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Sample records for prevent knee injuries

  1. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of ... occur in childhood sports, but with any knee injury in a growing child there is a possibility of a fracture related ...

  2. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  3. Selected isokinetic tests in knee injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Pilis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuing from isokinetic measurements, the conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio of muscle balance is used as an index for comparing proper relations between the values of strength of knee flexors and extensor muscle. Its abnormal values might indicate pathology of the musculotendinous complex. The aim of the study was to present the possibility of using this ratio as one of the objective identifiers enabling the assessment of knee injury risk in sports. All participants (n=48 were divided into 3 groups: group A (n=16, healthy competitors, group B (n=16, athletes with minor injuries, group C (n=16, competitors with serious injuries, depending on the degree of knee injury. All subjects performed an isokinetic test for knee extensors and flexors at angular velocities of 60°/s and 120°/s. Average peak torque (APT value of knee flexors and extensors, and the value of Hcon/Qcon ratio was analyzed. Both values were calculated in relation to body mass (Nm/kg. Bilateral comparison of isokinetic test parameters confirmed the decrease of quadriceps muscle strength values for the injured extremity in groups B and C. Statistically significant difference was noted for Hcon/Qcon ratio between group A and C, as well as B and C. Hence, the value of conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio can be used for the prevention of sports related injuries.

  4. Prevention and management of knee osteoarthritis and knee cartilage injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hideki; Nakagawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Kozo; Engebretsen, Lars

    2011-04-01

    Articular cartilage defects in the knee of young or active individuals remain a problem in orthopaedic practice. These defects have limited ability to heal and may progress to osteoarthritis. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among athletes is higher than in the non-athletic population. The clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain, limitation of range of motion and joint stiffness. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is confirmed by the symptoms and the radiological findings (narrowing joint space, osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerosis). There is no strong correlation between symptoms and radiographic findings. The aetiology of knee osteoarthritis is multifactorial. Excessive musculoskeletal loading (at work or in sports), high body mass index, previous knee injury, female gender and muscle weakness are well-known risk factors. The high-level athlete with a major knee injury has a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis. Cartilage injuries are frequently observed in young and middle-aged active athletes. Often this injury precedes osteoarthritis. Reducing risk factors can decrease the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis. The prevention of knee injury, especially anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injury in sports, is important to avoid progression of knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). Objective: To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. Data Sources: The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 an...

  6. Prevention of the knee and ankle joint injury for basketball players from the perspective of physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    KRŠKOVÁ, Adéla

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this work is about the prevention of knee and ankle injuries to basketball players from the perspective of physiotherapy. I have set two goals for this work, namely the setting up of a therapy to prevent injuries to the knee and ankle joint and then the detection of the effectiveness of this therapy. In connection with the goals, I have determined the research question: Whether the effect of the therapy will improve the monitored areas? In the theoretical part of my work, I dealt...

  7. Effectiveness of Knee Injury and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel A Donnell-Fink

    Full Text Available Individuals frequently involved in jumping, pivoting or cutting are at increased risk of knee injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears. We sought to use meta-analytic techniques to establish whether neuromuscular and proprioceptive training is efficacious in preventing knee and ACL injury and to identify factors related to greater efficacy of such programs.We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English between 1996 and 2014. Intervention efficacy was ascertained from incidence rate ratios (IRRs weighted by their precision (1/variance using a random effects model. Separate analyses were performed for knee and ACL injury. We examined whether year of publication, study quality, or specific components of the intervention were associated with efficacy of the intervention in a meta-regression analysis.Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in the meta-analysis. The mean study sample was 1,093 subjects. Twenty studies reported data on knee injury in general terms and 16 on ACL injury. Maximum Jadad score was 3 (on a 0-5 scale. The summary incidence rate ratio was estimated at 0.731 (95% CI: 0.614, 0.871 for knee injury and 0.493 (95% CI: 0.285, 0.854 for ACL injury, indicating a protective effect of intervention. Meta-regression analysis did not identify specific intervention components associated with greater efficacy but established that later year of publication was associated with more conservative estimates of intervention efficacy.The current meta-analysis provides evidence that neuromuscular and proprioceptive training reduces knee injury in general and ACL injury in particular. Later publication date was associated with higher quality studies and more conservative efficacy estimates. As study quality was generally low, these data suggest that higher quality studies should be implemented to confirm the preventive efficacy of such programs.

  8. Neuromuscular training to prevent knee injuries in adolescent female soccer players.

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    Wingfield, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a neuromuscular warm-up program in preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football (soccer) players. Cluster randomized (by team) controlled trial, stratified by geographical district. Sample size was calculated (n = 8118) with 80% power to show a reduction of 50% in an estimated 1.15% annual incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at P ≤ 0.05. Clubs in 8 regional districts of the Swedish Football Association, during the 2009 season (April through October). Female under-14 to under-18 football clubs (ages 12-17 years) were recruited. Reasons for the exclusion of clubs were lack of response, injuries. Diagnosis was confirmed, as appropriate, by a physician and by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcomes were the rates of serious knee injury and any acute knee injury, defined as those with sudden onset during play that led to a player being unable to participate in training or competition. Severe injuries were those that caused absences of >4 weeks. Two study therapists evaluated the injuries. The coaches recorded data, including when the intervention was performed, any injuries, individual playing times, and periods of absence. Assessment of the primary outcome was done by physicians blinded to group assignment. During 278 298 hours of play, 96 knee injuries occurred in 92 players (intervention group 48, control group 44). The rate did not differ between groups. Of the 21 ACL injuries, 7 occurred in the intervention group and 14 in the control group, giving a rate ratio (RR) of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.85; P = 0.02). Severe injuries (intervention group 26, control group 31) did not differ between groups. They included 22 collateral or capsular sprains, 21 ACL injuries, 7 patella dislocations or subluxations, 6 meniscal or chondral lesions, and 1 tibial plateau fracture. Compliant players (those who performed ≥ 1 exercise session per week; 1303 players) had a lower rate of ACL injury

  9. ACL Injury Prevention Training Results in Modification of Hip and Knee Mechanics During a Drop-Landing Task.

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    Pollard, Christine D; Sigward, Susan M; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Injury prevention training has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, the underlying reason for the success of these training programs is unclear. To investigate whether an ACL injury prevention program that has been shown to reduce the incidence of ACL injury alters sagittal plane hip and knee biomechanics during a drop-landing task. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty female club soccer players (age range, 11-17 years) with no history of knee injury participated in this study. Kinematics and ground-reaction forces were collected while each participant performed a drop-landing task prior to and immediately after participation in a 12-week ACL injury prevention training program. After ACL injury prevention training, participants demonstrated decreased knee extensor moments ( P = .03), increased energy absorption at the hip ( P = .04), decreased knee-to-hip extensor moment ratios ( P = .05), and decreased knee-to-hip energy absorption ratios ( P = .03). Participation in an ACL injury prevention training program decreased reliance on the knee extensor muscles and improved use of the hip extensor muscles, which may explain the protective effect of this type of training program on ACL injury. Based on these findings, clinicians can better understand how ACL injury prevention training, such as the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance (PEP) Program, may change movement behavior at both the hip and knee. Furthermore, the study findings may support the implementation of the PEP Program, or a similar program, for clinicians aiming to improve use of the hip in an effort to reduce knee loading and consequent injuries.

  10. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cartilage in the knee gradually wears away, causing pain and swelling. Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You usually injure your ACL ...

  11. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up stairs or hills. Treatment may involve surgery. Bursitis A bursa is a sac filled with fluid ... friction, it can develop into a condition called bursitis . Symptoms of bursitis in the knee include warmth, ...

  12. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players - design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595].

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    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Atroshi, Isam

    2009-06-23

    Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13-17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee

  13. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldén Markus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams or a control group (256 teams. The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1 baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2 computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3 injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks. Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to

  14. ACL Injury Prevention Training Results in Modification of Hip and Knee Mechanics During a Drop-Landing Task

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Christine D.; Sigward, Susan M.; Powers, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Injury prevention training has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, the underlying reason for the success of these training programs is unclear. Purpose: To investigate whether an ACL injury prevention program that has been shown to reduce the incidence of ACL injury alters sagittal plane hip and knee biomechanics during a drop-landing task. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Thirty f...

  15. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Darin A; Distefano, Lindsay J

    2009-03-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 and June 2008. Reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. Studies were included that evaluated healthy participants for knee flexion angle, sagittal plane knee kinetics, or VGRF after performing a multisession training program. Two individuals reviewed all articles and determined which articles met the selection criteria. Approximately 4% of the articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Data were extracted regarding each program's duration, frequency, exercise type, population, supervision, and testing procedures. Means and variability measures were recorded to calculate effect sizes. One reviewer extracted all data and assessed study quality using PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database). A second reviewer (blinded) verified all information. There is moderate evidence to indicate that knee flexion angle, external knee flexion moment, and VGRF can be successfully modified by an ACL injury prevention program. Programs utilizing multiple exercises (ie, integrated training) appear to produce the most improvement, in comparison to that of single-exercise programs. Knee flexion angle was improved following integrated training (combined balance and strength exercises or combined plyometric and strength exercises). Similarly, external knee flexion moment was improved following integrated training consisting of balance, plyometric, and strength exercises. VGRF was improved when incorporating supervision with instruction and feedback on proper technique. ACL injury prevention programs that are aimed at

  16. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collateral ligament. Fortunately the majority of knee injuries are strains involving the ligaments. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), which resists valgus and internal rotation, is susceptible to contact and non-contact loads. The MCL is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee.13 In an audit of soccer injuries in ...

  17. Lack of effect of a knee ligament injury prevention program on the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury.

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    Pfeiffer, Ronald P; Shea, Kevin G; Roberts, Dana; Grandstrand, Sara; Bond, Laura

    2006-08-01

    Studies have suggested that exercise programs can reduce the incidence of noncontact injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament in female athletes. We conducted a two-year prospective study to assess the effects of a knee ligament injury prevention exercise program on the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high-school female athletes. A prospective cohort design was used to study high-school female athletes (playing soccer, basketball, and volleyball) from fifteen schools (112 teams) for two consecutive seasons. The schools were divided into treatment and control groups. The treatment group participated in a plyometric-based exercise program twice a week throughout the season. Practice and game exposures and compliance with the exercise program were recorded on a weekly basis. Suspected noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries were confirmed on the basis of the history as well as at the time of surgery and/or with magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 1439 athletes (862 in the control group and 577 in the treatment group) were monitored. There were six confirmed noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: three in the treatment group, and three in the control group. The incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries per 1000 exposures was 0.167 in the treatment group and 0.078 in the control group, yielding an odds ratio of 2.05, which was not significant (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that a twenty-minute plyometric-based exercise program that focuses on the mechanics of landing from a jump and deceleration when running performed twice a week throughout the season will not reduce the rate of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high-school female athletes.

  18. Trunk and hip control neuromuscular training for the prevention of knee joint injury.

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    Myer, Gregory D; Chu, Donald A; Brent, Jensen L; Hewett, Timothy E

    2008-07-01

    This article provide evidences to outline a novel theory used to define the mechanisms related to increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes. In addition, this discussion will include theoretical constructs for the description of the mechanisms that lead to increased risk. Finally, a clinical application section will outline novel neuromuscular training techniques designed to target deficits that underlie the proposed mechanism of increased risk of knee injury in female athletes.

  19. The effects of injury preventive warm-up programs on knee strength ratio in young male professional soccer players.

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    Abdolhamid Daneshjoo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+ and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR, dynamic control ratio (DCR and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. METHODS: Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n = 12 per group. These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions. The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s(-1, 180°.s(-1 and 300°.s(-1, respectively. The CSR (60°.s(-1 increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s(-1 in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p = 0.02. As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p = 0.04. For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR. Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players.

  20. Effects of knee injury primary prevention programs on anterior cruciate ligament injury rates in female athletes in different sports: a systematic review.

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    Michaelidis, Michael; Koumantakis, George A

    2014-08-01

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is frequently encountered in sports. To analyze the effects of ACL injury prevention programs on injury rates in female athletes between different sports. A comprehensive literature search was performed in September 2012 using Pubmed Central, Science Direct, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus. The key words used were: 'anterior cruciate ligament', 'ACL', 'knee joint', 'knee injuries', 'female', 'athletes', 'neuromuscular', 'training', 'prevention'. The inclusion criteria applied were: (1) ACL injury prevention training programs for female athletes; (2) Athlete-exposure data reporting; (3) Effect of training on ACL incidence rates for female athletes. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three training programs in soccer and one in handball led to reduced ACL injury incidence. In basketball no effective training intervention was found. In season training was more effective than preseason in ACL injury prevention. A combination of strength training, plyometrics, balance training, technique monitoring with feedback, produced the most favorable results. Comparing the main components of ACL injury prevention programs for female athletes, some sports-dependent training specificity issues may need addressing in future studies, related primarily to the individual biomechanics of each sport but also their most effective method of delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Knee Dislocations in Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Anand, Karthik; Raut, Alhad

    2017-01-01

    Knee dislocations are devastating when they occur on the athletic field or secondary to motor sports. The complexity of presentation and spectrum of treatment options makes these injuries unique and extremely challenging to even the most experienced knee surgeons. An astute appreciation of the treatment algorithm is essential to plan individualized management since no two complex knee dislocations are ever the same. Moreover, attention to detail and finesse of surgical technique are required to obtain a good functional result and ensure return to play. Over the past 10 years, our service has treated 43 competitive sportsmen with knee dislocations, and this experience forms the basis for this narrative review. PMID:28966379

  2. [Analysis of knee joint injuries of competitive volleyball players in selected sports clubs of Poznan city--biomechanical context. Synthesis--proposal for the usage of physiotherapy methods in the prevention of the discussed injuries].

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    Dworak, Lechosław B; Rzepnicka, Agata; Wilkosz, Piotr; Szczesny, Łukasz

    2010-01-01

    Volleyball is a source of direct injuries and chronic overloads of the joints, which indirectly results in traumas and permanent dysfunctions. This applies particularly to: knee joints, ankle joints, shoulder joints and small joints of the hand, as well as the joints of the lower spine regions. Each league team should employ a physiotherapist who would be responsible for the implementation of an injury prevention program as well as for choosing the right training loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the frequency and the type of knee joint injuries occurring in people practicing Volleyball at competitive level as well as to propose the usage of elements of modern physiotherapy in order to prevent these injuries. The tests were performed over a group of 19 volleyball players from Poznan. In order to propose measures that would prevent injuries, the authors carried out a review of modern physiotherapy methods and suggested the implementation of certain therapeutic techniques for the region of the knee joint. RESULT ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: As much as 79% of the subjects reported having chronic pain and knee joint injuries in the past. All of them, due to their conditions, declared having used various forms of physiotherapy treatment. It seems that in a professional sports club not only the presence of a massage therapist but first of all a qualified physiotherapist is indispensable.

  3. Relation between peak knee flexion angle and knee ankle kinetics in single-leg jump landing from running: a pilot study on male handball players to prevent ACL injury.

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    Ameer, Mariam A; Muaidi, Qassim I

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between knee kinematics and knee-ankle kinetics during the landing phase of single leg jumping has been widely studied to identify proper strategies for preventing non-contact ACL injury. However, there is a lack of study on knee-ankle kinetics at peak knee flexion angle during jumping from running. Hence, the purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, ankle plantar flexion moment and ground reaction force in handball players in order to protect ACL from excessive stress during single leg jumping. In addition, the study also clarifies the role of calf muscles in relieving part of ACL stresses with different knee flexion angles during landing. Fifteen active male elite handball players of Saudi Arabia have participated in this study (Age = 22.6 ± 3.5years, Height = 182 ± 3.7 cm, Weight = 87.5 ± 10.2 kg). The players performed three successful landings of single-leg jump following running a fixed distance of about 450cm. The data were collected using a 3D motion capture and analysis system (VICON). Pearson product moment correlation coefficients showed that greater peak knee flexion angle is related significantly to both lesser knee extension moment (r = -.623, P = .013) and vertical component of ground reaction force (VGRF) (r = -.688, P = .005) in landing phase. Moreover, increasing the peak knee flexion angle in landing phase tends to increase the ankle plantar flexion moment significantly (r = .832, P = .000). With an increase of the peak knee flexion angle during single leg jump landing from running, there would be less knee extension moment, low impact force and more plantar flexion moment. As such, the clinical implication of this study is that there may be a possible protective mechanism by increasing the knee flexion angle during landing phase, which tends to protect the ACL from vigorous strain and injuries.

  4. Increasing hip and knee flexion during a drop-jump task reduces tibiofemoral shear and compressive forces: implications for ACL injury prevention training.

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    Tsai, Liang-Ching; Ko, Yi-An; Hammond, Kyle E; Xerogeanes, John W; Warren, Gordon L; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-12-01

    Although most ACL injury prevention programmes encourage greater hip and knee flexion during landing, it remains unknown how this technique influences tibiofemoral joint forces. We examined whether a landing strategy utilising greater hip and knee flexion decreases tibiofemoral anterior shear and compression. Twelve healthy women (25.9 ± 3.5 years) performed a drop-jump task before and after a training session (10-15 min) that emphasised greater hip and knee flexion. Peak tibiofemoral anterior shear and compressive forces were calculated using an electromyography (EMG)-driven knee model that incorporated joint kinematics, EMG and participant-specific muscle volumes and patella tendon orientation measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants demonstrated a decrease in peak anterior tibial shear forces (11.1 ± 3.3 vs. 9.6 ± 2.7 N · kg -1 ; P = 0.008) and peak tibiofemoral compressive forces (68.4 ± 7.6 vs. 62.0 ± 5.5 N · kg -1 ; P = 0.015) post-training. The decreased peak anterior tibial shear was accompanied by a decrease in the quadriceps anterior shear force, while the decreased peak compressive force was accompanied by decreased ground reaction force and hamstring forces. Our data provide justification for injury prevention programmes that encourage greater hip and knee flexion during landing to reduce tibiofemoral joint loading.

  5. [Assessment of concomitant floating knees injuries severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eone, Daniel Handy; Lamah, Léopold; Bayiha, Jean Emile; Ondoa, Danielle Larissa Essomba; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Ibrahima, Farikou; Bahebeck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Floating knee is caused by high-energy trauma, whose genesis is suggestive of extensive locoregional and general damages. Referring to multiple trauma. The aim of our study was to collect data on all concomitant floating knee injuries in our practice environment and to evaluate their severity. We conducted a descriptive and retrospective study over a period of 14 years and 9 months. Our sample consisted of 75 floating knees, the average age was 35 years. Sixty six patients had an ISS≥16 (classified as polytrauma). Head traumas, chest and abdominal injuries associated with floating knee injuries require adequate resuscitation.

  6. [Overuse injury syndromes of the knee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećina, M; Bojanić, I; Haspl, M

    2001-12-01

    Overuse injuries are frequent in the knee joint. The reason for this is that the knee joint is engaged in all sports activities. Furthermore, the joint area has numerous attachment points for muscles and tendons and numerous bursae. Another reason is that the specific joint between the patella and femur (patellofemoral joint) constitutes a part of the knee joint. Speaking in general terms, all overuse injuries in the knee joint can be divided in four groups according to the aspect: anterior aspect--patellofemoral pain syndrome, patellar tendinitis (jumper's knee), Osgood-Schlatter disease, Sinding Larson Johanson disease, stress fracture of the patella, fat pad syndrome; medial aspect--plica syndrome, semimembranosus tendinitis, pes anserinus tendinitis (bursitis), breaststroker's knee, medial retinaculitis; lateral aspect--Iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee), Popliteal Tendinitis, Bicipital tendinitis; posterior aspect--fabellitis, medial gastrocnemius strain. There are numerous possible reasons for pain caused by overuse injuries around the knee joint, but two are the most frequent: patellar tendinitis (jumper's knee) and Iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee). This paper gives a brief overview of overuse injuries of the knee joint including their definition, anatomy, aetiology, clinical symptoms and signs, and non-operative and surgical treatment.

  7. Bilateral multiligament injury of knee caused by entangled dupatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinand V Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bilateral multiligament knee injury in an 18-year-old female employed in garment industry. Patient was wearing salwar kameez and dupatta while operating an electric laundry machine. In this case we discuss a peculiar mechanism of injury caused due to wearing dupatta near working site and suggest simple preventive measures.

  8. Biomechanical risk factors and mechanisms of knee injury in golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert N; McNair, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Knee injuries in golf comprise approximately 8% of all injuries, and are considered to result from overuse, technical faults or a combination of those factors. This review examines factors involved in injury, including the structure of the knee joint, kinematics and kinetics of the golf swing, forces sustained by knee joint structures and the potential for joint injury as well as injury prevention strategies. The golf swing generates forces and torques which tend to cause internal or external rotation of the tibia on the femur, and these are resisted by the knee ligaments and menisci. Research has shown that both maximum muscle forces and the forces sustained during a golf swing are less than that required to cause damage to the ligaments. However, the complex motion of the golf swing, involving both substantial forces and ranges of rotational movement, demands good technique if the player is to avoid injuring their knee joint. Most knee injury in golf is likely related to joint laxity, previous injuries or arthritis, and such damage may be exacerbated by problems in technique or overuse. In addition to appropriate coaching, strategies to remedy discomfort include specific exercise programmes, external bracing, orthotics and equipment choices.

  9. MRI EVALUATION OF SPORTS RELATED KNEE INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Basu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To investigate the accuracy of MRI in evaluation of sports related knee injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS From June 2015 to 1 st week of July 2016. Thirty patients referred for sports related knee pain have been included in this study. Patients were subjected to a dedicated MR knee study (GE HD XT 1.5T MR System and correlated knee arthroscopy and surgery. RESULTS The study included Thirty patients complaining of sports related knee pain, only 5 patients (16.67 % were with normal MRI findings and 25 patients (83.33% were with abnormal MRI findings. Among the 25 patients who had injuries of their knees, 15 patients (60% had ACL injuries, 6 patients (24% had PCL injuries, 10 patients (40% had meniscal injuries, 8 patients (32% had collateral ligament injuries, 5 patients (20% had bone injuries and 2 patients (8% had muscular injuries. Only 5 patients (20% were represented with isolated injury and 20 patients (80% were represented with combined injuries. In correlation with arthroscopies and surgeries, morphological analysis was true-positive in 23 (92% patients of the 25 injured patients, and true-negative in 1 (60% patient of the 2 normal patients. Morphological analysis revealed overall 92% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Regarding the 15 patients who had ACL injuries, 13 patients (86.6% were true-positive and 8 patients (80% of the 10 patients who had meniscal injuries were true-positive. CONCLUSION MRI represents the optimal imaging modalities in the evaluation of the sports related knee injuries, which has been shown to be an accurate and non-invasive method of diagnosing ligament, meniscal, cartilage and muscular knee injuries.

  10. Epidemiology of knee injuries among boys and girls in US high school athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jay G; Fields, Sarah K; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2008-06-01

    The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site and the leading cause of high school sports-related surgeries. Knee injuries are among the most economically costly sports injuries and may require subsequent surgery or extensive and expensive rehabilitation. To report the incidence, risk, and severity of high school knee injuries across sports, genders, and type of exposure. Descriptive epidemiology study. During the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 school years, 100 US high schools were randomly selected for a nationally representative sample. Certified athletic trainers tracked injuries using an online injury surveillance system, High School RIO, in 9 high school sports. There were 1383 knee injuries reported during 3,551131 athlete exposures for a rate of 3.89 knee injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Although boys had a higher overall rate of knee injury (rate ratio, 1.38; confidence interval, 1.22-1.55), girls were twice as likely to sustain knee injuries requiring surgery (major knee injuries) than were boys (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.45-2.70) and twice as likely to incur noncontact major knee injuries (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.23-3.19) as were boys. Although illegal play was identified as a contributing factor in only 5.7% of all knee injuries, 20% of knee injuries resulting from illegal play required surgery. Knee injury rates and patterns varied by sport, gender, and type of exposure. Identified gender differences included differences in injury rates, injury severity, and basic injury mechanism. Further surveillance is crucial for the development of targeted, evidence-based injury prevention strategies to reduce the morbidity and economic impact of knee surgeries.

  11. Occult Intra-articular Knee Injuries in Children With Hemarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenberger, Marie; Ekström, Wilhelmina; Finnbogason, Thröstur; Janarv, Per-Mats

    2014-07-01

    patellar dislocation. This should be taken into consideration to improve prevention strategies and treatment algorithms in pediatric knee injuries. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, N J; Prinsen, C A C; Christensen, R

    2016-01-01

    in participants with knee injuries and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Methodological quality was evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Where possible, meta-analysis of extracted data was conducted for all studies and stratified by age and knee condition; otherwise narrative synthesis was performed. RESULTS: KOOS has...... adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity in young and old adults with knee injuries and/or OA. The ADL subscale has better content validity for older patients and Sport/Rec for younger patients with knee injuries, while the Pain subscale is more relevant for painful......OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize evidence regarding measurement properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search identified 37 eligible papers evaluating KOOS measurement properties...

  13. Hyperextended Knee: Cause of Serious Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knee and lower leg. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 24, 2015. Brooks GP, et al. Treatment of knee injuries in the young athlete. http://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  14. Complex knee injury scenario in tertiary level care in North India: An epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Mukul; Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharma, Gaurav; Kanojia, Rajendra K

    2017-11-01

    Floating knee injury has been considered as one of the severe orthopedic injury, and is often associated with major systemic trauma involving other organs. To identify the incidence of floating knee injury, severity of injury and associated orthopaedic and non-orthopaedic injury. Epidemiologic study conducted from 1 Jan 2014 to 31 Dec 2014. A total of 136 cases with floating knee injury were registered. Modified Fraser classification showed 58 patients had type 1, 74 had type 2 and 4 had type 3 floating knees. 119(87.5%) patients had open fractures and Gustilo-Anderson type IIIA(29.4%) being the commonest. No Mortality was found. 16 (11.76%) of floating knees had to undergo amputation of afflicted limb. Statics of such data would be helpful in planning and preparing ourselves as healthcare professionals to prevent high mortality and morbidity/disability in floating knee injury. Retrospective Epidemiological. Level 4 (Case Study).

  15. Prospective epidemiological study of basketball injuries during one competitive season: ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Meeusen, Romain

    2007-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aims to assess the overall incidence of acute and overuse basketball injuries and identifies risk factors associated with ankle sprains and knee overuse injuries. In total, 164 senior players (23.7 years ± 7.0) of all levels of play, and including both men and women, participated voluntarily during one season. A total of 139 acute and 87 overuse injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 9.8 (8.5 to 11.1) per 1,000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 6.0/1,000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 34) accounted for most acute injuries, and 52.9% of all players with ankle sprains reported a previous ankle sprain. Relative Risks (RR) and Odds Ratio (OR) with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated to determine significant differences. Landing on an opponent's foot was the major inciting event, significantly more so than non contact mechanisms (RR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2]). Acute knee injuries resulted in the highest playing absence (7 weeks 2 days ± 9 weeks 1 day). Overuse injury incidence was 3.8/1,000 hours. The knee (1.5/1,000 hours) was the most common site. Forward players sustained less knee overuse injuries than players of all other playing positions, and significantly less than center players (OR=0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-0.9]). This study showed that ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries are the most common injuries in basketball, both accounting for 14.8%. Injury prevention programmes however should not concentrate on those injuries only, but might one to consider that acute knee injuries, in spite of the fact that they occur less frequently, also merit further research. Key pointsAnkle sprains are the most common acute injuries in basketball with the inciting event being landing on an opponent's foot or changing direction.Anterior knee pain is the most common overuse injury. Etiologic factors are well described in literature, but prevention strategies are lacking.Acute knee injuries account for the

  16. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BASKETBALL INJURIES DURING ONE COMPETITIVE SEASON: ANKLE SPRAINS AND OVERUSE KNEE INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Cumps

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective cohort study aims to assess the overall incidence of acute and overuse basketball injuries and identifies risk factors associated with ankle sprains and knee overuse injuries. In total, 164 senior players (23.7 years ± 7.0 of all levels of play, and including both men and women, participated voluntarily during one season. A total of 139 acute and 87 overuse injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 9.8 (8.5 to 11.1 per 1,000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 6.0/1,000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 34 accounted for most acute injuries, and 52.9% of all players with ankle sprains reported a previous ankle sprain. Relative Risks (RR and Odds Ratio (OR with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated to determine significant differences. Landing on an opponent's foot was the major inciting event, significantly more so than non contact mechanisms (RR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2]. Acute knee injuries resulted in the highest playing absence (7 weeks 2 days ± 9 weeks 1 day. Overuse injury incidence was 3.8/1,000 hours. The knee (1.5/1,000 hours was the most common site. Forward players sustained less knee overuse injuries than players of all other playing positions, and significantly less than center players (OR=0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-0.9]. This study showed that ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries are the most common injuries in basketball, both accounting for 14.8%. Injury prevention programmes however should not concentrate on those injuries only, but might one to consider that acute knee injuries, in spite of the fact that they occur less frequently, also merit further research.

  17. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K

    2015-01-01

    as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P 

  18. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos.Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated.Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.

  19. Knee injury and obesity in patients undergoing total knee replacement: a retrospective study in 115 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Hjorth; Rofail, S

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and previous knee injury was assessed in a retrospective study of 115 patients under-going total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis. Obesity was considered a contributing factor in the development of osteoarthritis in 37% of the patients, and 33% of the patients had...... had an injury to the knee in question. Unilateral osteoarthritis was significantly more frequent than bilateral osteoarthritis among patients with a history of previous knee injury. The association of previous injury to the knee and unilateral osteoarthritis was stronger in men than women. Aggressive...... treatment of patients with knee injuries seems warranted....

  20. Overuse Knee Injuries in Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S J

    1991-12-01

    In brief Because of their skeletal immaturity, children and adolescents are subject to a somewhat different set of overuse knee injuries than are adults. Described here are the diagnosis and treatment for the most common growth-related causes of knee pain in active young people: Osgood-Schlatter disease, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, osteochondritis dissecans, bipartite patella, medial plica syndrome, and discoid meniscus. In most cases these conditions respond to conservative treatment.

  1. Common injuries in volleyball. Mechanisms of injury, prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, W W; Kacmar, L

    1997-07-01

    Volleyball has become an extremely popular participation sport worldwide. Fortunately, the incidence of serious injury is relatively low. The sport-specific activity most commonly associated with injury is blocking. Ankle sprains are the most common acute injury. Recurrent sprains may be less likely to occur if an ankle orthosis is worn. Patellar tendinitis represents the most common overuse injury, although shoulder tendinitis secondary to the overhead activities of spiking and serving is also commonly seen. An unusual shoulder injury involving the distal branch of the suprascapular nerve which innervates the infraspinatus muscle has been increasingly described in volleyball players in recent years. Hand injuries, usually occurring while blocking, are the next most common group of injuries. Fortunately, severe knee ligament injuries are rare in volleyball. However, anterior crutiate ligament injury is more likely to occur in female players. Many of these injuries may be preventable with close attention to technique in sport-specific skills and some fairly simple preventive interventions.

  2. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  3. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...

  4. Knee Injuries in American Football: An Epidemiological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Paul; Grau, Luis; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael G

    Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament.

  5. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  6. Knee Bracing: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness, Exercise Basics, First Aid and Injury Prevention, Injury Rehabilitation, Prevention and Wellness, Sports SafetyTags: Knee Pain, Pain Management September 1, 2005 Copyright © American ...

  7. associated injuries and complications in floating knee management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Associated injuries, complications, Floating knee, Management. INTRODUCTION. Floating knee refers to ipsilateral fractures of femur and tibia. Road accidents with high-energy trauma are the most frequent aetiology leading to that type of injury. In the management of floating knee, the lower limb deformation ...

  8. Noninjured Knees of Patients With Noncontact ACL Injuries Display Higher Average Anterior and Internal Rotational Knee Laxity Compared With Healthy Knees of a Noninjured Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Caroline; Theisen, Daniel; Meyer, Tim; Agostinis, Hélène; Nührenbörger, Christian; Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain

    2015-08-01

    Excessive physiological anterior and rotational knee laxity is thought to be a risk factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and inferior reconstruction outcomes, but no thresholds have been established to identify patients with increased laxity. (1) To determine if the healthy contralateral knees of ACL-injured patients have greater anterior and rotational knee laxity, leading to different laxity profiles (combination of laxities), compared with healthy control knees and (2) to set a threshold to help discriminate anterior and rotational knee laxity between these groups. Case-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 171 healthy contralateral knees of noncontact ACL-injured patients (ACL-H group) and 104 healthy knees of control participants (CTL group) were tested for anterior and rotational laxity. Laxity scores (measurements corrected for sex and body mass) were used to classify knees as hypolax (score 1). Proportions of patients in each group were compared using χ(2) tests. Receiver operating characteristic curves were computed to discriminate laxity between the groups. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the probability of being in the ACL-H group. The ACL-H group displayed greater laxity scores for anterior displacement and internal rotation in their uninjured knee compared with the CTL group (P knees of patients with noncontact ACL injuries display different laxity values both for internal rotation and anterior displacement compared with healthy control knees. The identification of knee laxity profiles may be of relevance for primary and secondary prevention programs of noncontact ACL injuries. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Rivaroxaban to Prevent Pulmonary Embolism after Hip or Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Prevent Pulmonary Embolism After Hip or Knee Replacement Deborah Cios , John Fanikos Download PDF https://doi. ... Rivaroxaban to Prevent Clots After Hip or Knee Replacement Many different medications are used to prevent blood ...

  10. Kissing knees - factors behind the attraction. Knee abduction in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Cronström, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and patellofemoral pain (PFP) are common sports-related knee injuries. Their consequences include compromised health of the effected individual and substantial financial costs for society. Increased knee abduction or a knee medial to foot position (KMFP), so called “kissing knees”, during weight-bearing activities is reported to be more common in patients with ACL injury or PFP than in non-injured individuals and is also reported to be associated with g...

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF KNEE INJURIES AMONG US HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES, 2005/06–2010/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Best, Thomas M.; Flanigan, David C.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose US high school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually. Detailed patterns of knee injuries, among the most costly sports injuries, remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that patterns of knee injuries in US high school sports differ by sport and gender. Methods US High school sports-related injury data were collected for 20 sports using the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School RIO™. Knee injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios were calculated. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, 5,116 knee injuries occurred during 17,172,376 athlete exposures (AEs) for an overall rate of 2.98 knee injuries per 10,000 AEs. Knee injuries were more common in competition than practice (RR 3.53, 95% CI 3.34–3.73). Football had the highest knee injury rate (6.29 per 10,000 AEs) followed by girls’ soccer (4.53) and girls’ gymnastics (4.23). Girls had significantly higher knee injury rates than boys in gender-comparable sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, swimming and diving, and track and field) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39–1.65). The most commonly involved structure was the MCL (reported in 36.1% of knee injuries), followed by the patella/patellar tendon (29.5%), ACL (25.4%), meniscus (23.0%), LCL (7.9%), and PCL (2.4%). Girls were significantly more likely to sustain ACL injuries in gender-comparable sports (RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.91–2.95). Overall, 21.2% of knee injuries were treated with surgery; girls were more often treated with surgery than boys in gender-comparable sports (IPR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.53). Conclusions Knee injury patterns differ by sport and gender. Continuing efforts to develop preventive interventions could reduce the burden of these injuries. PMID:23059869

  12. Work-Related Knee Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Chakrabarty, Sangita; Levine, Robert S.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Ding, Tan; Jackson, Larry L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize work-related knee injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs). Methods We characterized work-related knee injuries treated in EDs in 2007 and examined trends from 1998 to 2007 by using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—occupational supplement (NEISS-Work). Results In 2007, 184,300 (± 54,000, 95% confidence interval) occupational knee injuries were treated in U.S. EDs, accounting for 5% of the 3.4 (± 0.9) million ED-treated occupational injuries. The ED-treated knee injury rate was 13 (± 4) injuries per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers. Younger workers and older female workers had high rates. Strains/sprains and contusions/abrasions were common—frequently resulting from falls and bodily reaction/overexertion events. Knee injury rates declined from 1998 through 2007. Conclusions Knee injury prevention should emphasize reducing falls and bodily reaction/overexertion events, particularly among all youth and older women. PMID:23969507

  13. How Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury was averted during Knee Collapse in a NBA Point Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Bates, Nathaniel A; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur with rapid decelerations and pivoting. A recent injury to a high-level National Basketball Association (NBA) player demonstrated neuromuscular control and injury-sparing mechanisms that resulted in only minor ligament injury to the medial collateral ligament. We analyzed biomechanical mechanisms via publically available orthogonal 2-D video to demonstrate how this potential ACL injury was averted. Analysis of the knee injury mechanism demonstrated that the NBA player experienced low ground reaction force, high sagittal plane flexion, and maintenance of frontal plane stability with neuromuscular control. The outcome of these factors inhibited dynamic valgus collapse of the knee throughout the fall, avoiding ACL injury - a potentially career-altering injury. Many athletes, professional and recreational, will be subjected to similar mechanisms of injury and will have improved outcomes if they can successfully utilize preventive strategies of neuromuscular control to limit injury mechanisms.

  14. Sidestep cutting technique and knee abduction loading: implications for ACL prevention exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Faul, Oliver; Bahr, Roald; Myklebust, Grethe; Krosshaug, Tron

    2014-05-01

    Sidestep cutting technique is essential in programmes to prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A better understanding of how technique affects potentially harmful joint loading may improve prevention programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sidestep cutting technique on maximum knee abduction moments. Cross-sectional study. Whole-body kinematics and knee joint kinetics were calculated in 123 female handball players (mean±SD, 22.5±7.0 years, 171±7 cm, 67±7 kg) performing sidestep cutting. Three cuts from each side were analysed. Linear regression was applied between selected technique factors and maximum knee abduction moment during the first 100 ms of the contact phase. Furthermore, we investigated to what degree the abduction moment originated from the magnitude of the ground reaction force (GRF) or the knee abduction moment arm of the GRF. Technique factors explained 62% of the variance in knee abduction moments. Cut width, knee valgus, toe landing, approach speed and cutting angle were the most significant predictors. An increase in one of these factors of 1 SD increased the knee abduction moment from 12% to 19%. The effect of the moment arm of the GRF was more important than the force magnitude for maximum knee abduction moments. Lower knee abduction loads during sidestep cutting may be achieved if cuts are performed as narrow cuts with low knee valgus and toe landings. These factors may be targeted in ACL injury prevention programmes.

  15. Evaluation and management of knee pain in young athletes: overuse injuries of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Villalobos, Ana

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent or chronic activity related knee pain is common in young athletes. Numerous intrinsic conditions affecting the knee can cause such pain. In addition, knee pain can be referred pain from low back, hip or pelvic pathology. The most common cause of knee pain in young athletes is patellofemoral pain syndrome, or more appropriately termed idiopathic anterior knee pain. Although, numerous anatomical and biomechanical factors have been postulated to contribute the knee pain in young athletes, the most common underlying reason is overuse injury. In this paper, we have reviewed selected conditions that case knee pain in athletes, including anterior knee pain syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Sinding-Larsen-Johanssen syndrome, juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD), bipartite patella, plica syndrome, and tendonitis around the knee.

  16. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  17. Knee injuries in skiing. A prospective study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, G; Gedda, S; Hemborg, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper evaluates 420 ski injuries occurring in Northern Sweden in 1977. Our main aim was to correlate knee injuries with types of skiing and to note a change in incidence with evolution of equipment. Fifty-eight lesions (13.8%) affected the knee joint which is about the same frequency as 10 years earlier nor has introduction of high stiff boots in downhill skiing increased incidence of knee injuries. Cross-country and long-distance skiing produced more knee injuries (24.7%) than downhill skiing (11.4%). Cross-country skiers were older and more women in this group sustained knee injuries. The use of non-release type bindings is probably the main reason for this higher incidence but age and different skiing techniques seem to contribute.

  18. Prevention of infection after knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: Man-made joints (joint endoprostheses, including knee endoprostheses, are used in some irreversible diseases of the human joints. The implantation of joint endoprostheses (arthroplasty is associated with an increased risk for infection. To prevent infections, different interventions without and with the use of antibiotics (hygiene procedures and antibiotic prophylaxis are used. The benefits of these interventions are not clear yet. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions regarding the medical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects related to the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. Methods: A systematic literature search is conducted in the medical electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciSearch etc. in June 2009 and has been completed by a hand search. The analysis includes publications which describe and/or evaluate clinical data from randomized controlled trials (RCT, systematic reviews of RCT, registers of endoprostheses or databases concerning interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. The conducted literature search also aims to identify health-economic studies and publications dealing explicitly with ethical, social or legal aspects in the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. The synthesis of information from different publications has been performed qualitatively. Results: The systematic literature search yields 1,030 hits. Based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of ten publications is included in the analysis. The presented report does not find evidence of the effectiveness of different hygiene interventions with a high evidence level. Most of the unspecific interventions are recommended on the basis of results from non-RCT, from studies for other clinical indications and/or for clinically not relevant endpoints, as well as on the basis of

  19. Knee confidence in youth and young adults at risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis 3-10 years following intra-articular knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, A M; Whittaker, J L; Toomey, C; Doyle-Baker, P K; Brussoni, M; Emery, C A

    2017-11-26

    To examine differences in knee confidence between individuals with a history of youth sport-related knee injury and uninjured controls. Historical cohort study. Participants include 100 individuals who sustained a youth sport-related intra-articular knee injury 3-10 years previously and 100 age-, sex- and sport-matched uninjured controls. Outcomes included: Knee confidence (Knee Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score); fat mass index (FMI; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); and weekly physical activity (modified Godin-Shephard Leisure Time Questionnaire). Mean within-pair differences (95% CI) were calculated for all outcomes. Unadjusted and adjusted (FMI and physical activity) conditional (matched-design) logistic regression (OR 95% CI) examined the association between injury history and knee confidence. Median age of participants was 22 years (range 15-26) and median age at injury was 16 years (range 9-18). Forty-nine percent (95% CI; 39.0, 59.0) of previously injured participants were bothered by knee confidence, compared to 12% (5.5, 18.5) of uninjured participants. Although there was no between group difference in physical activity, injured participants had higher FMI compared to controls (within-pair difference; (95% CI): 1.05kg/m 2 ; (0.53, 1.57)). Logistic regression revealed that injured participants had 5.0 (unadjusted OR; 95% CI; 2.4, 10.2) and 7.5 times (adjusted OR; 95% CI: 2.7, 21.1) greater odds of being bothered by knee confidence than controls. Knee confidence differs between individuals with a previous youth sport-related knee injury and healthy controls. Knee confidence may be an important consideration for evaluating osteoarthritis risk after knee injury and developing secondary prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.

