculus deposits. Before group allocation, patients were advised on toothbrushing and instructed in two customized methods of interdental cleaning involving dental floss and precurved interdental brushes. Materials were supplied after random allocation. Participants were recalled at 6 and 12 weeks for clinical measurements, reinforcement of instructions, and fresh materials. There were significant reductions from baseline for all indices in both groups (P floss group in every parameter (P floss group (P <0.01). This trial demonstrated that patients were able to improve clinical periodontal outcomes by interdental cleaning, particularly with interdental brushes, even before thorough root surface debridement was undertaken.

  5. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  6. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  7. Preventing posterior sagittal anoplasty ′cripples′ in areas with limited medical resources: A few modifications to surgical approach in anorectal malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Olivieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anorectal malformations (ARM are the most common neonatal emergencies in Sub-Saharan Africa countries. Late presentation, lack of pediatric facilities and trained paediatric surgeons influence the outcome of these patients. This study reports a 5-year of experience in the management of ARM at the Orotta Referral Hospital in Asmara (Eritrea and proposes some modified surgical approaches to minimize the risk of complications and the length of hospital stay. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the records of 38 patients with ARM observed between September 2006 and April 2011. Since 2009 a modification of original posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP was introduced, consisting in a long rectal stump (3 cms closed and left at the perineal level, to be trimmed after two weeks. This avoided mucous spillage on the wound and prevented contamination. Post-operative course and outcome were evalued in the two group of patients divided according the type of surgical technique (Group A: Standard PSARP; Group B: Modified PSARP. Results: There were 21 boys and 17 girls aged 4 days to 9 years (median age 182 days. Of the 38 patients, 2 infants died before surgery and 3 refused preliminary colostomy. Previously confectioned colostomies often required revision or redoing due to severe prolapse or malposition. When possible, primary sigmoid colostomy was performed. There were 15 patients in Group A and 18 in Group B. Wound infection or disruption were recorded in 7 cases (46% in Group A and in 2 (11% in Group B. Late complications were related to anal stenosis, which required long term dilatations. Three cases needed a PSARP redo (2 in Group A, 1 Group B. Conclusions: We believe that our simple modification of original PSARP technique could be of help lowering post-operative complications rate and reducing hospital stay. Family compliance is mandatory for long-term surgical success. A relevant time must be spent in training to stoma care and post

  8. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  9. TECHNOLOGY OF REVERSE-BLAST CORROSION CLEANING OF STEEL SHEETS PRIOR TO LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zguk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of surface cleaning against corrosion influences on efficiency in realization of a number of technological processes. While using bentonite clays in power fluid reverse-blast cleaning ensures formation of anticorrosion protective coating with light absorbing properties on the cleaned surface and prevents formation of the repeated corrosion. The paper presents results of the investigations pertaining to influence of reverse-blast cleaning parameters of steel sheets on quality of the cleaned surface prior to laser cutting. Processing conditions, applied compositions of power fluid and also properties of the protective film coatings on the cleaned surface have been given in the paper. The paper considers topography, morphology and chemical composition of the given coating while applying complex metal micrographic, X-ray diffraction and electronic and microscopic investigations. A complex of laser cutting (refer to gas lasers with output continuous capacity of 2.5/4.0 kW has been applied for experimental works to evaluate influence of the formed surface quality on efficiency of laser cutting process. Specimens having dimension 120×120 mm, made of steel Ст3пс, with thickness from 3 to 10 mm have been prepared for the experiments. An analysis has shown that the application of reverse-blast cleaning ensures higher speed in laser cutting by a mean of 10–20 %. The investigations have made it possible to determine optimum cleaning modes: distance from a nozzle to the surface to be cleaned, jet velocity, pressure. It has been revealed that after drying of the specimens processed by power fluid based on water with concentrations of bentonite clay and calcined soda a protective film coating with thickness of some 5–7 µm has been formed on the whole cleaned specimen surfaces. Chemical base of the coating has been formed by the elements which are included in the composition of bentonite clay being the basic component of the power fluid. 

  10. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  11. Electrostatic precipitator for air cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertsson, P.; Eriksson, R.; Vlastos, A.

    1981-03-31

    An electrostatic precipitator is disclosed for air cleaning wherein the air passes through in two steps: first passing through a charging portion and next through a separation portion. The charging portion includes wires positioned parallel to and between parallel metal sheets, the wires having an electric potential other than that of the metal sheets. The separation portion includes plural parallel metal sheets, each of which has an electric potential other than that of adjacent metal sheets. The charging portion includes two or more wires between each pair of metal sheets, and the metal sheets of the charging portion extend through and constitute some of the metal sheets of the separation portion, between which are disposed addition metal sheets of an odd number.

  12. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  13. Webinar: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  14. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui; Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak; Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q; Nilsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  15. Research document no. 21 bis. How could developing countries participate in climate change prevention: the clean development mechanism and beyond; Cahier de recherche no. 21. Les pays en developpement et la prevention du risque climatique: quelles perspectives pour le mecanisme de developpement propre?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavard, D.; Cornut, P.; Menanteau, Ph

    2000-10-01

    An agreement on CDM rules is important both for industrialized and developing countries. As a flexibility mechanism, it will allow industrialized countries to benefit from low cost emission reductions but the CDM, as a main goal, should also stimulate a more sustainable economic development in DCs. The CDM is the sole instrument, with GEF, proposed for DCs participation into climate change prevention. This situation satisfies a majority of DCs, but CDM may not offer sufficient perspectives for some countries with rapid industrialization given the huge economic stakes linked to the creation of a carbon credits market between Annex I countries. The operationality of the CDM is not yet established and important questions, as environmental additionality, are still unresolved. Here we first examine the rules in order to validate project additionality and their possible consequences on the effectiveness and the scope of the mechanism. The different reactions of major DCs groups on the structure of the mechanism will then be analysed. This will lead us to examine the possibilities to enlarge participation of DCs in climate change prevention according to the apparent wish of semi-industrialized countries. (author)

  16. Healthcare Laundry and Textiles in the United States: Review and Commentary on Contemporary Infection Prevention Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehulster, Lynne M

    2015-09-01

    Healthcare professionals have questions about the infection prevention effectiveness of contemporary laundry processes for healthcare textiles (HCTs). Current industrial laundry processes achieve microbial reductions via physical, chemical, and thermal actions, all of which result in producing hygienically clean HCTs. European researchers have demonstrated that oxidative laundry additives have sufficient potency to meet US Environmental Protection Agency benchmarks for sanitizers and disinfectants. Outbreaks of infectious diseases associated with laundered HCTs are extremely rare; only 12 such outbreaks have been reported worldwide in the past 43 years. Root cause analyses have identified inadvertent exposure of clean HCTs to environmental contamination (including but not limited to exposure to dust in storage areas) or a process failure during laundering. To date, patient-to-patient transmission of infection has not been associated with hygienically clean HCTs laundered in accordance with industry process standards. Occupationally acquired infection involved mishandling of soiled HCTs and failure to use personal protective equipment properly. Laboratory studies of antimicrobial treatments for HCTs demonstrate a wide range of activity from 1 to 7 log10 reduction of pathogens under various experimental conditions. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate potential use of these treatments for infection prevention. Microbiological testing of clean HCTs for certification purposes is now available in the United States. Key features (eg, microbial sampling strategy, numbers of textiles sampled) and justification of the testing are discussed.

  17. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  18. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium.

  19. Infrasonic backpulsed membrane cleaning of micro- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... objective of this work was to examine the efficiency of back-pulse cleaning, using different combinations of membrane materials and foulants, in ... used to measure or monitor fouling in both industrial and laboratory membrane ... fouling and cleaning in a reverse osmosis (RO) system, and showed that the ...

  20. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  1. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  2. Clean room technology in surgery suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The principles of clean room technology and the criteria for their application to surgery are discussed. The basic types of surgical clean rooms are presented along with their advantages and disadvantages. Topics discussed include: microbiology of surgery suites; principles of laminar airflow systems, and their use in surgery; and asepsis and the operating room.

  3. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  4. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  6. EMISSIONS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of ‘airing...

  7. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  8. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  9. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  10. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  11. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Egashira, Yasuo; Shimada, Fumie; Igarashi, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To save a low temperature reactor water clean-up system indispensable so far and significantly simplify the system by carrying out the reactor water clean-up solely in a high temperature reactor water clean-up system. Constitution: The reactor water clean-up device comprises a high temperature clean-up pump and a high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. The high temperature adsorption device is filled with amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents, or amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents and anionic adsorbing inorganic adsorbents. The reactor water clean-up device introduces reactor water by the high temperature clean-up pump through a recycling system to the high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. Since cations such as cobalt ions and anions such as chlorine ions in the reactor water are simultaneously removed in the device, a low temperature reactor water clean-up system which has been indispensable so far can be saved to realize the significant simplification for the entire system. (Seki, T.)

  12. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  13. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  14. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  15. Ground reaction forces during the power clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aaron L; Shimada, Sean D; Koontz, Alicia

    2002-08-01

    Identifying and understanding the key biomechanical factors that exemplify the power clean can provide athletes the proper tools needed to prevail at a competitive event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize and describe ground reaction forces (Fz) during the power clean lift. Three 60-Hz motion-detecting cameras and an AMTI force plate were used to collect data from 10 collegiate weightlifting men who performed a power clean at 60 and 70% of their last competitive maximum clean. The results revealed that a greater peak force (Fz) was produced during the second pull compared with the first pull and unweighted phases in both percentage lifts. As the system weight increased from 60 to 70%, the peak force (Fz) increased for the first pull and unweighted phases and decreased during the second pull phase. Learning the proper technique of the power clean may provide athletes the basic understanding needed to be competitive in a weightlifting or sporting event.

  16. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.D.; Park, K.H.; Lee, B.S.; Kim, Y.E.

    1999-01-01

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  17. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  18. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  19. Supercritical CO2 Cleaning System for Planetary Protection and Contamination Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Zhong, Fang; Aveline, David C.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    regulator (BPR). After soaking the parts to be cleaned in the clean vessel for a period, the CO2 with contaminants is flushed out of the cleaning vessel using fresh CO2 in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) method. The contaminants are either precipitating out in the boil-off container or being trapped in a filter subsystem. The parts to be cleaned are secured in a basket inside and can be rotated up to 1,400 rpm by a magnetic drive. The fluid flows within the vessel generate tangential forces on the parts surfaces, enhancing the cleaning effectiveness and shortening the soaking time. During the FIFO flushing, the pump subsystem pushes fresh CO2 into the cleaning vessel at a constant flow rate between 0.01 and 200 mL/min, while the BPR regulates the pressure in the cleaning vessel to within 0.1 bar by controlling the needle position in an outlet valve. The fresh CO2 gas flows through the heat exchanger at a given temperature before entering the cleaning vessel. A platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) reads the cleaning vessel interior temperature that can be controlled to within 0.1 K. As a result, cleaning vessel temperature remains constant during the FIFO flushing. There is no change in solvent power during FIFO flushing since both temperature and pressure inside the cleaning vessel remain unchanged, thus minimizing contaminants left behind. During decompression, both temperature and pressure are strictly controlled to prevent bubbles from generating in the cleaning vessel that could stir up the contaminants that sank to the bottom by gravity.

  20. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Workers' experience of slipping in U.S. limited-service restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Mittleman, Murray A; Perry, Melissa J

    2010-09-01

    The leading cause of injuries among restaurant workers is same-level falls, a significant proportion of which result from slipping. This study examines the experience of limited-service restaurant workers with slipping, their use of slip-resistant shoes, and their floor-cleaning practices. A total of 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in six U.S. states participated in a 12-week prospective cohort study on slipping in the workplace. At baseline, participants completed a survey that gathered information about their demographics, perceptions of floor slipperiness, use of slip-resistant shoes, floor cleaning practices, and number of slips experienced in the previous 4 weeks. During the subsequent 12 weeks, participants reported their slip experience weekly. Restaurant managers reported kitchen floor cleaning protocols and shoe policies. The overall rate of slipping during the 12 weeks of the prospective study was 0.44 slips per 40 work hours. The mean of the individual rate of slipping varied among the restaurants from 0.02 to 2.49 slips per 40 work hours, a rate ratio of more than 100 among the restaurants with the highest and the lowest rate of slipping. Such a large variation, which is unlikely due to chance alone (p workers as being the most slippery. Liquid and grease were reported as floor contaminants in over 70% of the slips. In restaurants where slip-resistant shoes were provided by the employer, 91% of participants wore them; whereas if they were neither provided nor encouraged, only 53.5% wore them (p < 0.01). Use of enzyme-based floor cleaners was widespread (25/36). In these restaurants, however, 62% of the participants who were responsible for cleaning floors reported using hot/warm water, thus violating the manufacturer's cold water floor cleaning protocol. These findings suggest that focused prevention efforts based on practices from restaurants with low rates of slipping could decrease slipping hazards.

  2. Will the US Clean Air Act come to Australia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxby, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the Clean Air Act and whether the emerging situation in Sydney and Melbourne is likely to require similar radical action to prevent a decline in public health of city dwellers. It is concluded that both Sydney and Melbourne are in the league of the world's polluted cities. The pollutants of concern are mainly carbon monoxide and ozone. Emissions reduction in these two cities during the 1980s has reduced photochemical smog formation to near the guidelines, but both these cities retain the potential to form high levels of photochemical smog under the right weather conditions, as shown by Sydney in 1990. 2 tabs., ills

  3. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  4. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... light fixtures in the official plant shall be kept clean. (c) All docks and rooms shall be kept clean... compartments. Rooms, compartments, or other parts of the official plant shall be kept clean and in sanitary... rooms should be kept clean at all times. (e) Floors in live rabbit holding rooms shall be cleaned with...