    2010-01-01

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [de

  1. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  2. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  3. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-07-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse.

  4. An Investigation of Knee Injury Prevalence and its Mechanism among Premier League Soccer Referees in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahdavi Mohtasham

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the importance of including special training in warm-up programs such as interval training, proprioception exercises, strength training (e.g. Nordic hamstring, flexibility training, and muscular endurance training which have been designed to prevent knee injuries. The results help to design and set-up an injury prevention program for the Referees Committee of the Iranian Football Federation.

  5. MRI injury patterns in surgically confirmed and reconstructed posterolateral corner knee injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mark S; Bond, Jeffery R; Crush, Andrew B; Stuart, Michael J; King, Alexander H; Levy, Bruce A

    2015-10-01

    The posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee is anatomically complex with similarly complex MR imaging findings in acutely injured knees. The purpose of this study was to define the MRI pattern of injury in cases of PLC disruption requiring surgery because of clinical instability. The knee MRIs of 22 patients who underwent surgical repair and/or reconstruction of PLC injury were retrospectively reviewed. The fibular collateral ligament (FCL), popliteus tendon (PT), biceps femoris (BF), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), arcuate ligament (AL), and fabellofibular ligament (FFL) were evaluated and graded as follows: complete tear, high-grade partial tear, low-grade partial tear, and normal. In the 22 cases of PLC injury that necessitated surgery, a constellation of findings involving the larger structures of the PLC was identified. Of the FCL, PT, and BF (considered larger structures), at least two were abnormal in all 22 injury cases. Of the PFL, AL, and FFL (considered smaller structures), the PFL appeared abnormal in 19 cases, yet neither the AL nor FFL were confidently characterized in the injury group. The larger structures of the PLC are easily evaluated using standard MRI techniques. This study identified a predictable pattern of imaging findings involving these more easily assessed structures in those patients who were felt to be clinically unstable and underwent surgical reconstruction, as at least two were abnormal in all 22 cases. The smaller structures of the PLC are difficult to assess with MRI; however, direct visualization of their involvement on MRI is not necessary to report a clinically unstable PLC injury. Emphasis of this simplified but critical analysis of the FCL, BF and PT on MRI scans reviewed by radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons may help to prevent delayed diagnosis of unstable PLC injuries. III.

  6. Bilateral Floating Hip and Floating Knee: a Rare Complex Injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare complex injury of a 45-year-old man who sustained a bilateral floating hip and floating knee and hospitalised in our service six days after a traffic accident. The floating knees were open type III and II of Cauchoix score in phase of suppuration. He also presented with a floating ankle on the right side.

  7. A systematic review to evaluate exercise for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: does this approach reduce the incidence of knee osteoarthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan KJ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Koji J Duncan, Jaclyn N Chopp-Hurley, Monica R Maly School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Purpose: Among a variety of conservative and surgical options to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, we do not understand which options could potentially prevent knee osteoarthritis (OA. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence pertaining to exercise treatment of ACL injuries in the context of knee OA. Methods: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database databases were systematically searched using keywords encompassed within four primary key terms: knee, osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament, and exercise. Clinical studies evaluating the effect of an exercise treatment for ACL injuries on the development of knee OA in adult humans were included. The PEDro scale was used to critically assess the studies included in the review. Results: Eighteen studies were included in this review, with a median PEDro score of 6/11 (range, 2/11–9/11. Three studies provided statistical evidence that exercise following ACL injury lowered the risk for knee OA development. Nine studies demonstrated no benefit of exercise in preventing knee OA incidence relative to either operative treatment or the contralateral, unaffected knee. However, exercise resulted in higher knee instability. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in subjective or objective knee outcomes for early versus late ACL reconstruction. Limitations: This review was not registered through PROSPERO. Conclusion: The relationship between a rehabilitative exercise for ACL injuries and long-term knee OA prevalence is inconclusive. However, research suggests initial conservative treatment with optional late ACL reconstruction because this treatment strategy may reduce the risk of knee OA. More research, ideally randomized controlled trials or comparable designs, is required prior to establishing

  8. Effect of Interventions on Potential, Modifiable Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is

  9. Atraumatic patellar prosthesis dislocation with patellar tendon injury following a total knee arthroplasty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Alka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Total knee arthroplasty is a well-established procedure with gratifying results. There is no consensus in the literature whether to routinely resurface the patella while performing total knee arthroplasty or not. Although an extremely rare occurrence in clinical practice, patellar prosthesis dislocation is a possible complication resulting from total knee arthroplasty. Case presentation We report a rare case of atraumatic spontaneous dislocation of patellar prosthesis in a 63-year-old Caucasian man of British origin with patellar tendon injury. The patient was treated successfully through a revision of the patellar component and tendon repair. In two years follow-up the patient is asymptomatic with no sign of loosening of his patellar prosthesis. Conclusions A thorough understanding of knee biomechanics is imperative in performing total knee arthroplasty in order to achieve a better functional outcome and to prevent early prosthetic failure.

  10. Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Dennis E; Miller, Patricia E; Berrahou, Iman K; Yen, Yi-Meng; Heyworth, Benton E

    2017-12-08

    The majority of research on medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligament injuries has focused on adults and combined collateral/cruciate injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics associated with isolated collateral ligament injuries in adolescents, and assess timing for return to sports. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients aged below 17 years who sustained a magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed isolated MCL or LCL injury over an 8-year period. Retrospective review then documented patient and injury characteristics and clinical course. General linear modeling was used to analyze risk factors for prolonged return to sports, continued pain or reinjury. Fifty-one knees (33 in males, 65%), mean age 13.8 years (range, 5 to 17), were identified, of which 40 (78%) had MCL injuries. Over half (29, 57%) of knees had an open distal femoral physis including all 5 bony avulsion injuries. Eleven (22%) had LCL injuries of which 3 (6%) had concurrent posterolateral corner injuries. Forty-two (82%) knees had injuries that occurred during sports. Eleven knees (28%) with MCL tears had a simultaneous patellar instability episode. Knee injuries that occurred during sports had 37% shorter recovery time (P=0.02). Eight knees (16%) experienced a reinjury and 12 (24%) were followed over an extended period of time for various knee issues. Football injuries were more likely to be grade 3 (P=0.03), and football and soccer accounted for all grade III injuries. The mean return to sports was 2.2 months, with grade III cases returning at 2.4 months, and 95% of cases within 4 months. Isolated collateral ligament injuries are rare in adolescent athletes. MCL injuries, one-quarter of which occurred in conjunction with patellar instability events, were 4 times more common than LCL injuries, one quarter of which have other posterolateral corner structures involved. Grade III injuries represent 20% to 25% of collateral ligament injuries and

  11. Decreased Knee Joint Loading Associated With Early Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: -0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak medial compartment contact forces of the involved limb

  12. [Progress on prevention for anterior knee pain after primary total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yao-Zu; Chen, Chong-Wei; Wei, Xiao-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) identified as an effective treatment for ultimate knee joint disease can effectively relieve pain, correct deformity, improve knee function and enhance the quality of life of patients. Patient satisfaction has been increasingly considered as an important factor in evaluating the success of primary TKA. Anterior knee pain that usually appears in the region of the anterior knee is a recognized complaint for primary TKA and has a strong impact on the improvement of knee function and patient satisfaction of primary TKA. Accordingly, the relief of anterior knee pain has become one of the primary goals of primary TKA. At present, soft tissue lesions around the patellar caused by patellar maltracking and the elevation of internal pressure in subchondral bone because of the high contact stress of patellofemoral joint are both considered as the mechanism of anterior knee pain. For the past few years,on increasing number of studies have focused on the prevention of anterior knee pain following primary TKA. However, none of the past treatment such as patellar resurfacing, patellar denervation without patellar resurfacing or a mobile-bearing prosthesis has a good and affirmative effect on it. The prevention and treatment of anterior knee pain following primary TKA still is a difficult solved problem. To address this problem, we need further researches about the cause of anterior knee pain, knee joint prosthesis and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint, as well as lots of randomized controlled trials.

  13. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Brace wear preferences and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    In this prospective, multiinstitutional analysis of medial collateral ligament sprains in college football players, we categorized 987 previously uninjured study subjects according to frequency of wearing preventive knee braces, studied the patterns by which 47 of 100 injuries occurred to unbraced knees, and identified several extrinsic, sport-specific risk factors shared for both braced and unbraced knees. The attendance, brace wear choice, position, string, and session of each participant were recorded daily; medial collateral ligament sprains were reported whenever tissue damage was confirmed. Both the likelihood of wearing braces and risk of injury without them was highly dependent on session (games/practices), position group (line, linebacker/tight end, skill), and string group (players/nonplayers). Subjects wearing braces often faced a high injury risk to their unbraced knees, a finding compatible with the opinion that braces were a necessary evil, best worn when concern over danger of injury outweighed desire for speed and agility. It is concluded that to avoid misinterpretations due to the confounding influence of brace wear selection bias, accurate investigation of daily brace wear patterns is required. Then, before considing the impact of preventive knee braces, a repartitioning of the data base is essential to assure that only similar groups will be compared.

  14. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  15. Arthrography in sport injuries of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1983-01-01

    The arthrography is one of the most important diagnostic methods of sport injuries of the knee joint. The examination must give an exact information to the surgeon; a good technique and standard X-rays are an absolute postulate. The submitted examinations are based on 6687 arthrographies during a period of 5 years. The arthrography should not be carried out before the acute symptomatology has ceased, usually after an interval of 2-3 weeks. Most frequently are the meniscus injuries by rotary traumas of the knee-joint. Football as the most popular sport is responsible for more than 50% of the injuries, followed by skiing, handball and jogging. (orig.)

  16. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players : design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  17. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  18. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: Design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  19. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Lohmander, L Stefan

    2003-01-01

    : Pain, other Symptoms, Function in daily living (ADL), Function in Sport and Recreation (Sport/Rec), and knee-related Quality of Life (QOL). The KOOS has been validated for several orthopaedic interventions such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, meniscectomy and total knee replacement......The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was developed as an extension of the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index with the purpose of evaluating short-term and long-term symptoms and function in subjects with knee injury and osteoarthritis. The KOOS holds five separately scored subscales....... In addition the instrument has been used to evaluate physical therapy, nutritional supplementation and glucosamine supplementation. The effect size is generally largest for the subscale QOL followed by the subscale Pain. The KOOS is a valid, reliable and responsive self-administered instrument that can...

  20. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8 to 15 Years: The CHAMPS Study DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation, and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 yr). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic and 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR, 2.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR, 1.38) and previous knee injury (OR, 1.78), whereas participation in soccer (OR, 1.64), handball (OR, 1.95), basket (OR, 2.07), rhythmic (OR, 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR, 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport participation above two times per week increased odds (OR, 1.46-2.40). Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type. For traumatic knee injuries, participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor. Risk factors for overuse knee injuries were being a girl; previous knee injury; and participation in soccer, handball, basket, and rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times per week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries with unknown short- and long-term consequences.

  1. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  2. Continued Sex-Differences in the Rate and Severity of Knee Injuries among Collegiate Soccer Players: The NCAA Injury Surveillance System, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulstone, D; Chandran, A; Barron, M; DiPietro, L

    2016-12-01

    We extend previous analyses and examined sex-differences in the rate and severity of knee injuries among collegiate soccer players between 2004 and 2009. Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) were used to calculate injury incidence density (ID) per 1 000 athletic exposures (AE). Multivariable regression modeling then tested the relation between sex and knee injury incidence and severity among all injured soccer players, while controlling for contact, setting, and division level, as well as for the interactions among these variables. The rate of knee injuries was 1.19 per 1 000 AEs in women and 0.91 per 1 000 AEs in men (RR=1.31, 95% Wald CI=[1.16, 1.47]). In the multivariable modeling, women continued to experience significantly higher odds of knee injury compared with men (aOR=1.44, 95% CI=[1.27,1.63]). Also, the adjusted odds of a knee injury that resulted in surgery remained higher in women compared with men (aOR=1.61 (1.00, 2.58), as well as the amount of time lost from participation (beta=0.129; p=0.05). Given the prominence of soccer play in the United States, continued efforts to evaluate and improve knee injury prevention practices and policies may be especially important for female players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8-15 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    .14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR 1.38), and previous knee injury (OR 1.78), while participation in soccer (OR 1.64), handball (OR 1.95), basket (OR 2.07), rhythmic (OR 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport...... and participation in soccer, handball, basket, rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times/week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries......INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate...

  4. The prevention of injuries in contact flag football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.

  5. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP and return to activity criteria (RTAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logerstedt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  6. New perspective on injury prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel

    Scientific literature underpinning prevention of injuries in sport continues to grow. Preventive measures proven effective in experimental research is however, challenged by implementation issues and understanding contextual factors. A designed-based research approach treat the problem of context...... and involves a relationship between researchers and implementers. Perceiving research as a continuum, design-based research could complement experimental research. The adaption by athletes, coaches and physical therapists of designed preventive interventions is a prerequisite of successful injury prevention....

  7. Injury Prevention in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e99-e105.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  9. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    involving the lateral ankle . • Ankle sprains represent 21 to 53% and 17 to 29% of all basketball and soccer injuries respectively. • Ankle sprains...Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention Francis G. O’Connor, MD, MPH Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH Department of Military and Emergency...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  10. Strategies for the prevention of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Arden, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    . Instead, OA should be viewed as a chronic condition, where prevention and early comprehensive-care models are the accepted norm, as is the case with other chronic diseases. Joint injury, obesity and impaired muscle function are modifiable risk factors amenable to primary and secondary prevention......Osteoarthritis (OA) has been thought of as a disease of cartilage that can be effectively treated surgically at severe stages with joint arthroplasty. Today, OA is considered a whole-organ disease that is amenable to prevention and treatment at early stages. OA develops slowly over 10-15 years...... strategies. The strategies that are most appropriate for each patient should be identified, by selecting interventions to correct-or at least attenuate-OA risk factors. We must also choose the interventions that are most likely to be acceptable to patients, to maximize adherence to-and persistence with...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of knee injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.J. [Royal Liverpool Children`s NHS Trust, Alder Hey, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The appearances of knee injuries on MR imaging are less well documented in children than adults. Some patterns of injury are shared by both groups of patients, e. g. meniscal damage. The frequency of specific injuries may differ, e. g. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Congenital abnormality, coexistent pathology and previous treatment of the knee appear to be associated with meniscal problems. Discoid menisci are seen most frequently in children and have unique features on MR scans. Cruciate ligament tears are difficult to diagnose in the smallest children. The ACL may not be identified due to its small size. Normal bone marrow signal may be confused with marrow infiltration or bone microfracture. Radiographically occult fractures around the knee appear to be strongly associated with ligamentous injury as in adult patients. Osteochondral fractures, osteochondral lesions and articular cartilage damage are revealed on MR scans, but their long-term effects are uncertain. It is possible to diagnose a range of knee injuries on MR scans in children. The biggest diagnostic challenge is in pre-school children. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of knee injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The appearances of knee injuries on MR imaging are less well documented in children than adults. Some patterns of injury are shared by both groups of patients, e. g. meniscal damage. The frequency of specific injuries may differ, e. g. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Congenital abnormality, coexistent pathology and previous treatment of the knee appear to be associated with meniscal problems. Discoid menisci are seen most frequently in children and have unique features on MR scans. Cruciate ligament tears are difficult to diagnose in the smallest children. The ACL may not be identified due to its small size. Normal bone marrow signal may be confused with marrow infiltration or bone microfracture. Radiographically occult fractures around the knee appear to be strongly associated with ligamentous injury as in adult patients. Osteochondral fractures, osteochondral lesions and articular cartilage damage are revealed on MR scans, but their long-term effects are uncertain. It is possible to diagnose a range of knee injuries on MR scans in children. The biggest diagnostic challenge is in pre-school children. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam S; Nair, Rajagopalan

    2009-01-01

    Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuries were identified. The impact of associated injuries on delay in initial surgical management, delay in rehabilitation & final outcome of the floating knee were assessed. Results 38 associated injuries were noted. 7 were associated with ipsilateral knee injuries. Lower limb injuries were most commonly associated with the floating knee. Patients with some associated injuries had a delay in surgical management and others a delay in post-operative rehabilitation. Knee ligament and vascular injuries were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The associated injuries were quite frequent with the floating knee. Some of the associated injuries caused a delay in surgical management and post-operative rehabilitation. In assessment of the final outcome, patients with associated knee and vascular injuries had a poor prognosis. Majority of the patients with associated injuries had a good or excellent outcome. PMID:19144197

  14. The Relationship between Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Rollins, Meaghan; Bach, Bernard R.; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables. PMID:25954533

  15. The Relationship between Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables.

  16. Utilization and cost of a new model of care for managing acute knee injuries: the Calgary acute knee injury clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Breda HF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs affect a large proportion of the Canadian population and present a huge problem that continues to strain primary healthcare resources. Currently, the Canadian healthcare system depicts a clinical care pathway for MSDs that is inefficient and ineffective. Therefore, a new inter-disciplinary team-based model of care for managing acute knee injuries was developed in Calgary, Alberta, Canada: the Calgary Acute Knee Injury Clinic (C-AKIC. The goal of this paper is to evaluate and report on the appropriateness, efficiency, and effectiveness of the C-AKIC through healthcare utilization and costs associated with acute knee injuries. Methods This quasi-experimental study measured and evaluated cost and utilization associated with specific healthcare services for patients presenting with acute knee injuries. The goal was to compare patients receiving care from two clinical care pathways: the existing pathway (i.e. comparison group and a new model, the C-AKIC (i.e. experimental group. This was accomplished through the use of a Healthcare Access and Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (HAPSQ. Results Data from 138 questionnaires were analyzed in the experimental group and 136 in the comparison group. A post-hoc analysis determined that both groups were statistically similar in socio-demographic characteristics. With respect to utilization, patients receiving care through the C-AKIC used significantly less resources. Overall, patients receiving care through the C-AKIC incurred 37% of the cost of patients with knee injuries in the comparison group and significantly incurred less costs when compared to the comparison group. The total aggregate average cost for the C-AKIC group was $2,549.59 compared to $6,954.33 for the comparison group (p Conclusions The Calgary Acute Knee Injury Clinic was able to manage and treat knee injured patients for less cost than the existing state of healthcare delivery. The

  17. Certified Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis After Knee Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, Brian; Blackburn, J Troy; Golightly, Yvonne M; Harkey, Matthew S; Luc, Brittney A; DeFreese, J D; Padua, Darin A; Jordan, Joanne M; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-06-02

      Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a specific phenotype of osteoarthritis (OA) that commonly develops after acute knee injury, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or meniscal injury (or both). Athletic trainers (ATs) are well positioned to educate patients and begin PTOA management during rehabilitation of the acute injury, yet it remains unknown if ATs currently prioritize long-term outcomes in patients with knee injury.   To investigate ATs' knowledge and perceptions of OA and its treatment after ACL injury, ACL reconstruction, or meniscal injury or surgery.   Cross-sectional study.   An online survey was administered to 2000 randomly sampled certified ATs. We assessed participants' perceptions of knee OA, the risk of PTOA after ACL or meniscal injury or surgery, and therapeutic management of knee OA.   Of the 437 ATs who responded (21.9%), the majority (84.7%) correctly identified the definition of OA, and 60.3% indicated that they were aware of PTOA. A high percentage of ATs selected full meniscectomy (98.9%), meniscal tear (95.4%), ACL injury (90.2%), and partial meniscectomy (90.1%) as injuries that would increase the risk of developing OA. Athletic trainers rated undertaking strategies to prevent OA development in patients after ACL injury or reconstruction (73.8%) or meniscal injury or surgery (74.7%) as extremely or somewhat important. Explaining the risk of OA to patients with an ACL or meniscal injury was considered appropriate by 98.8% and 96.8% of respondents, respectively; yet a lower percentage reported that they actually explained these risks to patients after an ACL (70.8%) or meniscal injury (80.6%).   Although 84.7% of ATs correctly identified the definition of OA, a lower percentage (60.3%) indicated awareness of PTOA. These results may reflect the need to guide ATs on how to educate patients regarding the long-term risks of ACL and meniscal injuries and how to implement strategies that may prevent PTOA.

  18. Knee pain in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeo, S A

    1999-04-01

    The high volume of training in competitive swimming results in cumulative overload injuries. Knee pain ranks second to shoulder pain as a common complaint in competitive swimmers. Most knee pain occurs on the medial side of the knee and, most commonly, in breaststroke swimmers; however, knee pain may accompany all strokes. This article reviews the incidence of knee pain, the biomechanic and anatomic factors predisposing to injury, specific injury patterns, injury diagnosis, and the treatment and prevention of injury to the knee in swimmers.

  19. MR findings of knee injuries in skiing: relation with the mechanism of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Seung Mun; Shin, Myung Jin; Kwon, Soon Tae

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of knee injuries in skiing and to explain the mechanism of injury with MR findings. We reviewed MR findings of 18 patients with history of knee injuries in skiing. The MR images were evaluated retrospectively to identify the ligament injuries, bone lesions and meniscal injuries. Ligament injuries were seen in 16 patients, bone contusions in 16 patients, meniscal lesions in two patients. The most common group of injury was anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries with bone contusion on posterior lip of the lateral tibial plateau (LTP). The second common group of injury was isolated ACL injury with bone contusions on the lateral femoral condyle (LFC) and posterior lip of the LTP. We considered that the mechanism of injury of the former group may be correlated with the valgus torque with secondary anterior displacement of the tibia and the latter group may be correlated with the pivot shift phenomenon. MR may play an important role in the diagnosis of knee injuries in skiing and its findings may explain the mechanism of injury

  20. Preventing playground injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-06-01

    With concerns increasing around childhood obesity and inactivity, playgrounds offer a chance for children to be active. But playgrounds also have risks, with injuries from falls being the most common. Research has shown that playground injuries can be reduced by lowering the heights of play equipment and using soft, deep surfaces to cushion falls. The Canadian Standards Association has published voluntary standards for playgrounds to address these risks for several years. Parents can further reduce injury risks by following simple playground strategies. This statement outlines the burden of playground injuries. It also provides parents and health care providers with opportunities to reduce injury incidence and severity through education and advocacy, and to implement evidence-informed safety standards and safer play strategies in local playgrounds. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2002.

  1. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  2. [Vascular injuries associated with dislocation of the knee: diagnosis protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hualda, A; Valencia-García, H; Martínez-Martín, J

    2012-01-01

    Knee dislocation is an unusual condition, and can have catastrophic consequences, such as vascular and neurological complications, in addition to the ligament injuries. The aim of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of a protocol of early diagnosis of vascular injuries associated with knee dislocations. A retrospective study was conducted which included acute knee dislocations treated in our institution, with a minimum of 12 months follow-up, between 1999-2010. A diagnostic protocol based on physical examination and ankle-brachial index was used in order to detect vascular injuries. Ten dislocations, 30% with popliteal artery injury, were diagnosed early and received emergency treatment within 8 hours. There were associated neurological injuries in two patients. There were no amputations. The systematic use of this protocol has avoided consequences of late diagnosis and has drastically reduced the abusive use of invasive tests, such as arteriography. Copyright © 2011 SECOT. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Knee Kinematics During Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury as Determined From Bone Bruise Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sophia Y; Spritzer, Charles E; Utturkar, Gangadhar M; Toth, Alison P; Garrett, William E; DeFrate, Louis E

    2015-10-01

    The motions causing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remain unclear. Tibiofemoral bone bruises are believed to be the result of joint impact near the time of ACL rupture. The locations and frequencies of these bone bruises have been reported, but there are limited data quantifying knee position and orientation near the time of injury based on these contusions. Knee position and orientation near the time of noncontact ACL injury include extension and anterior tibial translation. Descriptive laboratory study. Magnetic resonance images of 8 subjects with noncontact ACL injuries were acquired within 1 month of injury and were subsequently analyzed. All subjects exhibited bruises on both the femur and tibia in both medial and lateral compartments. The outer margins of bone and the bone bruise surfaces were outlined on each image to create a 3-dimensional model of each subject's knee in its position during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI position). Numerical optimization was used to maximize overlap of the bone bruises on the femur and tibia and to predict the position of injury. Flexion angle, valgus orientation, internal tibial rotation, and anterior tibial translation were measured in both the MRI position and the predicted position of injury. Differences in kinematics between the MRI position, which served as an unloaded reference, and the predicted position of injury were compared by use of paired t tests. Flexion angle was near full extension in both the MRI position and the predicted position of injury (8° vs 12°; P = .2). Statistically significant increases in valgus orientation (5°; P = .003), internal tibial rotation (15°; P = .003), and anterior tibial translation (22 mm; P injury relative to the MRI position. These results suggest that for the bone bruise pattern studied, landing on an extended knee is a high risk for ACL injury. Extension was accompanied by increased anterior tibial translation (22 mm), internal tibial rotation (15

  4. Outcome of knee injuries in general practice : 1-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Harry P. A.; Luijsterburg, Pim A. J.; Heintjes, Edith M.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Verhaar, Jan; Koes, Bart W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.

    Background Knee injuries may lead to pain and to functional limitations in the activities of daily living. Patients with knee injuries are frequently seen in general practice; however, the outcome and management in these patients is not known. Aim To assess the outcome and management of knee

  5. Injuries and preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, S R; Augustsson, J; Thomeé, R; Svantesson, U

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of injury and the extent of preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball players. Injuries to players in the elite male and female Swedish division, during the 2002-2003 season, were registered by using a questionnaire. Of the 158 volleyball players (70% response rate), a total of 82 players (52%) reported 121 injuries, during a total exposure time of 24 632 h, representing an overall incidence of 0.77 injuries per player. The majority of the injuries were located in the ankle (23%), followed by the knee (18%) and the back (15%). Most injuries (62%) were classified as being of minor severity. Most injuries occurred during training (47%), and 41% of the injuries had a gradual onset. Fifty-four percent of the injuries that could be related to a specific court situation occurred during blocking, and 30% during spiking. Most players (96%) participated in injury prevention training of some kind, generally performed without supervision (58%). Although most players took part in some kind of preventive action, one out of two players incurred an injury during the season, which indicates that the risk of suffering an injury in elite volleyball is relatively high.

  6. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  7. Knee Function Assessment in Patients With Meniscus Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimark, Micah B.; Kegel, Gary; O’Donnell, Thomas; Lavigne, Stephanie; Heveran, Chelsea; Crawford, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Outcomes of meniscus surgery are typically assessed with patient questionnaires that help capture symptoms and functional limitations but may not provide an accurate representation of underlying joint health. There are currently no performance-based measures of knee function in patients with symptomatic meniscus injury. Purpose: To assess the reproducibility, response to partial meniscectomy, and correlation with patient-reported questionnaire outcomes of novel performance-based knee function tests. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A battery of 9 tests for activities that require knee movements essential for everyday living was developed. Intra- and interrater reproducibility was assessed in 50 meniscus tear patients completing the battery at 2 preoperative assessments with either the same or different examiners. Response to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was evaluated in 35 of these patients 6 weeks after surgery. Subjects also completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) questionnaires pre- and postoperatively. Results: The intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were excellent for all tests (ICC > 0.8). Interrater ICC > 0.8 was observed for step-down, stair descent, star lunges, and timed treadmill travel. Performance on all tests improved significantly with surgery (P < .05), with the greatest improvement in sit-to-stand and stair ascent and descent. A greater percentage response to surgery was seen on questionnaire outcomes (20%-65%) than on performance-based tests (3%-15%). Moderate to poor correlations existed between the KOOS activities of daily living subscale and the performance-based tests (all ICCs ≤ 0.4). Conclusion: Performance-based knee function tests demonstrated good reproducibility and responsiveness in patients undergoing partial meniscectomy. Clinical Relevance: As both patient perception and functional

  8. The impact of previous knee injury on force plate and field-based measures of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie; Von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Nigg, Benno M; Emery, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic osteoarthritis demonstrate increased sway during quiet stance. The prospective association between balance and disease onset is unknown. Improved understanding of balance in the period between joint injury and disease onset could inform secondary prevention strategies to prevent or delay the disease. This study examines the association between youth sport-related knee injury and balance, 3-10years post-injury. Participants included 50 individuals (ages 15-26years) with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10years previously and 50 uninjured age-, sex- and sport-matched controls. Force-plate measures during single-limb stance (center-of-pressure 95% ellipse-area, path length, excursion, entropic half-life) and field-based balance scores (triple single-leg hop, star-excursion, unipedal dynamic balance) were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% confidence intervals) were used to compare groups. Linear regression (adjusted for injury history) was used to assess the relationship between ellipse-area and field-based scores. Injured participants on average demonstrated greater medio-lateral excursion [mean within-pair difference (95% confidence interval); 2.8mm (1.0, 4.5)], more regular medio-lateral position [10ms (2, 18)], and shorter triple single-leg hop distances [-30.9% (-8.1, -53.7)] than controls, while no between group differences existed for the remaining outcomes. After taking into consideration injury history, triple single leg hop scores demonstrated a linear association with ellipse area (β=0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.01, 1.01). On average the injured participants adjusted their position less frequently and demonstrated a larger magnitude of movement during single-limb stance compared to controls. These findings support the evaluation of balance outcomes in the period between knee injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235......). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98......). Additional joint injury biomarker results were from earlier investigations of the same samples. RESULTS: Synovial fluid C2C concentrations were higher in injured knees than in knees of reference subjects from 1 day up to 7 years after injury. C2C concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were correlated (r...

  10. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  11. Prevention of childhood injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence, homicide or suicide) or unintentional (especially through road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major health and social ... Since 1983, trauma has officially been called 'the number 1 killer of children' globally.[3] In. SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds,.

  12. Relationship of Buckling and Knee Injury to Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Web-Based Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Isabelle; Erfani, Tahereh; Bennell, Kim L; Makovey, Joanna; Metcalf, Ben; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn; Zhang, Yuqing; Eckstein, Felix; Hunter, David J

    2016-06-24

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of limited mobility and diminished quality of life. Pain is the main symptom that drives individuals with knee OA to seek medical care and a recognized antecedent to disability and eventually joint replacement. Evidence shows that patients with symptomatic OA experience fluctuations in pain severity. Mechanical insults to the knee such as injury and buckling may contribute to pain exacerbation. Our objective was to examine whether knee injury and buckling (giving way) are triggers for exacerbation of pain in persons with symptomatic knee OA. We conducted a case-crossover study, a novel methodology in which participants with symptomatic radiographic knee OA who have had knee pain exacerbations were used as their own control (self-matched design), with all data collected via the Internet. Participants were asked to log-on to the study website and complete an online questionnaire at baseline and then at regular 10-day intervals for 3 months (control periods)-a total of 10 questionnaires. They were also instructed to go to the website and complete pain exacerbation questionnaires when they experienced an isolated incident of knee pain exacerbation (case periods). A pain exacerbation "case" period was defined as an increase of ≥2 compared to baseline. At each contact the pain exacerbation was designated a case period, and at all other regular 10-day contacts (control periods) participants were asked about knee injuries during the previous 7 days and knee buckling during the previous 2 days. The relationship of knee injury and buckling to the risk of pain exacerbation was examined using conditional logistic regression models. The analysis included 157 participants (66% women, mean age: 62 years, mean BMI: 29.5 kg/m(2)). Sustaining a knee injury was associated with experiencing a pain exacerbation (odds ratio [OR] 10.2, 95% CI 5.4, 19.3) compared with no injury. Knee buckling was associated with experiencing a

  13. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  14. ETHIOLOGY AND MECHANISMS OF INJURIES OF KNEE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT IN ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bulatović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The examined group was composed of 60 patients with injuries of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL treated at the Clinical Center of Montenegro from 2006- 2010. Among general population the frequency is 1:3000, and around 70% of ACL injuries occur as a consequence of sports activity. These traumas represent 15-30% of all sports injuries. Normal kinematics of a knee joint means intact ligament. The purpose of our work was to determine the risk factors of injury, regarding training and competing process, daily activity and their connection with the mechanism of injury. In our inquiry, recreational athletes represented 70% of patients.The most common mechanism of injury is a non-contact, deceleration, valgus angulation with an external rotation as a consequence of landing, sudden change of direction, running rhythm, or fall. The largest number of injuries occurs in training, recreation, tournaments, and everyday activities. In diagnostics we employed clinical tests, ECHO finding, NMR and arthroscopy. Sports activity during which our patients obtained most of their injuries is soccer. Traumas were frequently followed by damages to their joint structures (meniscus, cartilage. Injuries of ACL are multifactorial etiologies, but through external and internal factors, adequate communication, and sports culture of partakers (athletes, trainers and physicians can be acted preventively on decreasing injury incidence and timely and adequate treatment

  15. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bouaicha, Samy [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Naraghi, Ali [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  16. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Nicole; Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Bouaicha, Samy; Naraghi, Ali; Seifert, Burkhardt

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  17. Mechanisms for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: knee joint kinematics in 10 injury situations from female team handball and basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hideyuki; Nakamae, Atsuo; Shima, Yosuke; Iwasa, Junji; Myklebust, Grethe; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2010-11-01

    The mechanism for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury is still a matter of controversy. Video analysis of injury tapes is the only method available to extract biomechanical information from actual anterior cruciate ligament injury cases. This article describes 3-dimensional knee joint kinematics in anterior cruciate ligament injury situations using a model-based image-matching technique. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Ten anterior cruciate ligament injury video sequences from women's handball and basketball were analyzed using the model-based image-matching method. The mean knee flexion angle among the 10 cases was 23° (range, 11°-30°) at initial contact (IC) and had increased by 24° (95% confidence interval [CI], 19°-29°) within the following 40 milliseconds. The mean valgus angle was neutral (range, -2° to 3°) at IC, but had increased by 12° (95% CI, 10°-13°) 40 milliseconds later. The knee was externally rotated 5° (range, -5° to 12°) at IC, but rotated internally by 8° (95% CI, 2°-14°) during the first 40 milliseconds, followed by external rotation of 17° (95% CI, 13°-22°). The mean peak vertical ground-reaction force was 3.2 times body weight (95% CI, 2.7-3.7), and occurred at 40 milliseconds after IC (range, 0-83). Based on when the sudden changes in joint angular motion and the peak vertical ground-reaction force occurred, it is likely that the anterior cruciate ligament injury occurred approximately 40 milliseconds after IC. The kinematic patterns were surprisingly consistent among the 10 cases. All players had immediate valgus motion within 40 milliseconds after IC. Moreover, the tibia rotated internally during the first 40 milliseconds and then external rotation was observed, possibly after the anterior cruciate ligament had torn. These results suggest that valgus loading is a contributing factor in the anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism and that internal tibial rotation is coupled with valgus motion. Prevention

  18. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Ha; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, GwangJu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and

  19. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  20. Prevention of ionizing radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masashi

    1976-01-01

    In the first age (1895 - 1940), radiation injuries of skin (75% of death caused by RI injury) and chronic radiation injury of heamatopoietic organs (almost remains) appeared in radiologist and people engaged in RI treatment for medical use, and Ra poisoning appeared in workers who treated aluminous paint. As prevention of radiation injuries in this age, measurement of radiation dose, shelter effect and finding of injuries were studied, and internal radiation allowed level was determined. From 1942 to 1960, acute RI injuries due to exposure of large amount of RI by an accident and secondary leukemia appeared to workers of atomic-bomb industries and researcher of atomic energy. U and Pu poisoning accompanied with development of nuclear fuel industry appeared. This expanded industrial hygiene of this age together with epidemiological data of atomic-bomb exposed people. From 1960 onward, it is an age of industry for peaceful use of atomic energy, and manifestation of various kinds of delayed injuries, especially malignant tumor due to RI exposure, is recognized. Labourer has many opportunity to encounter dangerously with pollution and injuries by RI, and regional examination of RI enterprise and countermeasure to decrease exposure dose were mentioned as future theme from a viewpoint of exposure dose of nation. (Kanao, N.)

  1. A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath, Y; Rogers, I

    1999-01-01

    Complete knee dislocation is a rare injury and an associated incidence of popliteal artery damage ranges from 16-60% of cases. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury. We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein byp...

  2. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell JA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  3. Preventing Playground Injuries and Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.

    1994-01-01

    The typical American playground is antiquated, hazardous, and inappropriate for the developmental needs of children. The paper explains how design, installation, maintenance, and supervision are critical in preventing playground injuries and resulting litigation, noting the importance of regular training for everyone who supervises children on the…

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of fresh traumatic injuries of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Koji; Ojima, Tadao; Sato, Katsumi; Sato, Tetsuro; Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nobuta, Shingo; Inoue, Hisayoshi; Onuma, Hidezi; Murakami, Tadashi (Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    Taking advantages of its water density delineation, MR studies were carried out in 22 patients having traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee within 3 days of the incidents. Because of swelling and severe pain, exact physical examination of an injured knee is very difficult. However, MR imaging is a non-invasive examination that would facilitate morphological diagnosis of soft tissue injuries such as meniscal tears, ligamental tears, and even fracture. In the present studies, MRI findings were compared with those from arthroscopic investigations and MR reimaging more than one month later. The results were confirming most of the MRI findings. Seventeen cases of tears of the anterior cruciate ligaments, 1 case of tear to posterior cruciate ligaments, 2 cases of tear of medial collateral ligaments, 2 cases of tear of lateral collateral ligaments, 4 cases of tears of meniscal and 6 of fractures. False MRI findings were encountered in only two cases: normal cruciate ligament surrounded with hemarthrosis caused by the tear of anterior cruciate ligament, and the tear of the posteior horn of the lateral meniscus musked by hematoma in the burusa of the popliteus tendon. We concluded that MRI can definitely contribute to clinical diagnosis and treatment planning of fresh traumatic knee injuries buried in hemarthrosis. (author).

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of fresh traumatic injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Koji; Ojima, Tadao; Sato, Katsumi; Sato, Tetsuro; Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nobuta, Shingo; Inoue, Hisayoshi; Onuma, Hidezi; Murakami, Tadashi

    1993-01-01

    Taking advantages of its water density delineation, MR studies were carried out in 22 patients having traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee within 3 days of the incidents. Because of swelling and severe pain, exact physical examination of an injured knee is very difficult. However, MR imaging is a non-invasive examination that would facilitate morphological diagnosis of soft tissue injuries such as meniscal tears, ligamental tears, and even fracture. In the present studies, MRI findings were compared with those from arthroscopic investigations and MR reimaging more than one month later. The results were confirming most of the MRI findings. Seventeen cases of tears of the anterior cruciate ligaments, 1 case of tear to posterior cruciate ligaments, 2 cases of tear of medial collateral ligaments, 2 cases of tear of lateral collateral ligaments, 4 cases of tears of meniscal and 6 of fractures. False MRI findings were encountered in only two cases: normal cruciate ligament surrounded with hemarthrosis caused by the tear of anterior cruciate ligament, and the tear of the posteior horn of the lateral meniscus musked by hematoma in the burusa of the popliteus tendon. We concluded that MRI can definitely contribute to clinical diagnosis and treatment planning of fresh traumatic knee injuries buried in hemarthrosis. (author)

  6. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  7. Two-dimensional motion analysis of dynamic knee valgus identifies female high school athletes at risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Shima, Yosuke; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Shimozaki, Kengo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Female athletes are at greater risk of non-contact ACL injury. Three-dimensional kinematic analyses have shown that at-risk female athletes have a greater knee valgus angle during drop jumping. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between knee valgus angle and non-contact ACL injury in young female athletes using coronal-plane two-dimensional (2D) kinematic analyses of single-leg landing. Two hundred ninety-one female high school athletes newly enrolled in basketball and handball clubs were assessed. Dynamic knee valgus was analysed during single-leg drop jumps using 2D coronal images at hallux-ground contact and at maximal knee valgus. All subjects were followed up for 3 years for ACL injury. Twenty-eight (9.6%) of 291 athletes had ACL rupture, including 27 non-contact ACL injuries. The injured group of 27 knees with non-contact ACL injury was compared with a control group of 27 randomly selected uninjured knees. The relationship between initial 2D movement analysis results and subsequent ACL injury was investigated. Dynamic knee valgus was significantly greater in the injured group compared to the control group at hallux-ground contact (2.1 ± 2.4 vs. 0.4 ± 2.2 cm, P = 0.006) and at maximal knee valgus (8.3 ± 4.3 vs. 5.1 ± 4.1 cm, P = 0.007). The results of this study confirm that dynamic knee valgus is a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury in female high school athletes. Fully understanding the risk factors that increase dynamic knee valgus will help in designing more appropriate training and interventional strategies to prevent injuries in at-risk athletes. Prognostic studies, Level II.

  8. Sports injuries in high school athletes: a review of injury-risk and injury-prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Tim

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the available research regarding the risk factors and prevention of injuries in high school athletes (ages 14 to 18 years). Relevant manuscripts were identified by searching six electronic databases with a combination of key words and medical subject headings (high school, adolescent, athletic injury, sports injury, risk factors, prevention, and prospective). Original research that reported prospective data on high school athletes (ages 14 to 18), reported injury and exposure data, and used data collected throughout the entire sport season or school year. Twenty-nine studies that identified injury risk factors or injury prevention strategies were reviewed and summarized. Data extracted from the studies included a) sport(s) or injuries studied, b) year of publication, c) lead author, d) description of the subjects, e) sample-size calculation, f) variables studied (baseline demographic or performance variables), g) whether multivariate analyses were used, h) data reported (injury rates, risk ratios, and 95% CI), and i) results. Studies that introduced an intervention were characterized by the same data as well as the type of intervention employed and randomization procedures used. The quality of each injury-risk and injury-prevention study was assessed, and the results were summarized. The risk factors for injury in several specific sports such as soccer, American football, and basketball have been documented. Other sports are less well represented in the current literature. The risk factors for injuries to the ankle, head, and knee have been identified, to a limited degree. Upper-extremity injury risk factors are less well known. There is a need for high-quality prospective studies to further identify injury risk factors and injury-prevention strategies for high school athletes.