  5. Mechanical cleaning of steam generators in PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xunshen; Li Sujia

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical cleaning of steam generators and its equipment currently employed internationally and in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant are described. The site mechanical cleaning practices for nuclear power plant are also introduced. A number of remarks on mechanical cleaning, chemical cleaning, TV inspection of cleanness and withdrawal of foreign materials are given

  6. Cleaning of nanopillar templates for nanoparticle collection using PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzsch, S.; Wasisto, H. S.; Waag, A.; Kirsch, I.; Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.; Peiner, E.

    2011-05-01

    Nanoparticles are easily attracted by surfaces. This sticking behavior makes it difficult to clean contaminated samples. Some complex approaches have already shown efficiencies in the range of 90%. However, a simple and cost efficient method was still missing. A commonly used silicone for soft lithography, PDMS, is able to mold a given surface. This property was used to cover surface-bonded particles from all other sides. After hardening the PDMS, particles are still embedded. A separation of silicone and sample disjoins also the particles from the surface. After this procedure, samples are clean again. This method was first tested with carbon particles on Si surfaces and Si pillar samples with aspect ratios up to 10. Experiments were done using 2 inch wafers, which, however, is not a size limitation for this method.

  7. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  8. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  9. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  10. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  11. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  12. Clean Coal Initiatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of, and access to, coal is a crucial element of modern economies and it helps pave the way for human development. Accordingly, the thermal power sector and steel industries have been given a high priority in the national planning processes in India and a concerted focus on enhancing these sectors have resulted in significant gain in generation and availability of electricity and steel in the years since independence. To meet the need of huge demand of power coal is excavated. The process of excavation to the use of coal is potential enough to degrade the environment. Coal Mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities directly and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coal field in India have become derelict due to abandoned and active opencast and underground mines. The study is pursued to illustrate the facts which show the urgent need to clean coal mining in India.

  13. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  14. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  15. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  16. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the...

  17. Cleaning-resistant Cupriavidus and Ralstonia bacteria contaminating spacecrafts and the ultra clean rooms they are assembled in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, N.; Dams, A.; Bossus, A.; Provoost, A.; Venkateswaran, K.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Planetary Protection is preventing microbial contamination of both the target planet and the Earth when sending spacecrafts on interplanetary space mission It is important to preserve the natural conditions of other planets and to not bring with robots earthly microbes forward contamination when looking for spores of extra terrestrial life Spacecrafts and the ultra clean rooms they are assembled in are routinely monitored for microbial contamination It was shown that the floor air and surfaces of such spacecraft assembly rooms often contain Cupriavidu s and Ralstonia bacteria These bacteria not only contaminated the clean rooms but have also been found prior-to-flight on surfaces of space robots such as the Mars Odyssey Orbiter La Duc et al 2003 and even in-flight in ISS cooling water and Shuttle drinking water unpublished Aim In this study several Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains isolated from space craft assembling rooms and spacecrafts were characterized and analysed in detail Results The analysis showed that all the Cupriavidus and Ralstonia clean-room isolates are able to use a wide variety of substrates as carbon sources including ethanol and acetone In addition they all have accumulated moderate resistances to an extraordinary collection of physical and chemical antimicrobial agents Some of the test strains were able to form biofilms on plastic and metal materials used for space robots a nutritional and

  18. Plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Reichle, R.; Leipold, F.; Vorpahl, C.; Le Guern, F.; Walach, U.; Alberti, S.; Furno, I.; Yan, R.; Peng, J.; Ben Yaala, M.; Meyer, E.

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear fusion is an extremely attractive option for future generations to compete with the strong increase in energy consumption. Proper control of the fusion plasma is mandatory to reach the ambitious objectives set while preserving the machine’s integrity, which requests a large number of plasma diagnostic systems. Due to the large neutron flux expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), regular windows or fibre optics are unusable and were replaced by so-called metallic first mirrors (FMs) embedded in the neutron shielding, forming an optical labyrinth. Materials eroded from the first wall reactor through physical or chemical sputtering will migrate and will be deposited onto mirrors. Mirrors subject to net deposition will suffer from reflectivity losses due to the deposition of impurities. Cleaning systems of metallic FMs are required in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems in ITER. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency (RF) generated plasmas is currently being considered the most promising in situ cleaning technique. An update of recent results obtained with this technique will be presented. These include the demonstration of cleaning of several deposit types (beryllium, tungsten and beryllium proxy, i.e. aluminium) at 13.56 or 60 MHz as well as large scale cleaning (mirror size: 200 × 300 mm2). Tests under a strong magnetic field up to 3.5 T in laboratory and first experiments of RF plasma cleaning in EAST tokamak will also be discussed. A specific focus will be given on repetitive cleaning experiments performed on several FM material candidates.

  19. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, B.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  20. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  1. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  2. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  3. The McClean Lake uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The McClean Lake Uranium Project, located in the northern part of Saskatchewan, consists of five uranium deposits, Jeb - Sue A - Sue B - Sue C - McClean, scattered in three different locations on the mineral lease. On 16 March 1995, COGEMA Resources Inc and its partners, Denison Mines Ltd and OURD (Canada) Co Ltd, made the formal decision to develop the McClean Lake Project. Construction of the mine and mill started during summer 1995 and should be finished by mid 1997. Mining of the first deposit, Jeb started in 1996, ore being currently mined. The start of the yellowcake production is scheduled to start this fall. (author)

  4. A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baohong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Wang Shengli; Zhou Qiang; Tan Baimei; Zhu Yadong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO 4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection. (semiconductor technology)

  5. Observations on Salmonella contamination of commercial duck farms before and after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Callaby, Rebecca; Davies, Rob

    2017-04-01

    In the European Union, statutory control of Salmonella is in place in the chicken and turkey sectors, but not in the duck sector. In this study, 14 Salmonella-positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study, and faecal samples were those more frequently positive (62% of faecal samples were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (P Salmonella-positive samples between before cleaning and disinfection (41.1%) and after cleaning and disinfection (3.1%). After restocking, the number of Salmonella-positive samples increased significantly (P Salmonella. Farms in which disinfection programme 1 was used were 5.34 times less likely to have samples positive for Salmonella after cleaning and disinfection than farms which implemented programme 2. Formaldehyde acts effectively against Salmonella even in the presence of some residual organic matter. Limited residual contamination on farms after cleaning and disinfection represents a risk of infection for young ducklings, and thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures should be implemented to reduce the carry-over of infection between flocks.

  6. Trajectories towards clean technology. Example of volatile organic compound emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belis-Bergouignan, Marie-Claude; Oltra, Vanessa; Saint Jean, Maider [IFREDE-E3i, University Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV, Avenue Leon Duguit, Pessac 33608 (France)

    2004-02-20

    This article is based on the observation that, up until now, corporate investment has been limited in clean technologies despite the will of governmental authorities to stimulate them in order to cope with the demands of sustainable development. The paper deals with the issue of the development of clean technologies and the role of regulations as clean technology promoters. It tries to apprehend the characteristics and specificity of clean technology from both an empirical and a theoretical point of view, so as to understand which are the most favourable (or inversely, the most detrimental) conditions for their development. We use case studies concerning the reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in the chemical and metallurgical industries. These two examples highlight the problems created by the shift from a 'with-solvent paradigm' to a 'solvent-free paradigm' and the way clean technology trajectories may spread within such paradigms. We show that the problem of clean technology development primarily resides in some factors that impede technological adoption, although a strong and mixed incentives framework prevails. Such impediments are sector-specific, leading to different clean technology trajectories among sectors and indicating areas of sectoral intervention that could become the cornerstones of complementary technology policy.

  7. The Value of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a clean delivery kit intervention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Misungwi and Kwimba Districts, Tanzania to determine the effectiveness of clean delivery kits in preventing cord infection and puerperal sepsis and to provide qualitative information on community acceptability, correct use, and appropriateness of the kits. This study involved pregnant women aged ...

  9. Reduction of Ascaris transmission to pigs by cleaning the dunging area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Blanken, K.

    2008-01-01

    Ascaris suum is the most prevalent helminth on organic pig farms (Carstensen et al., 2002) and is transmitted mainly via the faeces. The use of anthelmintics does not fit in the organic principles and preventive measures are promoted. This project focused on assessing the efficacy of a cleaning

  10. 77 FR 517 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... controlling SO 2 , Essroc will install a Dry Scrubber/Lime Injection system at seven cement kilns. Two cement..., a proposed consent decree in United States, et al. v. Essroc Cement Company, Civil Action No. 2:11... of the Clean Air Act (the ``Act'') at Essroc cement plants: the Prevention of Significant...

  11. 78 FR 70576 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... lawsuit entitled United States, et al. v. CABOT Corporation, Case No. 6:13-cv-03095. The proposed Consent...'') claims that Cabot violated the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (``PSD'') provisions of the Clean... Decree, Cabot has agreed to implement $84 million in injunctive relief, to perform environmental...

  12. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  13. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Emergency Planning and...'') for violations of the Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act... . We will provide [[Page 15377

  14. Management and disposal of radioactive waste from clean-up operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.

    1997-01-01

    Clean-up of large contaminated areas may create enormous amounts of radioactive waste which need to be safely disposed of. Disposal of the waste may include pre-treatment and transportation to a final repository. There is much experience of the removal and disposal of large amounts of radioactive contaminated material from uranium mill tailings sites. For example, in Salt Lake City, USA, two million tons of radium-containing waste was transported 140 km by rail to a disposal site. In Port Hope, Canada, 70,000 cubic meters of similar waste were moved by road to a disposal site 350 km away. The disposal of the uranium mill tailings can be pre-planned, but an accident situation is quite different. In an emergency, decisions on how to deal with the waste from the clean-up may have to be made rapidly and disposal options may be limited. After the Chernobyl accident, large amounts of contaminated material (mainly soil and trees) were disposed of in shallow pits and surface mounds. Overall, approximately 4x10 6 m 3 of waste were distributed between about 800 disposal sites. Because the amounts of waste after a major nuclear accident could be large, their final disposal may require large human and capital resources. Depending on the scale it is possible that the wastes will have to be placed in several final disposal sites. These are likely to be pits or surface mounds. Such repositories may need clay or concrete liners to prevent migration of the radionuclides from the disposal sites. (EG)

  15. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Boyce

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer’s recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating “self-disinfecting” surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer “no-touch” (automated decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm light. These “no-touch” technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections

  16. CleanTag Adapters Improve Small RNA Next-Generation Sequencing Library Preparation by Reducing Adapter Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Sabrina; Henderson, Jordana M; McCaffrey, Anton P

    2018-01-01

    Next-generation small RNA sequencing is a valuable tool which is increasing our knowledge regarding small noncoding RNAs and their function in regulating genetic information. Library preparation protocols for small RNA have thus far been restricted due to higher RNA input requirements (>10 ng), long workflows, and tedious manual gel purifications. Small RNA library preparation methods focus largely on the prevention or depletion of a side product known as adapter dimer that tends to dominate the reaction. Adapter dimer is the ligation of two adapters to one another without an intervening library RNA insert or any useful sequencing information. The amplification of this side reaction is favored over the amplification of tagged library since it is shorter. The small size discrepancy between these two species makes separation and purification of the tagged library very difficult. Adapter dimer hinders the use of low input samples and the ability to automate the workflow so we introduce an improved library preparation protocol which uses chemically modified adapters (CleanTag) to significantly reduce the adapter dimer. CleanTag small RNA library preparation workflow decreases adapter dimer to allow for ultra-low input samples (down to approx. 10 pg total RNA), elimination of the gel purification step, and automation. We demonstrate how to carry out this streamlined protocol to improve NGS data quality and allow for the use of sample types with limited RNA material.

  17. Oral Hygiene Practices and Teeth Cleaning Techniques Among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sajida; Fatima, Syeda H; Ghazanfar, Haider; Haq, Sana; Khan, Najeeb A; Mehmood, Moeez; Ghazanfar, Ali

    2017-07-18

    Objectives Oral health is essential for general health and quality of life. It is a state of being free from mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infections and sores, periodontal disease, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that limit an individual's capacity to bite, chew, smile, and speak; it affects psychosocial well-being too. The objective of our study was to assess teeth cleaning techniques and oral hygiene practices among medical students. Methods The data of the study were collected in two stages. The first stage involved the administration of a self-constructed questionnaire among medical students. In the second step, the students were asked to demonstrate their teeth cleaning techniques on a model. A standard teeth cleaning checklist was used to evaluate the students. The students were then given the checklist and a video on teeth cleaning techniques was shown to them. The data obtained was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21.  Results Out of a total of 444 students, 256 (57.7 percent) were males while 188 (42.3 percent) were females. About 254 (57.2 percent) participants were preclinical medical students while 190 (42.8 percent) were clinical year medical students. A majority of medical students used medium consistency toothbrushes (177; 39.9 percent) and soft consistency toothbrushes (137; 30.9 percent). Most medical students (248; 55.9 percent) brushed two times a day while 163 (36.7 percent) brushed only one time. About 212 (47.7 percent) of the medical students used mouthwash along with a toothbrush while only 36 (8.1 percent) used floss along with a toothbrush. About 157 participants (35.4 percent) changed their toothbrush once in two months while 132 (26.7 percent) changed their toothbrush once in three months. The mean duration that participants brushed their teeth was 134.99 ± 69.01 seconds. Conclusion Medical students were found to have a faulty teeth

  18. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  19. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  20. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  1. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the Clean Water Act permitting program for dredge or fill material into waters of the US, including roles, 401 certification of permits, state/tribal assumption of 404 program, mitigation requirements, regulations

  2. New Politics of Clean Air and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report focuses on the Clean Air Act (CAAA) and the State Air Quality Implementation Plan (SIP) and the need for conformity with transportation measures and policies. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) has reinforced Fed...