  9. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Basketball Injuries During One Competitive Season: Ankle Sprains and Overuse Knee Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Meeusen, Romain

    2007-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aims to assess the overall incidence of acute and overuse basketball injuries and identifies risk factors associated with ankle sprains and knee overuse injuries. In total, 164 senior players (23.7 years ± 7.0) of all levels of play, and including both men and women, participated voluntarily during one season. A total of 139 acute and 87 overuse injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 9.8 (8.5 to 11.1) per 1,000 hours. The incidence of...

  10. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS: from joint injury to osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Ewa M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS was developed as an extension of the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index with the purpose of evaluating short-term and long-term symptoms and function in subjects with knee injury and osteoarthritis. The KOOS holds five separately scored subscales: Pain, other Symptoms, Function in daily living (ADL, Function in Sport and Recreation (Sport/Rec, and knee-related Quality of Life (QOL. The KOOS has been validated for several orthopaedic interventions such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, meniscectomy and total knee replacement. In addition the instrument has been used to evaluate physical therapy, nutritional supplementation and glucosamine supplementation. The effect size is generally largest for the subscale QOL followed by the subscale Pain. The KOOS is a valid, reliable and responsive self-administered instrument that can be used for short-term and long-term follow-up of several types of knee injury including osteoarthritis. The measure is relatively new and further use of the instrument will add knowledge and suggest areas that need to be further explored and improved.

  11. A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Y K; Rogers, I M

    1999-09-01

    Complete knee dislocation is a rare injury and an associated incidence of popliteal artery damage ranges from 16-60% of cases. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury. We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein bypass graft. Similar injury in association with Aikido has not been described in the English literature previously. Various martial art injuries are briefly discussed and safety recommendations made.

  12. Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--validation of a Swedish version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Roos, H P; Ekdahl, C

    1998-01-01

    The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a self-administered instrument measuring outcome after knee injury at impairment, disability, and handicap level in five subscales. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a Swedish version was assessed in 142 patients who underwent...... arthroscopy because of injury to the menisci, anterior cruciate ligament, or cartilage of the knee. The clinimetric properties were found to be good and comparable to the American version of the KOOS. Comparison to the Short Form-36 and the Lysholm knee scoring scale revealed expected correlations...

  13. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--development of a self-administered outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Roos, H P; Lohmander, L S

    1998-01-01

    -term patient-relevant outcomes following knee injury, based on the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, a literature review, an expert panel, and a pilot study. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self-administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport...... and recreation function, and knee-related quality of life. In this clinical study, the KOOS proved reliable, responsive to surgery and physical therapy, and valid for patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The KOOS meets basic criteria of outcome measures and can be used to evaluate...... the course of knee injury and treatment outcome....

  14. English Premiership Academy knee injuries: lessons from a 5 year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Oliver; Cloke, David J; Avery, Peter J; Beasley, Ian; Deehan, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of knee injuries in adolescent males. Data were collected prospectively from 41 Premiership soccer academies over a 5 year period from July 2000 to June 2005. A total of 12,306 player seasons were registered in the U9 to the U16 age categories with a total of 1750 recordable injuries specific to the knee joint. There was a mean incidence of 0.71 (95% confidence interval ± 0.05) knee injuries per player per year, and a median of 17 (inter-quartile range 9-38) training days and 2 (inter-quartile range 1-4) matches missed per knee injury. Knee injuries were found to be most common in the 14-16 year age group. Six hundred and nine (35% of total) injuries were classed as severe resulting in more than 28 days' absence. Injuries were more likely to be sustained in a competitive or match-play environment (862 or 52%) than in training (796 or 48%), and a non-contact mechanism was implicated in 823 (55%) of recorded cases. Peaks in injury numbers were seen in early season and subsequent to the winter break. Sprain was the most common diagnosis recorded, with the medial collateral ligament affected in 23% of all knee injuries. Knee injuries are common in elite youth footballers. In this uninsured age group, it could be argued that earlier medical intervention may reduce long-term damage to the immature skeleton.

  15. Reliability of the active and passive knee extension test in acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Oomen, Henricus G.; Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Weir, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Hamstring flexibility measurements are of clinical relevance for the prognosis of hamstring injury and for monitoring recovery after such injury. The active knee extension test (AKET) and passive knee extension test (PKET) are proven to be reliable in healthy subjects. Reliability has not been

  16. Reliability of the active and passive knee extension test in acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); H.G. Oomen (Henricus); M.H. Moen (Maaike); J.L. Tol (Johannes); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hamstring flexibility measurements are of clinical relevance for the prognosis of hamstring injury and for monitoring recovery after such injury. The active knee extension test (AKET) and passive knee extension test (PKET) are proven to be reliable in healthy subjects.

  17. Outcome of knee injuries in general practice: 1-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.A. Wagemakers (Harry); P.A.J. Luijsterburg (Pim); E.M. Heintjes (Edith); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein); B.W. Koes (Bart); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: Knee injuries may lead to pain and to functional limitations in the activities of daily living. Patients with knee injuries are frequently seen in general practice; however, the outcome and management in these patients is not known. AIM: To assess the outcome and

  18. Predictors of persistent complaints after a knee injury in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Harry P. A.; Luijsterburg, Pim A. J.; Heintjes, Edith M.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Koes, Bart W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prognosis of persistent complaints after knee injury is based on secondary care populations. In a primary care setting, however, no studies have addressed this issue. Aim: To identify possible predictors of persistent complaints 1 year after a knee injury. These predictors are important

  19. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  20. Evaluation of knee meniscal injuries using panoramic MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Toru

    2004-01-01

    At many institutions, sagittal and coronal slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used for knee examinations. Recently, MRI diagnosis for knee meniscal injuries has spread remarkably, and the diagnostic value of the procedure is almost established. We made panoramic images by reconstructing 3D data images along the form of the meniscus using curved cuts and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). We assessed the usefulness of the panoramic images for evaluating meniscal injuries in 34 patients who had arthroscopic surgery after the MRI. MRI data were acquired in the axial plane using a double echo steady state (DESS). The presence of 30 meniscal tears, 5 anterior cruciate ligament tears, 2 posterior cruciate ligament tears, and 1 medial collateral ligament tear were confirmed by the arthroscopic surgery. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for medial meniscus was 100, 95 and 97% respectively, and for lateral meniscus was 93, 95 and 97% respectively. The meniscal tears were visible on the panoramic images, which showed the entire meniscus from the anterior to the posterior segment, so that the anatomical locations of the tear were indicated distinctly. Furthermore, the posterior segment was shown in detail on the panoramic images better than on the conventional plane images. (author)

  1. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  2. Evaluation and management of knee pain in young athletes: overuse injuries of the knee

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Dilip R.; Villalobos, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent or chronic activity related knee pain is common in young athletes. Numerous intrinsic conditions affecting the knee can cause such pain. In addition, knee pain can be referred pain from low back, hip or pelvic pathology. The most common cause of knee pain in young athletes is patellofemoral pain syndrome, or more appropriately termed idiopathic anterior knee pain. Although, numerous anatomical and biomechanical factors have been postulated to contribute the knee pain in young athlet...

  3. A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Y; Rogers, I

    1999-01-01

    Complete knee dislocation is a rare injury and an associated incidence of popliteal artery damage ranges from 16-60% of cases. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury. We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein bypass graft. Similar injury in association with Aikido has not been described in the English literature previously. Various martial art injuries are briefly discussed and safety recommendations made.


Keywords: Aikido; knee dislocation; popliteal artery disruption; sports injury PMID:10616692

  4. Mechanisms, Prediction, and Prevention of ACL Injuries: Cut Risk With Three Sharpened and Validated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.

    2017-01-01

    Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The “Sequence of Prevention” Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries. Utilizing this model, our multidisciplinary collaborative research team has spent the last decade working to delineate injury mechanisms, identify injury risk factors, predict which athletes are at-risk for injury, and develop ACL injury prevention programs. Within this model of injury prevention, modifiable factors (biomechanical and neuromuscular) related to injury mechanisms likely provide the best opportunity for intervention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of ACL injury, particularly in female athletes. Knowledge advancements have led to the development of potential solutions that allow athletes to compete with lowered risk of ACL injury. Design and integration of personalized clinical assessment tools and targeted prevention strategies for athletes at high risk for ACL injury may transform current prevention practices and ultimately significantly reduce ACL injury incidence. This 2016 OREF Clinical Research Award focuses on the authors' work and contributions to the field. The author's acknowledge the many research groups who have contributed to the current state of knowledge in the fields of ACL injury mechanisms, injury risk screening and injury prevention strategies. PMID:27612195

  5. Injuries of knee joint and consequential physiotherapy after crossed ligaments plastic

    OpenAIRE

    ŠKABROUD, Libor

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with questions of injuries of the fibrous apparatus of the knee joint, especially with the injury of ligamentum cruciatum anterius (LCA). The theoretical part summarizes the basic information relating to the problems of injuries of the fibrous apparatus of the knee. In the following, it offers an abstract of recent methods of physiotherapy used while dealing with patients with LCA plastic. The evaluation of the research, which compares the efficiency of the physiotherapy betwe...

  6. Preventive analgesia in hip or knee arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Heredia, J; Loza, E; Cebreiro, I; Ruiz Iban, M Á

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy and safety of preventive analgesia in patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. A systematic literature review was performed, using a defined a sensitive strategy on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library up to May 2013. The inclusion criteria were: patients undergoing knee and/or hip arthroplasty, adults with moderate or severe pain (≥4 on a Visual Analog Scale). The intervention, the use (efficacy and safety) of pharmacological treatment (preventive) close to surgery was recorded. Oral, topical and skin patch drugs were included. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, controlled trials and observational studies were selected. A total of 36 articles, of moderate quality, were selected. The patients included were representative of those undergoing knee and/or hip arthroplasty in Spain. They had a mean age >50 years, higher number of women, and reporting moderate to severe pain (≥4 on a Visual Analog Scale). Possurgical pain was mainly evaluated with a Visual Analog Scale. A wide variation was found as regards the drugs used in the preventive protocols, including acetaminophen, classic NSAID, Cox-2, opioids, corticosteroids, antidepressants, analgesics for neuropathic pain, as well as others, such as magnesium, ketamine, nimodipine or clonidine. In general, all of them decreased post-surgical pain without severe adverse events. The use or one or more pre-surgical analgesics decreases the use of post-surgical drugs, at least for short term pain. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of insurance data in setting priorities for netball injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otago, Leonie; Peake, Jacqui

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate insurance records for a one-year period to determine the injury frequencies and costs associated with different age groups in netball. The insurance records for all netball claims made during 1999 in Victoria were obtained from the insurer and entered into a database. The overall injury rate was 9.49 injuries per 1000 players, with 829 claims for injuries filed with the insurance company. Of all injuries claimed for, 85.3% were to the lower limb, 8.7% to the upper limb, 3.1% to the spine/torso and 2.9% to the head and face. Lower limb injuries accounted for 85.4% of costs, upper limb injuries 10.7% and head/neck/torso injuries 3.9% of total injury costs. Knee injuries accounted for 56.9% of total costs, with ankle and calf/Achilles injuries costing 12.7 and 11.8% of total costs, respectively. Injury prevention strategies should therefore be directed to three main injuries taking into account costs and incidence. These injuries were: ankle sprains, knee ligament sprains and Achilles tendon strains. Specifically, the prevention program for Achilles injuries should be directed to the >25 years age groups.

  8. The extent and risk of knee injuries in children aged 9-14 with Generalised Joint Hypermobility and knee joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    . The aim was to study the extent and risk of knee injuries in children with GJH and knee hypermobility. METHODS: In total, 999 children (9-14 years) were tested twice during spring 2012 and 2013 with Beighton's Tests (BT) for hypermobility, a 0-9 scoring system. GJH was classified with cut-point ≥5...... the association between GJH and knee injuries, taking into account clustering on school class levels. RESULTS: Totally, 36 children were classified GJH on both test rounds. Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type (86 %), mainly apophysitis for both groups (61 %), other than patella-femoral pain...

  9. Arcuate sign of posterolateral knee injuries: anatomic, radiographic, and MR imaging data related to patterns of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Josephine; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Papakonstantinou, Olympia [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Department of Radiology/MRI Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion (Greece); Brookenthal, Keith R. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The ''arcuate sign'' is considered a pathognomonic sign for injuries of the posterolateral (PL) corner of the knee. The purpose of our study was to identify different patterns of injury to the fibular head that may associate with injuries to specific ligaments and tendons of the PL corner of the knee. The anatomic relations between the insertions of fibular collateral ligament (FCL), biceps femoris tendon (BFT), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and arcuate ligament in normal cadaveric knees were also investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in two cadaveric knees which subsequently were dissected. Radiopaque markers were placed upon the fibular insertions of the FCL, BFT, PFL, and arcuate ligament in the dissected knees, and knee radiographs were then obtained. Twelve patients with radiographic or MR imaging evidence of isolated injury to the PL corner of the knee were retrospectively reviewed, with regard to avulsion fractures and marrow edema in the fibular head and the integrity of the ligaments of the PL corner of the knee. The PFL and arcuate ligament were seen to attach directly to the posterior and medial aspect of the styloid process of the fibular head. The FCL and BFT attached as a conjoined structure on the lateral aspect of the fibular head lateral, anterior and inferior to the attachment site of the PFL and arcuate ligament. Injury to the arcuate ligament or PFL was diagnosed in 8 patients who presented with a small avulsion fracture of the styloid process of the fibula (n=2), bone marrow edema in the medial aspect of the fibular head (n=3), or both (n=3). In 4 patients with injury to the conjoined tendon or FCL, a larger avulsion fragment and more diffuse proximal fibular edema were seen. Radiographic and MR imaging findings in injuries of the posterolateral corner of the knee may suggest injury to specific structures inserting in the fibular head. (orig.)

  10. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  11. [Sports injuries in German club sports, Aspects of epidemiology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D

    2014-06-01

    Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.

  12. [Effectiveness of traumatic dislocation of knee joint combined with multiple ligament injuries treated by stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Chunlei; Yang, Lezhong; Dai, Zhu; Cao, Shengjun

    2011-02-01

    To observe the effectiveness of traumatic dislocation of the knee joint combined with multiple ligament injuries treated by stages. Between june 2005 and November 2008, 13 cases of traumatic dislocation of the knee joint combined with multiple ligament injuries were treated by stages, including 9 males and 4 females with an average age of 30.7 years (range, 18-54 years). The dislocations were left knee in 3 cases and right knee in 10 cases. The causes of injury were sports injury in 8 cases, traffic accident injury in 2 cases, falling from height injury in 2 cases, and sprain injury in 1 case. The average time from injury to hospitalization was 9 hours (range, 6 hours to 2 days). Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and medial collateral ligament (MCL) were involved in 8 cases; ACL, PCL, and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 3 cases; and ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL in 2 cases. The valgus stress testing results of 10 knees were ++ to +++; the varus stress testing results of 5 knees were ++ to +++; all knees showed positive in the anterior or the posterior drawer test and ++ to +++ in Lachman test. The nerve, vessel, MCL, LCL, PCL, meniscus were repaired in the first operation. The functional exercise of knee joint was done after fixation for 3-4 weeks. During the second operation, the ACL was reconstructed under arthroscopy after the range of motion (ROM) of knee joint was good with anterior instability of knee within 4-6 months. All wounds healed by first intention after two operations; no complications of infection and compartment syndrome occurred. All cases were followed up 12-60 months with an average of 36 months. Joint effusion of knee occurred in 2 cases at 4 weeks after the first operation and was cured after removal of fluid. At 3 months after the second operation, the results of valgus stress testing and Lachman test were ++ in 1 case, respectively; the results of valgus stress testing, varus stress testing, and Lachman test

  13. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlle...

  14. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Paul J.; Oliver, Jon L.; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Lloyd, Rhodri S.

    2016-01-01

    Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age-and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-re...

  15. Psychometric properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Children (KOOS-Child) in children with knee disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, Maria; Iversen, Maura D; Janarv, Per-Mats

    2014-01-01

    was developed. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of the final KOOS-Child when used in children with knee disorders. METHODS: 115 children (boys/girls 51/64, 7-16 years) with knee disorders were recruited. All children (n=115) completed the KOOS-Child, the Child-Health Assessment Questionnaire......BACKGROUND: The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire for adults with joint injury or degenerative disease. Recent data indicate a lack of comprehensibility when this is used with children. Thus, a preliminary KOOS-Child...... to evaluate responsiveness and interpretability. RESULTS: After item reduction, the final KOOS-Child consists of 39 items divided into five subscales. No floor or ceiling effects (≤15%) were found. An exploratory factor analysis on subscale level demonstrated that items in all subscales except for Symptoms...

  16. The iliotibial band in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ramy; Yoong, Philip; McKean, David; Teh, James L

    2014-10-01

    To delineate the spectrum of knee injuries associated with sprains and tears of the distal iliotibial band (ITB). A retrospective review of 200 random MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma was performed. Scans were excluded if there was a history of injury over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. In each scan, the ITB was scored as normal, minor sprain (grade 1), severe sprain (grade 2), and torn (grade 3). The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 27.4 years (range, 9-69 years) and 71.5% (n = 143) of the patients were male. The ITB was injured in 115 cases (57.5%). The next most common soft tissue structure injured was the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 53.5% of cases (n = 107). Grade 1 ITB injury was seen in 90 of these 115 cases (45%), grade 2 injury in 20 cases, and grade 3 injury in only five cases. There is a significant association between ITB injury and ACL rupture (p knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially cruciate ligament rupture, posterolateral corner injury, and patellar dislocation.

  17. [Ankle braces prevent ligament injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jon

    2002-09-05

    The Cochrane collaboration has performed a meta-analysis of all studies found on the prevention of ankle ligament injuries, frequent in sports like soccer, European handball and basketball. Interventions include the use of modified footwear and associated supports, training programmes and health education. Five randomized trials totalling 3,954 participants were included. With the exception of ankle disc training, all prophylactic interventions entailed the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis, air-cast or high top shoes. The studies showed a significant reduction in the number of ankle sprains in individuals allocated to external ankle support. This reduction was greater for those with a previous history of ankle sprains.

  18. A higher association of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee in pronation injuries of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Tae; Sung, Il-Hoon; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jin Kyu

    2018-02-22

    To evaluate the prevalence of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury of the knee among ankle-fracture patients and to determine the risk factors associated with MCL injury in this patient group. 303 patients (303 affected ankles) who underwent surgical treatment for an ankle fracture were assessed. Supination versus pronation injury, Danis-Weber classification, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), limb dominance, and mechanism of injury were reviewed to identify factors related to MCL injury. Prevalence of MCL injury of the knee among the total number of patients with an ankle fracture was 3.96% (12 out of 303 injuries). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment of possible confounding factors confirmed that female sex and pronation injury were associated significantly (p < 0.05) with MCL injury. The prevalence of MCL injury among females and the pronation type of ankle injury was 8.19% (10 out of 122 females) and 10.75% (10 out of 93 pronation injuries), respectively. More careful physical examination of the knee joint is strongly recommended in patients with ankle fractures, especially if the patient is female or the ankle-fracture pattern corresponds to the pronation type of injury.

  19. Modification of Knee Flexion Angle Has Patient-Specific Effects on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors During Jump Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Julien; Clancy, Caitlin; Dowling, Ariel V; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    landed in an adducted position suggests that the selection of interventions to prevent ACL injuries should account for patient-specific characteristics. The study helps elucidate how increasing the knee flexion angle affects lower body biomechanics and provided evidence for the need to introduce patient-specific strategies for preventing ACL injuries. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Imaging of Athletic Injuries of Knee Ligaments and Menisci: Sports Imaging Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, Ali M; White, Lawrence M

    2016-10-01

    Acute knee injuries are a common source of morbidity in athletes and if overlooked may result in chronic functional impairment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knee has become the most commonly performed musculoskeletal MR examination and is an indispensable tool in the appropriate management of the injured athlete. Meniscal and ligamentous tearing are the most frequent indications for surgical intervention in sports injuries and an understanding of the anatomy, biomechanics, mechanisms of injury, and patterns of injury are all critical to accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. These will be discussed in reference to meniscal tears and injuries of the cruciate ligaments as well as injuries of the posterolateral and posteromedial corners of the knee. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  1. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    OpenAIRE

    Frobell, Richard; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Sc...

  2. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  3. Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Collegiate Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    Background: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. Purpose: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. Results: The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P hamstring injuries for period 1 was significantly greater than the expected value (P hamstring injuries in sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training. PMID:28210652

  4. Prevention of sports injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John M; Lou, Julia E; Ganley, Theodore J

    2002-12-01

    As children around the world become involved in increasingly competitive and more organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of both acute and overuse injuries continues to rise. Over the past year, several important studies have contributed to our knowledge in the prevention of sports injuries in children. Safety guidelines and protective equipment are crucial to minimizing pediatric recreational injuries. Protective headgear, mouth guards, and wrist and shin guards have all been shown to be effective in preventing injuries. Nutrition and nutritional supplements (eg, creatine) for the pediatric athlete have also received greater attention recently. Combined with appropriate physical activity programs, nutrition is essential in battling the increasing epidemic of childhood obesity. Increased attention has also been directed toward specific injuries and injury rates in the female athlete. Specific training for the female pediatric athlete may have a preventive effect in halting the rising injury rates.

  5. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case-control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse 'weak' versus 'strong' athletes according to the median (weak median vs strong median ). 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weak median group compared with the strong median group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength-injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes.

  6. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. Aims The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. Methods 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case–control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse ‘weak’ versus ‘strong’ athletes according to the median (weakmedian vs strongmedian). Results 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weakmedian group compared with the strongmedian group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength–injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Conclusions Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes. PMID:29259807

  7. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  8. Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.......This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries....

  9. Injury prevention in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, thei...

  10. The iliotibial band in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, Ramy; Yoong, Philip; McKean, David; Teh, James L. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    To delineate the spectrum of knee injuries associated with sprains and tears of the distal iliotibial band (ITB). A retrospective review of 200 random MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma was performed. Scans were excluded if there was a history of injury over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. In each scan, the ITB was scored as normal, minor sprain (grade 1), severe sprain (grade 2), and torn (grade 3). The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 27.4 years (range, 9-69 years) and 71.5 % (n = 143) of the patients were male. The ITB was injured in 115 cases (57.5 %). The next most common soft tissue structure injured was the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 53.5 % of cases (n = 107). Grade 1 ITB injury was seen in 90 of these 115 cases (45 %), grade 2 injury in 20 cases, and grade 3 injury in only five cases. There is a significant association between ITB injury and ACL rupture (p < 0.05), as well as acute patellar dislocation (p < 0.05). There were ten cases of significant posterolateral corner injury, and all were associated with ITB injury, including four ITB tears. Only two cases of isolated ITB injury were seen (1 %). ITB injury is common in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially cruciate ligament rupture, posterolateral corner injury, and patellar dislocation. (orig.)

  11. Knee Injuries in Wrestlers: A Prospective Study from the Indian Subcontinent

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal; Mann

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrestling is a very popular sport the world over and its popularity is rapidly increasing in India. However, due to its arduous nature it is associated with a high incidence of injuries. Out of all the injuries, those to the knee are one of the commonest injuries reported. Objectives Our aim was to study the pattern of these injuries in the Indian wrestlers. Methods A pr...

  12. Change in knee flexor torque after fatiguing exercise identifies previous hamstring injury in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C; Ma'ayah, F; Blazevich, A J

    2018-03-01

    Muscular fatigue and interlimb strength asymmetry are factors known to influence hamstring injury risk; however, limb-specific exacerbation of knee flexor (hamstrings) torque production after fatiguing exercise has previously been ignored. To investigate changes in muscular force production before and after sport-specific (repeated-sprint) and non-specific (knee extension-flexion) fatiguing exercise, and explore the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic endurance (ie, muscle-specific) and single-leg vertical jump (ie, whole limb) tests to identify previous hamstring injury. Twenty Western Australia State League footballers with previous unilateral hamstring injury and 20 players without participated. Peak concentric knee extensor and flexor (180°∙s -1 ) torques were assessed throughout an isokinetic endurance test, which was then repeated alongside a single-leg vertical jump test before and after maximal repeated-sprint exercise. Greater reductions in isokinetic knee flexor torque (-16%) and the concentric hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratio (-15%) were observed after repeated-sprint running only in the injured (kicking) leg and only in the previously injured subjects. Changes in (1) peak knee flexor torque after repeated-sprint exercise, and (2) the decline in knee flexor torque during the isokinetic endurance test measured after repeated-sprint exercise, correctly identified the injured legs (N = 20) within the cohort (N = 80) with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Decreases in peak knee flexor torque and the knee flexor torque during an isokinetic endurance test after repeated-sprint exercise identified previous hamstring injury with 100% accuracy. Changes in knee flexor torque, but not SLVJ, should be tested to determine its prospective ability to predict hamstring injury in competitive football players. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Recreational and competitive alpine skiing. Typical injury patterns and possibilities for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, P U; Katzmaier, P; Olvermann, M; Huber, A; Waibel, K; Imhoff, A B; Spitzenpfeil, P

    2014-01-01

    Alpine skiing is the most popular winter sport discipline in Germany and is performed by more than 4 million recreational sportsmen and ski racing athletes. Compared to other sports, however, the injury rate in alpine skiing is quite high. Especially the knee joint is the most commonly injured area of the musculoskeletal system. Knee injuries are classified as severe in a high percentage of cases. In this review article, epidemiologic data and typical injury patterns in recreational alpine skiing and in competitive alpine ski racing are compared. In addition, the potentials of preventive methods in alpine skiing are presented and evaluated with a special focus on orthotic devices and protection wear as injury prevention equipment.

  14. Injury prevalence of netball players in South Africa: The need for in jury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pillay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish baseline data for injury prevalence,mechanism of injury, injury severity and management of injuries in netball playersin South Africa. A cross sectional descriptive design was employed to collect databy means of a questionnaire in 2010. Participants consisted of 254 netball playerswho participated in a netball tournament. Permission was obtained from all therelevant organizations and informed consent obtained from the participants. Thegeneral injury rate was 61.8% with an injury rate of 1.9 injuries per player forthe past season. The most commonly injured structures were the ankle 37.5 % andthe knee 28.6% with the most common mechanism of injury being landing, 19% and 29% respectively. Of those whosustained injuries, 86 (44% of the injured athletes’ sustained severe injuries, 31(16% sustained moderate injuriesand 78 (40% sustained mild injuries. 67% of players reported they were able to continue with the game and 33%received medical assistance losing game and training time. The most common form of management accessed wasphysiotherapy, which accounted for 31%. It is evident that the ankle and knee injury rates amongst South Africannetball players are high in comparison to other netball playing nations. Injury surveillance is an integral part ofdeveloping preventative measures. The article lays a platform for developing these strategies against the backdrop ofits findings and comparison with other authors.

  15. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, D.; Thomee, E.; Grant, D.; Teh, J.L.; Mansour, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Yoong, P. [Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading (United Kingdom); Yanny, S. [Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2 % (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20 %). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25 %) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75 %) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner. (orig.)

  16. Number of knee and ankle injuries is associated with poor physical but not mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Casey M; Gribble, Phillip A; Turner, Michael J; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Simon, Janet E; Thomas, Abbey C

    2017-05-01

    The knee and ankle are among the most commonly injured joints in the body. Long-term strength and neuromuscular control deficits are common following these injuries, yielding lifelong disability and poor quality of life. However, it is unknown how the number of injuries sustained influences quality of life. Determine the association between the number of ankle or knee injuries sustained and physical and mental quality of life. A total of 806 ankle-injured (age:45.2 ± 15.3 yrs; body mass index [BMI]:28.6 ± 7.4 kg/m 2 ), 658 knee-injured (age:49.3 ± 16.1 yrs; BMI:28.4 ± 7.4 kg/m 2 ), and 996 uninjured (age:43.4 ± 16.1 yrs; BMI:26.9 ± 6.5 kg/m 2 ) adults completed the SF-8 survey to determine the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) contributions to quality of life. Respondents were categorized by injury history (ankle, knee, none) and number of injuries (0, 1, 2, or 3 or more [3+]) to the same joint. Backward linear regression models were used to determine the association between quality of life, age, and injury history separately for SF-8 PCS and MCS, as well as ankle versus knee injury. Reporting 1, 2, or 3+ ankle injuries along with age predicted SF-8 PCS (P ankle injuries and age (P injuries along with age significantly predicted SF-8 PCS (P ankle injury. However, mental quality of life was predicted most consistently by age. Efforts to reduce injuries should be employed to improve quality of life, but more research is needed to determine what other factors contribute to quality of life across the lifespan.

  17. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, D; Yoong, P; Yanny, S; Thomee, E; Grant, D; Teh, J L; Mansour, R

    2015-10-01

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2% (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20%). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25%) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75%) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner.

  18. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocecco, Elena; Ruedl, Gerhard; Stankovic, Nemanja; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Del Vecchio, Fabricio Boscolo; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Rousseau, Romain; Wolf, Mirjam; Kopp, Martin; Miarka, Bianca; Menz, Verena; Krüsmann, Philipp; Calmet, Michel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Burtscher, Martin

    2013-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.

  19. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hsiao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems.

  20. Injuries to posterolateral corner of the knee: a comprehensive review from anatomy to surgical treatment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Bernardo; James, Evan W.; Metsavaht, Leonardo; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Although injuries to the posterolateral corner of the knee were previously considered to be a rare condition, they have been shown to be present in almost 16% of all knee injuries and are responsible for sustained instability and failure of concomitant reconstructions if not properly recognized. Although also once considered to be the “dark side of the knee”, increased knowledge of the posterolateral corner anatomy and biomechanics has led to improved diagnostic ability with better understanding of physical and imaging examinations. The management of posterolateral corner injuries has also evolved and good outcomes have been reported after operative treatment following anatomical reconstruction principles. PMID:26401495

  1. Disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint in the setting of multi-ligament knee injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, Jack A. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 4245 Roosevelt Way NE, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a relatively uncommon condition when in isolation; however, instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is far more frequent in those presenting with a severe multi-ligament injury of the knee. If this joint is left unstable, repair of a co-existent injury of the posterolateral corner may fail, regardless of the proficiency of the technique. We present two patients with disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint, including the MRI appearance, who initially presented to our hospital for management of significant polytrauma, as well as multi-ligament injury of the ipsilateral knee. (orig.)

  2. Floating knee injury associated with patellar tendon rupture: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Singaravadivelu; Panchanathan Ganesan, Jagannath; Moongilpatti Sengodan, Mugundhan

    2012-01-01

    Floating knee injuries are frequently associated with other concomitant injuries to the ipsilateral limb or other parts of body of which injury to the ipsilateral knee ligaments carries significance for various reasons. A middle-aged man sustained a floating knee injury following RTA. DCS fixation by bridge plating technique for the distal femur and lateral buttress plating by MIPO technique for proximal tibia were planned and executed under spinal anesthesia with image intensifier. In addition, there were patellar tendon rupture along with avulsion of VMO from the medial border of patella and torn MPFL, which we have missed initially. To the best of our knowledge no similar case has been reported in English literature so far. We have reviewed the literature and proposed a different interpretation of Blake and McBride classification.

  3. Floating Knee Injury Associated with Patellar Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaravadivelu Vaidyanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating knee injuries are frequently associated with other concomitant injuries to the ipsilateral limb or other parts of body of which injury to the ipsilateral knee ligaments carries significance for various reasons. A middle-aged man sustained a floating knee injury following RTA. DCS fixation by bridge plating technique for the distal femur and lateral buttress plating by MIPO technique for proximal tibia were planned and executed under spinal anesthesia with image intensifier. In addition, there were patellar tendon rupture along with avulsion of VMO from the medial border of patella and torn MPFL, which we have missed initially. To the best of our knowledge no similar case has been reported in English literature so far. We have reviewed the literature and proposed a different interpretation of Blake and McBride classification.

  4. Optimizing Recovery After Knee Meniscal or Cartilage Injury: Guidelines Help Deliver Quality Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    An injury to your knee meniscus or joint cartilage can happen when you move suddenly or repeatedly move the wrong way. If you have such an injury, you may feel knee pain and have limited motion. Physical therapists can ensure that you and others with these injuries receive quality care to optimize recovery. The goal of revised clinical practice guidelines published in the February 2018 issue of the JOSPT is to make recommendations based on best practices from recent published literature for the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and determination of patient readiness to return to activities following knee meniscus or joint cartilage injury. Based on scientific research, these guidelines summarize the treatment options currently available. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(2):125. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.0504.

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Silvers, Holly J; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2010-03-01

    The relatively high risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture among female athletes has been a major impetus for investigation into the etiology of this injury. A number of risk factors have been identified, both internal and external to the athlete, including neuromuscular, anatomical, hormonal, shoe-surface interaction, and environmental, such as weather. The anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors, often gender related, are the focus of most ACL injury prevention programs. Although studies have shown that biomechanic- centered prevention programs can reduce the risk of ACL injury, many questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to increase our understanding of the risk factors for ACL injury; how injury prevention programs work and can the clinical application of such programs be optimized.

  6. Association between MRI-defined osteoarthritis, pain, function and strength 3-10 years following knee joint injury in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Toomey, Clodagh M; Woodhouse, Linda J; Jaremko, Jacob L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-10-10

    Youth and young adults who participate in sport have an increased risk of knee injury and subsequent osteoarthritis. Improved understanding of the relationship between structural and clinical outcomes postinjury could inform targeted osteoarthritis prevention interventions. This secondary analysis examines the association between MRI-defined osteoarthritis and self-reported and functional outcomes, 3-10 years following youth sport-related knee injury in comparison to healthy controls. Participants included a subsample (n=146) of the Alberta Youth Prevention of Early Osteoarthritis cohort: specifically, 73 individuals with 3-10 years history of sport-related intra-articular knee injury and 73 age-matched, sex-matched and sport-matched controls with completed MRI studies. Outcomes included: MRI-defined osteoarthritis, radiographic osteoarthritis, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain, knee extensor/flexor strength, triple-hop and Y-balance test. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression were used to compare those with and without MRI-defined osteoarthritis. Associations between MRI-defined osteoarthritis and each outcome were assessed using multivariable linear regression considering the influence of injury history, sex, body mass index and time since injury. Participant median age was 23 years (range 15-27), and 63% were female. MRI-defined osteoarthritis varied by injury history, injury type and surgical history and was not isolated to participants with ACL and/or meniscal injuries. Those with a previous knee injury had 10-fold (95% CI 2.3 to 42.8) greater odds of MRI-defined osteoarthritis than uninjured participants. MRI-defined osteoarthritis was independently significantly associated with quality of life, but not symptoms, strength or function. MRI-detected structural changes 3-10 years following youth sport-related knee injury may not dictate clinical symptomatology, strength or function

  7. Geometric Characteristics of the Knee Are Associated With a Noncontact ACL Injury to the Contralateral Knee After Unilateral ACL Injury in Young Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levins, James G; Argentieri, Erin C; Sturnick, Daniel R; Gardner-Morse, Mack; Vacek, Pamela M; Tourville, Timothy W; Johnson, Robert J; Slauterbeck, James R; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2017-12-01

    Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (CACL) injury after recovery from a first-time ACL rupture occurs at a high rate in young females; however, little is known about the risk factors associated with bilateral ACL trauma. The geometric characteristics of the contralateral knee at the time of the initial ACL injury are associated with risk of suffering a CACL injury in these female athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty-two female athletes who suffered their first noncontact ACL injury while participating in sports at the high school or college level were identified, and geometry of the femoral notch, ACL, tibial spines, tibial subchondral bone, articular cartilage surfaces, and menisci of the contralateral, uninjured, knee was characterized in 3 dimensions. We were unable to contact 7 subjects and followed the remaining 55 until either a CACL injury or an ACL graft injury occurred or, if they were not injured, until the date of last contact (mean, 34 months after their first ACL injury). Cox regression was used to identify risk factors for CACL injury. Ten (18.2%) females suffered a CACL injury. Decreases of 1 SD in femoral intercondylar notch width (measured at its outlet and anterior attachment of the ACL) were associated with increases in the risk of suffering a CACL injury (hazard ratio = 1.88 and 2.05, respectively). Likewise, 1 SD decreases in medial-lateral width of the lateral tibial spine, height of the medial tibial spine, and thickness of the articular cartilage located at the posterior region of the medial tibial compartment were associated with 3.59-, 1.75-, and 2.15-fold increases in the risk of CACL injury, respectively. After ACL injury, subsequent injury to the CACL is influenced by geometry of the structures that surround the ACL (the femoral notch and tibial spines). This information can be used to identify individuals at increased risk for CACL trauma, who might benefit from targeted risk-reduction interventions.

  8. [Surgical treatment of posteromedial corner injury combined with cruciate ligament rupture of knee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Sheng, Zhen; Dai, Zhu

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the methods and effectiveness of surgical treatment for posteromedial corner (PMC) injury combined with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) ruptures. Between February 2009 and February 2012, 15 patients (15 knees) with PMC injury combined with ACL and PCL ruptures underwent PMC repair with suture anchor and ACL and PCL reconstruction. There were 7 males and 8 females with an average age of 39 years (range, 15-59 years). The causes of injury were traffic accident injury in 6 cases, sport injury in 7 cases, and sprain injury in 2 cases. The disease duration was 3-15 days with an average of 7 days. All patients presented positive results of anterior drawer test, posterior drawer test and valgus stress test, and dysfunction of knee joint. Of 15 cases, 3 had ACL and PCL ruptures, 5 had ACL rupture, 3 had ACL injury at the attachment point of the condyles crest, and 4 had PCL rupture; 9 had PMC tear at the femur insertion, 5 had PMC tear at the tibia insertion, and 1had PMC tear in the body area. All incisions healed by first intention with no complication of infection or stiffness of knee. All cases were followed up 18.4 months on average (range, 10-36 months). At last follow-up, 14 cases had normal knee flexion and extension ranges, but 1 case had 10 degree limitation of the knee extension. Except 1 case which had weakly positive valgus stress test, the other patients showed negative results of anterior drawer test, posterior drawer test, and valgus stress test. Based on the improved Lysholm classification standard, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 5 cases, and fair in 2 cases; the excellent and good rate was 86.7%. Early repair of the PMC and reasonable reconstruction of cruciate ligament can effectively restore the knee stability for patients with PMC injury combined with ACL and PCL ruptures.

  9. Core stability training for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Anderson, Barton E

    2013-11-01

    Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. PUBMED WAS SEARCHED FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC, BIOMECHANIC, AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF CORE STABILITY FOR INJURY PREVENTION (KEYWORDS: "core OR trunk" AND "training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation" AND "risk OR prevalence") published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport.

  10. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0038 TITLE: Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Albert I. King CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0038 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Albert King, John...TR-7340). Army research lab Aberdeen proving ground MD weapons and materials research directorate. (2015) 11. Reneer, D.V., Hisel, R.D., Hoffman

  11. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to keep their children from getting head injuries. Car Safety Your child should wear a seatbelt at ... local sporting goods store, sports facility, or bike shop will be able to help make certain the ...

  12. Balance index score as a predictive factor for lower sports results or anterior cruciate ligament knee injuries in Croatian female athletes--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbanić, Tea Schnurrer-Luke; Ravlić-Gulan, Jagoda; Gulan, Gordan; Matovinović, Damir

    2007-03-01

    Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) knee injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. ACL injuries result either from contact mechanisms or from certain unexplained non-contact mechanisms occurring during daily professional sports activities. The occurrence of non-contact injuries points to the existence of certain factors intrinsic to the knee that can lead to ACL rupture. When knee joint movement overcomes the static and the dynamic constraint systems, non-contact ACL injury may occur. Certain recent results suggest that balance and neuromuscular control play a central role in knee joint stability, protection and prevention of ACL injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate balance neuromuscular skills in healthy Croatian female athletes by measuring their balance index score, as well as to estimate a possible correlation between their balance index score and balance effectiveness. This study is conducted in an effort to reduce the risk of future injuries and thus prevent female athletes from withdrawing from sports prematurely. We analysed fifty-two female athletes in the high-risk sports of handball and volleyball, measuring for their static and dynamic balance index scores, using the Sport KAT 2000 testing system. This method may be used to monitor balance and coordination systems and may help to develop simpler measurements of neuromuscular control, which can be used to estimate risk predictors in athletes who withdraw from sports due to lower sports results or ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted preventive interventions. The tested Croatian female athletes with lower sports results and ACL knee injury incurred after the testing were found to have a higher balance index score compared to healthy athletes. We therefore suggest that a higher balance index score can be used as an effective risk predictor for lower sports results

  13. Posttraumatic Bone Marrow Lesion Volume and Knee Pain Within 4 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Lohmander, Stefan; Frobell, Richard B

    2017-06-02

      After an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, a majority of patients have a traumatic bone marrow lesion (BML, or bone bruise). The clinical relevance of posttraumatic lesions remains unclear.   To explore the cross-sectional associations between traumatic BML volume and self-reported knee pain and symptoms among individuals within 4 weeks of ACL injury.   Cross-sectional exploratory analysis of a randomized clinical trial.   Orthopaedic departments at 2 hospitals in Sweden.   As part of a randomized trial (knee anterior cruciate ligament nonoperative versus operative treatment [KANON] study), 121 young active adults (74% men, age = 26 ± 5 years, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight = 76 ± 13 kg) with an ACL tear were studied.   The BML volume in the proximal tibia and distal femur was segmented using magnetic resonance images obtained within 4 weeks of injury. A radiologist evaluated the presence of depression fractures on the images. Pain and symptoms of the injured knee (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS] pain and symptoms subscales) were obtained the same day as imaging. We used linear regression models to assess the associations.   Most knees had at least 1 BML (96%), and the majority (57%) had a depression fracture. Whole-knee BML volume was not related to knee pain for the entire cohort (β = -0.09, P = .25). Among those without a depression fracture, larger whole-knee BML volume was associated with increased knee pain (β = -0.46, P = .02), whereas no association was found for those with a depression fracture (β = 0.0, P = .96). Larger medial (β = -0.48, P = .02) but not lateral (β = -0.03, P = .77) tibiofemoral BML volume was associated with greater pain. We found no association between BML volume and knee symptoms.   We confirmed the absence of relationships between whole-knee BML volume and pain and symptoms within 4 weeks of ACL injury. Our findings extend previous reports in identifying weak associations between

  14. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries.