  3. The evolution of silicon wafer cleaning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, W.

    1990-01-01

    The purity of wafer surfaces is an essential requisite for the successful fabrication of VLSI and ULSI silicon circuits. Wafer cleaning chemistry has remained essentially unchanged in the past 25 years and is based on hot alkaline and acidic hydrogen peroxide solutions, a process known as RCA Standard Clean. This is still the primary method used in the industry. What has changed is its implementation with optimized equipment:from simple immersion to centrifugal spraying, megasonic techniques, and enclosed system processing that allow simultaneous removal of both contaminant films and particles. Improvements in wafer drying by use of isopropanol vapor or by slow-pull out of hot deionized water are being investigated. Several alternative cleaning methods are also being tested, including choline solutions, chemical vapor etching, and UV/ozone treatments. The evolution of silicon wafer cleaning processes and technology is traced and reviewed

  4. Clean conditions during the erection phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschel, P.

    1977-01-01

    Following the basic requirements of the Regulatory Guide 1.37 and ANSI 45.2.1 - Standard on Cleaning of Fluid Systems and Associated Components during the Construction Phase of Nuclear Power Plants as a guideline, the implementation of cleaning operations in the pre-installation phase, the installation phase and the maintenance of clean conditions until the operational phase is covered. Specific information will be given from the practical experience point of view with the work execution under clean conditions of piping and components at the semi-finished product manufacturer, the prefabrication workshop and the on-site installation with specific reference to the various detailed procedures required by individual system builders for nuclear power plants in Germany and abroad. (orig.) [de

  5. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  6. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  7. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  8. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  9. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  10. Nuclear waste water being cleaned in Paldinski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, A.

    1995-01-01

    The cleaning of nuclear waste water in the former military base of Paldiski, Estonia, has started with Finnish assistance. During the Soviet era, Paldiski served as a site for training nuclear submarine crews. Spent fuel has already been removed from the two nuclear reactors on the base. The volume of water to be cleaned totals some 450 cubic metres. The work is estimated to take till May 1995. The filtering technique used for cleaning has been developed in cooperation by IVO International and the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki. The project is one aspect of an extensive international cooperation programme for reducing environmental hazards arising from the base. The experience of the cleaning obtained so far has been positive. In the first water tank, filtering reduced the cesium activity of waste water from 1,500 becquerels to less than one becquerel. Two water tanks, however, have bottom sediment that probably cannot be treated during the present project. (orig.)

  11. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Clean Water Act Section 404 and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and EPA have longstanding programs to promote water quality and broader environmental goals identified in both the Agriculture Act of 2014 and the Clean Water Act.

  13. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  14. Fouling and Cleaning of Membrane Filtration Systems in the Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander

    not necessarily be perfect hydraulic cleanliness in order to restore processing performance. Consequences of reduced cleaning could however be observed in subsequent CIPs; hydraulic cleanliness reached a lower level. Further research is required to assess the practical significance of these consequences....... An overview of possible methods to investigate fouling and cleaning of membranes is given. Various spectroscopic methods have been screened to assess whether they can be used for online measurement of membrane fouling and cleaning. Also, methods with a possible capability of offline characterization...... of fouling residues were investigated. Both online and offline methods were found unsuitable to follow the whole process of fouling and cleaning as the concentration of protein residues on the membrane surface sooner or later reaches a level below the limit of detection of the respective methods. The main...

  15. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  16. Congress approves historic clean air legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article is a brief synopsis of the amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1990. Brief comments by various groups supporting and against the amendments are presented. Topics covered in the article are the trading allowance system, acid rain abatement controls, NO x emissions reductions, clean coal technology, deletion of Wisconsin Electric Power Company provision, continuation of acid rain research programs, and EPA/NRC regulatory responsibilities

  17. New methods to clean ICU rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazejewski, Caroline; Guerry, Mary-Jane; Preau, Sébastien; Durocher, Alain; Nseir, Saad

    2011-08-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) represent the most common adverse event in the intensive care unit (ICU). Their prevalence is high and they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The environment plays a central role in the transmission of hospital-acquired pathogens (HAP) and in the pathogenesis of HAI. Many bacteria, especially multidrug resistant ones, can survive for several months in the hospital environment in particular in areas close to the patients. It has been proven that pathogens are transmitted from the environment to the patients. Many studies have concluded that current cleaning methods are microbiologically ineffective. This failure concerns daily cleaning as well as terminal cleaning after patient discharge. It has been demonstrated that improvements in environmental cleaning are associated with a decrease in the rate of HAP and of HAI. New cleaning methods could enhance hospital cleaning efficiency. Three new technologies seem promising because they are microbiologically effective, easy and safe to use: (1) hydrogen peroxide vapor and (2) UV light decontamination are used for terminal cleaning. These techniques are effective even in difficultly accessible areas. (3) ultramicrofibers which can be associated with a copper-based biocide can be used for daily cleaning. Other methods such as ozone, steam or high-efficiency particulate air filtration are not efficient enough to be considered serious contenders for the improvement of the quality of the hospital environment. These new technologies have not been yet linked to a decrease in the prevalence and the incidence in HAP and HAI. It remains difficult to justify the extra-cost associated with these new methods until more studies can confirm their effectiveness in the management of HAI.

  18. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  19. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  20. Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.

  1. [Importance of cleaning and disinfection of critical surfaces in dental health services. Impact of an intervention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Elena; Vergara, Teresa; Pearcy, Mercedes; Dabanch, Jeannette

    Introduction Dental care has become a challenge for healthcare associated infection prevention programs, since the environment, within other factors, plays an important role in the transmission chain. Materials and Methods An intervention program was designed for the Dental Unit of Hospital Militar de Santiago, between years 2014 and 2015. The program contemplated 3 stages: diagnostic, intervention and evaluation stage. Objective To improve the safety of critical surfaces involved in dental healthcare. Results During the diagnostic stage, the cleaning and disinfection process was found to be deficient. The most contaminated critical surface was the instrument holder unit, then the clean area and lamp handle. The surfaces that significantly reduced their contamination, after the intervention, were the clean area and the instrument carrier unit. Conclusion Training in the processes of cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and dental equipment is one of the cost-effective strategies in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), with simple and easy-to-apply methods.