  15. Conservatively treated knee injury is associated with knee cartilage matrix degeneration measured with MRI-based T2 relaxation times. Data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix C. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Neumann, Jan; Heilmeier, Ursula; Joseph, Gabby B.; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the association of cartilage degeneration with previous knee injuries not undergoing surgery, determined by morphologic and quantitative 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed a nested cross-sectional study of right knee MRIs from participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) aged 45-79 with baseline Kellgren-Lawrence score of 0-2. Cases were 142 right knees of patients with self-reported history of injury limiting the ability to walk for at least 2 days. Controls were 426 right knees without history of injury, frequency-matched to cases on age, BMI, gender, KL scores and race (1:3 ratio). Cases and controls were compared using covariate-adjusted linear regression analysis, with the outcomes of region-specific T2 mean, laminar analysis and heterogeneity measured by texture analysis to investigate early cartilage matrix abnormalities and the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) to investigate morphologic knee lesions. Compared to control subjects, we found significantly higher mean T2 values in the injury [lateral tibia (28.10 ms vs. 29.11 ms, p = 0.001), medial tibia (29.70 ms vs. 30.40 ms, p = 0.014) and global knee cartilage (32.73 ms vs. 33.29 ms, p = 0.005)]. Injury subjects also had more heterogeneous cartilage as measured by GLCM texture contrast, variance and entropy (p < 0.05 in 14 out of 18 texture parameters). WORMS gradings were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). A history of knee injury not treated surgically is associated with higher and more heterogeneous T2 values, but not with morphologic knee abnormalities. Our findings suggest that significant, conservatively treated knee injuries are associated with permanent cartilage matrix abnormalities. (orig.)

  16. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.

  17. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Knee Proprioception in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Position in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Talebian, Saeed; Naseri, Nasrin; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Knee joint proprioception combines sensory input from a variety of afferent receptors that encompasses the sensations of joint position and motion. Poor proprioception is one of the risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Most studies have favored testing knee joint position sense in the sagittal plane and non-weight-bearing position. One of the most common mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury is dynamic knee valgus. No study has measured joint posit...

  19. Preventing eye injuries in quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wormald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye injuries often occur in the workplace in low and middle-income countries, particularly in the construction, agricultural, mining, and manufacturing industries. Even if there are safety regulations in these industries, their enforcement is often unsatisfactory, and owners are not required to provide safety equipment.

  20. Injury prevention in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Branas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, their continued growth is sure to hamper or wipe away economic gains in many developing nations and further health inequities between developed and developing nations. Injury prevention in developing countries thus represents an enormous opportunity since attention and funding has been limited even in the face of evidence-based, cost-effective solutions. This opportunity should be pursued in developing nations by choosing prevention programs that address key injury threats and, at the same time, affect long-term, sustainable, and measurable injury reductions. Such programs should have strong local buy-in, a history of evaluation (preferably in developing nations, high returns-on-investment, make use of existing infrastructures when possible, and include an implementation plan that is to be carried out by the developing nation itself.

  1. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  2. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412

  3. Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Baek Hyun; Jung, Hoe Seok; Na, Eui Sung; Seol, Hye Young; Cha, In Ho; Lim, Hong Chul

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  5. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem

    2015-07-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Outcomes associated with early post-traumatic osteoarthritis and other negative health consequences 3-10 years following knee joint injury in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J L; Woodhouse, L J; Nettel-Aguirre, A; Emery, C A

    2015-07-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) commonly affects the knee joint. Although the risk of PTOA substantially increases post-joint injury, there is little research examining PTOA outcomes early in the period between joint injury and disease onset. Improved understanding of this interval would inform secondary prevention strategies aimed at preventing and/or delaying PTOA progression. This study examines the association between sport-related knee injury and outcomes related to development of PTOA, 3-10 years post-injury. This preliminary analysis of the first year of a historical cohort study includes 100 (15-26 years) individuals. Fifty with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10 years previously and 50 uninjured age, sex and sport matched controls. The primary outcome was the 'Symptoms' sub-scale of the Knee Osteoarthritis and Injury Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcomes included; the remaining KOOS subscales, body mass index (BMI), hip abductor/adductor and knee extensor/flexor strength, estimated aerobic capacity (VO2max) and performance scores on three dynamic balance tests. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% Confidence interval (CI) and conditional odds ratio (OR, 95% CI; BMI) were used to compare study groups. Injured participants demonstrated poorer KOOS outcomes [symptoms -9.4 (-13.6, -5.2), pain -4.0 (-6.8, -1.2), quality-of-life -8.0 (-11.0, -5.1), daily living -3.0 (-5.0, -1.1) and sport/recreation -6.9 (-9.9, -3.8)], were 3.75 times (95% CI 1.24, 11.3) more likely to be overweight/obese and had lower triple single leg hop scores compared to controls. No significant group differences existed for remaining balance scores, estimated VO2max, hip or knee strength ratios or side-to-side difference in hip abductor/adductor or quadricep/hamstring strength. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth/young adults following sport-related knee injury report more symptoms and poorer function, and are at

  7. Prevention of groin injuries in sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C

    2015-01-01

    in sports. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were...... a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.......81. CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614....

  8. Is Knee Separation During a Drop Jump Associated With Lower Extremity Injury in Adolescent Female Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W; Tencer, Allan; Neradilek, Moni; Polissar, Nayak; Sabado, Lori; Schiff, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Knee injuries are common in older adolescent and adult female soccer players, and abnormal valgus knee appearance characterized by low normalized knee separation (NKS) is a proposed injury risk factor. What constitutes normal NKS in younger adolescents and whether low NKS is an injury risk factor are unknown. To determine the normal range of NKS using a drop-jump test in female perimenarchal youth soccer players and whether low NKS contributes to lower extremity injuries or knee injuries. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. From 2008 to 2012, a total of 351 female elite youth soccer players (age range, 11-14 years) were followed for 1 season, with complete follow-up on 92.3% of players. Baseline drop-jump testing was performed preseason. Lower extremity injuries during the season were identified using a validated, Internet-based injury surveillance system with weekly email reporting. Normalized knee separation at prelanding, landing, and takeoff was categorized 2 ways: as ≤10th percentile (most extreme valgus appearance) compared with >10th percentile and as a continuous measure of 1 SD. Poisson regression modeling with adjustment for clustering by team estimated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association between the NKS and the risk of lower extremity and knee injury, stratified by menarche. Of the study participants, 134 players experienced 173 lower extremity injuries, with 43 (24.9%) knee injuries. For postmenarchal players (n = 210), those with NKS ≤10th percentile were at 92% increased risk of lower extremity injury (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.17-3.15) and a 3.62-fold increased risk of knee injury (RR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.18-11.09) compared with NKS >10th percentile at prelanding and landing, respectively. Among postmenarchal players, there was an 80% increased risk of knee injury (RR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.01-3.23) with a decrease of 1 SD in landing NKS and a 66% increased risk of knee injury (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.04-2.64) with a decrease

  9. Effects of a low volume injury prevention program on the hamstring torque angle relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Pérez-Bilbao, Txomin; Jiménez Gutiérrez, Alfonso; Beedie, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a 4-week lower body injury prevention program on knee muscle torque-angle relationship were examined in soccer players. Twenty men were randomly allocated to either a control (n = 10) or training group (n = 10). The training group underwent three training sessions per week, comprising 3 sets of 8 repetitions of one open-chain exercise (Nordic curl) and two closed-chain exercises-forward lunges on a Bosu balance trainer and eccentric single leg dead lifts. Maximal peak knee flex...

  10. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1989-06-01

    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.

  11. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Violence Pressure Washer Safety Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare ... as hard hat, safety glasses, hearing protection, heavy work gloves, and cut-resistant legwear. Avoid contact with ...

  12. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    OpenAIRE

    C. Schwebel, David; Swart, Dehran

    2009-01-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk t...

  13. Rehabilitation after ACL Injury: A Fluoroscopic Study on the Effects of Type of Exercise on the Knee Sagittal Plane Arthrokinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Norouzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A safe rehabilitation exercise for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries needs to be compatible with the normal knee arthrokinematics to avoid abnormal loading on the joint structures. The objective of this study was to measure the amount of the anterior tibial translation (ATT of the ACL-deficient knees during selective open and closed kinetic chain exercises. The intact and injured knees of fourteen male subjects with unilateral ACL injury were imaged using uniplanar fluoroscopy, while the subjects performed forward lunge and unloaded/loaded open kinetic knee extension exercises. The ATTs were measured from fluoroscopic images, as the distance between the tibial and femoral reference points, at seven knee flexion angles, from 0° to 90°. No significant differences were found between the ATTs of the ACL-deficient and intact knees at all flexion angles during forward lunge and unloaded open kinetic knee extension (. During loaded open kinetic knee extension, however, the ATTs of the ACL deficient knees were significantly larger than those of the intact knees at 0° (. It was suggested that the forward lunge, as a weight-bearing closed kinetic chain exercise, provides a safer approach for developing muscle strength and functional stability in rehabilitation program of ACL-deficient knees, in comparison with open kinetic knee extension exercise.

  14. The effects of ACL injury on knee proprioception: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relph, N; Herrington, L; Tyson, S

    2014-09-01

    It is suggested the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays a significant role in knee proprioception, however, the effect of ACL injury on knee proprioception is unclear. Studies utilising the two most common measurement techniques, joint position sense and threshold to detect passive motion, have provided evidence both for and against a proprioceptive deficient following ACL injury. The objective of the study was to undertake a meta-analysis investigating the effects of ACL injury, treated conservatively or by reconstruction, on proprioception of the knee, measured using joint position sense and/or threshold to detect passive movement techniques. Seven databases were searched from their inception to September 2013 using the subject headings 'anterior cruciate ligament, proprioception, postural sway, joint position sense, balance, equilibrium or posture' to identify relevant studies. PRISMA guidelines were followed as much as possible. Studies that investigated the effect of ACL injury on either knee joint kinaesthesia or position sense were included in this review. Two reviewers independently extracted data using a standardised assessment form. Comparisons were made using a fixed effect model with an inverse variance method using Review Manager Software (V5.1). Patients with ACL injury have poorer proprioception than people without such injuries (SMD=0.35°; P=0.001 and SMD=0.38°; P=0.03) when measured using joint position sense and threshold to detect passive motion techniques respectively. Patients had poorer proprioception in the injured than uninjured leg (SMD=0.52°; Pproprioception of people whose ACL was repaired was better than those whose ligament was left unrepaired (SMD=-0.62°; Pproprioception deficits compared to uninjured knees and control groups. Although differences were statistically significant, the clinical significance of findings can be questioned. Clinical practitioners using joint position sense or threshold to detect passive motion

  15. [The value of MRI in diagnosis of ligament injuries of knee joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chen-Di; Qiu, Qian-De

    2010-10-01

    To study the performance of MRI and its diagnostic value for ligament injuries of knee joint. Form June 2008 to February 2010, the MRI of 74 patients with ligament injuries of knee joint were retrospectively analyzed. There were 47 males and 27 females in the group, which course was from 2 h to 10 d, with an average age of 37.3 years (ranged from 12 to 76). The clinical symptom included knee swelling, pain, joint instability, extension-flexion movement disorder. The physical examination showed valgus test or drawer test positive, and tenderness of medial knee positive. There were ligament injuies in 74 cases, among them, 19 cases were anterior cruciate ligament (25.7%),18 were posterior cruciate ligament (24.3%), 13 were lateral collateral ligament (17.6%), 24 were medial collateral (32.4%), the ligament of 12 cases were completely broken (included 8 cases cruciate ligament and 4 cases collateral ligament presented as discontinued signals of the ligament, and swelling and thickening of the ligament with medium signal in PDWI and high signal intensity in T2WI and in SPIR). The MRI of 62 patients with partial longitudinal tearing ligaments showed continuity, swelling and thickening of the ligaments with medium signal in PDWI and high signal intensity in T2WI and in SPIR. Forty-four cases were examined with surgery and arthroscopy, 41 ligaments were accorded with MRI, diagnosis rate of MRI was 95%. MRI can accurately diagnose the ligament injuries of knee joint,which is an ideal technique in the diagnosis of ligament injuries of knee joint, and should be used as a routine examining method.

  16. Controversies in knee rehabilitation: anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Mathew J; Arundale, Amelia J H; Logerstedt, David S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no reinjury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to preinjury sports. Using these criteria, the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury are reviewed and recommendations are provided for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of sports injury prevention training on the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee-Oh; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo; An, Keun Ok; Yoo, Jin; Kwon, Young Hoo

    2009-09-01

    Female athletes have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than their male counterparts who play at similar levels in sports involving pivoting and landing. The competitive female basketball players who participated in a sports injury prevention training program would show better muscle strength and flexibility and improved biomechanical properties associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury than during the pretraining period and than posttraining parameters in a control group. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 22 high school female basketball players were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups (the experimental group and the control group, 11 participants each). The experimental group was instructed in the 6 parts of the sports injury prevention training program and performed it during the first 20 minutes of team practice for the next 8 weeks, while the control group performed their regular training program. Both groups were tested with a rebound-jump task before and after the 8-week period. A total of 21 reflective markers were placed in preassigned positions. In this controlled laboratory study, a 2-way analysis of variance (2 x 2) experimental design was used for the statistical analysis (P training effects on all strength parameters (P = .004 to .043) and on knee flexion, which reflects increased flexibility (P = .022). The experimental group showed higher knee flexion angles (P = .024), greater interknee distances (P = .004), lower hamstring-quadriceps ratios (P = .023), and lower maximum knee extension torques (P = .043) after training. In the control group, no statistical differences were observed between pretraining and posttraining findings (P = .084 to .873). At pretraining, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for any parameter (P = .067 to .784). However, a comparison of the 2 groups after training revealed that the experimental group had significantly higher knee flexion angles (P = .023

  18. Could targeted exercise programmes prevent lower limb injury in community Australian football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nadine; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David G; Donnelly, Cyril J; Nash, Clare; Finch, Caroline F

    2013-08-01

    Australian football is a popular sport in Australia, at both the community and elite levels. It is a high-speed contact sport with a higher incidence of medically treated injuries when compared with most other organized sports. Hamstring injuries, ligament injuries to the knee or ankle, hip/groin injuries and tendinopathies are particularly common and often result in considerable time lost from sport. Consequently, the prevention of lower limb injuries is a priority for both community and elite Australian football organizations. There is considerable literature available on exercise programmes aimed at reducing lower limb injuries in Australian football and other running-related sports. The quality and outcomes of these studies have varied considerably, but indicate that exercise protocols may be an effective means of preventing lower limb injuries. Despite this, there has been limited high-quality and systematic evaluation of these data. The aim of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the evidence about the benefits of lower limb injury prevention exercise protocols aimed at reducing the most common severe lower limb injuries in Australian football. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE and other electronic databases were searched, from January 1990 to December 2010. Papers reporting the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort and case-control studies were extracted. Primary outcomes were injury reduction or risk factor identification and/or modification. Secondary outcomes were adherence to any trialled interventions, injury severity and adverse effects such as secondary injuries and muscle soreness. The methodological quality of extracted manuscripts was assessed and results were collated. Forty-seven papers were identified and reviewed of which 18 related to hamstring injury, eight related to knee or ankle ligament injury, five

  19. Gender dimorphic ACL strain in response to combined dynamic 3D knee joint loading: implications for ACL injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kiyonori; Andrish, Jack T; van den Bogert, Antonie J; McLean, Scott G

    2009-12-01

    While gender-based differences in knee joint anatomies/laxities are well documented, the potential for them to precipitate gender-dimorphic ACL loading and resultant injury risk has not been considered. To this end, we generated gender-specific models of ACL strain as a function of any six degrees of freedom (6DOF) knee joint load state via a combined cadaveric and analytical approach. Continuously varying joint forces and torques were applied to five male and five female cadaveric specimens and recorded along with synchronous knee flexion and ACL strain data. All data (approximately 10,000 samples) were submitted to specimen-specific regression analyses, affording ACL strain predictions as a function of the combined 6 DOF knee loads. Following individual model verifications, generalized gender-specific models were generated and subjected to 6 DOF external load scenarios consistent with both a clinical examination and a dynamic sports maneuver. The ensuing model-based strain predictions were subsequently examined for gender-based discrepancies. Male and female specimen-specific models predicted ACL strain within 0.51%+/-0.10% and 0.52%+/-0.07% of the measured data respectively, and explained more than 75% of the associated variance in each case. Predicted female ACL strains were also significantly larger than respective male values for both simulated 6 DOF load scenarios. Outcomes suggest that the female ACL will rupture in response to comparatively smaller external load applications. Future work must address the underlying anatomical/laxity contributions to knee joint mechanical and resultant ACL loading, ultimately affording prevention strategies that may cater to individual joint vulnerabilities.

  20. Epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi Mohtasham, Hamid; Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Khoshroo, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees in Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 59 Football Premier League professional referees participated in the study. The knee injury related information such as injury history and mechanism was recorded. Injury related symptoms and their impacts on the activity limitation, ability to perform activities of daily living as well participation in sports and recreational activities was obtained through the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS). Results: The results indicated that 31 out of 59 participants reported the history of knee injury. In addition, 18.6%, 22.4% and 81% of the referees reported that they had been injured during the last 6 months of the last year, and at some point in their refereeing careers, respectively. Results further indicated that 48.8% of the injuries occurred in the non-dominant leg and they occurred more frequently during training sessions (52%). Furthermore, the value of KOS was 85 ± 13 for Activities of Daily Living subscale and 90 ± 9 for Sports and Recreational Activities subscale of the KOS. Conclusions: Knee injury was quite common among the Football Premier League professional referees. It was also indicated that the injuries occurred mainly due to insufficient physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that football referees undergo the proper warm-up program to avoid knee injury. PMID:29362295

  1. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: design of a randomised prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-08-02

    Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among recreational volleyball players. This article describes the design of a study evaluating the effectiveness of the developed intervention on the one-season occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among recreational adult volleyball players. A randomized prospective controlled trial with a follow-up period of one volleyball season will be conducted. Participants will be healthy recreational adult volleyball players (18 years of age or older) practicing volleyball (training and/or match) at least twice a week. The intervention ('VolleyVeilig') consists of a warm-up program based on more than 50 distinct exercises (with different variations and levels). The effect of the intervention programme on the occurrence of injuries will be compared to volleyball as usual. Outcome measures will be incidence of acute injury (expressed as number of injuries per 1000 h of play) and prevalence of overuse injuries (expressed as percentage). This study will be one of the first randomized prospective controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention on the occurrence of both acute and overuse injuries among recreational adult volleyball players. Outcome of this study could possibly lead to the nationwide implementation of the intervention in all volleyball clubs in The Netherlands, ultimately resulting in less injuries. Dutch Trial Registration NTR6202 , registered February 1st 2017. Version 3, February 2017.

  2. Meniscal Allograft Transplantation Does Not Prevent or Delay Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Van Der Straeten

    Full Text Available Meniscal tears are common knee injuries. Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT has been advocated to alleviate symptoms and delay osteoarthritis (OA after meniscectomy. We investigated (1 the long-term outcome of MAT as a treatment of symptomatic meniscectomy, (2 most important factors affecting survivorship and (3 OA progression.From 1989 till 2013, 329 MAT were performed in 313 patients. Clinical and radiographic results and MAT survival were evaluated retrospectively. Failure was defined as conversion to knee arthroplasty (KA or total removal of the MAT.Mean age at surgery was 33 years (15-57; 60% were males. No-to-mild cartilage damage was found in 156 cases, moderate-to-severe damage in 130. Simultaneous procedures in 118 patients included cartilage procedures, osteotomy or ACL-reconstruction. At a mean follow-up of 6.8 years (0.2-24.3years, 5 patients were deceased and 48 lost (14.6%, 186 MAT were in situ (56.5% whilst 90 (27.4% had been removed, including 63 converted to a KA (19.2%. Cumulative allograft survivorship was 15.1% (95% CI:13.9-16.3 at 24.0 years. In patients <35 years at surgery, survival was significantly better (24.1% compared to ≥35 years (8.0% (p = 0.017. In knees with no-to-mild cartilage damage more allografts survived (43.0% compared to moderate-to-severe damage (6.6% (p = 0.003. Simultaneous osteotomy significantly deteriorated survival (0% at 24.0 years (p = 0.010. 61% of patients underwent at least one additional surgery (1-11 for clinical symptoms after MAT. Consecutive radiographs showed significant OA progression at a mean of 3.8 years (p<0.0001. Incremental Kellgren-Lawrence grade was +1,1 grade per 1000 days (2,7yrs.MAT did not delay or prevent tibiofemoral OA progression. 19.2% were converted to a knee prosthesis at a mean of 10.3 years. Patients younger than 35 with no-to-mild cartilage damage may benefit from MAT for relief of symptoms (survivorship 51.9% at 20.2 years, but patients and healthcare payers

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training in female athletes: a systematic review of injury reduction and results of athletic performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D

    2012-01-01

    Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995-August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Selected studies determined the effect of ACL intervention training programs on ACL incidence rates (determined by athlete-exposures) and athletic performance tests, such as isokinetic strength, vertical jump height, speed, agility, and dynamic balance. Because no single article contained both criteria, investigations were cross-referenced to obtain data on both factors from the same training programs. The authors reviewed the selected studies for cohort population numbers, age, sports, duration of study, program components, duration of training, number of athlete-exposures, ACL injury incidence rates, and results of athletic performance tests. Initially, 57 studies were identified that described 42 ACL injury prevention training programs. Of these, 17 studies that investigated 5 programs met the inclusion criteria. Two programs significantly reduced ACL injury rates and improved athletic performance tests: Sportsmetrics and the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance program (PEP). Sportsmetrics produced significant increases in lower extremity and abdominal strength, vertical jump height, estimated maximal aerobic power, speed, and agility. Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance significantly improved isokinetic knee flexion strength but did not improve vertical jump height, speed, or agility. The other 3 programs (Myklebust, the "11," and Knee Ligament Injury Prevention) did not improve both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Only the Sportsmetrics and PEP ACL intervention training programs had a

  4. Diagnostic criterial to differentiate medial meniscal injury from degenerative changes on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP knee SPECT in patients with chronic knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, June Key; Kang, Won Jun; So, Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae Ho; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan Jeong [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    In patients with chronic knee pain, the diagnostic performance of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP knee SPECT for internal derangement of knee is deteriorated due to degenerative changes. In this study, we tried to establish diagnostic criteria to differentiate medial meniscal injury (MMI) from degenerative change (DC) when the uptake in increased in medial compartment. A total of 49 knee SPECT of the patients with chronic(more than 3 months) knee pain, which showed increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake in the medial compartment, were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy. On knee SPECT, 3 diagnosic criteria for MMI were investigated. In Criterion, I, MMI was diagnosed when crescentic uptake was observed in the medial tibial plateau. In Criterion II, crescentic uptake was further classified into anterior, mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns, according to the location of maximal uptake; and only crescentic mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns were diagnosed as MMI. In Criterion III, MMI was diagnosed when medial tibial plateau showed higher activity then medial femoral condyle. The diagnostic performance of the 3 criteria was compared. The sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 14% in Criterion I, 89% and 38% in Criterion II, and 75% and 67% in Criterion III, respectively. Criterion III had significantly improve diagnostic performance, especially, specificity. In this study, we established a practical diagnostic criterion to differentiate MMI from DC on knee SPECT. The result is helpful to improve the diagnostic value of knee SPECT as a screening test for chronic knee pain.

  5. Stress radiography for the diagnosis of knee ligament injuries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Evan W; Williams, Brady T; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Stress radiography is a widely used diagnostic tool to assess injury to the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and the medial and lateral structures of the knee. However, to date, numerous techniques have been reported in the literature with no clear consensus as to which methodology is best for assessing ligament stability. The purpose of this review was to identify which stress radiographic techniques have support in the literature for the diagnosis of acute or chronic knee ligament injuries, to define which technique is most accurate and reliable for diagnosing knee ligament injuries, and to compare the use of stress radiography with other diagnostic tests. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic review of PubMed (MEDLINE), the EMBASE library, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for English language studies published from January 1970 to August 2013 on the diagnosis of knee ligament injuries using stress radiography. Information describing the ligament(s) investigated, stress radiographic technique, magnitude of force, measures of accuracy and reliability, and comparative diagnostic tests were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. A total of 16 stress techniques were described for stress radiography of the knee. The diagnostic accuracy of stress radiography including the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values varied considerably depending on the technique and choice of displacement or gapping threshold. Excellent reliability was reported for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, varus, and valgus knee injuries. Inconsistencies were found across studies regarding the efficacy of stress radiography compared with other diagnostic modalities. Based on the multitude of stress techniques reported, varying levels of diagnostic accuracy, and inconsistencies regarding comparative efficacy of stress radiography to other diagnostic modalities, we are not able

  6. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  7. Correlation between bone contusion and ligament, menisci injury of knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijuan; Li Pei; Tu Changzhuo; Wu Guangren; Qi Yuliang; Yan Xiaoqun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between bone contusion and ligament, meniscus injury of knee joint with MR imaging. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute trauma of knee joint were studied retrospectively. All eases showed negative on X-ray and bone cont, -sion on MR imaging. Results: in all patients, ligament and meniscus injury were seen in 25 cases (71%), incorporate anterior cruciate ligament injury in 12 cases, posterior cruciate ligament in 6, tibial collateral ligament in 8 cases, fibular collateral ligament in 6 cases, medial meniscus tear in 4 cases, lateral meniscus tear in 5 cases, and hydrops in 29 cases. There were only 3 patients with ligament or meniscus injury but no bone contusion during the same period. Conclusion: It is necessary to check by MR for the patients with acute trauma of knee joint, who have clinical symptom such as ache, swelling, move un-freely showing bone contusion on MR Imaging but without any abnormality on X-ray in order to avoid failure in diagnosing injury of ligament and meniscus. (authors)

  8. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-08-01

    Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury.

  9. Arthroscopic knee surgery does not modify hyperalgesic responses to heat injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Duun, Preben; Kraemer, Otto

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that surgical injury may up- or down-regulate nociceptive function. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of elective arthroscopically assisted knee surgery on nociceptive responses to a heat injury. METHODS: Seventeen patients...... contralateral to the surgical side. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were given for 2 days before the first burn injury and again from the time of surgery. In the controls, the two burn injuries were separated by 7 days. Sensory variables included cumulated pain score during induction of the burn (visual analog...... scale), secondary hyperalgesia area, and mechanical and thermal pain perception and pain thresholds assessed before and 1 h after the burn injury. RESULTS: The heat injuries induced significant increases in pain perception (P heat pain...

  10. A lower extremity strength-based profile of NCAA Division I women's basketball and gymnastics athletes: implications for knee joint injury risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Cazier, Curtis S; Bressel, Eadric; Dolny, Dennis G

    2018-08-01

    This study aimed to provide a comprehensive strength-based physiological profile of women's NCAA Division I basketball and gymnastic athletes; and to make sport-specific comparisons for various strength characteristics of the knee flexor and extensor muscles. A focus on antagonist muscle balance (hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios, H:Q) was used to elucidate vulnerabilities in these at-risk female athletes. Fourteen NCAA Division I women's basketball and 13 gymnastics athletes performed strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors. Outcome measures included absolute and relative (body mass normalised) peak torque (PT), rate of torque development at 50, 100, 200 ms (RTD50 etc.) and H:Q ratios of all variables. The basketball athletes had greater absolute strength for all variables except for isokinetic PT at 240°s -1 and isometric RTD50 for the knee extensors. Gymnasts showed ~20% weaker body mass relative concentric PT for the knee flexors at 60 and 120°·s -1 , and decreased conventional H:Q ratios at 60 and 240°·s -1 (~15%). These findings suggest that collegiate level gymnastics athletes may be prone to increased ACL injury risk due to deficient knee flexor strength and H:Q strength imbalance. Coaches may use these findings when implementing injury prevention screening and/or for individualised strength training programming centered around an athletes strength-related deficits.

  11. Rasch analysis of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS): a statistical re-evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comins, J; Brodersen, J; Krogsgaard, M

    2008-01-01

    The knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), is widely used to evaluate subjective outcome in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed patients. However, the validity of KOOS has not been assessed...... and subsequent rehabilitation. Rasch analysis showed that of the five proposed subscales in KOOS, only knee-related quality of life (QoL) and sport and recreational related function (Sport/Rec) fulfilled the criteria of a unidimensional measurement scale when applied to these patients. The three subdomains...

  12. Basketball Coaches’ Utilization of Ankle Injury Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Pennuto, Anthony; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings. Objective: To determine high school basketball coaches’ utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP). Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coac...

  13. Effect of Plyometric Training on Prevention of ACL Injuries in Females Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginsu, Müjdat; Lokmaoğlu, Recep; Korkmaz, Erol; Arıbaş, İlker; Selimoğlu, Şafak

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the effects of plyometric training on prevention of ACL injuries with lower limp kinematics,eccentric hip and knee torques,and functional performance. Methods: 36 females volleyball players were divided into a training group (TG no:18) that carried out the plyometric training for 12 weeks,and a control group (CG no:18)that carried out no physical training.24 plyometric trainin sessions during approximately 12 weeks with 3 sessions ,30 minutes per week on alternate days. Lower limb kinematics (maximum excursion of hip adduction,hip medial rotation,and knee abduction during the single leg squat),eccentric hip (abductor,adductor,medial and lateral rotator) isokinetic peak torques and knee (flexor and extansor) isokinetic peak torques,and fuctional performance(trşpl hpo test and the 6-m timed hop test). Results: After 12 weeks, only the TG significantly reduced the values for the maximum excursion of knee abduction (P=0.01) and hip adduction (P 0.001).Similarly ,only the TG significantly increased the eccentic hip abductor (P 0.001) and adductor (P=0.01) torques.Finally,only the TG significantly increased the values in the tripl hop test (P 0.001) and significantly decreased the values in the 6-m timed hop test (P 0.001) after intervention. Conclusion: Plyometric training alters lower limb kinematics and increases eccentric hip torque and functional performance, suggesting the incorporation of these exercises in preventive programs for ACL injuries.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  15. ECSS Position Statement 2009: Prevention of acute sports injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, K.; Andersen, T.E.; Krosshaug, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Myklebust, G.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bahr, R.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize the health benefits of sports and exercise and to minimize the direct and indirect costs associated with injuries, developing and adopting injury prevention strategies is an important goal. The aim of this ECSS consensus paper on injury prevention is to review current evidence on injury

  16. Knee kinematics and kinetics in former soccer players with a 16-year-old ACL injury – the effects of twelve weeks of knee-specific training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of neuromuscular control has become increasingly important and plays a major role in rehabilitation of subjects with an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. Little is known, however, of the influence of this training on knee stiffness during loading. Increased knee stiffness occurs as a loading strategy of ACL-injured subjects and is associated with increased joint contact forces. Increased or altered joint loads contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine if knee stiffness, defined by changes in knee kinetics and kinematics of gait, step activity and cross-over hop could be reduced through a knee-specific 12-week training programme. Methods A 3-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON and a force plate (AMTI were used to calculate knee kinetics and kinematics before and after 12 weeks of knee-specific training in 12 males recruited from a cohort with ACL injury 16 years earlier. Twelve uninjured males matched for age, sex, BMI and activity level served as a reference group. Self-reported patient-relevant data were obtained by the KOOS questionnaire. Results There were no significant changes in knee stiffness during gait and step activity after training. For the cross-over hop, increased peak knee flexion during landing (from 44 to 48 degrees, p = 0.031 and increased internal knee extensor moment (1.28 to 1.55 Nm/kg, p = 0.017 were seen after training, indicating reduced knee stiffness. The KOOS sport and recreation score improved from 70 to 77 (p = 0.005 and was significantly correlated with the changes in knee flexion during landing for the cross-over hop (r = 0.6, p = 0.039. Conclusion Knee-specific training improved lower extremity kinetics and kinematics, indicating reduced knee stiffness during demanding hop activity. Self-reported sport and recreational function correlated positively with the biomechanical changes supporting a clinical importance of the

  17. Meniscal and articular cartilage lesions in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee: correlation between time from injury and knee scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalitsis, Sotirios; Vlychou, Mariana; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Thriskos, Paschal; Hantes, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is associated with meniscal tears and/or articular cartilage damage. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to report and correlate the incidence of meniscal and cartilage lesions in ACL-deficient knees with time from injury and (b) to correlate lesions of menisci and cartilage with widely used knee scores. Data were analysed from 109 consecutive patients with ACL rupture. Meniscal and articular cartilage lesions were documented during the arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL. Patients were distributed into 3 groups according to time from injury; group A: 0-3 months (35 patients), group B: 3-12 months (39 patients) and group C: more than 12 months (35 patients). Lysholm, KOOS and IKDC rating scales were recorded preoperatively. Logistic regression analyses were applied to correlate the concomitant intra-articular pathologies with the time from injury and knee-rating scales. Of 109 patients, 32 (29%) had a medial meniscus tear, 20 (19%) had a lateral meniscus tear, 17 (15%) had both menisci torn and 40 (37%) had no meniscal tear. Analysis revealed that time from injury was not a significant factor for the presence of a meniscal lesion. The odds of development of a high-grade cartilage lesion in an ACL-deficient knee reconstructed more than 12 months from time from injury are 5.5 and 12.5 times higher when compared with knees that underwent ACL reconstruction less than 3 months and between 3 and 12 months after knee injury, respectively. No association was found between intra-articular pathology and the KOOS and Lysholm scores. A positive correlation between the IKDC score and patients without any intra-articular pathology was found. The presence of high-grade cartilage lesions is significantly increased in an ACL-deficient knee when reconstruction is performed more than 12 months after injury. However, the incidence of meniscal tears is not increased significantly. Correlation of intra-articular pathology in ACL

  18. A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety ... theoretical and research investigations of the benchmark injury prevention and containment interventions

  19. Differences in injury pattern and prevalence of cartilage lesions in knee and ankle joints: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Aurich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA. There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints.

  20. A HYPOTHESIS: COULD PORTABLE NATURAL GRASS BE A RISK FACTOR FOR KNEE INJURIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous study has shown a likely link between increased shoe- surface traction and risk of knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL injury. Portable natural grass systems are being used more often in sport, but no study to date has investigated their relative safety. By their nature, they must have high resistance to falling apart and therefore newly laid systems may be at risk of creating excessive shoe-surface traction. This study describes two clusters of knee injuries (particularly non-contact ACL injuries, each occurring to players of one professional football team at single venue, using portable grass, in a short space of time. The first series included two ACL injuries, one posterolateral complex disruption and one lateral ligament tear occurring in two rugby league games on a portable bermudagrass surface in Brisbane, Australia. The second series included four non-contact ACL injuries over a period of ten weeks in professional soccer games on a portable Kentucky bluegrass/perennial ryegrass surface in Barcelona, Spain. Possible intrinsic risk factors are discussed but there was no common risk shared by the players. Although no measures of traction were made at the Brisbane venue, average rotational traction was measured towards the end of the injury cluster at Camp Nou, Barcelona, to be 48 Nm. Chance undoubtedly had a part to play in these clusters, but the only obvious common risk factor was play on a portable natural grass surface soon after it was laid. Further study is required to determine whether portable natural grass systems may exhibit high shoe-surface traction soon after being laid and whether this could be a risk factor for knee injury

  1. Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future

  2. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and ...

  3. Lifetime injury prevention: the sport profile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick

    2012-03-01

    Participation in sporting activities carries an injury risk. Conversely, the increased awareness that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for disease has led government agencies and the medical community to encourage increased levels of physical activity. Many people will achieve this through participation in sport. Injury inevitably leads to a reduction in participation on a temporary or permanent basis, but the injury experience may also influence the lifelong physical activity behaviour. Few studies adequately examine the possible long-term consequences of sport participation after the competitive period has been completed, but by understanding the patterns of injuries in different sports one test can develop strategies to prevent and better manage the conditions that occur and promote lifelong physical activity. There is a need to develop models of understanding of injury risk at different life phases and levels of participation in a specific sport. The risk assessment of sport participation has to be relevant to a particular sport, the level of participation, skill, age and potential future health consequences. This article describes a sport-specific model which will improve guidance for coaches and healthcare professionals. It poses questions for sports physicians, healthcare providers, educators and for governing bodies of sports to address in a systematic fashion. Additionally the governing body, as an employer, will need to meet the requirements for risk assessment for professional sport and its ethical responsibility to the athlete.

  4. Management of Medial Collateral Ligament Injury During Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Della Torre, MD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medial collateral ligament injury during primary total knee arthroplasty is a recognised complication potentially resulting in valgus instability, suboptimal patient outcomes and a higher rate of revision or reoperation. Options for management include primary repair with or without augmentation, reconstruction or immediate conversion to prosthesis with greater constraint, in conjunction with various postoperative rehabilitation protocols. Inconsistent recommendations throughout the orthopaedic literature have made the approach to managing this complication problematic. The objective of this study was to review the available literature to date comparing intraoperative and postoperative management options for primary total knee arthroplasty complicated by recognised injury to the medial collateral ligament. This systematic literature review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (#CRD42014008866 and performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines including a PRISMA flow diagram. Five articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Each was a retrospective, observational cohort or case series with small numbers reported, inconsistent methodology and incompletely reported outcomes. Four of the five studies managing medial collateral ligament injury during total knee arthroplasty (47/84 patients with direct repair with or without autograft augmentation reported good outcomes with no revision or reoperation required for symptomatic instability over a follow-up period of 16 months to almost 8 years. The fifth study with a follow-up to 10 years and a high rate of conversion to unlinked semi constrained total knee arthroplasty implant (30/37 patients reported a greater incidence of revision due to instability, in patients in whom the medial collateral ligament injury was directly repaired without added constraint. Overall balance of evidence is in favour of satisfactory outcomes without symptomatic instability following direct repair with or without

  5. Injury prevention for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Thornton, Lisa S

    2002-11-01

    Little injury data exists for children who have disabilities. There is an urgent need to address injury prevention and to improve safety standards for this group. Understanding the epidemiology of injuries will allow clinicians to accurately advise patients and their families on individual risks and counsel them in steps to take to reduce those risks. Safety information must be tailored to consider each child's functional impairments. All children who have disabilities are at risk for maltreatment. Open discussion of this problem is warranted given the immensity of the problem. Identifying parental concerns and supporting parents in the use of respite resources are appropriate. For children who have problems in mobility, falls are the number one concern. Collaboration with reliable vendors and therapists that adhere to standards for safe seating is essential for reducing the risk of wheelchair tips and falls. In addition, therapists should be directed to provide mobility training for activities from safe transfers to street crossing in a community setting. Parents should be counseled to approach their child's injury risk based on the child's cognitive and behavioral level rather than their chronological level. Knowledge of the child's developmental quotient or intelligence quotient will also allow the clinician to accurately formulate an injury prevention plan. Many children will always need supervision for tasks that put them in situations of injury risk (i.e., swimming, street crossing, bathing). Sensorineural deficits such as blindness or deafness create significant alterations in negotiating the environment and an increased risk of injury. Awareness of the special needs for fire risk reduction and street safety are critical in this population. The collection of injury data is critical to define the scope of the problem and to influence changes in policy and the development of technical standards. Educational efforts focused on safety should include

  6. The Association Between Knee Confidence and Muscle Power, Hop Performance, and Postural Orientation in People With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Ewa M

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Background The association between muscle function and lack of knee confidence in people with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury has not been well investigated. Such knowledge would help in the design of training programs for this population. Objective To investigate associations between self-reported knee confidence and muscle function in patients with ACL injury. Methods Cross-sectional data from 54 patients (mean age, 30 years; range, 20-39 years; 28% women) with ACL injury, treated with training and reconstructive surgery (n = 36) or training only (n = 18), were assessed 3 ± 1 years after injury. Univariate and multivariable ordinal regression analyses were conducted to test the association between the patient's knee confidence (question 3 from the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score as the dependent variable) and performance on tests of muscle power, hop performance, and postural orientation (test for substitution patterns score) as independent variables (absolute value on the injured leg, and limb symmetry index [LSI; injured leg/uninjured leg × 100] or absolute difference between the injured and uninjured legs). Results Sixteen patients reported no trouble with lack of knee confidence, 24 mild trouble, 10 moderate trouble, and 4 severe or extreme trouble. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations between worse knee confidence and lower (worse) LSIs for knee extension power, vertical jump, and side hop, and worse test for substitution patterns scores. In the multivariable analysis, worse vertical jump LSI (P = .043) and worse side hop LSI (P = .012) significantly accounted for 25% of the variation in perceived knee confidence. Conclusion Between-leg differences during demanding tasks are associated with knee confidence in individuals with ACL injury. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):477-482. Epub 26 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6374.

  7. The effects of "Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Program" in a female soccer team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Echegoyen, Soledad; Aoyama, Takeshi

    2017-02-21

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes of muscle strength in lower limbs and knee valgus alignment using the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Program (PEP program) to prevent ACL injuries in female soccer players during an entire season. A longitudinal and prospective study was done in twenty female soccer players at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, from a senior team. During 24 weeks the training program was applied three times a week as a part of the team workouts. Video analysis of dynamic knee valgus alignment and maximal strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius were evaluated pre and post training. Quadriceps and hamstring strength increased on the right pelvic limb (pinjuries did not decrease during this period no ACL injury was registered. Until now there are no reports about muscle strength and jump technique assessment with the application of the PEP program. The neuromuscular training and muscle balance are important to prevent ACL injuries. We advise that this program is integrated to women ́s soccer training.

  8. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ARTHROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF ANTERIOR C RUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURIES OF KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paragjyoti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Anterior C ruciate L igament (ACL tear is a common sports injury of the knee. There are a lot of controversies related to the management of this injury and more than 2000 papers have been published on the various aspects of the topic. Arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL with autogenous graft material is widely used nowadays. The two most commonly used grafts are the central one - third of the patellar ligament (bone - tendon - bone, BTB and the hamstring tendon ( S emitendinosus - gracilis, STG construct but the former graft leads to increased donor site morbidity & hurdles in postoperative rehab & pain. The aim of the study is to study the Arthroscopic management of anterior cruciate ligament injury of knee joint using quadrupled hamstring graft. METHOD: The study was carried out on 30 cases of anterior cruciate ligament injury of knee joint attending the OPD and emergency of department of Orthopaedics, Silchar Medical College & Hospital who met the inclusion criteria. An informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to participation in the study. All the patients were examined in detail and worked up to obtain pre - anaesthetic clearance. X - rays and MRI were done routinely in all the cases. Clinical and radiological parameters were recorded. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadrupled hamstring graft was done in all the patients. Concomitant meniscal inju ries were treated according to the merit of the injury. Patients were followed up at regular intervals and outcome variables were assessed and recorded. RESULTS: Results of our study clearly showed that arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using quadrupled hamstring graft is a safe, effective and reproducible procedure in restoring knee function with minimal donor site morbidity. At follow up evaluation, all patients had good outcomes in terms of clinical stability, range of motion and general symptoms. CONCLUSION: From the results in this study

  9. Characterizing the distinct structural changes associated with self-reported knee injury among individuals with incident knee osteoarthritis: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Julie E; Harkey, Matthew S; Ward, Robert J; Mackay, James W; Lu, Bing; Price, Lori Lyn; Eaton, Charles B; Barbe, Mary F; Lo, Grace H; McAlindon, Timothy E; Driban, Jeffrey B

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to characterize the agreement between distinct structural changes on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and self-reported injury in the 12 months leading to incident common or accelerated knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We conducted a descriptive study using data from baseline and the first 4 annual visits of the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Knees had no radiographic KOA at baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL]self-reported injury data at index visit and year prior. Among 226 people, we found fair agreement between self-reported injuries and distinct structural changes (kappa = 0.24 to 0.31). Most distinct structural changes were medial meniscal pathology. No distinct structural changes (e.g., root or radial tears) appeared to differ between adults who reported or did not report an injury; except, all subchondral fractures occurred in adults who developed accelerated KOA and reported an injury. While there is fair agreement between self-reported knee injuries and distinct structural changes, there is some discordance. Self-reported injury may represent a different construct from distinct structural changes that occur after joint trauma. Clin. Anat. 31:330-334, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Costs and effectiveness of a brief MRI examination of patients with acute knee injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Edwin H.G.; Nikken, Jeroen J.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Verhaar, Jan A.N.; Vugt, Arie B. van; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of selective short magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute knee injury. A model was developed to evaluate the selective use of MRI in patients with acute knee injury and no fracture on radiography based on the results of a trial in which 208 patients were randomized between radiography only and radiography plus MRI. We analyzed medical (diagnostic and therapeutic) costs, quality of life, duration of diagnostic workup, number of additional diagnostic examinations, time absent from work, and time to convalescence during a 6-month follow-up period. Quality of life was lowest (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.61 (95% CI 0.54-0.67)); duration of diagnostic workup, absence from work, and time to convalescence were longest; and the number of diagnostic examinations was largest with radiography only. These outcomes were more favorable for both MRI strategies (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.72 (95% CI 0.67-0.77) for both). Mean total costs were 2,593 euros (95% CI 1,815-3,372) with radiography only, 2,116 euros (95% CI 1,488-2,743) with radiography plus MRI, and 1,973 euros (95% CI 1,401-2,543) with selective MRI. The results suggest that selective use of a short MRI examination saves costs and potentially increases effectiveness in patients with acute knee injury without a fracture on radiography. (orig.)

  11. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-04-01

    Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. Biomechanical factors associated with the risk of knee injury when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the published research reviewed provides important information on injury causality and theories to direct future studies. Further research should be directed towards younger populations using valid testing protocols applicable to real life scenarios. South African Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 18 (1) 2006: pp.

  13. Impact of treatment strategy and physical performance on future knee-related self-efficacy in individuals with ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Frobell, Richard; Roos, Ewa M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In people with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, high self-efficacy facilitates recovery, indicated by improved muscle function, reduced knee symptoms and increased physical activity. Impact of treatment on future self-efficacy is however not well investigated. The aims...... of the study were to 1) investigate knee-related self-efficacy 6 years after acute ACL injury in patients treated with exercise therapy alone or in combination with either early or the option of delayed ACL reconstruction (ACLR), and 2) to investigate associations between single-leg physical performance...... at various time points after ACL injury and knee self-efficacy at 6 years after injury. METHODS: Participants (n = 121) originated from the KANON-study (ISRCTN84752559), a treatment RCT including active adults with acute ACL injury treated with structured exercise therapy combined with early or the option...

  14. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H

    2018-02-05

    Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be

  15. MR imaging in meniscus injury of knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kil Sun; Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Seong, Sang Cheol

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopic findings of thirty two patients with clinically suspected meniscal tears were correlated to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in meniscal injury. We grouped MRI findings as normal (Group 1), suspicious tear (Group 2), definite tear (Group 3) based on the morphologic appearance of intrameniscal signal and its relationship to the articular surface. In group 1, thrifty eight of 41 menisci were found at arthroscopy to be normal. Five of 7 menisci in group 2 and all mensci of group 3 were found at arthroscopy to be torn. If group 2 and 3 are considered consistent with meniscal tears, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI are 91.3%, 92.5% and 92.2% respectively. This results indicate that MRI is capable of demonstrating meniscal tears with high degree of accuracy. We believe MRI is the imaging technique of choice in evaluating meniscal injuries

  16. MR imaging in meniscus injury of knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kil Sun; Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Seong, Sang Cheol [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopic findings of thirty two patients with clinically suspected meniscal tears were correlated to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in meniscal injury. We grouped MRI findings as normal (Group 1), suspicious tear (Group 2), definite tear (Group 3) based on the morphologic appearance of intrameniscal signal and its relationship to the articular surface. In group 1, thrifty eight of 41 menisci were found at arthroscopy to be normal. Five of 7 menisci in group 2 and all mensci of group 3 were found at arthroscopy to be torn. If group 2 and 3 are considered consistent with meniscal tears, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI are 91.3%, 92.5% and 92.2% respectively. This results indicate that MRI is capable of demonstrating meniscal tears with high degree of accuracy. We believe MRI is the imaging technique of choice in evaluating meniscal injuries.

  17. Practice guidelines for the management of multiligamentous injuries of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiligamentous injuries of knee remain a gray area as far as guidelines for management are concerned due to absence of large-scale, prospective controlled trials. This article reviews the recent evidence-based literature and trends in treatment of multiligamentous injuries and establishes the needful protocol, keeping in view the current concepts. Materials and Methods: Two reviewers individually assessed the available data indexed on PubMed and Medline and compiled data on incidence, surgical versus nonsurgical treatment, timing of surgery, and repair versus reconstruction of multiligamentous injury. Results: Evolving trends do not clearly describe treatment, but most studies have shown increasing inclination toward an early, staged/single surgical procedure for multiligamentous injuries involving cruciate and collateral ligaments. Medial complex injuries have shown better results with conservative treatment with surgical reconstruction of concomitant injuries. Conclusion: Multiligamentous injury still remains a gray area due to unavailability of a formal guideline to treatment in the absence of large-scale, blinded prospective controlled trials. Any in multiligamentous injuries any intervention needs to be individualized by the presence of any life- or limb-threatening complication. The risks and guarded prognosis with both surgical and non-surgical modalities of treatment should be explained to patient and relations.

  18. Does the FIFA 11+ Injury Prevention Program Reduce the Incidence of ACL Injury in Male Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Bizzini, Mario; Arundale, Amelia; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    The FIFA 11+ injury prevention program has been shown to decrease the risk of soccer injuries in men and women. The program has also been shown to decrease time loss resulting from injury. However, previous studies have not specifically investigated how the program might impact the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in male soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine if the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program can (1) reduce the overall number of ACL injuries in men who play competitive college soccer and whether any potential reduction in rate of ACL injuries differed based on (2) game versus practice setting; (3) player position; (4) level of play (Division I or II); or (5) field type. This study was a prospective cluster randomized controlled trial, which was conducted in 61 Division I and Division II National Collegiate Athletic Association men's soccer teams over the course of one competitive soccer season. The FIFA 11+ is a 15- to 20-minute on-the-field dynamic warm-up program used before training and games and was utilized as the intervention throughout the entire competitive season. Sixty-five teams were randomized: 34 to the control group (850 players) and 31 to the intervention group (675 players). Four intervention teams did not complete the study and did not submit their data, noting insufficient time to complete the program, reducing the number for per-protocol analysis to 61. Compliance to the FIFA 11+ program, athletic exposures, specific injuries, ACL injuries, and time loss resulting from injury were collected and recorded using a secure Internet-based system. At the end of the season, the data in the injury surveillance system were crosshatched with each individual institution's internal database. At that time, the certified athletic trainer signed off on the injury collection data to confirm their accuracy and completeness. A lower proportion of athletes in the intervention group experienced knee injuries (25% [34 of

  19. Medial Overhang of the Tibial Component Is Associated With Higher Risk of Inferior Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Pain After Knee Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian S; Nebergall, Audrey; Huddleston, James

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective multicenter study is to investigate the association among (1) tibial site-specific overhang of medial, anterior, and lateral overhang in relation to Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain 1 year after surgery (1 Y KOOS pain) and (2) the malalignm...

  20. Prevention of Sport-related Facial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interventions for preventing ankle ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, H H; Rowe, B H; Quinn, K M; de Bie, R

    2001-01-01

    Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle

  2. Association between frontal plane knee control and lower extremity injuries: a prospective study on young team sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Kati; Krosshaug, Tron; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannus, Pekka; Heinonen, Ari; Kujala, Urho M; Avela, Janne; Perttunen, Jarmo; Parkkari, Jari

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim Poor frontal plane knee control can manifest as increased dynamic knee valgus during athletic tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between frontal plane knee control and the risk of acute lower extremity injuries. In addition, we wanted to study if the single-leg squat (SLS) test can be used as a screening tool to identify athletes with an increased injury risk. Methods A total of 306 basketball and floorball players participated in the baseline SLS test and a 12-month injury registration follow-up. Acute lower extremity time-loss injuries were registered. Frontal plane knee projection angles (FPKPA) during the SLS were calculated using a two-dimensional video analysis. Results Athletes displaying a high FPKPA were 2.7 times more likely to sustain a lower extremity injury (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.23 to 5.83) and 2.4 times more likely to sustain an ankle injury (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.13 to 4.98). There was no statistically significant association between FPKPA and knee injury (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.98). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated poor combined sensitivity and specificity when FPKPA was used as a screening test for lower extremity injuries (area under the curve of 0.59) and ankle injuries (area under the curve of 0.58). Conclusions Athletes displaying a large FPKPA in the SLS test had an elevated risk of acute lower extremity and ankle injuries. However, the SLS test is not sensitive and specific enough to be used as a screening tool for future injury risk. PMID:29387448

  3. Knee function among elite handball and football players 1-6 years after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, G; Bahr, R; Nilstad, A; Steffen, K

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe objective and self-reported knee function for athletes who have returned to elite handball and football play after an ACL injury, comparing these to non-injured players at the same level. A total of 414 handball and 444 football players completed baseline tests from 2007 through 2014, examining lower extremity strength, dynamic balance, knee laxity, and knee function (KOOS questionnaire). Measures were compared between injured and non-injured legs and between injured legs and legs of controls. Eighty (9.3%) of the 858 players reported a previous ACL injury, 1-6 years post-injury (3.5±2.5 years), 49 handball (61.3%) and 31 football players (38.7%). We found no difference in strength or dynamic balance between previously ACL-injured (N=80) and non-injured players legs (N=1556). However, lower quadriceps (6.3%, 95% CI: 3.2-9.2) and hamstrings muscle strength (6.1%, 95% CI: 3.3-8.1) were observed in previously ACL-injured legs compared to the non-injured contralateral side (N=80). ACL-injured knees displayed greater joint laxity than the contralateral knee (N=80, 17%, 95% CI: 8-26) and healthy knees (N=1556, 23%, 95% CI: 14-33). KOOS scores were significantly lower for injured knees compared to knees of non-injured players. ACL-injured players who have successfully returned to elite sport have comparable strength and balance measures as their non-injured teammates. Subjective perception of knee function is strongly affected by injury history, with clinically relevant lower scores for the KOOS subscores Pain, Function, Sport, and Quality Of Life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Precollegiate Knee Surgery Predicts Subsequent Injury Requiring Surgery in NCAA Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dean; Rugg, Caitlin M; Mayer, Erik; Lai, Wilson C; Sulzicki, Pamela; Vail, Jeremy; Hame, Sharon L

    2016-08-01

    The effect of precollegiate orthopaedic surgery on injury risk in the elite collegiate athlete is unknown. To (1) assess the relationship between precollegiate surgery and subsequent injury requiring surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes at a single institution and (2) compare the risk of subsequent surgery in the ipsilateral versus contralateral extremity in those with a history of precollegiate surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review was performed of all athletes who began participation from 2003 to 2009 until completion of eligibility. Athletes who received orthopaedic surgery in college were identified through the Sports Injury Monitoring System and were cross-referenced with medical records. The risk of orthopaedic surgery was evaluated using multivariate Cox and Poisson regression models, with sex and sport as additional covariates. Risk of subsequent surgery in the ipsilateral versus contralateral extremity was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression. Hazard ratios (HRs) and rate ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to compare groups. In total, 1141 athletes were identified for analysis. Of these, 186 athletes (16.3%) had a history of precollegiate orthopaedic surgery. There were 261 documented intracollegiate orthopaedic surgeries in 181 athletes (15.9%). Precollegiate knee surgery was an independent predictor of orthopaedic surgery (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.16-2.83) in college. When examining only surgeries resulting from acute or primary injuries, precollegiate knee surgery was an independent predictor of primary knee injury requiring surgery in college (HR, 4.45; 95% CI, 2.51-7.59). Athletes with a history of precollegiate surgery were more susceptible to subsequent surgery in their ipsilateral extremity compared with their other extremities (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.03-3.53). In contrast, there was no additional

  5. Injuries to Athletes with Physical Disabilities: Prevention Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    1986-01-01

    While athletes with disabilities may not be injured any more often than other athletes, the types of injuries they sustain are specific to their disabilities and chosen sports. Characteristic injuries are described, and preventive measures are suggested. (Author/MT)

  6. Artificial neural networks in knee injury risk evaluation among professional football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Michałowska; Tomasz, Walczak; Krzysztof, Grabski Jakub; Monika, Grygorowicz

    2018-01-01

    Lower limb injury risk assessment was proposed, based on isokinetic examination that is a part of standard athlete's biomechanical evaluation performed mainly twice a year. Information about non-contact knee injury (or lack of the injury) sustained within twelve months after isokinetic test, confirmed in USG were verified. Three the most common types of football injuries were taken into consideration: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, hamstring and quadriceps muscles injuries. 22 parameters, obtained from isokinetic tests were divided into 4 groups and used as input parameters of five feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 5th group consisted of all considered parameters. The networks were trained with the use of Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm to return value close to 1 for the sets of parameters corresponding injury event and close to 0 for parameters with no injury recorded within 6 - 12 months after isokinetic test. Results of this study shows that ANN might be useful tools, which simplify process of simultaneous interpretation of many numerical parameters, but the most important factor that significantly influence the results is database used for ANN training.

  7. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for preventing ankle ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, Helen Hg; Rowe, Brian H; Quinn, Kathryn M; de Bie, Rob

    2011-05-11

    Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauam Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle

  8. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995?August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study sel...

  9. Patient-reported knee function, quality of life, and activity level after bilateral anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fältström, Anne; Hägglund, Martin; Kvist, Joanna

    2013-12-01

    About 12% of patients who have undergone primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction sustain a contralateral ACL injury within 5 years. To investigate patient-reported knee function, quality of life, and activity level in patients with bilateral ACL injuries. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A search of hospital records identified 147 patients, aged 18 to 45 years, with bilateral ACL injuries. Of these, 83 met the inclusion criteria, having had their first ACL injury up to 12 years ago with no other major injuries to the knee joint. Sixty-six of these patients (80% of total; 47% female; mean age, 29.1 ± 7.2 years) answered a questionnaire packet. Patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction (n = 182) were used for comparison. Patients with bilateral ACL injuries had a median Lysholm knee score of 82 (range, 34-100). The mean EuroQol index (EQ-5D) score of the overall health status was 0.77 ± 0.22, and the mean EQ-5D visual analog scale score was 75.5 ± 17.6. The median Tegner activity level was 9 (range, 1-9) before any injuries, 7 (range, 1-9) before the second ACL injury, and 4 (range, 1-9) at the time of follow-up. The activity level before the second injury was higher compared with the follow-up for patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction. At follow-up, 23% of the patients with bilateral ACL injuries returned to their previous activity, and 12% of patients returned to the same level as before their injuries compared with 43% (P = .004) and 28% (P = .01) in patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction, respectively. Patients with bilateral ACL injuries had significantly lower values in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales for pain, function in sports and recreation, and knee-related quality of life as well as the ACL Deficiency Quality of Life (ACL-QOL) score compared with patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction. Patients with bilateral ACL injuries reported

  10. Sagittal Plane Hip, Knee, and Ankle Biomechanics and the Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Mari; Pasanen, Kati; Krosshaug, Tron; Kannus, Pekka; Vasankari, Tommi; Kujala, Urho M; Bahr, Roald; Perttunen, Jarmo; Parkkari, Jari

    2017-12-01

    Stiff landings with less knee flexion and high vertical ground-reaction forces have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The literature on the association between other sagittal plane measures and the risk of ACL injuries with a prospective study design is lacking. To investigate the relationship between selected sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle biomechanics and the risk of ACL injury in young female team-sport athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 171 female basketball and floorball athletes (age range, 12-21 years) participated in a vertical drop jump test using 3-dimensional motion analysis. All new ACL injuries, as well as match and training exposure data, were recorded for 1 to 3 years. Biomechanical variables, including hip and ankle flexion at initial contact (IC), hip and ankle ranges of motion (ROMs), and peak external knee and hip flexion moments, were selected for analysis. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs. The combined sensitivity and specificity of significant test variables were assessed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 15 noncontact ACL injuries were recorded during follow-up (0.2 injuries/1000 player-hours). Of the variables investigated, landing with less hip flexion ROM (HR for each 10° increase in hip ROM, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.38-0.99]; P < .05) and a greater knee flexion moment (HR for each 10-N·m increase in knee moment, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.04-1.40]; P = .01) was significantly associated with an increased risk of ACL injury. Hip flexion at IC, ankle flexion at IC, ankle flexion ROM, and peak external hip flexion moment were not significantly associated with the risk of ACL injury. ROC curve analysis for significant variables showed an area under the curve of 0.6, indicating a poor combined sensitivity and specificity of the test. Landing with less hip flexion ROM and a greater peak

  11. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF CLINICAL AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN KNEE MENISCI AND LIGAMENTOUS INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of clinical diagnosis compared to MRI findings in ligamentous and meniscal injuries with respect to arthroscopic confirmation as a gold standard. METHODS 485 patients with knee injuries were prospectively assessed by clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging and correlated after therapeutic arthroscopy. The overall accuracy, clinically productive values of sensitivity and specificity was derived. The actual value of the test with respect to positive predictive and negative predictive value was also derived, taking arthroscopic findings as confirmatory. The overall partial and total agreement among the clinical, MRI and arthroscopy was documented. RESULTS The overall accuracy for clinical examination was 85, 92, 100 and 100 and accuracy for MRI was 90, 97, 97 and 97 for detecting medial meniscus, lateral meniscus, ACL and PCL tears respectively. Clinically lateral meniscus tears are difficult to diagnose clinically with negative predictive value (90 whereas ACL injuries do not need MRI for diagnosis as evident by a high negative predictive value (100 of clinical examination. Total agreement with the clinical findings confirmed by arthroscopy was 64.40% which was relatively high as compared to total agreement of MRI findings which was only 31.50%. We found similar total agreement versus total disagreement of both clinical and MRI to be only 2.74% indicating very high accuracy in clinical diagnosis of meniscal and ligamentous injuries combined. CONCLUSION The clinical evaluation alone is sufficient to diagnose meniscal and ACL/PCL pathologies and MRI should be considered only as a powerful negative diagnostic tool. The arthroscopy decision should not be heavily dependent on MRI for ligamentous injuries but reverse is true for meniscal lesions. MR evaluation functions as a powerful negative diagnostic tool to rule out doubtful and complex knee injuries.

  12. Self-reported knee pain and disability among healthy individuals: reference data and factors associated with the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and KOOS-Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; McKay, M J; Simic, M; Hiller, C E; Moloney, N; Nightingale, E J; Burns, J

    2017-08-01

    To develop normative reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and KOOS-Child, as well as investigate socio-demographic, psychological and physical factors associated with knee pain and disability among healthy adults. The KOOS or KOOS-Child (each containing five subscales) was administered to participants aged 8-101 years within the 1000 Norms Project, an observational study of 1000 self-reported healthy individuals. Self-efficacy, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), lower limb alignment, knee frontal plane projection angle (FPPA), knee range of motion (ROM), knee and hip strength, six-minute walk, 30-second chair stand and timed up and down stairs tests were collected. KOOS data were dichotomised using established cut-off scores and logistic regression analyses were conducted for each subscale. Socio-demographic characteristics were similar to the Australian population. Normative reference data were generated for children (8-17 years) and adults (18-101 years). Female adults were up to twice as likely to report knee pain, symptoms and sport/recreation (Sport/Rec) limitations compared to males (P disability among adults. Age- and gender-stratified reference data for the KOOS and KOOS-Child have been developed to guide interpretation of results in practice and research for individuals with knee disorders. Psychological and physical factors are linked with self-reported knee pain/disability among adults, and longitudinal studies to investigate causation are required. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Katherine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Results Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT and three controlled clinical trials (CCT. Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI 0.54 to 0.84 and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71 lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72 injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76 and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86 injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42. The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76 in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP significantly reduces the incidence of anterior

  14. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Katherine; Barton, Christian; Malliaras, Peter; Morrissey, Dylan

    2012-07-19

    Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and three controlled clinical trials (CCT). Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR) statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.84) and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71) lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72) injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP) significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76) and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86) injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP) strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42). The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76) in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP) significantly reduces the incidence of anterior knee pain (RR 0.27, CI 0.14 to 0.54) in

  15. High knee abduction moments are common risk factors for patellofemoral pain (PFP) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in girls: is PFP itself a predictor for subsequent ACL injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Di Stasi, Stephanie L; Foss, Kim D Barber; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk factors for knee pain and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be an important step in the injury prevention cycle. We evaluated two unique prospective cohorts with similar populations and methodologies to compare the incidence rates and risk factors associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and ACL injury. The 'PFP cohort' consisted of 240 middle and high school female athletes. They were evaluated by a physician and underwent anthropometric assessment, strength testing and three-dimensional landing biomechanical analyses prior to their basketball season. 145 of these athletes met inclusion for surveillance of incident (new) PFP by certified athletic trainers during their competitive season. The 'ACL cohort' included 205 high school female volleyball, soccer and basketball athletes who underwent the same anthropometric, strength and biomechanical assessment prior to their competitive season and were subsequently followed up for incidence of ACL injury. A one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate potential group (incident PFP vs ACL injured) differences in anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Knee abduction moment (KAM) cut-scores that provided the maximal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of PFP or ACL injury risk were also compared between the cohorts. KAM during landing above 15.4 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk to develop PFP compared to a 2.9% risk if below the PFP risk threshold in our sample. Likewise, a KAM above 25.3 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk for subsequent ACL injury compared to a 0.4% risk if below the established ACL risk threshold. The ACL-injured athletes initiated landing with a greater knee abduction angle and a reduced hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio relative to the incident PFP group. Also, when comparing across cohorts, the athletes who suffered ACL injury also had lower hamstring/quadriceps ratio than the players in the PFP sample (p15 Nm of knee abduction load

  16. Dual-energy computed tomography of cruciate ligament injuries in acute knee trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, Erno K. [Helsinki University Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Department of Radiology, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland); Koskinen, Seppo K. [Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    To examine dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in evaluating cruciate ligament injuries. More specifically, the purpose was to assess the optimal keV level in DECT gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) images and to examine the usefulness of collagen-specific color mapping and dual-energy bone removal in the evaluation of cruciate ligaments and the popliteus tendon. At a level 1 trauma center, a 29-month period of emergency department DECT examinations for acute knee trauma was reviewed by two radiologists for presence of cruciate ligament injuries, visualization of the popliteus tendon and the optimal keV level in GSI images. Three different evaluating protocols (GSI, bone removal and collagen-specific color mapping) were rated. Subsequent MRI served as a reference standard for intraarticular injuries. A total of 18 patients who had an acute knee trauma, DECT and MRI were found. On MRI, six patients had an ACL rupture. DECT's sensitivity and specificity to detect ACL rupture were 79 % and 100 %, respectively. The DECT vs. MRI intra- and interobserver proportions of agreement for ACL rupture were excellent or good (kappa values 0.72-0.87). Only one patient had a PCL rupture. In GSI images, the optimal keV level was 63 keV. GSI of 40-140 keV was considered to be the best evaluation protocol in the majority of cases. DECT is a usable method to evaluate ACL in acute knee trauma patients with rather good sensitivity and high specificity. GSI is generally a better evaluation protocol than bone removal or collagen-specific color mapping in the evaluation of cruciate ligaments and popliteus tendon. (orig.)

  17. Ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Allegrante

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Injury as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality has remained fairly stable in countries with developed economies. Although injury prevention often is conceptualised as a biomedical construct, such a reductionist perspective overlooks the importance of the psychological, environmental, and sociocultural conditions as contributing factors to injury and its consequences. This paper describes the potential of the ecological model for understanding the antecedent causes of unintentional injuries and guiding injury prevention approaches. We review the origins and conceptualise the elements of the ecological model and conclude with some examples of applications of ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injury and promotion of community safety.

    Methods: A review of the English-language literature on the conceptualization of ecological models in public health and injury prevention, including the application of the ecological model in the prevention of falls and road traffic injuries and in the community safety promotion movement.

    Results: Three dimensions are important in social-ecological systems that comprise key determinants of injuries: 1 the individual and his or her behaviour, 2 the physical environment, and 3 the social environment. Social and environmental determinants have profound impact on population health and in the causation of injuries.

    Conclusions: Social and environmental determinants of injury should be studied with the same energy, urgency, and intellectual rigor as physical determinants. Application of the ecological model in injury prevention shows the most promise in falls injury prevention, road traffic injury prevention, and community safety promotion.

  18. The role of diet and exercise and of glucosamine sulfate in the prevention of knee osteoarthritis: Further results from the PRevention of knee Osteoarthritis in Overweight Females (PROOF) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Runhaar (Jos); R. Deroisy (Rita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke); F. Barretta (Francesco); B. Barbetta (Beatrice); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); D. Vroegindeweij (Dammis); G. Giacovelli (Giampaolo); F. Bruyère (Françoise); L.C. Rovati (Lucio C.); J-Y. Reginster (Jean-Yves); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objectives: The PRevention of knee Osteoarthritis in Overweight Females (PROOF) study (ISRCTN 42823086) described a trend for a decrease in the incidence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) by a tailored diet and exercise program (DEP) or by oral glucosamine sulfate in women at

  19. Basketball injuries: caring for a basketball team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Cracco, Andreya; Hall, Matthew; Mascaro, Melissa; Aerni, Giselle; Ragle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Basketball is a popular sport in North America and worldwide. Most injuries are lower extremity injuries to the ankle and knee. In this article, injuries common to basketball and, from our experience, injuries that escape injury surveillance systems are discussed from the physician and athletic trainer's perspective. Both treatment and prevention of injuries are discussed.

  20. MRI of injuries of the medial collateral ligaments of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Grebe, P.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M.; Runkel, M.; Ahlers, J.

    1992-01-01

    Frequency and characteristics of lesions of the medial collateral ligaments (MCL) were studied by MRI in 155 patients with trauma to the knee. There were abnormalities of the MCL in 38% of cases with ligamentous injuries and in 27% these were combined with meniscal tears. 11% of these patients showed isolated rupture of MCL and as a result of the MRI findings were treated conservatively. By means of T 2 * -weighted images the individual lesions could be accurately localised. Characteristical findings have been defined. (orig.) [de

  1. THE LATE RESULTS OF ARTHROSCOPIC SURGERIES WITH KNEE INJURIES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Bogatov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is the follow-up of the late results of management of children and adolescents with knee injuries. Arthroscopy was performed to 68 patients. Resection and suturing of the torn meniscus and ACL reconstruction were performed. The results were followed up to eight years after operations. It was shown, that meniscal tears in children should be treated conservatively in most cases. The suturing of the torn menisci is preferable method. Indications for suturing are wider in children that in adults. ACL reconstruction in young patients is unpredictable in its results.

  2. Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy with Multiple-Ligament Knee Injury and Distal Avulsion of the Biceps Femoris Tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Oshima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiple-ligament knee injury that includes posterolateral corner (PLC disruption often causes palsy of the common peroneal nerve (CPN, which occurs in 44% of cases with PLC injury and biceps femoris tendon rupture or avulsion of the fibular head. Approximately half of these cases do not show functional recovery. This case report aims to present a criteria-based approach to the operation and postoperative management of CPN palsy that resulted from a multiple-ligament knee injury in a 22-year-old man that occurred during judo. We performed a two-staged surgery. The first stage was to repair the injuries to the PLC and biceps femoris. The second stage involved anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The outcomes were excellent, with a stable knee, excellent range of motion, and improvement in the palsy. The patient was able to return to judo competition 27 weeks after the injury. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a return to sports following CPN palsy with multiple-ligament knee injury.

  3. Isokinetic strength effects of FIFA'a "The 11+" injury prevention training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Luís

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) injury prevention programme, "The 11+", improves isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in sub-elite soccer players. Twenty players aged 22.3 ± 4.2 yr performed "The 11+" 3...... significantly improved the conventional H/Q ratio at 60°/s by 14.8{\\%} and the DCR by 13.8% in the non-dominant limb (pknee joint....

  4. Development of new injury risk curves for the knee/distal femur and the hip for use in frontal impact testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes how new injury risk curves for the knee/distal femur and the hip were : developed through reanalyses of existing peak knee impact force data. New hip injury risk : curves were developed using survival analysis with a lognormal d...

  5. Disabling Knee Injury in the United States Army: Classification of Injury for Etiologic Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patnaik, P

    2000-01-01

    .... Army, and have substantial economic consequences in both direct and indirect costs. The lack of consistent, specific definitions of injuries results in misclassification bias and hinders etiologic research...

  6. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  7. International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention (ISVIP) hosted the International Conference on “Children and Injuries” in Cape Town, South Africa from 31 August to 3 September 2008. ISVIP's mission is to establish global commitment to violence and injury prevention through advocacy and public policy action, ...

  8. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....

  9. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...

  10. Complications of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Injuries: Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnerdnakta, Sirichai; Huetteman, Helen E; Chung, Kevin C

    2018-05-01

    Proximal interphalangeal joint injuries are one of the most common injuries of the hand. The severity of injury can vary from a minor sprain to a complex intra-articular fracture. Because of the complex anatomy of the joint, complications may occur even after an appropriate treatment. This article provides a comprehensive review on existing techniques to manage complications and imparts practical points to help prevent further complications after proximal interphalangeal joint injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    a predictor of ankle injuries in high school basketball players. Clin J Sport Med, 2000. 10(4): p. 239-244. 5. McKeon PO and Hertel J: Spatiotemporal...Wang HK, Chen CH, Shiang TY, Jan MH, and Lin KH: Risk-factor analysis of high school basketball -player ankle injuries : a prospective controlled cohort...musculoskeletal injury prevention research as a necessary focus. Unintentional musculoskeletal and overuse injuries during tactical operations training

  12. High-volume image-guided injection for recalcitrant medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, O.; Chan, O.; Malliaras, P.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel injection technique in the management of recalcitrant medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries of the knee. Materials and methods: The injection, comprising 10 ml local anaesthetic with 25–50 mg hydrocortisone, is directed beneath the periosteal attachment of the MCL. Twenty-eight patients who received the intervention were asked to complete a questionnaire, a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form to quantify symptoms pre-injection and at follow-up. Data were assessed using descriptive statistics. Further analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Sixty-eight percent (n = 19) of patients responded. Three patients were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Of those studied, 37.5% (n = 6) were professional athletes. At follow-up, patients reported a mean improvement on the VAS of 75.5% (SD = 23.6). There was a significant improvement in IKDC scores (mean difference 42%, SD = 14.2) pre- and post-injection (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001). No residual symptoms were reported by 50% (n = 8) of patients, and a further 37.5% (n = 6) of patients had improved. Of those patients who played sport, two-thirds (n = 10) had returned to their previous level of sport at follow-up, including all of the professional athletes. Conclusion: Periosteal high-volume image-guided injection is a useful treatment for recalcitrant MCL injury. Results are encouraging, particularly amongst the professional athletes studied

  13. Validation of varus stress radiographs for anterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner knee injuries: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lucas S; Waltz, Robert A; Carney, Joseph R; Dewing, Christopher B; Lynch, Joseph R; Asher, Dean B; Schuett, Dustin J; LeClere, Lance E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency on the radiographic varus stress test, and to provide reference data for the increase in lateral compartment opening under varus stress for a combined ACL and PLC injury. Ten cadaveric lower extremities were fixed to a jig in 20° of knee flexion. Twelve Newton-meter (Nm) and clinician-applied varus loads were tested, first with intact knee ligaments, followed by sequential sectioning of the ACL, fibular collateral ligament (FCL), popliteus tendon and the popliteofibular ligament (PFL). Lateral compartment opening was measured after each sequential sectioning. Maximum increase in lateral compartment opening for an isolated ACL deficient knee was 1.06mm with mean increase of 0.52mm (p=0.021) for the clinician-applied load. Mean increase in lateral compartment opening in an ACL and FCL deficient knee compared to the intact knee was 1.48mm (pvarus stress radiographs though not sufficiently to confound previously established standards for lateral ligament knee injuries. We did not demonstrate the same magnitude of lateral compartment opening with sectioning of the PLC structures as previously reported, questioning the reproducibility of varus stress radiographic testing among institutions. Clinicians are cautioned against making surgical decisions based solely on current standards for radiographic stress examinations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. S-13: Interventions for Prevention and Rehabilitation of Hamstring Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hamstring muscles have very important role in the stabilization of body posture, movement of the lower extremities and trunk movements in relation to the thigh. Hamstring injuries are common among athletes, especially in sports like soccer with sprinting demands, kicking, and sudden accelerations. Hamstring strains are frustrating for the injured athletes because the symptoms are persistent, healing is slow, and the rate of re-injury is high. This indicates a need to develop prevention strategies for hamstring injuries. The aims of this review are introducing hamstring strains, associated risk factors, and providing rehabilitative ecommendations for injured athletes to prevent re-injury. METHOD: Information was gathered from an online literatures search using the key words hamstring injuries, soccer injuries, injury prevention, hamstring rehabilitation, and stretching exercises. Screening of references and hand searches of relevant journals were also employed. All relevant studies in English were reviewed and abstracted.RESULTS: It has been shown that hamstring strains account for 12-16% of all injuries in athletes with a re-injury rate reported as high as 22-34%. The hamstrings have a tendency to shorten. Tight hamstrings with limited range of motion and flexibility may lead to postural deficiency and deformities. It also makes the hamstring susceptible to re-injury. Risk factors such as age, strength imbalance, previous injury and flexibility should be considered. CONCLUSION: Prevention intervention may minimize the risk factors of hamstring injuries. Training modalities should emphasize on eccentric strength training, and prevention of fatigue. There is wide disagreement about the impact of stretching exercise on prevention/rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.

  15. [Vascular injury as a complication of knee arthroscopic surgery. Report of two cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Vega, María Elizabeth; Cruz-Castillo, Juan Ernesto; Pacheco-Pittaluga, Ernesto; Solorio-Rosette, Hugo; Linarte-Márquez, Lizbeth; Iturburu-Enríquez, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopy of the knee is a surgical performed world-wide considered extremely safe, rates of complication ranging from 0.56 to 8.2%. Vascular complications are even more rare (0.0032%), and generally related to the popliteal artery injury. We are reporting the cases of two patients who had unsuspected vascular complications after arthroscopy. Both cases presented vascular injuries after elective knee arthroscopy. First case was a patient with thrombosed pseudoaneurysm in the popliteal artery and total section of the popliteal vein, unfortunately the diagnosis was done 72 hrs after knee arthroscopy and finally required amputation, the 2nd case presented popliteal arteriovenous fistula, the diagnosis was done 3 weeks after knee arthroscopy, the patient was successfully treated by resection of the fistula and direct repair of the artery and vein. Although extremely infrequent, the vascular injury after knee arthroscopy should be remembered as a surgical complication, a low index of suspicion may have caused an unfortunate and untimely delay in diagnosis and treatment with potential risk of leg amputation and death.

  16. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  17. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  18. Prevention of Neurologic Injuries in Equestrian Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.

    1988-01-01

    Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…

  19. Osteoarthritis action alliance consensus opinion - best practice features of anterior cruciate ligament and lower limb injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas; Driban, Jeffrey; Nuti, Rathna; Distefano, Lindsay; Root, Hayley; Nistler, Cristina; LaBella, Cynthia

    2017-09-18

    To identify best practice features of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and lower limb injury prevention programs (IPPs) to reduce osteoarthritis (OA). This consensus statement started with us performing a systematic literature search for all relevant articles from 1960 through January 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science and CINAHL. The search strategy combined the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and keywords for terms: (1) ACL OR "knee injury" OR "anterior cruciate ligament"; (2) "prevention and control" OR "risk reduction" OR "injury prevention" OR "neuromuscular training"; and (3) meta-analysis OR "systematic review" OR "cohort study" OR randomized. We found 166 different titles. The abstracts were reviewed for pertinent papers. The papers were reviewed by at least two authors and consensus of best practice for IPP to prevent OA was obtained by conference calls and e-mail discussions. All authors participated in the discussion. The best practice features of an IPP have the following six components: (1) lower extremity and core strengthening; (2) plyometrics; (3) continual feedback to athletes regarding proper technique; (4) sufficient dosage; (5) minimal-to-no additional equipment; and (6) balance training to help prevent injuries. Exercises focused on preventing ankle sprains, hamstring injuries and lateral trunk movements are important. Plyometric exercises should focus on correcting knee valgus movement. Exercises should focus on optimizing the hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio. In order for IPP to be successful, there should be increased education and verbal feedback along with increased athletic compliance. Additional equipment is not necessary. Balance training alone does not significantly reduce injuries, but is beneficial with other exercises. Not enough evidence to recommend stretching and agility exercises, with no ill effects identified. Therefore, we suggest making these optional features. Best practice features for ACL and lower limb IPPs to help

  20. Preventing occupational injury among police officers: does motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D K C; Webb, D; Ryan, R M; Tang, T C W; Yang, S X; Ntoumanis, N; Hagger, M S

    2017-08-01

    Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours. There were 207 participants; response rate was 87%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that autonomous motivation was positively related to behavioural adherence, commitment to safety and prioritizing injury prevention. Controlled motivation was a positive predictor of safety communication barriers. Amotivation was positively associated with fatalism regarding injury prevention, safety violation and worry. These findings are consistent with the tenets of self-determination theory in that autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of adaptive safety beliefs and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  2. Flowtron foot-pumps for prevention of venous thromboembolism in total hip and knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto, Rocco P; Koh, Chuan K

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical prophylaxis with foot-pumps provides an interesting alternative to chemical agents in the prevention of venous thomboembolism following major orthopaedic surgery procedures. The aim of this prospective study was to assess efficacy and safety of the Flowtron(®) foot-pumps system following total hip and knee replacement. The foot pumps were used as main tool for prevention of thromboembolic events, in most cases in association with a variety of chemicals. The primary endpoint of the study was to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after total hip and knee replacement. The secondary endpoints included postoperative bleeding, swelling, bruising and wound ooze. 424 consecutive patients were included in the study. Symptomatic deep vein thrombosis was detected in 7 patients (1.6%). All symptomatic deep vein thromboses were detected after discharge before the six week follow-up clinic. Five non-fatal pulmonary embolisms occurred (1.2%). Only one patient presented a major wound bleeding (0.2%). The mean difference of swelling of thigh pre-versus postoperatively was only 22.8 mm. In conclusion, thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip and knee replacement using Flowtron(®) foot-pumps as main prevention tool of an individualised protocol appears effective and safe. This is the first clinical report related to this popular brand of foot pumps.

  3. A comparative analysis of 7.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and histology measurements of knee articular cartilage in a canine posterolateral knee injury model: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Scott R; Griffith, Chad J; Wijdicks, Coen A; Goerke, Ute; McNulty, Margaret A; Parker, Josh B; Carlson, Cathy S; Ellermann, Jutta; LaPrade, Robert F

    2009-11-01

    There has recently been increased interest in the use of 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating articular cartilage degeneration and quantifying the progression of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate articular cartilage cross-sectional area and maximum thickness in the medial compartment of intact and destabilized canine knees using 7.0-T magnetic resonance images and compare these results with those obtained from the corresponding histologic sections. Controlled laboratory study. Five canines had a surgically created unilateral grade III posterolateral knee injury that was followed for 6 months before euthanasia. The opposite, noninjured knee was used as a control. At necropsy, 3-dimensional gradient echo images of the medial tibial plateau of both knees were obtained using a 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Articular cartilage area and maximum thickness in this site were digitally measured on the magnetic resonance images. The proximal tibias were processed for routine histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Articular cartilage area and maximum thickness were measured in histologic sections corresponding to the sites of the magnetic resonance slices. The magnetic resonance imaging results revealed an increase in articular cartilage area and maximum thickness in surgical knees compared with control knees in all specimens; these changes were significant for both parameters (P .1). These results demonstrate that 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging provides an alternative method to histology to evaluate early osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage in a canine model by detecting increases in articular cartilage area. The noninvasive nature of 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging will allow for in vivo monitoring of osteoarthritis progression and intervention in animal models and humans for osteoarthritis.