  2. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  3. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  4. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  5. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  6. Incineration and flue gas cleaning in China - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2010-01-01

    Waste incineration is rapidly developing in China. Different technologies are proposed for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Hazardous Waste (HW), and Medical Waste (MW). The required technologies are either imported, or developed locally. Some data are cited to illustrate these rapid developments. Incinerator flue gas arises at rather limited scale (10,000-100,000 Nm 3 /h), compared to power generation, yet the number of pollutants to be counted with is huge: dust and grit, acid gases, NO x , selected heavy metals, aerosols and nanoparticles, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and dioxins. Major options in flue gas cleaning can be derived from Best Available Technologies (BAT), as were developed in the European Union. Hence, E.U. practice is analyzed in some detail, by considering the present situation in selected E.U. countries (Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium). A comparison is made with China. Also, the situation in Japan is examined. Based on this wide experience, a number of technical suggestions regarding incineration, flue gas cleaning, and emission control are formulated. Also, the possibility of co incineration is considered. Starting from the particular experience of Zhejiang University (as a designer of Fluid Bed and Rotary Kiln plant, with large experience in Fluid Bed processes, coal firing, gasification and pyrolysis, and actively monitoring thermal units throughout China) some specific Case Studies are examined, e.g., a fluidized bed incinerator and its gas cleaning system (MSWI and HWI from ITPE). Some attention is paid to the potential threats in China from uncontrolled combustion sources. As a conclusion, some recommendations are formulated regarding flue gas cleaning in Developing Nations at large and in China in particular. (author)

  7. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  8. The clean development mechanism and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a summary of the issues presented and discussed at the African Regional Workshop on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM was introduced in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The objectives of CDM are to assist non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC to promote sustainable development, and to assist Annex I Parties to achieve compliance with their emission limitation and reduction commitments under the Convention. Africa contributes a very small proportion of the world`s greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time the continent is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change which may seriously impact on countries` development efforts. In order to set the background for the workshop and the deliberations of the participants, Chapter 2 presents a brief discussion of Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Africa. Chapter 3 further defines the context, aims and format of the workshop. This is followed in Chapter 4 by a summary of the papers presented during the four days. The papers covered activities in the energy, forestry, agriculture, industry and transport sectors, and addressed issues including: general perspectives on the CDM; institutions and governance of the CDM; baselines and additionality in the CDM; design of projects; project finance under the CDM. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the main issues discussed including modalities of the CDM, governance, equity, CDM projects, share of proceeds and capacity building. A number of areas of consensus emerged among workshop participants. These areas are described in Chapter 6. Finally a full list of participants is provided. (au)

  9. Self-Cleaning Particulate Prefilter Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Olivia; Lalwani, San-jiv; Sharma, Anjal

    2012-01-01

    A long-term space mission requires efficient air revitalization performance to sustain the crew. Prefilter and particulate air filter media are susceptible to rapid fouling that adversely affects their performance and can lead to catastrophic failure of the air revitalization system, which may result in mission failure. For a long-term voyage, it is impractical to carry replacement particulate prefilter and filter modules due to the usual limitations in size, volume, and weight. The only solution to this problem is to reagentlessly regenerate prefilter and filter media in place. A method was developed to modify the particulate prefilter media to allow them to regenerate reagentlessly, and in place, by the application of modest thermocycled transverse or reversed airflows. The innovation may allow NASA to close the breathing air loop more efficiently, thereby sustaining the vision for manned space exploration missions of the future. A novel, self-cleaning coatings technology was developed for air filter media surfaces that allows reagentless in-place regeneration of the surface. The technology grafts thermoresponsive and nonspecific adhesion minimizing polymer nanolayer brush coatings from the prefilter media. These polymer nanolayer brush architectures can be triggered to contract and expand to generate a "pushing-off" force by the simple application of modestly thermocycled (i.e. cycling from ambient cabin temperature to 40 C) air streams. The nonspecific adhesion-minimizing properties of the coatings do not allow the particulate foulants to adhere strongly to the filter media, and thermocycled air streams applied to the media allow easy detachment and in-place regeneration of the media with minimal impact in system downtime or astronaut involvement in overseeing the process.

  10. A climate risk assessment of clean water supply in an urban area: A case study of South Tangerang city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastiti, S. I. W.; Kusnoputranto, H.; Boer, R.; Utomo, S. W.

    2018-03-01

    The demand for clean water in South Tangerang, Indonesia, is very high. At present, this demand is mostly met by groundwater that is much influenced by climate variability, land cover change, and human activities. The local company on water services (PDAM) provides clean water services for only about 9% of the population. The climate risk assessment conducted by South Tangerang Government in 2016 indicates that several areas are potentially exposed to a high risk of climate change. Survey and in-depth interview with communities and sectoral officers suggest that a risk to clean water supply in this city is increasing. This study aims to assess climate potential risks on clean water supply based on the 2016 study. We adopted the method of that study by modifying some of the vulnerability indicators that can represent clean water access and supply. The results of the study demonstrate that many wards in South Tangerang would be exposed to high climate risks of clean water supply. By 2021, about 54% of wards would be exposed from high to the very very high risk of clean water supply. These results signify the tangible need of adaptation actions, to prevent the worsening impacts of climate on clean water supply.

  11. The development of clean-burning, noncatalytic manufactured fireplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    Concern for the air quality of this country in general and the Western states in particular has brought sharp focus from regulators on the emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from all wood-burning appliances. This concern was a driving force which led to the development of a clean-burning fireplace. Many Western areas have begun to limit installation of wood-burning appliances in new construction. Some jurisdictions allow only Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified appliances. Currently no federal test methods or standards exist for fireplaces so the Manufactured Fireplace Industry, through the Hearth Products Association (HPA), set about to develop suitable test methods and standards for manufactured fireplaces

  12. Clean-up actions in food industry plants and their surroundings in a radioactive contamination situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantala, T.

    2005-09-01

    A radioactive fallout following a nuclear power plant accident, nuclear weapon explosion or other radiation hazard situation can contaminate foodstuff and food industry plants either directly from the fallout or through contaminated raw materials or air used for pneumatic transport of products and raw materials. Radioactive contamination usually appears as dust which can only contaminate foodstuff, raw materials and water if it gets into contact with them. In case of a threat of radioactive contamination situation, measures to prevent or diminish contamination of foodstuff must be immediately started. Ventilation of the plant must be stopped and the plant including storehouses must be isolated by closing all doors and windows. Unprotected foodstuff and raw materials can be covered. The production is usually best to be interrupted. Clean-up actions carried out after the radiation situation can be made easier, and their duration shorter, by appropriate protective measures taken beforehand. After the radiation situation is over the food plant must be decontaminated so that the production can be restarted, and the products are proved clean and safe and it is safe for the employees to work again in the plant. Clean-up actions must be planned thoroughly before starting them. The quality of the actions depends on the amount and characteristics of radioactive substances in the fallout, current weather and season, characteristics of the area to be decontaminated and available resources. Decontamination of the plant and the production machines must be accompanied by decontamination of vehicles and equipment used for transportation of products and raw materials, as well as the outdoor areas from where contamination can spread into the plant and the products. Vacuum-cleaning, washing of floors, walls and roofs and dusting can be used to clean up inner surfaces of the plant. It seems that clean-up methods normally used for the plant and the production machines, when intensified