  4. The FIFA 11+ program is effective in preventing injuries in elite male basketball players: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Marinozzi, Andrea; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    Recently, structured training programs for sports injury prevention ("The 11" and "The 11+") have been validated in soccer. The FIFA 11+ program has not been evaluated in basketball. The FIFA 11+ program is effective in reducing the rates of injury in male basketball players. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. The authors randomized 11 teams of the same club. Seven teams were allocated to the intervention group (80 players; mean [SD] age 13.5 [2.3] years), and 4 teams were allocated to the control group (41 players; mean [SD] age 15.2 [4.6] years). The authors conducted an injury surveillance program during a 9-month season. The primary outcome was any injury to the athletes. The secondary outcome was any injury to the lower extremity (foot, ankle, lower leg, knee, thigh, groin, and hip). They included an analysis of the type of exposure (match or training), injury location in the body, and type of injury (acute or overuse). During the 9-month season, 23 (19%) of the 121 players included in the study sustained a total of 31 injuries (14 in the intervention group and 17 in the control group). In the intervention group, injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures were lower than those in the control group, with statistical significance, for overall injuries (0.95 vs 2.16; P = .0004), training injuries (0.14 vs 0.76; P = .007), lower extremity injuries (0.68 vs 1.4; P = .022), acute injuries (0.61 vs 1.91; P injuries (0 vs 0.51; P = .004). The intervention group also had statistically significant lower injury rates for trunk (0.07 vs 0.51; P = .013), leg (0 vs 0.38; P = .007), and hip and groin (0 vs 0.25; P = .023) compared with the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in match injuries, knee injuries, ankle injuries, and overuse injuries between 2 groups. The most frequent acute injury diagnoses were ligament sprains (0.41 and 0.38 in the intervention and control groups, respectively; P injuries in elite male basketball

  5. Infrared Thermal Imaging in Patients with Medial Collateral Ligament Injury of the Knee - A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunJung Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI has been used widely for various inflammatory diseases, circulatory diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and cancers. In cases of ligament injury, obviously the temperature of the damaged area increases due to local inflammation; however, whether the temperature also increases due to DITI has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to identify whether or not the changes of temperature in patient’s with medial collateral ligament injury were really due to infrared thermography and to determine the applicability of DITI for assessing ligament injuries. Methods: Twenty patient’s who underwent DITI for a medial collateral ligament injury from September 2012 to June 2014 were included in the current study. The thermographic images from the patient’s knees were divided to cover seven sub-areas: the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the inferolateral, the superomedial, the superolateral, the medial, and the lateral regions of patella. The temperatures of the seven regions were measured, and the temperature differences between affected and unaffected regions were analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The 20 patient’s were composed of 14 women (70% and 6 men (30%, with a mean age of 62.15 ± 15.71 (mean ± standard deviation (SD years. The temperature of the affected side, which included the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the superomedial, the superolateral, and the medial regions, showed a significant increase compared to that of the unaffected side (P < 0.05. The inferolateral and the lateral regions showed no significant changes. Conclusion: Our study results suggest that DITI can show temperature changes if a patient has a ligament injury and that it can be applied in the evaluation of a medial collateral ligament injury.

  6. Efficacy of knee joint aspiration in patients with acute ACL injury in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joon Ho; Lee, Jin Hyuck; Cho, Youngsuk; Shin, Jung Min; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of joint aspiration on the sensitivity of physical examination for diagnosing acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesion in the second outpatient-department (OPD) follow-up referred from emergency department (ED). This retrospective study included sixty patients underwent ACL reconstruction with initial visit at ED. They were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of joint aspiration at ED. All participants were referred to second OPD follow-up within 7-14days after the injury. Clinical manifestation (including visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM), and severity of knee effusion) and physical examination (Lachman test and pivot shift test) were checked in ED and the second OPD follow-up. The group of patients with joint aspiration (G1) showed substantial decreases in mean values of VAS for pain (p=0.005), ROM (p=0.001), and effusion level (pknee joint aspiration. Positive Lachman test was recorded at 76.5% in the second follow-up in G1, which was significantly (p=0.047) higher than that (47.6%) in G2. The percentage of positive pivot shift test was recorded at 76.5% in the second follow-up in G1, which as significantly (pKnee joint aspiration in acute ACL injury with suspected hemarthrosis could be considered as a diagnostic procedure. Joint aspiration in early medical attendance might be able to lower pain scores or raise the sensitivity of physical examination for diagnosing acute ACL injury at follow up visit in orthopedic outpatient department. Retrospective cohort study III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hamstring injury prevention in soccer: Before or after training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R; Knox, M; Weston, M; Siegler, J C; Brennan, S; Marshall, P W M

    2018-02-01

    We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into three groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHE BEF ; n=10) or after (NHE AFT ; n=14) biweekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s -1 . Ultrasonography was used to determine BF muscle thickness, muscle fiber pennation angle, and fascicle length. Performing the NHE derived likely moderate peak torque increases in both NHE BEF (+11.9%; 90% confidence interval: 3.6%-20.9%) and NHE AFT (+11.6%; 2.6%-21.5%) vs CON. Maximum sEMG increases were moderately greater in the BF of both NHE training groups vs CON. There were likely moderate increases in BF muscle thickness (+0.17 cm; 0.05-0.29 cm) and likely small pennation angle increases (+1.03°; -0.08° to 2.14°) in NHE AFT vs CON and NHE BEF . BF fascicle length increases were likely greater in NHE BEF (+1.58 cm; 0.48-2.68 cm; small effect) vs CON and NHE AFT . A 12-week eccentric hamstring strengthening program increased strength and sEMG to a similar magnitude irrespective of its scheduling relative to the football training session. However, architectural adaptations to support the strength gains differed according to the timing of the injury prevention program. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Swollen Knee (Water on the Knee)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to experience the types of knee injuries that cause swelling. Obesity. Excess weight puts added stress on the knee ... degeneration that can lead to a swollen knee. Obesity increases your risk of osteoarthritis, one of the more frequent causes of knee swelling. Complications Complications of a swollen ...

  9. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón

    2009-07-01

    dorsiflexion of the ankle when performing sport tasks, lateral trunk displacement and hip adduction combined with increased knee abduction moments (dynamic knee valgus), and increased hip internal rotation and tibial external rotation with or without foot pronation. The identified mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injuries have been mainly studied in female soccer players; thus, further research in male players is warranted. Non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players likely has a multi-factorial etiology. The identification of those athletes at increased risk may be a salient first step before designing and implementing specific pre-season and in-season training programs aimed to modify the identified risk factors and to decrease ACL injury rates. Current evidence indicates that this crucial step to prevent ACL injury is the only option to effectively prevent the sequelae of osteoarthritis associated with this traumatic injury.

  10. 2018 International Olympic Committee consensus statement on prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekås, Guri Ranum; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J; Feller, Julian A; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Minider S; LaPrade, Robert F; McNamee, Michael; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialise in treating and researching paediatric ACL injuries. Representatives from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery & Arthroscopy, International Society of Arthroscopy Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla y Deporte attended. Physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field, and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision-making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury. This consensus statement addresses six fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric ACL injuries. The aim of this consensus statement is to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician, and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. PMID:29478021

  11. 2018 International Olympic Committee Consensus Statement on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L.; Ekås, Guri; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F.; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J.; Feller, Julian A.; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Mininder S.; LaPrade, Robert F.; McNamee, Mike; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas G.H.; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin P.; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Silvers-Granelli, Holly J.; Soligard, Torbjørn; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialize in treating and researching pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. Representatives from the following societies attended: American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine; European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society; European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, and Arthroscopy; International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America; and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla, y Deporte. Physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. This consensus statement addresses 6 fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric ACL injuries. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury. PMID:29594177

  12. 2018 International Olympic Committee Consensus Statement on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Ekås, Guri; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J; Feller, Julian A; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Mininder S; LaPrade, Robert F; McNamee, Mike; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas G H; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin P; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Soligard, Torbjørn; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-03-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialize in treating and researching pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. Representatives from the following societies attended: American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine; European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society; European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, and Arthroscopy; International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America; and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla, y Deporte. Physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. This consensus statement addresses 6 fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric ACL injuries. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury.

  13. 2018 International Olympic Committee consensus statement on prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Ekås, Guri Ranum; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J; Feller, Julian A; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Minider S; LaPrade, Robert F; McNamee, Michael; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Soligard, Torbjørn; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-04-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialise in treating and researching paediatric ACL injuries. Representatives from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery & Arthroscopy, International Society of Arthroscopy Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla y Deporte attended. Physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field, and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision-making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury. This consensus statement addresses six fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric ACL injuries. The aim of this consensus statement is to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician, and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Elastic Bandaging for Orthopedic- and Sports-Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Billis, Evdokia; Matzaroglou, Charalampos; Mylonas, Konstantinos; Koutsojannis, Constantinos; Tsepis, Elias

    2017-05-01

    Elastic bandages are commonly used in sports to treat and prevent sport injuries. To conduct a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of elastic bandaging in orthopedic- and sports-injury prevention and rehabilitation. The researchers searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) with keywords elastic bandaging in combination, respectively, with first aid, sports injuries, orthopedic injuries, and sports injuries prevention and rehabilitation. Research studies were selected based on the use of the term elastic bandaging in the abstract. Final selection was made by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the full text. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed clinical trials written in English on the effects of elastic bandaging for orthopedic-injury prevention and rehabilitation. Twelve studies met the criteria and were included in the final analysis. Data collected included number of participants, condition being treated, treatment used, control group, outcome measures, and results. Studies were critically analyzed using the PEDro scale. The studies in this review fell into 2 categories: studies in athletes (n = 2) and nonathletes (n = 10). All included trials had moderate to high quality, scoring ≥5 on the PEDro scale. The PEDro scores for the studies in athletes and nonathletes ranged from 5 to 6 out of 10 and from 5 to 8 out of 10, respectively. The quality of studies was mixed, ranging from higher- to moderate-quality methodological clinical trials. Overall, elastic bandaging can assist proprioceptive function of knee and ankle joint. Because of the moderate methodological quality and insufficient number of clinical trials, further effects of elastic bandaging could not be confirmed.

  15. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.

  16. X-rays for Acute Knee Injuries: Pre- and Post- Pittsburgh Decision Rules Implementation. A District General Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, Saad R; El Gamal, Tarek A; Challagundla, Sudhakar R; Ntala, Chara A; Nagy, Ahmed M; Crane, Evan O

    2016-10-28

    We wanted to assess the number of unnecessary radiographs done for acute knee injury patients and the accuracy of the Pittsburgh decision rules. A retrospective observational study was done to look at the acute knee injury patients presented to a district general hospital Accident and Emergency Department from August 2011 till August 2013. We assessed the following parameters: sex, age, mechanism of injury, weight-bearing status and incidence of fractures in patients subjected to plain radiograph. A prospective study was then done from April 2014- August 2014 following implementation of the Pittsburgh decision rules. 24% of the patients had knee X-ray, compared to 72.12% in the first cycle. 36.8% had fracture, compared to 6.1% first cycle, with 66.7 % reduction in x-rays. Pittsburgh decision rules sensitivity was 100% and specificity 85.3%, positive predictive value 45.8% and accuracy 87%. 1. The Pittsburgh decision rules is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in determining the need of X-ray in acute knee Injuries. 2. We found that the Pittsburgh decision rules performs well in our hospital, which coincides with previously published literature.

  17. A finite element lower extremity and pelvis model for predicting bone injuries due to knee bolster loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Hoof, J. van; Barbir, A.; Made, R. van der; Slaats, P.M.A.; McCann, M.J.; Ridella, S.A.; Rupp, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Injuries to the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex in frontal motor vehicle crashes are of substantial concern because of their frequency and potential to result in long-term disability. Current frontal impact Anthropometric Test Dummies (ATDs) have been shown to respond differently than human cadavers

  18. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with... reviews progress toward injury prevention goals and provides evidence in injury prevention- related... matters, including the: (1) Review of extramural research concepts for funding opportunity announcements...

  19. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid for the reduction in joint adhesion formation in a rabbit model of knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Liu, Chao; Xiao, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) into immobilized joints for reducing rigidity and formation of joint adhesions following surgery and prolonged joint immobilization. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into experimental (n = 12) and control groups (n = 12). A model of knee injury was created in the right hind leg, and external plaster fixation was performed for 8 weeks. The experimental and control groups received weekly intra-articular injections of 0.3 mL HA solution or normal saline, respectively, in the knee joint. The degree of adhesions, range of motion (ROM), and collagen content of the synovium of the knee joint were observed after 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, the experimental compared with control group had significantly higher mean ROM (70.3° ± 11.1° vs. 54.6° ± 11.2°, respectively; P = 0.002) and mean adhesion score. The experimental group compared with the control group had significantly lower mean adhesion score (2.2 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7, respectively; P = 0.012) and collagen content (32.4 ± 4.7 vs. 39.0 ± 4.2 μg/mg, P = 0.001). In a rabbit model of knee injury, intra-articular injection of HA decreased adhesion formation and collagen content and increased ROM after prolonged immobilization. These results indicate that HA may be clinically useful to prevent adhesions and improve joint mobility in patients who require joint immobilization for up to 8 weeks.

  20. Examination of Spasticity of the Knee Flexors and Knee Extensors Using Isokinetic Dynamometry With Electromyography and Clinical Scales in Children With Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Samuel R; Johnston, Therese E; Shewokis, Patricia A; Lauer, Richard T

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: To examine the role of reflex activity in spasticity and the relationship between peak passive torque, Ashworth Scale (AS), and Spasm Frequency Scale (SFS) of the knee flexors and extensors during the measurement of spasticity using an isokinetic dynamometer in children with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Eighteen children with chronic SCI and 10 children of typical development (TD) participated. One set of 10 passive movements was completed using an isokinetic dynamometer at 15, 90, and 180 degrees per second (deg/s) while surface electromyographic data were collected from the vastus lateralis (VL) and medial hamstrings (MH). Spasticity was clinically assessed using the AS and SFS. Results: There were no significant differences in peak passive torque of the knee flexors and extensors at any velocity for children with SCI compared to children with TD. Children with TD demonstrated significantly more reflex activity of the MH during the assessment of knee flexor spasticity at all movement velocities than did children with SCI. Children with TD demonstrated significantly more reflex activity of the VL during the assessment of knee-extensor spasticity with movements at 180 deg/s. The relationship between peak passive torque, AS, and SFS was significant during movements at a velocity of 90 deg/s only. Conclusions: The role of increased reflexes in spasticity needs further examination. Isokinetic dynamometry may be measuring a different aspect of spasticity than the AS and SFS do in children with SCI. PMID:18581670

  1. Countrywide campaign to prevent soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Lamprecht, Markus; Stamm, Hanspeter; Hasler, Hansruedi; Bizzini, Mario; Tschopp, Markus; Reuter, Harald; Wyss, Heinz; Chilvers, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    In Switzerland, the national accident insurance company registered a total of 42 262 soccer injuries, resulting in costs of approximately 145 million Swiss francs (~US$130 million) in 2003. Research on injury prevention has shown that exercise-based programs can reduce the incidence of soccer injuries. This study was conducted to assess the implementation and effects of a countrywide campaign to reduce the incidence of soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All coaches of the Schweizerischer Fussballverband (SFV) received information material and were instructed to implement the injury prevention program "The 11" in their training of amateur players. After the instruction, the coaches were asked to rate the quality and the feasibility of "The 11." Before the start of the intervention and 4 years later, a representative sample of about 1000 Swiss soccer coaches were interviewed about the frequency and characteristics of injuries in their teams. Teams that did or did not practice "The 11" were compared with respect to the incidence of soccer injuries. A total of 5549 coaches for amateur players were instructed to perform "The 11" in the training with their teams. The ratings of the teaching session and the prevention program were overall very positive. In 2008, 80% of all SFV coaches knew the prevention campaign "The 11" and 57% performed the program or most parts of it. Teams performing "The 11" had an 11.5% lower incidence of match injuries and a 25.3% lower incidence of training injuries than other teams; noncontact injuries in particular were prevented by the program. "The 11" was successfully implemented in a countrywide campaign and proved effective in reducing soccer injuries in amateur players. An effect of the prevention program was also observed in the population-based insurance data and health-care costs.

  2. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  3. Anterolateral ligament injuries in knees with an anterior cruciate ligament tear. Contribution of ultrasonography and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruch Bilfeld, Marie; Constans, Olivia; Lapegue, Franck; Chiavassa Gandois, Helene; Sans, Nicolas [CHU Toulouse-Purpan, Service de Radiologie, Toulouse (France); Cavaignac, Etienne; Wytrykowski, Karine [CHU Toulouse-Purpan, Service d' Orthopedie, Toulouse (France); Larbi, Ahmed [Hopital Universitaire Caremeau, Service de Radiologie, Nimes (France)

    2018-01-15

    To describe the pathological appearance of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) on US and MRI in knees with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. This prospective study included 30 patients who had a suspected acute ACL tear. Their injured and contralateral knees were evaluated with radiography, US and MRI. Two radiologists evaluated the ALL on the MRI and US examinations. Agreement between these examiners' findings was evaluated with Cohen's kappa. On US examination, the ALL was found to be injured in 63% of cases (19/30; k = 0.93). The enthesis was found to be torn in 50% of cases (15/30; k = 1), with the tear located at the tibial attachment in all instances. On the MRI exam, the ALL was found to be injured in 53% of cases (16/30; k = 0.93). The enthesis was found to be torn in 13% of cases (4/30; k = 0.76), with the tear located at the tibial attachment in all instances (k = 0.93). ALL injuries that occur with ACL tears are located at the tibial enthesis. They are often associated with bone avulsion at the enthesis and are better viewed on US. (orig.)

  4. Validation of the short form-36 health survey supported with isokinetic strength testing after sport knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn-Vukadinovic, Dusa; Jamnik, Helena

    2011-08-01

    Valid patient-based outcome instruments are necessary for comprehensive patient care that focuses on all aspects of health, from impairments to participation restrictions. To validate the Slovenian translation of Medical Outcome Survey (MOS) Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and to assess relations among various knee measurements, activity tested with Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and health-related quality of life as estimated with SF-36 domains. Descriptive validation study. Isokinetic laboratory in outpatient rehabilitation unit. 101 subjects after unilateral sport knee injury. All subjects completed the SF-36 and OKS, and isokinetic knee-muscle strength output at 60°/s was determined in 78 participants. Within a 3-d period, 43 subjects completed the SF-36 and OKS questionnaires again. Reliability testing included internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between SF-36 subscales and OKS were calculated to assess construct validity, and correlation between SF-36 subscales and muscle strength was calculated to assess concurrent validity. Chronbach α was above .78 for all SF-36 subscales. ICCs ranged from .80 to .93. The correlation between OKS and the physical-functioning subscale, showing convergent construct validity, was higher (r = .83, P social-functioning (r = -.43, P sport knee injury were established.

  5. Lifetime injury prevention: The sport profile model*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-04

    Jan 4, 2012 ... A behaviorist perspective. Adv Psychosom Med 2011;30:8–21. 7. Podlog L, Dimmock J, Miller J. A review of return to sport concerns following injury rehabilitation: practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes. Phys Ther Sport. 2011;12:36-42. 8. Bianco T, Malo S, Orlick T. Sport injury and illness: ...

  6. Chloroquine prevents acute kidney injury induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Creatinine, Chloroquine, Inflammatory reactions, Kidney injury, Lipopolysaccharide. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ... a reduction in oxygen uptake and myocardial contractility such as pathogen ..... evolution and outcome of acute kidney injury in critically ill adult patients. Br J Anaesth; 2015; 114: ...

  7. Injuries, risk factors and prevention initiatives in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Anne; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Sports injuries in young athletes are a public health issue which deserves special attention. Effective prevention can be achieved with training programmes originating from the field of physical therapy and medicine. A systematic literature search on injury prevention in youth sport was performed in the MEDLINE database. For prevention programmes to reduce sports injuries, critical factors must be considered, such as training content, duration and frequency, as well as athlete compliance. Home-based programmes could be inferior to supervised training, but are efficient if compliance is high. So far prevention programmes have focused on team sports and their efficiency in individual sports remains to be proven. Active prevention programmes focusing specifically on the upper extremity are scarce. Initiatives enhancing the awareness of trainers, athletes and therapists about risk factors and systematic prevention measures should be encouraged.

  8. Injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve, a possible cause for anterior knee pain after tibial nailing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliveld, M S; Verhofstad, M H J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term incidence of infrapatellar nerve damage after tibial nailing and its relation to anterior knee pain. We retrospectively evaluated 71 patients in whom 72 isolated tibial shaft fractures were treated with an intramedullary nail. The mean follow-up time was 84 months. Twenty-seven patients (38%) complained of chronic anterior knee pain. Infrapatellar nerve damage was found in 43 patients (60%). Of the 27 patients with knee pain, 21 (78%) had sensory deficits in the distribution area of the infrapatellar nerve, compared to 22 of the 45 patients (49%) without knee pain (p=0.025). Patient and fracture characteristics showed no significant differences between the two groups. At time of follow-up a total of 33 nails were removed of which twelve were taken out because of knee pain. The pain persisted in seven of these twelve patients (58%). The incidence of iatrogenic damage to the infrapatellar nerve after tibial nailing is high and lasting. Injury to this nerve appears to be associated with anterior knee pain after tibial nailing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of foot rotation positions on knee valgus during single-leg drop landing: Implications for ACL injury risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, P S P; Kong, P W; Leong, K F

    2017-06-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when athletes land in high risk positions such as knee valgus. The position of the foot at landing may influence the transmission of forces from the ankle to the knee. Using an experimental approach to manipulate foot rotation positions, this study aimed to provide new insights on how knee valgus during single-leg landing may be influenced by foot positions. Eleven male recreational basketball players performed single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm high platform in three foot rotation positions (toe-in, toe-forward and toe-out) at initial contact. A motion capture system and a force plate were used to measure lower extremity kinematics and kinetics. Knee valgus angles at initial contact (KVA) and maximum knee valgus moments (KVM), which were known risk factors associated with ACL injury, were measured. A one-way repeated measures Analysis of Variance was conducted (α=0.05) to compare among the three foot positions. Foot rotation positions were found to have a significant effect on KVA (p<0.001, η 2 =0.66) but the difference between conditions (about 1°) was small and not clinically meaningful. There was a significant effect of foot position on KVM (p<0.001, η 2 =0.55), with increased moment observed in the toe-out position as compared to toe-forward (p=0.012) or toe-in positions (p=0.002). When landing with one leg, athletes should avoid extreme toe-out foot rotation positions to minimise undesirable knee valgus loading associated with non-contact ACL injury risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  11. World Report on Child Injury Prevention: Opportunity for scaling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unintentional injuries accounted for almost 90% of these child injury deaths. Beyond these fatalities, there are several thousand children who have survived with varying degrees of disability. While many prevention programmes have been shown to be effective, much more awareness and political commitment is needed in ...

  12. Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as

  13. Statistical Applications and Quantitative Design for Injury Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    editor of the International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, conducted a five-day workshop on “Statistical applications and quantitative design for injury prevention research” from 18–21 August 2008 at the MRC in Cape Town, South Africa. The target audience for this workshop was researchers (with some ...

  14. Factors influencing the implementation of soccer injury prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest and participation in soccer continue to grow in every part of the world. The increase in the number of people participating in soccer in Rwanda is also prominent. However, with the increase in the number of people participating in soccer there is an increase in the risk of injuries, thus making prevention of injury more ...

  15. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  16. Multistation proprioceptive exercise program prevents ankle injuries in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eils, Eric; Schröter, Ralph; Schröder, Marc; Gerss, Joachim; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a multistation proprioceptive exercise program for the prevention of ankle injuries in basketball players using a prospective randomized controlled trial in combination with biomechanical tests of neuromuscular performance. A total of 232 players participated in the study and were randomly assigned to a training or control group following the CONSORT statement. The training group performed a multistation proprioceptive exercise program, and the control group continued with their normal workout routines. During one competitive basketball season, the number of ankle injuries was counted and related to the number of sports participation sessions using logistic regression. Additional biomechanical pre–post tests (angle reproduction and postural sway) were performed in both groups to investigate the effects on neuromuscular performance. In the control group, 21 injuries occurred, whereas in the training group, 7 injuries occurred. The risk for sustaining an ankle injury was significantly reduced in the training group by approximately 65%. [corrected] The corresponding number needed to treat was 7. Additional biomechanical tests revealed significant improvements in joint position sense and single-limb stance in the training group. The multistation proprioceptive exercise program effectively prevented ankle injuries in basketball players. Analysis of number needed to treat clearly showed the relatively low prevention effort that is necessary to avoid an ankle injury. Additional biomechanical tests confirmed the neuromuscular effect and confirmed a relationship between injury prevention and altered neuromuscular performance. With this knowledge, proprioceptive training may be optimized to specifically address the demands in various athletic activities.

  17. COMMON SPORTS-RELATED INJURIES AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION IN THE PREVENTION OF REOCCURRENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Tyler; Edizer, Bahadir; Kunze, Heather; Thistlethwaite, John; Abimbola, Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    Injuries among student athletes are a major concern, especially when the prevalence of injury is high among load-bearing sports (e.g. basketball, volleyball, football, soccer). The purpose of this study was to determine the most common injuries among college-aged individuals that participated in load-bearing sports, to determine the most common method of treatment/rehab for these injuries, and the prevalence of reoccurrence. We hypothesized that ankle and knee injuries would be the most preva...

  18. Advantages of exercise in rehabilitation, treatment and prevention of altered morphological features in knee osteoarthritis. A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Imbesi, Rosa; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Di Giunta, Angelo; Lombardo, Claudia; Castorina, Sergio; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2014-06-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) represents one of the most common causes of disability in the world. It leads to social, psychological and economic costs with financial consequences, also because a further increase is expected. Different knee OA treatments are usually considered in relation to the stage of the disease, such as surgical management and pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. Treatment should begin with the safest and least invasive one, before proceeding to more invasive, expensive ones. Non-pharmacologic, behavioral treatments of knee OA are recommended not only in rehabilitation but also in prevention because many risk factors, such as excess weight, obesity and joint tissue inflammation, can be monitored and thus prevented. In the present review, we analyze data from the most recent literature in relation to the effects of physical exercise on prevention, therapy and rehabilitation in knee OA. All data suggest that physical exercise is an effective, economical and accessible tool to everyone, in the treatment and prevention of knee OA. The literature search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords in relation to knee osteoarthritis.

  19. Preventing Heat Injuries by Predicting Individualized Human Core Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    hardware/software warning system of an impending rise in TC and generate alerts to potentially prevent heat injuries. PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES BY...real-time warning system. 4.0 CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, we developed an alert algorithm to provide reliable ahead-of-time warning of an impending... warning system that can be deployed in ambulatory settings. Currently, we are in the process of integrating this model with the alert algorithm in a

  20. GPS and Injury Prevention in Professional Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Fabian E; Duncan, Craig S; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Franzsen, William N; Greene, David A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between GPS variables measured in training and gameplay and injury occurrences in professional soccer. Nineteen professional soccer players competing in the Australian Hyundai A-League were monitored for 1 entire season using 5 Hz Global Positioning System (GPS) units (SPI-Pro GPSports) in training sessions and preseason games. The measurements obtained were total distance, high-intensity running distance, very-high-intensity running distance, new body load, and meters per minute. Noncontact soft tissue injuries were documented throughout the season. Players' seasons were averaged over 1- and 4-week blocks according to when injuries occurred. These blocks were compared with each other and with players' seasonal averages. Players performed significantly higher meters per minute in the weeks preceding an injury compared with their seasonal averages (+9.6 and +7.4% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p sports scientists to consider when planning and monitoring training.

  1. The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Ceallaigh Brian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present in male Irish gaelic footballers who have returned to full activity after hamstring injury. Methods The concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength of 44 members of a university gaelic football team was assessed at 60, 180 and 300 degrees per second using a Contrex dynamometer. Results Fifteen players (34% reported a history of hamstring strain, with 68% of injuries affecting the dominant (kicking limb. The hamstrings were significantly stronger (p 0.05 using this comparison. The previously unilaterally injured hamstrings were significantly weaker (p Conclusion Hamstring muscle weakness was observed in male Irish gaelic footballers with a history of hamstring injury. This weakness is most evident when comparisons are made to multiple control populations, both within and between subjects. The increased strength of the dominant limb should be considered as a potential confounding variable in future trials. The study design does not allow interpretation of whether these changes in strength were present before or after injury.

  2. A one year prospective study on ankle stability and landing technique : The occurrence of ankle and knee injuries in elite ball team athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Msc Henrike van der Does; M.S. Brink; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink

    2014-01-01

    Background: In team sports lower extremity injuries account for more than 50% of all injuries, indicating the importance of early detection of athletes at risk. Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ankle stability and landing technique at baseline for ankle and knee injury occurrence

  3. Basketball coaches' utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; Pennuto, Anthony; Brooks, Alison

    2013-09-01

    Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings. To determine high school basketball coaches' utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP). Cross-sectional survey. The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coaches in Wisconsin. Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine if the injury prevention strategies utilized differed according to school size, sex of the team, years of coaching experience, and the coach's education level. Four hundred eighty (55%) coaches from 299 (74%) high schools completed the survey. Thirty-seven percent of the coaches encouraged or required their players to use PAB. School enrollment of the coaches' teams did not affect their stance on the use of PAB (P = 0.30), neither did the sex of the team (P = 0.16), years coaching (P = 0.09), nor the coach's education (P = 0.49). Fifty percent (n = 242) of the coaches indicated they do not utilize an AIEPP, with no difference based on school enrollment (P = 0.47), team sex (P = 0.41), years coaching (P = 0.78), or the education level (P = 0.44). Barriers to utilization of AIEPP included a lack of time, awareness, and expertise. Coaches preferred an AIEPP that was specific to basketball, combined injury prevention and performance enhancement components, was performed 2 to 3 days per week, and lasted 5 to 15 minutes. Less than half of the coaches encouraged use of PAB, and half did not utilize an AIEPP. Coaches had specific preferences for the type of AIEPP they would implement. Sports medicine providers should promote ankle injury prevention strategies but need to address why prevention strategies may not be utilized in high school basketball settings.

  4. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  5. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.

  6. Cross-cultural translation and measurement properties of the Polish version of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemysław T; Witoński, Dariusz; Kęska, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is available in over 30 languages and a commonly used Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) for assessment of treatment effects following knee surgery. The aim of the study was to report the linguistic translational process and evaluate the psychometric...

  7. Preventing sports injuries: opportunities for intervention in youth athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nancy L; Marshall, Stephen W; Miller, Mark D

    2002-03-01

    Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998-1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high school athletes will sustain an injury during a sports season serious enough to result in time lost from participation. While there may always be some risk associated with sports participation, health professionals can actively encourage injury prevention. In this paper, we describe the benefits of sport participation, the injury problem associated with sports, injury prevention frameworks, and conclude by discussing the changing role of the team physician in youth sports.

  8. What kinds of injuries do OSHA inspections prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Amelia; Burns, Rachel; Gray, Wayne; Ruder, Teague; Mendeloff, John

    2010-08-01

    OSHA's enforcement program is one of the major public efforts to protect American workers. We examine both the scope of injury prevention that inspections can contribute and the types of standards that contribute the most. We linked Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry files for lost-time injuries and employment to calculate injury rates for 1998-2005 for all single-establishment manufacturing firms. We linked these to OSHA inspection records. Inspections with penalties did affect injury types unrelated to standards as well as those related. We also found again that citations for violations of the standard requiring personal protective equipment had the largest impact on preventing injuries. Programs requiring protective equipment use deserve added attention from consultants and inspectors. In addition, some inspections spur managers to undertake safety measures that go beyond compliance with standards. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative adaptations of lower limb biomechanics during unilateral and bilateral landings after different neuromuscular-based ACL injury prevention protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyler N; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; McLean, Scott G

    2014-10-01

    Potentially valuable anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention strategies are lengthy, limiting training success. Shorter protocols that achieve beneficial biomechanical adaptations may improve training effectiveness. This study examined whether core stability/balance and plyometric training can modify female landing biomechanics compared with the standard neuromuscular and no training models. Forty-three females had lower limb biomechanics analyzed during unilateral and bilateral landings immediately before and after a 6-week neuromuscular or no training programs. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and kinetics were submitted to 3-way repeated-measures analyses of variance to test for the main and interaction effects of training group, landing type, and testing time. Greater peak knee flexion was evident in the standard neuromuscular group following training, during both bilateral (p = 0.027) and unilateral landings (p = 0.076 and d = 0.633). The plyometric group demonstrated reduced hip adduction (p = 0.010) and greater knee flexion (p = 0.065 and d = 0.564) during bilateral landings following training. The control group had significant reduction in peak stance knee abduction moment (p = 0.003) posttraining as compared with pretraining. The current outcomes suggest that significant biomechanical changes are possible by an isolated plyometric training component. The benefits, however, may not be evident across all landing types, seemingly limited to simplistic, bilateral landings. Integrated training protocols may still be the most effective training model, currently improving knee flexion posture during both bilateral and unilateral landings following training. Future prevention efforts should implement integrated training protocols that include plyometric exercises to reduce ACL injury risk of female athletes.

  10. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  11. Prevention, Recognition, and Management of Urologic Injuries During Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Howard T; Adelman, Marisa R

    2016-06-01

    The urethra, bladder, and ureters are particularly susceptible to injury during gynecologic surgery. When preventive measures fail, prompt recognition and management of injury can avoid long-term sequelae such as fistula formation and loss of renal function. Intraoperative identification should be the primary goal when an injury occurs, although this is not always possible. Postoperative injury recognition requires a high level of suspicion and vigilance. In addition to history and physical examination, appropriate radiologic studies can be useful in localizing injury and planning management strategies. Some injuries may require Foley catheter drainage or ureteral stenting alone, whereas others will require operative intervention with ureteral resection and reanastomosis or reimplantation. Prompt restoration of urinary drainage or diversion will avoid further renal compromise.

  12. Summary of Injury Prevention Activities Supporting the Army Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign, 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-30

    collaborate with Army partners on injury prevention /human performance optimization projects, and enhance communication of evidence- based lessons learned to...6.2 APHC Injury Prevention contributions to SMRC IP 10.0: Improve Soldier Injury Prevention /Human Performance ...Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign Plan (SMR-CP), objectives to inform evidence- based injury prevention /human performance optimization programs and

  13. Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports Injuries Knee Injuries Bones, Muscles, and Joints Osgood-Schlatter Disease Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Word! Joints Your Bones Osgood-Schlatter Disease Knee Injury: Caroline's Story Meniscus Tears Runner's ...

  14. Can two-dimensional video analysis during single-leg drop vertical jumps help identify non-contact knee injury risk? A one-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Malfait, Bart; Nijs, Stefaan; Peers, Koen H E; Vereecken, Styn; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Staes, Filip F

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies showed that the amount of hip flexion and the combination of knee valgus and lateral trunk motion, measured with two-dimensional video analysis, were related to three-dimensional measured knee joint moments during single-leg drop vertical jumps, but it remains unclear whether these measurements can be used to identify non-contact knee injury risk. Fifty injury-free female athletes participated in the study. Two-dimensional video analysis was used to measure hip flexion, knee valgus and lateral trunk motion angles during single-leg drop vertical jumps. Time loss non-contact knee injuries were registered during a one-year follow-up. Independent t-tests and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to analyze the predictive ability of the two-dimensional angles. Seven participants sustained a time loss non-contact knee injury. Hip flexion was not significantly different between groups (P>.05). The combination of knee valgus and lateral trunk motion was significantly smaller in the injured (P=.036) and non-injured legs (P=.009) of the future injured group compared with the respective matched leg of the non-injured group. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a significant discriminative accuracy between groups for the combination of knee valgus and lateral trunk motion of the uninjured leg of the future injured group with the matched leg of the non-injured group (area under curve=0.803; P=.012). The measurement of a combination of increased knee valgus and ipsilateral trunk motion during the single-leg drop vertical jump with two-dimensional video analysis can be used to help identify female athletes with increased non-contact knee injury risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging of postarthroscopic complications after knee injuries; Bildgebung postarthroskopischer Komplikationen nach Knieverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Skrbensky, G. von [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    The most common joint injuries in professional and recreational sports participants and also in the total population are knee injuries. Arthroscopy is indicated if this modality will improve the patient outcome and potential long-term complications can be avoided. Although uncommon, complications following arthroscopy are mostly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For planning further therapy strategies following postarthroscopic complications, e.g. if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is required, digital radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are helpful. This article provides an overview of the different procedures for surgical treatment which are a prerequisite for the analysis of postarthroscopic images. In addition typical complications after treatment of meniscal and chondral injuries as well as after ACL reconstruction are described and typical signs in MRI, radiography and CT are explained in detail. (orig.) [German] Kniegelenkverletzungen sind nicht nur bei Profisportlern, sondern auch in der Gesamtbevoelkerung die haeufigsten Gelenkverletzungen. Die Indikation zur arthroskopischen Operation wird gestellt, wenn im Vergleich zur konservativen Therapie ein besseres Ergebnis postarthroskopisch zu erwarten ist und potenzielle Spaetkomplikationen verhindert werden koennten. Die selten aber dennoch auftretenden postarthroskopischen Komplikationen werden zumeist mit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) abgeklaert. Zur weiteren Therapieplanung nach Komplikationen, z. B. wenn eine Kreuzbandrevision notwendig ist, sind die digitale Projektionsradiographie und die Computertomographie (CT) hilfreich. Dieser Artikel bietet eine kurze Uebersicht ueber die unterschiedlichen Operationstechniken, die eine Voraussetzung fuer das Verstaendnis der bildgebenden postoperativen Veraenderungen sind. Weiter wird auf die haeufigsten Komplikationen nach Meniskus- und Knorpeloperationen sowie nach vorderer Kreuzbandrekonstruktion und den damit

  16. Predictors of Frontal Plane Knee Moments During Side-Step Cutting to 45 and 110 Degrees in Men and Women: Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigward, Susan M; Cesar, Guilherme M; Havens, Kathryn L

    2015-11-01

    To compare frontal plane knee moments, and kinematics and kinetics associated with knee valgus moments between cutting to 45 and 110 degrees, and to determine the predictive value of kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) on knee valgus moments when cutting to these angles. Also, to determine whether sex differences exist in kinematics and kinetics when cutting to 45 and 110 degrees. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory setting. Forty-five (20 females) healthy young adult soccer athletes aged 16 to 23 years. Kinematic and kinetic variables were compared between randomly cued side-step cutting maneuvers to 45 and 110 degrees. Predictors of knee valgus moment were determined for each task. Kinematic variables: knee valgus angle, hip abduction, and internal rotation angles. Kinetic variables: vertical, posterior, and lateral GRFs, and knee valgus moment. Knee valgus moments were greater when cutting to 110 degrees compared with 45 degrees, and females exhibited greater moments than males. Vertical and lateral GRFs, hip internal rotation angle, and knee valgus angle explained 63% of the variance in knee valgus moment during cutting to 45 degrees. During cutting to 110 degrees, posterior GRF, hip internal rotation angle, and knee valgus angle explained 41% of the variance in knee valgus moment. Cutting tasks with larger redirection demands result in greater knee valgus moments. Similar factors, including shear GRFs, hip internal rotation, and knee valgus position contribute to knee valgus loading during cuts performed to smaller (45 degrees) and larger (110 degrees) angles. Reducing vertical and shear GRFs during cutting maneuvers may reduce knee valgus moments and thereby potentially reduce risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  17. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  18. Pterostilbene Prevents Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced for 60 min. After the complete I/R injury the jejunal segment was removed and the animals were sacrificed by exsanguination. The blood collected was centrifuged and serum was stored at -70 ºC. The tissues were rinsed with ice cold saline and blood was completely removed. The tissues were homogenized using ...

  19. Football injuries – surveillance, incidence and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (cardiovascular conditioning, plyometric work, sport-specific drills, strength training and flexibility exercises to improve speed and agility) on the occurrence of football injuries in 42 out of 300 female high school players were investigated during 1 year of competitive football.28 Significantly fewer players in the intervention ...

  20. Music and Medicine: Preventing Performance Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carol Anne

    2001-01-01

    Describes medical conditions that musicians may contract. Addresses what experts believe may help avoid some conditions and what to do if injury is possible. Provides a bibliography of resources on performing arts medicine, including books and periodicals, and a list of associations for performing arts medicine. (CMK)

  1. Prevention of ingestion injuries in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish bones[4]), and accidental medication ingestion. At Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital ..... burns), but dysphagia/ drooling and abdominal pain with a history of. pH >11 ingestion mandate evaluation for mucosal injury with technetium-. 99-radiolabelled sucralfate scinitigraphy and/or endoscopic grading of.

  2. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  3. MR imaging in patients with knee injury: an observational study in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Boks (Simone)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractKnee trauma is often seen in general practice. The availability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has improved the diagnostic possibilities after knee trauma. Nevertheless, little is known about the findings on MR imaging after knee trauma in general practice. Especially, there is

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Language Version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS Questionnaire among Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli MM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt a Malay version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS and to evaluate its psychometric properties in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The English version KOOS was translated into a Malay version using forward and backward translation process, followed by face validity and content validity. Two hundred and twenty-six knee OA patients attending the Outpatient and Orthopaedic Clinics, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, completed the Malay version KOOS. Construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and internal reliability assessment were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that the original five-factor model with 42 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, indicating poor model fit. A new five-factor model of 26 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index= 0.929, incremental fit index= 0.930, Tucker Lewis fit index= 0.920, root mean square error of approximation= 0.073 and Chisquared/ degree of freedom= 2.183 indices to signify a model fit. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the new model ranged from 0.776 to 0.946. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.819 and 0.921, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. CONCLUSION: The five-factor model with 26 items in the Malay version of KOOS questionnaire demonstrated a good degree of goodness of fit and was found to be valid, reliable and simple as an assessment tool for symptoms, pain, activity of daily living, sports and recreational activity and quality of life for Malaysian adults suffering from knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNoe, Bronwen M; Chalmers, David J

    2011-11-01

    To adapt and pilot test a method for undertaking routine surveillance of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer. Surveillance system using a cohort design. Simple random samples were drawn from the player registration databases of two soccer federations. All players aged 13 years or over who intended to play in a school or club competition during the 2006 winter season were eligible. The cohort consisted of 687 male and 193 female players. The players were contacted each week and asked about their adherence to nationally recommended injury prevention measures. No more than 20% of players completed any form of pre-season screening. Almost all players warmed-up for player-matches (97%) and player-training sessions (93%). Eighty-one percent of players undertook some form of physical conditioning on at least one occasion in the off-season. Very few players (13%) reported receiving instruction on tackling technique pre-season. Shin-guards were worn in 99% of matches. For 61% of match injury events, the injured player continued to play after the injury occurred and in 65% of these cases, the player reported that in hindsight they should not have returned to play. The results provide a baseline measure of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players. Future research, employing comparable surveillance methods, could be used to monitor progress on adherence to the injury prevention measures canvassed in this study. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Limb Symmetry Indexes Can Overestimate Knee Function After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Failla, Mathew J; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The high risk of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries after return to sport highlights the importance of return-to-sport decision making. Objective return-to-sport criteria frequently use limb symmetry indexes (LSIs) to quantify quadriceps strength and hop scores. Whether using the uninvolved limb in LSIs is optimal is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the uninvolved limb as a reference standard for LSIs utilized in return-to-sport testing and its relationship with second ACL injury rates. Methods Seventy athletes completed quadriceps strength and 4 single-leg hop tests before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and 6 months after ACLR. Limb symmetry indexes for each test compared involved-limb measures at 6 months to uninvolved-limb measures at 6 months. Estimated preinjury capacity (EPIC) levels for each test compared involved-limb measures at 6 months to uninvolved-limb measures before ACLR. Second ACL injuries were tracked for a minimum follow-up of 2 years after ACLR. Results Forty (57.1%) patients achieved 90% LSIs for quadriceps strength and all hop tests. Only 20 (28.6%) patients met 90% EPIC levels (comparing the involved limb at 6 months after ACLR to the uninvolved limb before ACLR) for quadriceps strength and all hop tests. Twenty-four (34.3%) patients who achieved 90% LSIs for all measures 6 months after ACLR did not achieve 90% EPIC levels for all measures. Estimated preinjury capacity levels were more sensitive than LSIs in predicting second ACL injuries (LSIs, 0.273; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.010, 0.566 and EPIC, 0.818; 95% CI: 0.523, 0.949). Conclusion Limb symmetry indexes frequently overestimate knee function after ACLR and may be related to second ACL injury risk. These findings raise concern about whether the variable ACL return-to-sport criteria utilized in current clinical practice are stringent enough to achieve safe and successful return to sport. Level of Evidence

  7. Development of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Children (KOOS-Child) Comprehensibility and content validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, M.; Roos, E. M.; Brostrom, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    of separate subscale scores as a profile. However, its applicability in children has not been established. In this study, we examined how well the KOOS could be understood in a cohort of children with knee injury, with a view to preparing a pediatric version (KOOS-Child). Material and methods A trained...... researcher conducted cognitive interviews with 34 Swedish children who had symptomatic knee injuries (either primary or repeated). They were 10-16 years of age, and were selected to allow for equal group representation of age and sex. All the interviews were recorded. 4 researchers analyzed the data...... and modified the original KOOS questionnaire. Results Many children (n = 14) had difficulty in tracking items based on the time frame and an equivalent number of children had trouble in understanding several terms. Mapping errors resulted from misinterpretation of items and from design issues related...

  8. Cross-cultural translation and validation of the Greek version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in patients with total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutzouri, Maria; Tsoumpos, Pantelis; Billis, Evdokia; Papoutsidakis, Antonis; Gliatis, John

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the developed Greek version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. Psychometric properties of the Greek version of KOOS were evaluated according to the Consensus-based Standards Measurements Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Patients' pre-operative clinical status and post-operative outcomes at two occasions (at discharge and 10-12 days post-operatively) were evaluated using the KOOS, KOS-ADL and SF-12 Health Survey. A comprehensive Greek KOOS was piloted and well accepted by patients and therefore administered to 60 consecutive TKR patients (mean age 72.2 ± 7.2 years, 39 women). Excellent Internal consistency, good test-retest reliability of KOOS and KOOS 5 subdomains, respectively [ICC(2-1) 0.76, 95% CI = 0.235-0.902 and 0.89, 95% CI = 0.843-0.927] was yielded. A priori hypotheses for construct validity were confirmed with KOOS score and subdomains for pain, symptoms and Everyday Living function (ADL) correlating moderately with KOS-ADL. Responsiveness for KOOS subdomains of Pain and Symptoms yielded moderate effect size (ES = 0.4). The Greek KOOS was found to be a practical and comprehensible self-reported measure for TKR patients with acceptable psychometric properties. It is therefore, recommendable for usage in future clinical trials and clinical practice. Implications for Rehabilitation The Greek version of KOOS is an essential assessment scale to evaluate not only acute injuries but also chronic knee associated conditions in a holistic perspective. The Greek KOOS has been found to be a practical and comprehensible self-reported measure for TKR patients with acceptable psychometric properties, recommendable for usage in future clinical trials and clinical practice. KOOS Greek version (downloadable at the official site http://www.koos.nu/koosgreek.pdf ) was used in the validity study.

  9. Relevant traumatic injury of the knee joint-MRI follow-up after 7-10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, Michel D.; Marra, Monica D.; Guermazi, A.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Roemer, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate prospectively the history of relevant traumatic knee injuries at least 7 years after trauma by MRI focusing on the development of degenerative changes. Materials and methods: Seventeen patients without baseline degenerative changes had a follow-up knee MRI several years after relevant knee injury (interval baseline-follow-up was 9.1 years, S.D. ±1.3 years). Relevant knee injury was defined as complete cruciate or collateral ligament rupture, traumatic meniscal tear or osteochondral injury. Baseline MRI examinations were evaluated for traumatic ligamentous, chondral, meniscal and osseous lesions. Follow-up MRIs were evaluated for ligamentous and meniscal status, articular surface and incidence of degenerative changes such as cartilage loss, osteophytes and bone marrow lesions. Results: Among the 11 patients who had a complete rupture of the ACL at baseline, 3 (27.3%) presented with cartilage loss. Among the eight patients who had suffered a post-traumatic meniscal tear at baseline, four (50%) presented with cartilage loss at follow-up. Among the five patients who had an osteochondral fracture at baseline, two (40%) presented with cartilage loss at follow-up imaging. Cartilage loss in all cases was observed adjacent to the subregions where meniscal damage and/or osteochondral incongruence was/were present at follow-up imaging. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the post-traumatic or postsurgical meniscal damage and the persistence of an irregular articular surface may have played a role in the subsequent loss of cartilage in our patient population.

  10. A Progressive 5-Week Exercise Therapy Program Leads to Significant Improvement in Knee Function Early After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    EITZEN, INGRID; MOKSNES, HÅVARD; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN; RISBERG, MAY ARNA

    2011-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Prospective cohort study without a control group. OBJECTIVES Firstly, to present our 5-week progressive exercise therapy program in the early stage after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Secondly, to evaluate changes in knee function after completion of the program for patients with ACL injury in general and also when classified as potential copers or noncopers, and, finally, to examine potential adverse events. BACKGROUND Few studies concerning early-stage ACL rehabilitation protocols exist. Consequently, little is known about the tolerance for, and outcomes from, short-term exercise therapy programs in the early stage after injury. METHODS One-hundred patients were included in a 5-week progressive exercise therapy program, within 3 months after injury. Knee function before and after completion of the program was evaluated from isokinetic quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength tests, 4 single-leg hop tests, 2 different self-assessment questionnaires, and a global rating of knee function. A 2-way mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate changes from pretest to posttest for the limb symmetry index for muscle strength and single-leg hop tests, and the change in scores for the patient-reported questionnaires. In addition, absolute values and the standardized response mean for muscle strength and single-leg hop tests were calculated at pretest and posttest for the injured and uninjured limb. Adverse events during the 5-week period were recorded. RESULTS The progressive 5-week exercise therapy program led to significant improvements (Ptherapy programs are well tolerated and should be incorporated in early-stage ACL rehabilitation, either to improve knee function before ACL reconstruction or as a first step in further nonoperative management. PMID:20710097

  11. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. Correlation of clinical, MRI and arthroscopic findings in diagnosing meniscus and ligament injuries at knee joint: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to correlate clinical, MRI, and arthroscopic findings in diagnosing ligament and meniscus tears in knee joint injuries. Materials and Methods: Our study included 20 patients in the age range of 11-60 years who were referred to radiology department for MRI of knee joint following injury to the knee. Prior to MRI, a detailed history, clinical, and local examination was done in all the subjects. MRI was carried out on 1.5 Tesla MR Machine and the standard protocol consisted of fat-suppressed PD (TE 45, TR 2800 in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, T2W (TE 80, TR 4000 in sagittal plane and T1W (TE 11, TR 495 in sagittal plane. All the patients underwent arthroscopy by an orthopedic surgeon. Results: MR had 100% sensitivity and NPV of diagnosing ACL tears in this study. Clinical examination had sensitivity of 88% and NPV 75% in diagnosing ACL injuries. There was high NPV of MR examination (96% in diagnosing meniscus tear while the PPV of MR examination was low (71%. These values were low in case of clinical examination. Conclusions: MRI is a useful non-invasive modality having high diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and negative predictive value making it a very reliable screening test for diagnosing internal derangements.

  13. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  14. Motives for sports participation as predictions of self-reported outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, K K; Andersen, T E; Lohmander, S; Roos, E M

    2015-06-01

    Aim of the study was to access how individual's motives for participation in sports impact on self-reported outcomes 2 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Based on a longitudinal cohort study, this secondary analysis present data from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) study, a randomized controlled trial. At baseline, 121 patients recorded in an initial questionnaire that their motives for sports participation fell into four categories: achievement, health, social integration, or fun and well-being. These four categories were used as variables in the analyses. All 121 subjects completed the 2-year follow-up. The largest improvement was seen in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale sports and recreation function, with an effect size of 2.43. KOOS sports and recreation function was also the subscale score best predicted by the motives for sports participation. Baseline motives achievement and fun and well-being predicted worse levels of pain and function 2 years after the injury, even after adjusting for age, gender, treatment and baseline scores. Psychological aspects, such as motives for participation in sport, can be factors in predicting of patient-reported outcomes 2 years after injury. Evaluating motives for sports participation may help predict the outcome 2 years after ACL injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Below-knee amputations as a result of land-mine injuries: comparison of primary closure versus delayed primary closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateşalp, A S; Erler, K; Gür, E; Solakoglu, C

    1999-10-01

    Antipersonnel land mines are designed to maim by mutilating the lower extremities, and these injuries are at higher risk for infection than injuries from other weapon systems. The results of 474 unilateral traumatic below-knee amputations as a result of land-mine injuries were reviewed. If the delay in evacuation between the injury and arrival to the battle field hospital was less than 6 hours, 392 amputation stumps (group I) were closed primarily after meticulous debridement. Open amputation was performed after debridement in the remaining 82 amputation stumps (group II), because there was a suspicion of ineffective debridement, although they were evacuated in less than 6 hours or delay was more than 6 hours. Eleven patients in group I (2.8%) were reoperated because of wound sepsis of the stump. Wound sepsis was not encountered in group II. A total of 87.4% of stumps in group I and 81.2% of stumps in group II had healed without a problem. No gas gangrene or tetanus was encountered in any cases. Our results reveal that primary closure may be done in traumatic below-knee amputations caused by land-mine injuries with an acceptable infection rate, if the evacuation time is less than 6 hours, and if there is meticulous debridement.

  16. Assessment of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Injuries of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Helito, Paulo Victor Partezani; Costa, Hugo Pereira; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of injuries and abnormalities of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cases of acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. MRIs of patients with acute ACL injury were evaluated. Acute injuries of the ACL were considered in cases in which the patient reported knee trauma occurring less than 3 weeks prior and when bone bruise in the femoral condyles and tibial plateau was identified. ALL abnormality was considered when it showed proximal or distal bone detachment, discontinuity of fibers, or irregular contour associated with periligamentous edema. The ALL was divided into femoral, tibial, and meniscal portions, and the lesions and/or abnormalities of each portion were characterized. The correlation of ALL injury with injuries of the lateral meniscus was evaluated. A total of 101 MRIs were initially evaluated. The ALL was not characterized in 13 (12.8%) examinations, resulting in 88 (87.1%) cases of injury evaluation. Of these, 55 (54.4%) patients had a normal ALL, and 33 (32.6%) showed signs of injury. Among the cases with injury, 24 (72%) patients showed proximal lesions, 7 (21%) showed distal lesions, and 2 (6.0%) patients presented both proximal and distal lesions. The meniscal portion of the ALL appeared abnormal in 16 (48%) patients. No relationship was found between ALL injury and lateral meniscus injury. Based on MRI analysis of acute ACL injuries with bone bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau, approximately a third demonstrated ALL injuries of which the majority was proximal. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...... and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications....

  18. Injuries and injury prevention among senior military officers at the Army War College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; McCollam, Rebecca; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Hoedebecke, Edward; Arnold, Stephanie; Craig, Steven; Barko, William

    2002-07-01

    Injuries and activities associated with injuries were extracted from a retrospective review of the medical records of officers attending the U.S. Army War College during academic years 1999 and 2000 (AY99 and AY00). In AY99, cumulative injury incidence (officers with one or more injuries) was 56%. The next year (AY00), there was command emphasis on injury reduction and education of students on injury prevention strategies. Cumulative injury incidence in AY00 was 44%, significantly lower than in AY99 (p = 0.01, risk ratio [AY99/AY99] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.5). Among activities that could be linked to injuries, sports were associated with 41% in AY99 and 45% in AY00. Recommendations for ongoing injury reduction include the following: (1) continued command emphasis and instruction on injury reduction techniques; (2) encouraging the use of semirigid ankle braces to reduce ankle sprains; (3) reducing the number of practice and game sessions in sports activities; (4) encouraging overrunning of second and third base in softball; (5) prohibiting contact with the center line below the net in volleyball; and (6) encouraging medical care providers to record the activity associated with each injury in the medical records.

  19. What Are Knee Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stand on it. The medial and lateral collateral ligaments are usually injured by a blow to ... This can help your knee(s) without increasing the risk of injury or further damage. As a general ...

  20. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.

  1. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Gilgien, Matthias; Schwameder, Hermann; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive ski-snow interaction is characterised by direct force transmission and difficulty of getting the ski off its edge once the ski is carving. This behaviour has been suggested to be a main contributor to severe knee injuries in giant slalom (GS). The aim of the current study was to provide a foundation for new equipment specifications in GS by considering two perspectives: Reducing the ski's aggressiveness for injury prevention and maintaining the external attractiveness of a ski racer's technique for spectators. Three GS ski prototypes were defined based on theoretical considerations and were compared to a reference ski (Pref). Compared to Pref, all prototypes were constructed with reduced profile width and increased ski length. The construction radius (sidecut radius) of Pref was ≥ 27 m and was increased for the prototypes: 30 m (P30), 35 m (P35), and 40 m (P40). Seven World Cup level athletes performed GS runs on each of the three prototypes and Pref. Kinetic variables related to the ski-snow interaction were assessed to quantify the ski's aggressiveness. Additionally, 13 athletes evaluated their subjective perception of aggressiveness. 15 sports students rated several videotaped runs to assess external attractiveness. Kinetic variables quantifying the ski's aggressiveness showed decreased values for P35 and P40 compared to Pref and P30. Greater sidecut radius reduced subjectively perceived aggressiveness. External attractiveness was reduced for P40 only. This investigation revealed the following evaluation of the prototypes concerning injury prevention and external attractiveness: P30: no preventative gain, no loss in attractiveness; P35: substantial preventative gain, no significant loss in attractiveness; P40: highest preventative gain, significant loss in attractiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Proprioceptive Training and Injury Prevention in a Professional Men's Basketball Team: A Six-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Dario; Bianchi, Roberto; Rocca, Flavio; Mamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Single limb stance instability is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Therefore, the development of proprioception may play an important role in injury prevention. This investigation considered a professional basketball team for 6 years, integrating systematic proprioceptive activity in the training routine. The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive training programs based on quantifiable instability, to reduce ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain through developing refined and long-lasting proprioceptive control. Fifty-five subjects were studied. In the first biennium (2004-2006), the preventive program consisted of classic proprioceptive exercises. In the second biennium (2006-2008), the proprioceptive training became quantifiable and interactive by means of electronic proprioceptive stations. In the third biennium (2008-2010), the intensity and the training volume increased while the session duration became shorter. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in proprioceptive control between groups, years, and bienniums. Injury rates and rate ratios of injury during practices and games were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the occurrence of ankle sprains by 81% from the first to the third biennium (p < 0.001). Low back pain showed similar results with a reduction of 77.8% (p < 0.005). The reduction in knee sprains was 64.5% (not significant). Comparing the third biennium with the level of all new entry players, proprioceptive control improved significantly by 72.2% (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that improvements in proprioceptive control in single stance may be a key factor for an effective reduction in ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain.

  3. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: the systematic development of an intervention and its feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development of the intervention; and (ii) the assessment of its feasibility in terms of relevancy, suitability and usability. The development of the intervention was based on the Intervention Mapping structured and systematic process. First, the needs assessment conducted among the main actors within recreational volleyball revealed that an intervention was needed for injury prevention, ideally embedded prior to a volleyball activity (training or match) within the warm-up, delivered by trainers/coaches, and available in an application for smartphone/tablet or website. Second, the objective and target groups of the intervention were defined, namely to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among both young and adult recreational volleyball players. Third, preventive measures and strategies (e.g. core stability, strength and balance) were selected in order to accomplish a decrease in injury incidence. Last, the intervention 'VolleyVeilig' was finally developed, a warm-up programme including more than 50 distinct exercises and lasting 15 min. A quasi-experimental research based on a one-group post-test design was conducted over a period of 3 weeks among 41 volleyball players and five coaches from five adult recreational teams, who were asked to use the intervention. Degree of relevancy, suitability and usability of the warm-up programme 'VolleyVeilig' were measured among players and coaches on an 11-point scale (varying from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'). All groups of exercises within the warm-up programme were positively assessed with regard to their relevancy, suitability and usability, mean scores ranging from 7.7 to 8

  4. Gender Differences in Commuting Injuries in Spain and Their Impact on Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; González Alcántara, Óscar J; Fontaneda, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    A gender analysis of workers injured while commuting in Spain is presented, distinguishing between injury due to traffic-related accidents and injury due to other causes. Method . A total of 266,646 traffic-related injuries and 168,129 nontraffic-related injuries are studied over the period 2006-2010. Results . In Spain, the accident rate recorded in working hours is much higher among men; nevertheless, it is curious that commuting-related accident rates are higher among women than men, in both traffic-related injuries and nontraffic-related injuries. The study of the frequency distribution confirmed that many more injuries occurred in Spain while commuting to work rather than from work and that women suffered twice as many injuries as men at nine in the morning. Musculoskeletal disorders are the only injuries that registered a higher number of cases among women and falls to the same level are the most relevant cause among women. Conclusions . The analysis of these and more findings established that a great effort should go into the promotion of preventive measures in favour of women workers. These results may encourage companies to modify their accident prevention plans, so as to increase their effectiveness in the struggle against occupational accidents following the five points described in this article.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Herrig, A.; Grebe, P.; Runkel, M.; Regentrop, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    To categorise discrepancies in findings of the menisci and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) between arthroscopy and MRI. Materials and methods: The MRIs of 236 patients were retrospectively analysed by an experienced radiologist without knowledge of clinical and/for operative findings. Discrepancies in arthroscopic findings were reevaluated together with the arthroscopist to determine their cause of error. Results: The diagnostic accuracies for injuries of the medial and lateral meniscus and the ACL were 92.4%, 92.4%, and 94.1%. respectively. For the menisci, causes for discrepancies in findings (n=31) were: overinterpretation of central signal intensities with contact to the meniscal surface but without disturbance of the meniscal contour as a tear (n=12), insufficient arthroscopie evaluation of the knee joint (n=11), overlooked tears on MR imaging (n=6), misinterpretation of normal anatomic structures (n=1), ''magic angle'' phenomenon (n=1), and missed tears at MRI (n=1). Causes for discrepancies for the ACL (n=18) were: nearly complete versus complete rupture either at MRI or arthroscopy and vice versa (n=9), insufficient arthroscopic evaluation (n=6), insufficient MRI technique (n=2), and overlooked tear on MR imaging (n=1). Conclusions: Discrepant findings between MRI and arthroscopy may be also due to an insufficient arthroscopic evaluation in clinical routine. The close cooperation between surgeons and radiologists improves the understanding of the methods of each other. (orig.) [de

  6. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015

  7. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-12-01

    The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4-11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5-11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players.

  8. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the ‘The11’ injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. Results In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4–11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5–11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. Conclusions This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players. PMID:22878257

  9. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  10. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  11. Proprioceptive Training and Injury Prevention in a Professional Men's Basketball Team: A Six-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Roberto; Rocca, Flavio; Mamo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Riva, D, Bianchi, R, Rocca, F, and Mamo, C. Proprioceptive training and injury prevention in a professional men's basketball team: A six-year prospective study. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 461–475, 2016—Single limb stance instability is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Therefore, the development of proprioception may play an important role in injury prevention. This investigation considered a professional basketball team for 6 years, integrating systematic proprioceptive activity in the training routine. The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive training programs based on quantifiable instability, to reduce ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain through developing refined and long-lasting proprioceptive control. Fifty-five subjects were studied. In the first biennium (2004–2006), the preventive program consisted of classic proprioceptive exercises. In the second biennium (2006–2008), the proprioceptive training became quantifiable and interactive by means of electronic proprioceptive stations. In the third biennium (2008–2010), the intensity and the training volume increased while the session duration became shorter. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in proprioceptive control between groups, years, and bienniums. Injury rates and rate ratios of injury during practices and games were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the occurrence of ankle sprains by 81% from the first to the third biennium (p proprioceptive control improved significantly by 72.2% (p proprioceptive control in single stance may be a key factor for an effective reduction in ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain. PMID:26203850

  12. Injuries can be prevented in contact flag football!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, J; Witvrouw, E

    2016-06-01

    This original prospective cohort study was conducted in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries in an intervention cohort as compared to a two-season historical cohort, and to provide recommendations to the International Federation of Football (IFAF) pertaining to prevention measures to make the game safer. A total of 1,260 amateur male (mean age: 20.4 ± 3.9 years) and 244 female (mean age: 18.5 ± 1.7 years) players participated in the study. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. There was a 54 % reduction in the total number of injuries and a significant reduction in the incidence rate and incidence proportion between the intervention cohorts as compared to the historical cohort (p injuries in any of the body parts, except for in hand/wrist injuries related to the use of pockets (p injuries (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Recommendations to the IFAF include strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, the use of soft headgear, comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards and additionally, to change game rules concerning blocking. II.

  13. Examination of Interventions to Prevent Common Lower-Limb Injuries in the New Zealand Defense Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ankle braces have been reported to reduce ankle injury rates in sports such as soccer" and basketball ...inci- dence of ankle sprains and other lower-limb injuries . Ankle injury incidence among basketball players, however, has been found to be unaffected...mechanisms of these injuries suggested that lateral ankle instability was a common causal factor in many of the injuries . Injury prevention

  14. Motor learning strategies in basketball players and its implications for ACL injury prevention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminse, Anne; Otten, Bert; Gokeler, Alli; Diercks, Ron L; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-08-01

    Adding external focus of attention (EF, focus on the movement effect) may optimize current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of an EF, by a visual stimulus and an internal focus, by a verbal stimulus during unexpected sidestep cutting in female and male athletes and how these effects remained over time. Ninety experienced basketball athletes performed sidestep cutting manoeuvres in three sessions (S1, S2 and S3). In this randomized controlled trial, athletes were allocated to three groups: visual (VIS), verbal (VER) and control (CTRL). Kinematics and kinetics were collected at the time of peak knee frontal plane moment. Males in the VIS group showed a larger vertical ground reaction force (S1: 25.4 ± 3.1 N/kg, S2: 25.8 ± 2.9 N/kg, S3: 25.2 ± 3.2 N/kg) and knee flexion moments (S1: -3.8 ± 0.9 Nm/kg, S2: -4.0 ± 1.2 Nm/kg, S3: -3.9 ± 1.3 Nm/kg) compared to the males in the VER and CTRL groups and to the females in the VIS group (p knee valgus moment and the females in the VER group reduced knee varus moment over time (n.s.). Male subjects clearly benefit from visual feedback. Females may need different feedback modes to learn a correct movement pattern. Sex-specific learning preferences may have to be acknowledged in day by day practice. Adding video instruction or feedback to regular training regimens when teaching athletes safe movement patterns and providing individual feedback might target suboptimal long-term results and optimize ACL injury prevention programmes. I.

  15. Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foot is cool and blue after a knee injury. This means that the knee joint may be dislocated, and blood vessels to the foot may be injured. This is a medical emergency. Prevention Use proper techniques when playing sports or exercising. Some college sports programs teach athletes ...

  16. Mapping pediatric injuries to target prevention, education, and outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camille L; Acker, Shannon N; Pyle, Laura; Smith, Dwayne S; Bensard, Denis D; Moulton, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Initiatives exist to prevent pediatric injuries, but targeting these interventions to specific populations is challenging. We hypothesized that mapping pediatric injuries by zip code could be used to identify regions requiring more interventions and resources. We queried the trauma registries of two level I trauma centers for children 0-17years of age injured between 2009 and 2013 with home zip codes in our state. Maps were created to identify outlier zip codes. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified predictors within these zip codes. There were 5380 children who resided in the state and were admitted for traumatic injuries during the study period, with hospital costs totaling more than 200 million dollars. Choropleth mapping of patient addresses identified outlier zip codes in our metro area with higher incidences of specific mechanisms of injury and greater hospital charges. Multivariate analysis identified demographic features associated with higher rates of pediatric injuries and hospital charges, to further target interventions. We identified outlier zip codes in our metro area with higher frequencies of pediatric injuries and higher costs for treatment. These data have helped obtain funding for prevention and education efforts. Techniques such as those presented here are becoming more important as evidence based public health initiatives expand. Type of Study: Cost Effectiveness, II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on quadriceps activation in individuals with knee joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Langston, William T; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is a common intervention to address muscle weakness, however presents with many limitations such as fatigue, muscle damage, and patient discomfort that may influence its effectiveness. One novel form of electrical stimulation purported to improve neuromuscular re-education is Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS), which is proposed to mimic muscle-firing patterns of healthy individuals. PENS provides patterned stimulating to the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and then agonist muscle again in an effort to replicate firing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single PENS treatment on knee extension torque and quadriceps activation in individuals with quadriceps inhibition. 18 subjects (10 males and 8 females: 24.2±3.4 years, 175.3±11.8cm, 81.8±12.4kg) with a history of knee injury/pain participated in this double-blinded randomized controlled laboratory trial. Participants demonstrated quadriceps inhibition with a central activation ratio of ≤90%. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps and central activation ratio were measured before and after treatment. The treatment intervention was a 15-minute patterned electrical stimulation applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles with a strong motor contraction or a sham group, who received an identical set up as the PENS group, but received a 1mA subsensory stimulation. A 2×2 (group × time) ANCOVA was used to determine differences in maximal voluntary isometric contraction and central activation ratio between groups. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was selected as a covariate due to baseline differences. There were no differences in change scores between pre- and post-intervention for maximal voluntary isometric contraction: (PENS: 0.09±0.32Nm/kg and Sham 0.15±0.18Nm/kg, p=0.713), or central activation ratio:(PENS: -1.22±6.06 and Sham: 1.48±3.7, p=0.270). A single Patterned Electrical

  18. Knee injuries in leisure-time physical activities: a prospective one-year follow-up of a Finnish population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, H; Parkkari, J; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Järvinen, M

    2007-01-01

    This prospective one-year follow-up study compared the risks of knee injuries in various commuting and lifestyle activities as well as in recreational and competitive sports in a 15 to 74-year-old Finnish population cohort. A cohort of 3657 persons was randomly selected from the nationwide population register of Finland. Ninety-two percent of them accepted to participate (n = 3363). The subjects were interviewed by telephone three times during the one-year follow-up. The recorded data included all physical activities that lasted 15 minutes or more, and all injuries that were sustained during these activities. Fifteen percent (n = 321) of all reported injuries affected the knee. The individual risk of knee injury per 1000 exposure hours was low in commuting activities (cycling, walking), 0.06 (95 % CI 0.04 to 0.09) and in lifestyle activities (gardening, hunting, fishing, home repair etc.), 0.04 (0.03 - 0.06). In recreational and competitive sports, the knee injury risk was almost ten times higher, 0.44 (0.39 - 0.50). For commuting activities (p = 0.046) and for recreational and competitive sports (p < 0.001), there was a decreasing injury rate with age. In lifestyle activities (p = 0.038), in turn, there was an increasing trend of injuries with aging. In commuting activities (hazard ratio, HR 5.99, 95 % CI 1.40 to 25.6), the risk of knee injury was significantly higher in women than in men. In conclusion, the knee injury risk per exposure hours is almost ten times lower in commuting and lifestyle activities compared to recreational and competitive sports. The knee injury risk is especially high in the age group of 15 to 25 years, especially in various team sports and ball games. At population level, however, widely practiced low-to-moderate intensity activities with relatively low injury risk per exposure hours produce a large absolute number of knee injuries.

  19. The effect of knee brace and knee sleeve on the proprioception of the knee in young non-professional healthy sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoni, G; Herten, A; Kofler, P; Hasler, M; Nachbauer, W

    2013-12-01

    Proprioception has been defined as the capacity to feel the position of a joint in space as sensed by the central nervous system. Prophylactic knee braces are supposed to help in knee injury prevention not just with a mechanical support of the joint but also improving proprioception. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a knee brace and a knee sleeve on knee proprioception. The secondary aim was to determine if different starting angles of the knee and different movement directions influence knee proprioception. We tested a group of twenty healthy male sport students without knee injuries. They were tested with the brace, with the sleeve and without support. The threshold of detection of passive knee movement with a starting knee angle of 30° and 60°, both in flexion and extension was determined. We did not find any statistically significant change in the threshold of detection of passive knee movement wearing the brace or the sleeve compared to the unsupported condition (p=0.462, α=0.05). We found a significantly lower proprioceptive sensitivity starting at the more flexed knee angle (p=0.005, α=0.05) and moving in extension than in the other test situations (p=0.001, α=0.05). Movement direction and starting position appear to influence the threshold of detection of passive knee movement. The results of this study also suggest that knee supports do not influence either positively or negatively knee proprioception of uninjured active subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football; Knie- und Sprunggelenkverletzungen beim Fussballspiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist die weltweit am meisten verbreitete Sportart. Der Zuwachs an Fussballspieler(innen) in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten wird jedoch hauptsaechlich auf das verstaerkte Interesse an weiblichen Spielern zurueckgefuehrt. Das Fussballspiel gilt grundsaetzlich, insbesondere wenn man geringfuegige Verletzungen, die keine therapeutischen Massnahmen notwendig machen, sondern lediglich eine kurzfristige Trainings- oder Spielpause bedingen, als eine relativ sichere Sportart. Auf Grund der Vielzahl an SpielerInnen kommt es allerdings doch zu einer betraechtlichen Anzahl durchaus sehr schwerer Verletzungen. Diese Tatsache stellt ein Problem fuer Spieler und Team dar und mag moeglicherweise auch fuer das soziooekonomische System problematisch werden. Von Verletzungen sind v. a. auf Grund der Natur des Spieles die unteren Extremitaeten betroffen. Zur Durchfuehrung einer suffizienten radiologischen Diagnostik sind Kenntnisse der moeglichen Verletzungsmechanismen und eine Anamneseerhebung von nicht zu unterschaetzendem Wert. Um jedoch derartige Laesionen zu vermeiden bzw. gering zu halten, wurde ueber die Jahre

  1. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a desk job can contribute to back pain, especially if you have poor posture or sit all day in a chair with ... can take steps to avoid and prevent back pain and injuries at work. For example: Pay attention to posture. When standing, balance your weight evenly on your ...

  2. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Injury Prevention Initiative for Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We would be most grateful if you brought to the attention of the readers of African Health Sciences, the following information for IPIFA. The Injury Prevention Initiative for Africa (IPIFA) ratified its constitution at the fourth Annual General Meeting in February 2001. At that meeting, members from 8 African countries, and ...

  3. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... implementation of a safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  4. 75 FR 23637 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first decision, the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  5. 77 FR 74695 - Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0059] RIN... Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meetings. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings on preventing backover injuries and fatalities. OSHA plans to use...

  6. Sports injury prevention in your pocket?! Prevention apps assessed against the available scientific evidence: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, D.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background High costs and personal burden follow sports and physical activity-related injuries (SPRI). The last decades' knowledge on how to prevent SPRIs has grown. Past years' eHealth is emerging and mobile applications (apps) helping to prevent SPRIs are appearing. Aim To review the content of

  7. [Prevention of school sport injuries--an analysis of ballsports with 2234 injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Rossner, D; Jagodzinski, M; Zeichen, J; Gössling, T; Martin-Schmitt, S; Richter, M; Krettek, C

    2005-06-01

    Ball sport school injuries account for a significant morbidity among children and adolescents. During a school year 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Regarding the non-gender-specific distribution of the ball sport disciplines, basketball leads with 32 % (n = 431), followed by soccer (24 %, n = 316), volleyball (17 %, n = 232), handball (8.3 %, n = 110) and hockey (4.9 %, n = 65). Sprains (27 %) dominate in basketball, followed by ligament distorsions and ruptures (23 %) and fractures (21 %), with frequent finger injuries (61 %) without contact of an opponent, and injuries of the lower extremity (28 %). Soccer leads to contusions (29 %), in 52 % of the lower extremity frequently after collision with an opponent (22 %) or the ball (20 %). In volleyball upper extremity injuries (71 %) dominate with 53 % finger sprains in individual volleyball play. Ball school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity with frequent finger injuries. Proprioceptive deficits may play a role in those finger injuries in basketball, volleyball and handball. During hockey, severe dental and facial injuries were apparent. A prospective proprioceptive training program aiming on fingers and the ankle region may therefore be a preventive measure such as helmets with facial protection in hockey school sport.

  8. The effectiveness of ski bindings and their professional adjustment for preventing alpine skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; Kelsall, H L

    1998-06-01

    This article presents a critical review of the extent to which alpine ski bindings and their adjustment have been formally demonstrated to prevent injuries. It considers a range of evidence, from anecdotal evidence and informed opinion to biomechanical studies, testing of equipment, epidemiological studies and controlled field evaluations. A total of 15 published studies examining the effectiveness of bindings and their adjustment were identified. All of these included anecdotal or informed opinion, and all but one focused on equipment design. Seven studies involved the testing of bindings or binding prototypes, 2 studies presented biomechanical models of the forces involved in binding operation, 6 reported an epidemiological evaluation of ski bindings and 2 considered skiers' behaviours towards binding adjustment. Some of the reviewed articles relate to the study of the biomechanics of ski bindings and their release in response to various loads and loading patterns. Other studies examined the contribution of bindings and binding-release to lower extremity, equipment-related injuries, the effect of various methods of binding adjustment on injury risk and the determinants of skiers' behaviour relating to professional binding adjustment. Most of the evidence suggests that currently used bindings are insufficient for the multidirectional release required to reduce the risk of injury to the lower limb, especially at the knee. This evidence suggests that further technical developments and innovations are required. The standard of the manufacture of bindings and boots also needs to be considered. The optimal adjustment of bindings using a testing device has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of lower extremity injury. Generally, however, the adjustment of bindings has been shown to be inadequate, especially for children's bindings. Recommendations for further research, development and implementation with respect to ski binding and their adjustment are given

  9. Association of anterior cruciate ligament injury with knee osteoarthritis and total knee replacement: A retrospective cohort study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsiung Lin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to support the potential protective role of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction against the development of osteoarthritis (OA.In this retrospective cohort study, the long-term results of ACL reconstruction in Taiwan were evaluated based on data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD. In total, 8,769 eligible cases were included from 11,921 ACL-injured patients. The cumulative incidence rates of OA and total knee replacement (TKR were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of OA.There was a lower cumulative incidence of OA among ACL-reconstructed patients (271, 33.1% than among non-reconstructed patients (1,874, 40.3%; p < 0.001. Patients who underwent ACL reconstruction had a lower cumulative incidence of TKR during the follow-up period (0.6% than the non-reconstructed patients (4.6%, p < 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, ACL-injured patients who underwent reconstruction within one month after ACL injury showed a significantly lower risk of OA than those who never underwent reconstruction (adjusted HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99.These results indicate that ACL reconstruction might not provide complete protection from OA development after traumatic knee injury but does yield a lower cumulative incidence of OA development and TKR. Moreover, based on the present study, ACL-injured patients should undergo reconstruction as early as possible (within one month to lower the risk of OA.

  10. Optimization of the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention paradigm: novel feedback techniques to enhance motor learning and reduce injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel V. Dowling; Gregory D. Myer; Timothy E. Hewett; Anne Benjaminse; James A. Onate; Alli Gokeler; Avery Faigenbaum; Kevin R. Ford; Bert Otten

    2015-01-01

    Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve cur- rent prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current ACL

  11. Optimization of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Paradigm : Novel Feedback Techniques to Enhance Motor Learning and Reduce Injury Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Dowling, Ariel V.; Faigenbaum, Avery; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Onate, James A.; Otten, Bert; Myer, Gregory D.

    SYNOPSIS: Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence-is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve current prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current

  12. THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF THE PREVENT INJURY ENHANCE PERFORMANCE PROGRAMME (PEP) ON ACL INJURY RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, S; McCann, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects the prevent injury enhance performance programme (PEP) had on lower extremity biomechanics in relation to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) risk factors compared to when it was not performed. 8 healthy males were required to perform a number of drop rebound jumps as a task that mimicked the sudden deceleration seen during ACL injuries. The PEP significantly (p

  13. Sidecut radius and kinetic energy: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Gilgien, Matthias; Schwameder, Hermann; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic energy (Ekin) increases with speed by the power of 2 and is considered a major risk factor for injuries in alpine ski racing. There is no empirical knowledge about the effect of ski geometry on Ekin. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sidecut radius on the progress of Ekin while skiing through a multigate section in giant slalom (GS). 5 European-Cup level athletes skied on three different pairs of GS skis varying in sidecut radii (30, 35 and 40 m). Each athlete's position over time within a six gate section (including flat and steep terrain) was captured by the use of a differential Global Navigational Satellite System. Ekin, speed, time and path length were analysed for each pair of skis used. When using skis with greater sidecut radius, average Ekin was significantly lower over the entire six gate section, but not locally at every turn cycle. Particular decreases of Ekin were observed for both turns on the flat terrain, as well as for the turn at the terrain transition and the first turn on the steep terrain. The observed decreases in Ekin were found to be primarily explainable by increases in turn time. With respect to typical sport mechanisms that cause severe knee injuries, using skis with greater sidecut radius potentially provides additional injury preventative gain, particularly in specific areas within a run. However, this injury preventative gain during falls in GS should not be overestimated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Surgical Techniques for the Reconstruction of Medial Collateral Ligament and Posteromedial Corner Injuries of the Knee: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Waterman, Brian R

    2015-11-01

    To systematically review reconstruction techniques of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and associated medial structures of the knee (e.g., posterior oblique ligament). A systematic review of Medline/PubMed Database (1966 to November 2013), reference list scanning and citation searches of included articles, and manual searches of high-impact journals (2000 to July 2013) and conference proceedings (2009 to July 2013) were performed to identify publications describing MCL reconstruction techniques of the knee. Exclusion criteria included (1) MCL primary repair techniques or advancement procedures, (2) lack of clear description of MCL reconstruction technique, (3) animal models, (4) nonrelevant study design, (5) and foreign language articles without available translation. After review of 4,600 references, 25 publications with 359 of 388 patients (92.5%) were isolated for analysis, including 18 single-bundle MCL and 10 double-bundle reconstruction techniques. Only 2 techniques were classified as anatomic reconstructions, and clinical and objective outcomes (n = 28; 100% techniques (n = 114; 52.6% techniques have been used in the treatment of isolated and combined medial knee injuries in the existent literature. Many variations exist among reconstruction techniques and may differ by graft choices, method of fixation, number of bundles, tensioning protocol, and degree of anatomic restoration of medial and posteromedial corner knee restraints. Further studies are required to better ascertain the comparative clinical outcomes with anatomic, non-anatomic, and tendon transfer techniques for medial knee reconstruction. Level IV, systematic review of level IV studies and surgical techniques. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Basic biomechanic principles of knee instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Jason P; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Ferrer, Gerald A; Debski, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Motion at the knee joint is a complex mechanical phenomenon. Stability is provided by a combination of static and dynamic structures that work in concert to prevent excessive movement or instability that is inherent in various knee injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a main stabilizer of the knee, providing both translational and rotatory constraint. Despite the high volume of research directed at native ACL function, pathogenesis and surgical reconstruction of this structure, a gold standard for objective quantification of injury and subsequent repair, has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that novel anatomic structures may play a significant role in knee stability. The use of biomechanical principles and testing techniques provides essential objective/quantitative information on the function of bone, ligaments, joint capsule, and other contributing soft tissues in response to various loading conditions. This review discusses the principles of biomechanics in relation to knee stability, with a focus on the objective quantification of knee stability, the individual contributions of specific knee structures to stability, and the most recent technological advances in the biomechanical evaluation of the knee joint.

  16. Clinical characteristics and prevention of ocular penetrating injuries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Hong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical features of children ocular penetrating trauma, and hope to effectively assist to prevent pediatric ocular traumaMETHODS: The data of 145 cases(145 eyeswith ocular penetrating trauma, hospitalized in Xijing Hospital from January 2012 to December 2016, were collected and retrospectively analyzed. All the data of injury factors and environment, age and gender of patients, lesions, treatment and prognosis were detailed studied.RESULTS: In all the 145 pediatric patients with ocular penetrating trauma, accounted for 8.5% of all the ocular trauma patients, there were 95 cases of male, and 50 of female. Penetrating injuries mainly occurred in age of 3-9. The main injuries of ocular perforating in children were scissors, and sharp objects of wooden and iron. The wound was often located in the cornea or the anterior sclera. Traumatic cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and endophthalmitis were the common complications. The visual acuity was severely damaged, and 90 cases(62.1%of the children recovered better than 0.1 after effective treatment.CONCLUSION: The visual function of pediatric p0atients was seriously threatened after penetrating injuries. However, the damage of vision and the rate of blindness can be reduced effectively after timely and correct diagnosis and treatment. It is the most important that active and effective prevention in keep children away from penetrating injuries.