  13. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  14. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  15. Technological perspectives of clean vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The main characteristics of the different technologies of available commercially cars were studied (now or in the halfway through time limit) of smaller contaminants gases generation, with the objective to carry out a comparative evaluation of their competitiveness and feasibilities of real insertion.They were studied thus the self-electric 'pure' and hybrid, from motors of conventional combustion and of cells of fuels with reformers; as well as them fed by hydrogen, utilized in motors of combustion and in direct conversion fuels cells. It is appreciated that the cars hibridos conventional present large advantages that are permitting their effective insertion in the market. Of the remainders, only the conventional motor of hydrogen does not present technological obstacles and has real potentiality in the medium time limit.The electric cars have strong limitations owed al poor performance of the batteries set against the liquid fuels, that have shown do not they permit him to be inserted in the real market in spite of the enormous efforts carried out.The fuel cells continue being very costly. Being that the technologies selected for electric vehicles (of polimer membrane) use essentially hydrogen as fuel, which (besides other disadvantages) has a prohibitive cost set against the hydrocarbons, their possibility of massive insertion is little probable, still low environmental incentives.There are several reasons to think that the EVs with fuel cells of hydrogen (PEM) can run the same luck that the EVs of batteries.The use of internal converters of gasoline or the cells of metanol direct appear with an interesting horizon, although they will need still strong investments in basic investigations associates to be competitive.The hydrogen is a vector energy, not a resource, and being its main producing market and consumer the industry of the petroleum, very with difficulty this return competitive before an increase in the oil price.Their use in vehicles way the adaptation

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  17. Cleaning Management in Higher Education: Value for Money Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, Edinburgh.

    This report identifies key management issues for senior managers and heads of cleaning departments in developing and reviewing cleaning services to support improvement and enhance cost effectiveness. The cleaning costs incurred by higher education institutions (HEIs) represent 2.7 percent of the total spent nationally on cleaning services for both…

  18. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  19. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wetlands may clean geothermal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of geothermal resources may help to ease energy problems, but water quality problems could result from the disposal of spent geothermal brines. Research by EG&G Idaho shows that man-made wetlands may provide a more economic disposal system than do conventional treatment and disposal methods.Most geothermal water contains high concentrations of dissolved solids and trace elements, including fluoride and boron, which can be harmful to water quality and organisms. Because of these high concentrations, only a limited number of methods can be used to dispose of used geothermal water. These include injection wells, evaporation ponds, and disposal into surface waterways.

  1. Few Projections Astrotomography: 2-CLEAN Dsa Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, Michail

    The radioastronomical approach to the tomographical problem the main elements of which were published by us in 1989-1990 was developed and presented as 2-CLEAN DSA Method of Reconstruction [1 2]. Radio Images of the Crab Nebula from the Lunar occultations data were reconstructed at 750 and 178 MHz [3]. The basis makes the solution with the use of Synthesized Beam (SB). To remove the distortion occurring because of the SB sidelobes influence the CLEAN algorithm realizations are used. The research of solution convergence the use of ST-CLEAN and TC-CLEAN algorithms to determine the permissible solution area are being summarized. The Method allows to carry out 2D recognition in a wide space frequency band {0 Fb} when the number of projections contains only 0.1 of the number needed for the usual tomographycal approach. It is the foundation of the information-computerized technology of the few projections tomography ICT 2-CLEAN DSA and is based exclusively on the radioastronomers papers. 1. Agafonov M.I. 1997 In ASP Conf. Ser. v.125 ADASS YI ed. G.Hunt & H.E.Payne 202. 2. Agafonov M.I. 1998 In ASP Conf. Ser. v.145 ADASS YII ed. R.Albrecht R.N.Hook & H.A.Bushouse 58. 3. Agafonov M.I. Ivanov V.P. Podvojskaya O.A. 1990 SvA. v.34 p.275.

  2. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  3. Non-aqueous cleaning solvent substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gerald J.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of environmental, safety, and health concerns exist over use of chlorinated and fluorinated cleaning solvents. Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal have combined efforts to focus on finding alternative cleaning solvents and processes which are effective, environmentally safe, and compliant with local, state, and federal regulations. An alternative solvent has been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies, where aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning processes are not allowed. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, was selected as the solvent of choice, and it was found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data. The electronics industry is constantly searching for proven methods and environmentally-safe materials to use in manufacturing processes. The information in this presentation will provide another option to consider on future projects for applications requiring high levels of quality, reliability, and cleanliness from non-aqueous cleaning processes.

  4. Source terms in relation to air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are two sets of source terms for consideration in air cleaning, those for routine releases and those for accident releases. With about 1000 reactor years of commercial operating experience in the US done, there is an excellent data base for routine and expected transient releases. Specifications for air cleaning can be based on this body of experience with confidence. Specifications for air cleaning in accident situations is another matter. Recent investigations of severe accident behavior are offering a new basis for source terms and air cleaning specifications. Reports by many experts in the field describe an accident environment notably different from previous models. It is an atmosphere heavy with aerosols, both radioactive and inert. Temperatures are sometimes very high; radioiodine is typically in the form of cesium iodide aerosol particles; other nuclides, such as tellurium, are also important aerosols. Some of the present air cleaning requirements may be very important in light of these new accident behavior models. Others may be wasteful or even counterproductive. The use of the new data on accident behavior models to reevaluate requirements promptly is discussed

  5. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  6. Adoption and diffusion of clean technologies. Application to paper industry in Spain; La adopcion y difusion de tecnologias limpias. Aplicacion a la Industria del papel en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, P. del

    2003-07-01

    The barriers preventing and the factors leading to clean technology adoption are worth being analysed. This paper shows that three sets of interrelated factors (and driving forces) prevent the widespread adoption and diffusion of clean technology: factors external to the firm, internal characteristics and conditions of the potential adopters and characteristics of the environmental technology. This factors are analysed and included in the so-called triangular model, which is further applied to the study of clean technology adoption in the pulp and paper sector in Spain. The empirical study shows that, although former empirical analysis have focused on the role of regulation as the main driving force (and obstacle) in environmental technological change, clean technology adoption decisions are the results of a interaction between the above mentioned factors. finally, some public policy recommendations for the effective and efficient promotion of clean technology diffusion are suggested. (Author)

  7. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  8. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Options for SO2, NOx, and particulate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakey, J.P.; Hargis, R.; Eastman, M.L.; Santore, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    There are currently 42 active projects in the Clean Coal Technology Program. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is responsible for managing 30 of these projects: five projects under Clean Coal 1, ten projects under Clean Coal 2, nine projects under Clean Coal 3, and six projects under Clean Coal 4. This paper describes each of the PETC projects, including the technologies involved and the project status. Many of the projects will use advanced approaches to meet current and future requirements for particulate and air toxic emissions. Discussion of these aspects have been expanded in this summary paper to address the focus of this symposium. Additional information can be provided to interested particles either through DOE, the participant or the technology supplier. Numerous non-federal organizations including state and utility/industry research groups provide important co-funding and other support for these CCT projects. Space limitations prohibit listing them in this paper; however, a complete listing can be found in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program Update 1990. Appendix A to this paper contains flow diagrams for all the projects

  9. Replacement of HCFC-225 Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  10. The importance of chemical components in cleaning agents for the indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup, Karl Ventzel

    In order to evaluate the importance for the indoor environment of chemical compounds in cleaning agents, the emission of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) from 10 selected cleaning agents and the content of LAS (Linear AlkanbenzeneSulfonate) in dust samples from 7 buildings were investigated.The ...... are introduced to the indoor environment from detergent residues in clothes and from cleaning agents. Finally, the knowledge about the effect of other types of non-volatile compounds introduced into the indoor environment from cleaning agents, such as wax, are limited....... concentration varied between 1,2% and 7,4%. Investigation of the emission profiles in the micro emission cell "FLEC" showed that the nonpolar VOCs were emitted immediately after the cleaning agent was applied to a surface, which means that the cleaning staff is exposed to the highest concentrations of nonpolar......, an increase of the content of LAS in the dust was found after floor wash compared to the contents before floor wash. However, the most important source of LAS in the indoor environment is residues of detergent in clothes, thus a newly washed shirt contained 2960 ppm LAS. Other circumstances like transport...

  11. Efficacy of manual cleaning and an ultraviolet C room decontamination device in reducing health care-associated pathogens on hospital floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Aishat; Alhmidi, Heba; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Jencson, Annette L; Donskey, Curtis J

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that floors may be an underappreciated source for transmission of health care-associated pathogens. However, there are limited data on the effectiveness of current cleaning and disinfection methods in reducing floor contamination. We demonstrated that manual postdischarge cleaning by environmental services personnel significantly reduced floor contamination, and an automated ultraviolet C room disinfection device was effective as an adjunct to manual cleaning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effectiveness acidic pre-cleaning for copper-gold ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Clareti Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of copper-bearing minerals is known to bring on many challenges during the cyanidation of gold ore, like high consumption of cyanide and low extraction of metal, which are undesirable impacts on the auriferous recovery in the subsequent process step. The high copper solubility in cyanide prevents the direct use of classical hydrometallurgical processes for the extraction of gold by cyanidation. Additionally, the application of a conventional flotation process to extract copper is further complicated when it is oxidized. As a result, an acid pre-leaching process was applied in order to clean the ore of these copper minerals that are cyanide consumers. The objective was to evaluate the amount of soluble copper in cyanide before and after acidic cleaning. From a gold ore containing copper, the study selected four samples containing 0.22%, 0.55%, 1.00% and 1.36% of copper. For direct cyanidation of the ore without pre-treatment, copper extraction by cyanide complexing ranged from 8 to 83%. In contrast, the pre-treatment carried out with sulfuric acid extracted 24% to 99% of initial copper and subsequent cyanidation extracted 0.13 to 1.54% of initial copper. The study also showed that the copper contained in the secondary minerals is more easily extracted by cyanide (83%, being followed by the copper oxy-hydroxide minerals (60%, while the copper contained in the manganese oxide is less complexed by cyanide (8% a 12%. It was possible to observe that minerals with low acid solubility also have low solubility in cyanide. Cyanide consumption decreased by about 2.5 times and gold recovery increased to above 94% after acidic pre-cleaning.

  13. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately

  14. Corrosion monitoring during a chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, J.; Feron, D.; Roy, M.

    1994-01-01

    In order to estimate the possible corrosion induced by the chemical cleaning, a corrosion monitoring has been realized during the cleaning of the secondary circuit (including the model boiler) of ORION loop. It included coupons and electrodes and has required a preliminary setting in laboratory. The electrochemical device which was used during the chemical cleaning included two reference electrodes (Ag/AgCl) and eight metallic electrodes (carbon steel, stainless steel, Alloy 600 and Alloy 690) for free corrosion potential monitoring, three other carbon steel electrodes for instantaneous corrosion rate measurements by polarization resistance and three coupling devices with different surface ratios between carbon steel and Alloy 600. The results showed a good agreement between corrosion rates measured by weight losses on coupons or by electrochemistry (polarization resistance), and an increase of the carbon steel corrosion rate when it was coupled with Alloy 600. (authors). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  15. New air cleaning technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Kitani, S.; Matsui, H.; Ikezawa, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Application of the new techniques and improvements in air cleaning systems have been made to reduce release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities based on the ALARA concept. For example, the reduction of release of radioactive gaseous effluents has been made by installation of a charcoal gas hold-up system and a clean steam supply system for a turbine gland seal in a BWR and of a gas decay tank system in a PWR. In connection with the effort for reduction of releases in plants, research and development on air cleaning technology have also been made. Some activities mentioned in the present paper are: removal of particulates, airborne radioiodine, noble gases and tritium; penetration characteristics of submicron DOP aerosol for HEPA filters; radioiodine removal from air exhausts; and operational performance of the incineration plants using ceramic filters

  16. Continuing challenges in nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear facilities is heavily dependent upon the adequate performance of air cleaning systems. Although many problems have been solved, new questions and new challenges continue to arise. These are well illustrated by weaknesses in air cleaning and ventilating systems revealed by the Browns Ferry fire, and the need to develop additional data on the reliability of such systems, particularly under emergency conditions, as revealed by the Reactor Safety Study. Assessments of the degree to which engineered safety features can compensate for deficiencies in nuclear power plant sites continue to challenge those involved in risk/benefit evaluations. Additional challenges are being generated by the air cleaning requirements associated with the commercial development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

  17. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  18. Laser cleaning of graffiti on stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Victoria; Kostadinov, Ivan; Zahariev, Peter; Grozeva, Margarita; Miloushev, Ilko

    2016-01-01

    In present days graffiti is a common problem that many restorers have to deal with due to both its unaesthetic appearance and damaging nature for the surface beneath. We report laser cleaning of graffiti paints (black, white, blue, green and red) on limestone and granite. The efficiency of two laser systems is compared: high repetition rate (20 kHz) Copper Bromide Vapor Laser (CuBrVL) generating wavelength 510.6 nm and low repetition rate (up to 10 Hz) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generating fundamental wavelength 1064 nm and its second harmonic 532 nm. The surface condition of the stone samples before and after cleaning is evaluated by means of optical microscopy. On that base, suitable working parameters are chosen in order to avoid under- or over-cleaning.

  19. Chemical cleaning of boilers and corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhosary, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    While being assembled and installed, thermal-power equipment accumulates a large amount of corrosion products, scale (as much as 350 g/m 2 ), welding residue, and other contaminants that must be removed before the equipment is started up. This is generally done with various acids and inhibitors. For boilers this chemical cleaning process is termed pre start cleaning. In contrast, an operational cleaning of boilers is also carried out, in order to remove carbonate deposits, that interfere with heat transfer, as well as the corrosion products that accumulate with use. The techniques include rinsing with water to remove contaminants not firmly adhering to the metal surfaces, decreasing in alkali reagents to remove grease and to loosen scale, pickling in mineral and organic acids for scale removal, and passivation of the metal surface. decreasing is usually carried out in alkali reagents used are caustic soda, soda ash, tri sodium phosphate ammonia, and surface-active agents

  20. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)