  17. Female adolescent athletes' attitudes and perspectives on injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jessica C; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Denegar, Craig R; Joseph, Michael F; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Trojian, Thomas H; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2017-02-01

    To examine what factors influence a high school female athlete's stated willingness to perform a lower extremity injury prevention program (IPP). A secondary aim was to examine if a participant's stated willingness affected her compliance with an IPP. Repeated measures. We surveyed high school female field hockey, soccer and volleyball athletes before and after a season-long IPP warm-up intervention. Participants completed the Injury Prevention Program Attitude Survey (IPPAS), a paper and pencil survey utilizing Likert-style and open-ended questions. It was used to assess the athletes' willingness to perform an IPP if the data proved the player would experience improved performance, fewer injuries and risk factors, what outside factors influence their willingness to perform an IPP, who they would feel comfortable leading their team in an IPP, and what they believe an IPP can improve. Participants responded that they were willing to perform an IPP if data proved that they would have fewer injury risk factors (p≤0.001) and be less likely to suffer an ACL injury (pinjuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aetiology and prevention of injuries in elite young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation confers many varied benefits in children and adolescents, such as self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility and strength. Nevertheless, the age of initiation of intense training is decreasing and programmes which expose children to excessive amounts of exercise increase the risk of injury. We review sports injuries in young athletes and the long-term outcomes. Sports injuries can lead to disturbances in growth such as limb length discrepancy, caused by traumatised physeal growth induced by injury. Osgood-Schlatter lesion may also cause some sequelae such as painful ossicles in the distal patellar tendon. The apophysis can be fragmentised or separated, and this could be an adaptive change to the increased stress typical of overuse activities. These changes produce an osseous reaction even though they are not disabling. Participation in physical exercise at a young age should be encouraged, because of the health benefits, but decreasing the incidence and severity of sports injuries in young athletes is an important component of any athletic programme and may generate a long-term economic impact in health care costs. Active prevention measures are the main weapon to decrease the (re-)injury rate and to increase athletic performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Knee joint kinematics and kinetics during the hop and cut after soft tissue artifact suppression: Time to reconsider ACL injury mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Kenneth B; Potvin, Brigitte M; Shourijeh, Mohammad S; Benoit, Daniel L

    2017-09-06

    The recent development of a soft tissue artifact (STA) suppression method allows us to re-evaluate the tibiofemoral kinematics currently linked to non-contact knee injuries. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate knee joint kinematics and kinetics in six degrees of freedom (DoF) during the loading phases of a jump lunge and side cut using this in silico method. Thirty-five healthy adults completed these movements and their surface marker trajectories were then scaled and processed with OpenSim's inverse kinematics (IK) and inverse dynamics tools. Knee flexion angle-dependent kinematic constraints defined based on previous bone pin (BP) marker trajectories were then applied to the OpenSim model during IK and these constrained results were then processed with the standard inverse dynamics tool. Significant differences for all hip, knee, and ankle DoF were observed after STA suppression for both the jump lunge and side cut. Using clinically relevant effect size estimates, we conclude that STA contamination had led to misclassifications in hip transverse plane angles, knee frontal and transverse plane angles, medial/lateral and distractive/compressive knee translations, and knee frontal plane moments between the NoBP and the BP IK solutions. Our results have substantial clinical implications since past research has used joint kinematics and kinetics contaminated by STA to identify risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ACL-reconstructed and ACL-deficient individuals show differentiated trunk, hip, and knee kinematics during vertical hops more than 20 years post-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markström, Jonas L; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte K

    2018-02-01

    Little is known regarding movement strategies in the long term following injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and even less about comparisons of reconstructed and deficient knees in relation to healthy controls. The present purpose was to compare trunk, hip, and knee kinematics during a one-leg vertical hop (VH) ~20 years post-ACL injury between persons treated with surgery and physiotherapy (ACL R ), solely physiotherapy (ACL PT ), and controls (CTRL). Between-leg kinematic differences within groups were also investigated. Sixty-six persons who suffered unilateral ACL injury on average 23 ± 2 years ago (32 ACL R , 34 ACL PT ) and 33 controls performed the VH. Peak trunk, hip, and knee angles during Take-off and Landing phases recorded with a 3D motion capture system were analysed with multivariate statistics. Significant group effects during both Take-off and Landing were found, with ACL PT differing from CTRL in Take-off with a combination of less knee flexion and knee internal rotation, and from both ACL R and CTRL in Landing with less hip and knee flexion, knee internal rotation, and greater hip adduction. ACL R also presented different kinematics to ACL PT and CTRL in Take-off with a combination of greater trunk flexion, hip flexion, hip internal rotation, and less knee abduction, and in Landing with greater trunk flexion and hip internal rotation. Further, different kinematics and hop height were found between legs within groups in both Take-off and Landing for both ACL groups, but not for CTRL. Different kinematics for the injured leg for both ACL groups compared to CTRL and between treatment groups, as well as between legs within treatment groups, indicate long-term consequences of injury. Compensatory mechanisms for knee protection seem to prevail over time irrespective of initial treatment, possibly increasing the risk of re-injury and triggering the development of osteoarthritis. Detailed investigation of movement strategies during the VH

  1. Principles of brain plasticity in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a double-blind randomized exploratory trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageberg Eva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic knee injury, including injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, leads to impaired sensorimotor function. Although improvements are achieved by training, impairment often persists. Because good sensorimotor function is associated with better patient-reported function and a potential lower risk of future joint problems, more effective treatment is warranted. Temporary cutaneous anesthesia of adjacent body parts was successfully used on the hand and foot to improve sensorimotor function. The aim of this study was to test whether this principle of brain plasticity could be used on the knee. The hypothesis was that temporary anesthesia of the skin area above and below the knee would improve sensorimotor function of the ipsilateral knee and leg in subjects with ACL injury. Methods In this double-blind exploratory study, 39 subjects with ACL injury (mean age 24 years, SD 5.2, 49% women, mean 52 weeks after injury or reconstruction and self-reported functional limitations and lack of trust in the knee were randomized to temporary local cutaneous application of anesthetic (EMLA® (n = 20 or placebo cream (n = 19. Fifty grams of EMLA®, or placebo, was applied on the leg 10 cm above and 10 cm below the center of patella, leaving the area around the knee without cream. Measures of sensory function (perception of touch, vibration sense, knee kinesthesia and motor function (knee muscle strength, hop test were assessed before and after 90 minutes of treatment with EMLA® or placebo. The paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and analysis of variance between groups, except for ordinal data where the Wilcoxon signed rank test, or Mann–Whitney test, was used. The number of subjects needed was determined by an a priori sample size calculation. Results No statistically significant or clinically relevant differences were seen over time (before vs. after in the measures of sensory or motor

  2. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  3. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  4. Teaching of pressure injury prevention and treatment using simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mazzo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the construction of a high-fidelity clinical scenario simulation of "Pressure injury patient nursing care". Method: Report the experience of constructing a high-fidelity clinical scenario simulation based on the literature and on Bloom's taxonomy. Learning objectives, prior study material, fidelity, clinical case, necessary resources, problem solving, face and content validity, debriefing and evaluation were considered. Results: The scenario included cognitive, psychomotor and affective aspects; role-playing and the moulage technique were used, and it was positively evaluated by the students. Conclusion: The construction of planned, structured and validated simulated clinical scenarios brings learners closer to the clinical practice, allowing the development of the skills required for the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries. Implications for practice: Well-designed simulated clinical settings simulate nursing care training with fidelity to patients with pressure injury.

  5. Evaluation of a Shoulder Injury Prevention Program in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Hibberd, Elizabeth

    2017-11-15

    Previous literature has theorized that alterations in shoulder physical characteristics are present in wheelchair athletes and contribute to shoulder pain and injury. Limited empirical evidence is present that evaluates the effectiveness of a shoulder injury prevention program focusing on improving these altered characteristics. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week intervention program at improving characteristics that increases the risk of developing pain or shoulder injury. Pre and post-test. Home-based and controlled laboratory. Seven collegiate wheelchair athletes. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) and scapular muscle strength were assessed, and a 5-minute injury prevention program was taught to participants. Participants completed the intervention 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Following completion of the program, a post-intervention screening was performed. Internal/external rotation ROM, retraction strength, and internal/external rotation strength. Participants experienced a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder internal rotation ROM (t6=3.56,p=0.012) with an average increase of 11.4° of IR ROM, and a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder external rotation (ER) ROM (t6=2.79,p=0.032) with an average increase of 8.0° of ER ROM. There were no significant increases in shoulder IR or ER strength and scapular retraction strength (p>0.05). Improvements in ROM have previously been linked to decreases in shoulder pain and injury in other upper-extremity dominant sports by improving scapular kinematics. These results provide evidence that a 6-week strengthening and stretching intervention program may decrease risk factors for shoulder injury in wheelchair athletics.

  6. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Rawashdeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator.

  7. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawashdeh, Samir A; Rafeldt, Derek A; Uhl, Timothy L

    2016-11-03

    Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator.

  8. Possibilities of Kinesio Taping to Prevent Injuries of Professional Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezutsky, Vladimir

    2018-01-26

    The literature review comprises information about application of kinesio taping in prevention of professional dancers' injuries. The relevance of the study is determined by frequent dance related and overuse injuries and lack of organized information about this issue. The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of kinesio taping on the musculoskeletal system of dancers basing on the scientific research data of the years 2015-2017. The analysis revealed that kinesio taping can effectively reduce muscle spasms, rebuild muscle strength of the injured extremity, improve static and dynamic balance and ease the pain, due to its ability to improve the proprioception of the joints and regulate muscle tone. These effects reduce muscle imbalance and joint instability, thus increasing treatment efficacy and shortening the physical loads limitation. Kinesio taping significantly reduces the risk of overuse syndromes and dance related injuries during dance trainings and strenuous exercises of people with chronic musculoskeletal diseases. Therefore, the mentioned method has proven its broad utility in primary and secondary prevention of dance-related injuries.

  9. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejnisman B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benno Ejnisman,1 Gisele Barbosa,1 Carlos V Andreoli,1 A de Castro Pochini,1 Thiago Lobo,2 Rodrigo Zogaib,2 Moises Cohen,1 Mario Bizzini,3 Jiri Dvorak3 1Department of Orthopaedics, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Sports Medicine Department, Santos FC, São Paulo, Brazil; 3FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. Keywords: goalkeeper, shoulder, injury prevention, prevention program

  10. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  11. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  12. Knee dislocation: descriptive study of injuries Luxação do joelho: estudo descritivo das lesões

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    Fabiano Kupczik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the ligamentous and associated injuries that occur in the traumatic knee dislocation, relating them to the mechanisms of trauma and to identify patterns of injuries. METHODS: Twenty three knee dislocations were described in the period between March 2010 and March 2011. After the diagnosis of the lesions, the reduction and transarticular external fixation of the dislocated knees were done. At the second moment, the patients were evaluated with physical examination under anesthesia and the surgical exploration of peripheral lesions was perfomed by a surgeon of the knee surgery group of this institution.The patients data with the description of the injuries were found and registered. RESULTS: 65% of patients were male, the average age was 35 years and the most common mechanism of trauma was the motorcycle accident (60%. The lesion of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL occurred in 75% of the cases, and the lesion of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL in 95%. The medial peripheral injuries happened in 65% of the dislocations, and the lateral lesions in 40%. The most common dislocations were classified as KDI (25% and as KDIIIm (25%. The arterial injury was present in 15% of the cases, and the nervous injury where registered in one patient (5%. At the initial radiographic evaluation, 45% of the dislocations presented reduced. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of the knee dislocations described showed a great range of variability demonstrating that an individualized evaluation of each case is mandatory. The surgeon should be able to recognize and choose the correct treatment to these lesions. OBJETIVO: Descrever as lesões ligamentares e associadas ocorridas nas luxações traumáticas do joelho, relacioná-las aos mecanismos de trauma e identificar padrões de lesões. MÉTODOS: Foram descritas 23 luxações do joelho entre março de 2010 e março de 2011. Após o diagnóstico das lesões, foi procedida a redução e fixação externa

  13. Multicenter assessment of burn team injury prevention knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Karla S; Smith, Sue Jane; Matherly, Annette F; Dillard, B Daniel; Grant, Ernest J; Cusick-Jost, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Engaging burn professionals to utilize "teachable moments" and provide accurate fire safety and burn prevention (FSBP) education is essential in reducing injury incidence. Minimal data is available regarding burn clinicians' evidence-based FSBP knowledge. A committee of prevention professionals developed, pilot-tested, and distributed a 52-question online survey assessing six major categories: demographical information (n = 7); FSBP knowledge (n = 24); home FSBP practices (n = 6); burn center FSBP education (n = 7); self-assessed competence and confidence in providing FSBP education (n = 2); and improving ABA reach (n = 6). Responses with 50% of TG. ANOVA showed self-reported competence and confidence in providing FSBP education were not good predictors of FSBP scores, but staff with competence and confidence in their ability to provide FSBP education. However, this multicenter survey demonstrates the need for professional training on best practices in injury prevention, specifically targeting knowledge gaps on: smoke alarms, fire-safe cigarettes, children's sleepwear, burn/fire epidemiology, fireworks, bathing/scald injuries, and residential sprinklers. Based on these findings, FSBP educational materials will be created.

  14. Education in trauma: An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

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    Jose Daniel Charry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol

  15. Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemyslaw T; Bergman, Stefan; Sundén-Lundius, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function...

  16. Motives for sports participation as predictions of self-reported outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, K K; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lohmander, S

    2015-01-01

    versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) study, a randomized controlled trial. At baseline, 121 patients recorded in an initial questionnaire that their motives for sports participation fell into four categories: achievement, health, social integration, or fun and well-being. These four categories were used...... predicted by the motives for sports participation. Baseline motives achievement and fun and well-being predicted worse levels of pain and function 2 years after the injury, even after adjusting for age, gender, treatment and baseline scores. Psychological aspects, such as motives for participation in sport......Aim of the study was to access how individual's motives for participation in sports impact on self-reported outcomes 2 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Based on a longitudinal cohort study, this secondary analysis present data from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical...

  17. Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Lawrence W.; Stewart, Lygia; Gantert, Walter; Liu, Kingsway; Lee, Crystine M.; Whang, Karen; Hunter, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7%; class II, 22%; class III, 61%; and class IV, 10%. The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25%) were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6%). In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class II injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not

  18. Patellar taping alters knee kinematics during step descent in individuals with a meniscal injury: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nicolas; Gaudreault, Nathaly; Tousignant, Michel; Vézina, François; Boudreau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus lesions are common musculoskeletal knee injuries which often lead to pain, limitation and compensations during functional tasks, such as descending stairs. This study investigated the effect of patellar taping with tension and without tension on three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the knee during a slow step descent task in patients with meniscal lesions. Ten patients diagnosed with a meniscal lesion, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, underwent five, step descent movements at slow speed under three different conditions: 1) no taping; 2) tension-free taping; and 3) patellar taping with medial tension. 3D kinematic data were recorded from the injured knee using an eight-camera infrared Vicon motion analysis system. Maximum and minimum angle values and total range of motion (maximum/minimum value) in three movement planes during single-limb stance were compared using a repeated measure ANOVA. Results showed a significant increase in the maximum and minimum angle value in the sagittal plane (mean differences=2.4° and 4.2°, respectively) and a decrease in the transverse plane (-6.3° and -2.2°, respectively) for the patellar taping condition compared to the no taping condition. A decreased rotational angle range when comparing the patellar taping to the no taping (-4.1°) and tension-free taping (-3.1°) conditions was also observed. These changes remained significant when pain was considered as a covariate in the analysis. The tension applied to the patellar tape played a role in controlling the sagittal and transverse plane step-down movement among patients in our study. These results support the use of patellar taping with a medially oriented tension to help to reduce the transversal plane movement of the knee in this population and they bring new light to the taping effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics during a single-leg stop-jump task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; House, Anthony J; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the sensorimotor system in maintaining a stable knee joint has been recognized. As individual entities, knee-joint proprioception, landing kinematics, and knee muscles play important roles in functional joint stability. Preventing knee injuries during dynamic tasks requires accurate proprioceptive information and adequate muscular strength. Few investigators have evaluated the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. To examine the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Fifty physically active men (age = 26.4 ± 5.8 years, height = 176.5 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 79.8 ± 16.6 kg). Three tests were performed. Knee conscious proprioception was evaluated via threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM). Knee strength was evaluated with a dynamometer. A 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis of a single-legged stop-jump task was used to calculate initial contact (IC) knee-flexion angle and knee-flexion excursion. The TTDPM toward knee flexion and extension, peak knee flexion and extension torque, and IC knee-flexion angle and knee flexion excursion. Linear correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships of both proprioception and strength against landing kinematics. The α level was set a priori at .05. Enhanced TTDPM and greater knee strength were positively correlated with greater IC knee-flexion angle (r range = 0.281-0.479, P range = .001-.048). The regression analysis revealed that 27.4% of the variance in IC knee-flexion angle could be accounted for by knee-flexion peak torque and TTDPM toward flexion (P = .001). The current research highlighted the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Individuals with enhanced proprioception and muscular strength had better control of IC knee-flexion angle during a dynamic task.

  20. Real-time biofeedback to target risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury: a technical report for injury prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; DiCesare, Christopher A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-05-20

    Biofeedback training enables an athlete to alter biomechanical and physiological function by receiving biomechanical and physiological data concurrent with or immediately after a task. To compare the effects of 2 different modes of real-time biofeedback focused on reducing risk factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Randomized crossover study design. Biomechanics laboratory and sports medicine center. Female high school soccer players (age 14.8 ± 1.0 y, height 162.6 ± 6.8 cm, mass 55.9 ± 7.0 kg; n = 4). A battery of kinetic- or kinematic-based real-time biofeedback during repetitive double-leg squats. Baseline and posttraining drop vertical jumps were collected to determine if either feedback method improved high injury risk landing mechanics. Maximum knee abduction moment and angle during the landing was significantly decreased after kinetic-focused biofeedback (P = .04). The reduced knee abduction moment during the drop vertical jumps after kinematic-focused biofeedback was not different (P = .2). Maximum knee abduction angle was significantly decreased after kinetic biofeedback (P knee abduction load and posture from baseline to posttraining during a drop vertical jump.

  1. Exercise for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries in combination with collateral ligament and meniscal damage of the knee in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees, A H; Howe, T E; Grant, M; Gray, H G

    2007-07-18

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most frequently injured ligament of the knee. The ACL may be damaged in isolation but often other ligaments and menisci are implicated. The injury may be managed surgically or conservatively. Injury causes pain, effusion and inflammation leading to alteration in muscle function. Regaining muscular control is essential if the individual wishes to return to pre-injury level of function and patients will invariably be referred for rehabilitation. To present the best evidence for effectiveness of exercise used in the treatment of ACL injuries in combination with collateral ligament and meniscal damage to the knee in adults, on return to work and pre-injury levels of activity. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (October 2006), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1996 to October 2006), EMBASE (1980 to October 2006), other databases and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials testing exercise programmes designed to treat adults with ACL injuries in combination with collateral ligament and meniscal damage. Included trials randomised participants to receive any combination of the following: no care, usual care, a single-exercise intervention, and multiple-exercise interventions. The primary outcome measures of interest were returning to work and return to pre-injury level of activity post treatment, at six months and one year. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Five trials (243 participants) evaluated different exercise programmes following ACL reconstruction and one trial (100 participants) compared supervised with self-monitored exercises as part of conservative treatment. No study compared the effect of exercise versus

  2. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes Atención segura a lesiones de rodilla en atletas

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    Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated. Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.Fundamento: la garantía del éxito deportivo descansa en el buen funcionamiento del sistema músculo-esquelético, debido a que su vulnerabilidad entorpece el rendimiento de cada atleta. El elemento temporal es vital para una atención segura a las afecciones de rodilla, un diagnóstico tardío en este sistema puede favorecer la aparición de complicaciones y obstaculizar la práctica deportiva. Objetivo: caracterizar las lesiones de rodilla en atletas

  3. PRACTICES FOR PREVENTION NEEDLESTICK AND SHARPS INJURIES AMONG NURSING STUDENTS

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    Anh Tran Thi Quynh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries are a serious hazard in any health care setting for health care workers and students during clinical practice. Thus, the efforts to prevent the needlestick and sharps injuries are needed and considered a part of the routine practice. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nursing students in doing the correct practice in prevention needlestick and sharps injuries. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in nursing students of Tien Giang Medical College who participated in clinical practice. There were 360 students participated in the study using simple random sampling. Data were collected using the practical assessment checklist and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Data were processed using STATA 12.0, and analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher test. Results: The students who did general practice correctly accounted for 52.50%, and those who did practice incorrectly was 47.5%. The students who used gauze or wool wrap in inhaler were 59.7%, wearing gloves in practice (39.2%, do not disassemble needles from syringes after injection 50%, and removing needles into barrel after injection (65.6%. There was statistically significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct practice with p-value 0.04 (<0.05 Conclusion: The correct practice of nursing students related to the prevention of needlestick and sharps injuries remains low. There was a significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct nursing practice. It is suggested that students must be taught about the risk of infection at the beginning of clinical practice, and constantly reminded throughout the learning process, especially for injection safety awareness, knowledge and techniques about the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV by sharp objects in the healthcare facility.

  4. Speed enforcement detection devices for preventing road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Willis, C; Hendrikz, J K; Bellamy, N

    2006-04-19

    It is estimated that by 2020, road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world ranking of burden of disease, as measured in disability adjusted life years. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of road traffic injuries is of global public health importance. Measures aimed at reducing traffic speed are considered essential to preventing road injuries; the use of speed enforcement detection devices (including speed cameras and radar and laser devices) is one such measure. To assess whether the use of speed enforcement detection devices (SEDs) reduces the incidence of speeding, road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science (and Social Science) Citation Index, TRANSPORT, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EconLit. We searched the websites of road safety and motoring associations, as well as general internet searches. We handsearched selected journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field. The searches were conducted during May to November 2004. Randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies that assessed the impact of speed enforcement detection devices on speeding, road crashes, injuries and deaths were eligible for inclusion. For studies involving co-interventions, SEDs had to be the major intervention focus of the study to be eligible. We independently screened search results, assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Due to variability between and within included studies, a pooled analysis was not appropriate. No randomised controlled trials were identified. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 22 were controlled before-after trials incorporating a distinct control or comparison group(s) and four were interrupted time series designs with a comparison group(s). Fourteen studies reported speed and crash outcomes, seven reported crash outcomes

  5. Therapeutic strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Donnarumma, Elvira; Fiore, Danilo; Briguori, Carlo; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2013-11-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) accounts for approximately 10% of all causes of hospital-acquired renal failure, causes a prolonged in-hospital stay, and represents a powerful predictor of poor early and late outcome. Here, we highlight endpoints used to assess major strategies to prevent CI-AKI. A general consensus exists on the beneficial prophylactic effect of hydration. This seems to act by increasing urine flow rate and, thereby, by limiting the time of contact between the contrast media and the epithelial tubular cells. On the contrary, both observational trials and randomized studies are often controversial in their conclusions on the efficacy of several drugs tested to prevent CI-AKI. Compounds evaluated include diuretics (furosemide), antioxidants (i.e., N-acetylcysteine and statins), and vasodilators (i.e., calcium antagonists, dopamine, and fenoldopam). Due to the negative and/or controversial clinical results, none of these drugs has been currently recommended to prevent CI-AKI. More reliable markers of acute kidney injury and new prophylactic strategies are warranted to prevent the incidence of CI-AKI.

  6. Effectiveness of occupational injury prevention policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; García, Ana M; Lopez-Ruiz, Maria; Gil, Josep; Boix, Pere; Martinez, José Miguel; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of preventive interventions against occupational injuries (preferential action plans [PAPs]) developed by Spanish regional governments starting in 2000. We included 3,252,028 occupational injuries with sick leave due to mechanical causes occurring between 1994 and 2004 in manufacturing and private service companies. Time trends for occupational injury rates were estimated before and after implementation of PAPs in each region, with a control group defined for those regions in which no PAPs were implemented (e.g., Galicia, Madrid, and Cataluña). We determined annual change percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through a negative binomial regression model. Regions were grouped into three categories according to formal quality of their PAPs. The regions with the best PAPs (Andalucia, Aragon, Valencia, and Murcia) showed annually increasing occupational injury rates (2.3%, 95% CI -2.5, 7.4) before implementation of PAPs. After PAPs were implemented, occupational injury rates decreased significantly to -7.4% (95% CI -10.2, -4.5). Similar results were also found for regions with PAPs of lower quality and even for regions that didn't implement a PAP (control group). These results did not vary substantially in stratified analysis by gender, age, type of contract, or length of sick leave. PAPs are not related to a general decline in occupational injury rates in Spain starting in 2000. Reinforcement of Spanish health and safety regulations and labor inspection activities since 2000, resulting from a social agreement between central government and social agents, remains an alternative hypothesis requiring additional research.

  7. Mechanisms of pediatric electrical injury. New implications for product safety and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabban, J T; Blair, J A; Rosen, C L; Adler, J N; Sheridan, R L

    1997-07-01

    To determine age-specific mechanisms of electrical injury in children, to examine product safety regulation of the major sources of electrical injury hazard, and to assess the adequacy of current prevention strategies. Case series of 144 pediatric and adolescent electrical injuries in patients seen in the specialized burn center and tertiary care hospital between 1970 and 1995, examination of Consumer Product Safety Commission product recall reports for electrical injury hazards between 1973 and 1995, and review of the National Electric Code. Eighty-six cases of electrical injuries resulted from low-voltage (products identified by the Consumer Product Safety Commission to be electrical injury hazards, 119 were appliance cords, extension cords, or holiday stringed light sets. Several products numbered more than 1.5 million units in US household distribution prior to the investigation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Household electrical cords are the major electrocution hazard for children younger than 12 years, yet no federal safety mandates exist. Despite voluntary standards, noncompliant manufacturers can introduce vast numbers of unsafe cords onto the US household market every year. Conversion of existing voluntary safety guidelines into federally legislated standards may be the most effective intervention against pediatric electrocutions.

  8. Pushrim biomechanics and injury prevention in spinal cord injury: recommendations based on CULP-SCI investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boninger, Michael L; Koontz, Alicia M; Sisto, Sue Ann; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Chang, Michael; Price, Robert; Cooper, Rory A

    2005-01-01

    Over 50 percent of manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) are likely to develop upper-limb pain and injury. The majority of studies related to pain have implicated wheelchair propulsion as a cause. This paper draws from a large multisite trial and a long-standing research program to make specific recommendations related to wheelchair propulsion that may decrease the risk of upper-limb injury. The studies include over 60 subjects over 1 yr after a traumatic SCI below the second thoracic level. Specific aspects of the propulsive stroke that may relate to injury include cadence, magnitude of force, and the pattern of the hand during the nonpropulsive part of the stroke. Lower peak forces, slower cadence, and a circular propulsive stroke in which the hand falls below the pushrim during recovery may help prevent injury. In addition, wheelchair users should use the lightest weight adjustable wheelchair possible. Future work should include interventional trials and larger studies that allow for more complex statistical models that can further detail the relationship between wheelchair propulsion, user characteristics, and upper-limb injuries.

  9. The Study of Prophylactic Knee Braces Efficacy on Strain Reduction on the Medial Collateral Ligament in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Yavarikia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The most frequent site of injury in football is the knee. In this study the value of prophylactic knee braces in reduction of MCL injuries was evaluated.Materials & Methods: In this prospective cohort study we evaluated 11480 athlete-exposure that lasted 30 minutes. After the explanation of study method to coaches and athlete we gave them two kind of study questionnaires. After data collection we analyzed data with SPSS 10.Results: In this study 149 injuries happened out of which. 28 were knee injuries (21 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.21 and 23 were knee ligamentous injuries (16 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.662. There were 16 MCL injuries (11 in unbraced athletes and 5 in braced athletes. The relative risk in this study was 0.454. We evaluated the severity of ligamnetous injury and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.5.Conclusion: In conclusion in this study we found that the prophylactic knee braces had no positive effect in prevention of knee injuries. Some epidemiological studies with large samples and longer period should be designed to discover the real effect of these braces in knee injuries prevention.

  10. Measurement of strength and loading variables on the knee during Alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S M; Hull, M L

    1989-01-01

    The study focusses on the prevention of knee injuries during snow skiing. In order to develop a technology of knee injury prevention, both the strength and loading on the knee during skiing activity must be known. This paper reports measurements of variables influencing both knee strength and loading of the joint. The strength variables measured included the degree of activity in six muscles crossing the knee, the knee flexion angle, and the axial load (i.e. weight bearing) transmitted to the knee. Transducers included surface electrodes to monitor electromyogram signals indicating the degree of muscle activity and a goniometer to measure both hip and knee flexion angles. The complete loading on the knee was derived from a dynamometer which measured the six load components at the boot-dynamometer interface. The transducer data were acquired and stored by a compact, battery powered digital data acquisition-controller system. Three male subjects of similar physical size (nominal was 1.8 m and 75 kg) and skiing ability (advanced intermediate to expert) were tested under similar conditions. Each subject skied a total of four slalom runs--one snowplow and three parallel. The total time of each test was 21 s. Example data plots from different types of runs are presented and discussed. Based on observations from the data, necessary performance features for ski bindings offering improved protection from knee ligamentous injuries are defined.

  11. Preventive effect of garlic juice on renal reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Faezeh; Gol, Ali; Dabiri, Shahriar; Javadi, Abdolreza

    2011-07-01

    Renal reperfusion injury is associated with increased mortality and morbidity due to acute kidney failure. Oxidative stress induced with renal reperfusion affects glomeruli and tubular epithelium through reactive oxygen species; therefore, the use of medicinal plants appears rational for improvement of reperfusion effects. The aim of present study was to examine the preventive effect of garlic juice (Allium sativum) on renal reperfusion injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, garlic, sham (right nephrectomy), reperfusion, and reperfusion + garlic groups. After right nephrectomy, renal ischemia and reperfusion were induced. At the end of the experiment, all rats were killed and kidney function tests and histopathological examination were performed. Results. Reperfusion increased serum urea and fractional excretion of sodium levels, while it decreased urine potassium levels and creatinine clearance. However, garlic juice significantly decreased serum urea levels in the reperfusion + garlic group compared with the reperfusion group (P < .001). Preteatment with garlic juice also resulted in significant increase in urine potassium (P = .03) compared to reperfusion. Fractional excretion of sodium and creatinine clearance were also improved. On histological examination, rats pretreated with garlic juice had nearly normal morphology. The results of this study showed that garlic juice significantly prevented renal reperfusion-induced functional and histological injuries.

  12. Evaluation of a ski and snowboard injury prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael; Luong, Wilson P; Faress, Ahmed; Leroux, Timothy; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effectiveness of a brochure and video at improving skiing and snowboarding knowledge. Sixty-nine Grade 7 students were randomised to an educational intervention (n = 35) or control (n = 34) group. The intervention group viewed an injury prevention video aimed at improving skiers and snowboarder's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about ski and snowboard safety and received a brochure. The control group participated in a teaching session and had a simple question and answer session about snow sports. Pre- and post-tests were administered and injuries during four trips were documented. Pre-test scores were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, there was a significantly greater improvement in post-test scores among the intervention group (WMD: 2.1; 95% CI: 0.19-4.01). There was no significant difference in injury rates (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.04, 3.39). All injuries were minor and did not require medical attention. The intervention aimed at youth skiers and snowboarders appears to be effective at improving knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of skiing and snowboarding safety.

  13. Effect of specific exercise-based football injury prevention programmes on the overall injury rate in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...

  14. Q-angle, Pelvic width, and Intercondylar notch width as predictors of knee injuries in women soccer players in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, E E; Useh, U; Mtshali, B F

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the three anatomical factors of Q-angle (QA), pelvic width (PW) and Intercondylar notch width (INW) and knee injuries among the U-23 female soccer players of South Africa The study is a case-control prospective study design. Twenty four U-23 women soccer players of the South African team were purposively chosen to participate in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: group 1 (Case) was those with knee injuries, while those without injuries were in group-2 (Control). PW and INW were measured after X-rays of the hip were taken while the QA was measured manually with the goniomenter. Association between anatomical factors and knee injuries were tested with ANOVA. Q-angle ranged from 14° to 18° for both injured and non injured groups. PW was between 24 -29 cm for both injured and non injured groups. INW was between 1.3mm and 2.8mm for the right and between 1.4mm and 2.5mm for the left notch for the injured group, while INW for the right and left of the non injured group were between 1.7 mm to 2.1 mm and 1.8 mm to 2.1 mm, respectively No significant association between knee injuries and each of the anatomical factors was found QA (p= 0.74), PW (p=0.34), INW (right and left respectively) (p=0.142 & p=0.089). The three anatomical factors of QA, PW and INW could not be used to predict knee injuries amongst the U-23 female players in South Africa.

  15. Quasi-stiffness of the knee joint in flexion and extension during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical understanding of the knee joint during a golf swing is essential to improve performance and prevent injury. In this study, we quantified the flexion/extension angle and moment as the primary knee movement, and evaluated quasi-stiffness represented by moment-angle coupling in the knee joint. Eighteen skilled and 23 unskilled golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras and two force platforms were used to record a swing motion. The anatomical angle and moment were calculated from kinematic and kinetic models, and quasi-stiffness of the knee joint was determined as an instantaneous slope of moment-angle curves. The lead knee of the skilled group had decreased resistance duration compared with the unskilled group (P knee was lower than that of the trail knee in the skilled group (P knee of the skilled golfers had greater flexible excursion duration than the trail knee of the skilled golfers, and of both the lead and trail knees of the unskilled golfers. These results provide critical information for preventing knee injuries during a golf swing and developing rehabilitation strategies following surgery.

  16. Diagnosis of knee injuries: comparison of the physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging with the findings from arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Orlando Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and concordance of the physical examination (PE and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in comparison with arthroscopy, in diagnosing knee injuries. METHODS: Prospective study on 72 patients, with evaluation and comparison of PE, MRI and arthroscopic findings, to determine the concordance, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: PE showed sensitivity of 75.00%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44% for medial meniscal (MM lesions, while it showed sensitivity of 47.82%, specificity of 93.87% and accuracy of 79.16% for lateral meniscal (LM lesions. For anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, PE showed sensitivity of 88.67%, specificity of 94.73% and accuracy of 90.27%. For MM lesions, MRI showed sensitivity of 92.50%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44%, while for LM injuries, it showed sensitivity of 65.00%, specificity of 88.46% and accuracy of 81.94%. For ACL injuries, MRI showed sensitivity of 86.79%, specificity of 73.68% and accuracy of 83.33%. For ACL injuries, the best concordance was with PE, while for MM and LM lesions, it was with MRI ( p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Meniscal and ligament injuries can be diagnosed through careful physical examination, while requests for MRI are reserved for complex or doubtful cases. PE and MRI used together have high sensitivity for ACL and MM lesions, while for LM lesions the specificity is higher. Level of evidence II - Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference "gold" standard.

  17. 'Do as we say, not as we do:' a cross-sectional survey of injuries in injury prevention professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Allison; Brussoni, Mariana; Schneeberg, Amy; Jones, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    As the leading cause of death and among the top causes of hospitalisation in Canadians aged 1-44 years, injury is a major public health concern. Little is known about whether knowledge, training and understanding of the underlying causes and mechanisms of injury would help with one's own prevention efforts. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we hypothesised that injury prevention professionals would experience fewer injuries than the general population. An online cross-sectional survey was distributed to Canadian injury prevention practitioners, researchers and policy makers to collect information on medically attended injuries. Relative risk of injury in the past 12 months was calculated by comparing the survey data with injury incidence reported by a comparable subgroup of adults from the (Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)) from 2009 to 2010. We had 408 injury prevention professionals complete the survey: 344 (84.5%) women and 63 (15.5%) men. In the previous 12 months, 86 individuals reported experiencing at least one medically attended injury (21,235 people per 100,000 people); with sports being the most common mechanism (41, 33.6%). Fully 84.8% individuals from our sample believed that working in the field had made them more careful. After accounting for age distribution, education level and employment status, injury prevention professionals were 1.69 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.03) times more likely to be injured in the past year. Despite their convictions of increasing their own safety behaviour and that of others, injury prevention professionals' knowledge and training did not help them prevent their own injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Feasibility study of simultaneous physical examination and dynamic MR imaging of medial collateral ligament knee injuries in a 1.5-T large-bore magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studler, Ueli; White, Lawrence M.; Deslandes, Melanie; Sussman, Marshall S.; Geddes, Christopher; Theodoropoulos, John

    2011-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of evaluating medial knee joint laxity with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination in a large-bore 1.5-T system. The study included 10 patients (5 women, 5 men; mean age 35 years) with clinically diagnosed and categorized acute injuries of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). Intermittent valgus stress was applied separately to both the affected and the contralateral knee joint during dynamic MR imaging with a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence. The width of the medial joint space and the opening angle between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateau were measured. Results obtained from dynamic MR imaging of the affected knee were compared with morphological MCL changes on static MRI, to kinematics of the contralateral side and to the clinical grading of MCL injuries. On clinical examination, all patients had grade 2 MCL injuries except one, who had a grade 1 lesion. Using morphological MRI criteria, 9 grade II and 1 grade III injuries were seen. Mean medial joint space width and opening angles of all affected knees were 2.8 mm and 2.7 respectively, compared with 1.7 mm and 2.1 on the contralateral side. The Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that the differences in width (P = 0.005) and opening angle (P = 0.037) between the affected and contralateral knees were significant. Dynamic MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination is feasible. Our results suggest that this technique might enable the imaging documentation of medial ligamentous knee instability. (orig.)

  19. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amersi, Farin; Nelson, Sally K.; Shen, Xiu Da; Kato, Hirohisa; Melinek, Judy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious potential threat to outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical arenas in which there is temporary interruption of blood flow. I/R is a frequent cause of primary failure in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the antioxidant bucillamine, a potent sulfhydryl donor, would protect against I/R injury in high-risk organ transplants. Because livers subjected to prolonged ischemia and very fatty livers are highly susceptible to severe I/R injury, we studied the effect of bucillamine in three animal models of liver transplantation: two ex vivo models of isolated perfused livers, either normal or fatty rat livers, and an in vivo model of syngenic orthotopic liver transplants in rats. In all models, livers were deprived of oxygen for 24 h before either ex vivo reperfusion or transplantation. In the ex vivo models, bucillamine treatment significantly improved portal vein blood flow and bile production, preserved normal liver architecture, and significantly reduced liver enzyme release and indices of oxidative stress. Moreover, bucillamine treatment significantly increased levels of reduced glutathione in the liver and lowered levels of oxidized glutathione in both liver and blood. In rats subjected to liver transplants, bucillamine significantly enhanced survival and protected against hepatic injury. Possible mechanisms of this protection include prevention of excessive accumulation of toxic oxygen species, interruption of redox signaling in hepatocytes, and inhibition of macrophage activation. This study demonstrates the potential utility of bucillamine or other cysteine-derived thiol donors for improving outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical settings involving I/R injury. PMID:12084933

  20. Development of a Theory-Driven Injury Prevention Communication Strategy for U.S. Army Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    theories/models for injury interventions. The injuries most targeted for intervention involved motor vehicle, pedestrian, and bicycle injuries. The... tracked during the data collection period. This project relies on the preferences of the Injury Prevention Survey respondents, which may not be

  1. Anatomical reconstruction of posterolateral corner and combined injuries of the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, W.A. van der; Heesterbeek, P.J.; Tienen, T.G. van; Busch, V.J.; Ochten, J.H. van; Wymenga, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to present a 2- to 5-year prospective follow-up of an anatomical posterolateral corner reconstruction in a series of 16 patients with symptomatic instability and pain complaints of the knee. METHODS: All 16 patients underwent a posterolateral corner reconstruction

  2. M. biceps femoris - A wolf in sheep's clothing: The downside of a lower limb injury prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, Thomas; Gronwald, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Both, hamstring and ACL injuries are among the most typical injuries, particularly in change of direction and high speed running sports. They're also difficult to treat. Therefore, in the past few years, sports medicine practitioners and exercise scientists have mainly been focusing on the development and implementation of preventive programs in order to reduce the number of lower limb injuries, mainly by improving knee alignment. A number of studies have been able to prove the success of these training interventions, which are mainly addressing sensorimotor abilities and plyometric activities. The number of non-contact hamstring injuries has nevertheless been on the rise, particularly in sports like soccer and football. Therefore, the purpose of the following article is to introduce the hypothesis that the above-mentioned training interventions have a massive influence on the activation patterns on the targeted muscle group, and on the M. biceps femoris in particular. Muscle function and the resulting internal load are directly related to muscle architecture at the insertion. Training induced adaptations in hamstring activation patterns can thus lead to an increased injury susceptibility. In this case, a simulation model that directly relates to an acute deceleration maneuver provides valuable insights into the function of the biceps femoris muscle, especially when the rate of activity and the muscle geometry at the insertion area are taken into consideration. We conclude that there needs to be a greater individualization of prevention programs, especially in regards to anatomical requirements, in order to further reduce injury rates in elite sports. Moreover, it would also seem reasonable to apply a similar approach to aspects of chronic pain such as chronic non-specific low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and…

  4. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Rin Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI.

  5. The MRI study of usefulness for the injury of cruciate ligaments and menisci in the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Yoichi; Komatsu, Mitsuru; Harada, Masayuki; Muraoka, Yoshitaka; Hoshi, Tadayuki.

    1989-01-01

    From March 1988 through February 1989, 80 knees from 76 consecutive patients have been examined by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI scans were available for review in 47 knees (43 patients) which were concurrently examined by arthroscopy. Sagittal appearances of the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) were morphologically classified into (I) disappearance (signal disappearance of the normal ACL); (II) tear on the side of the femur; (III) midsubstance tear (tear in the central part); (IV) incomplete tear (swelling associated with some tonicity); (V) tear on the side of the tibia; and (VI) others (unclassified). Using arthroscopy as the standard, an overall diagnostic accuracy of this classification was 70%. Depending upon the time of MRI scanning, it varied from 80% within 2 weeks after injury to 65% after 2 weeks. When swelling associated with some tonicity was seen on sagittal views, the presence or absence of tear in the ACL and the posterior cruciate ligaments was easy to diagnose (diagnostic accuracy of 98% for ACL and 100% for PCL). Meniscal tears of the knee were graded on a scale of 0-4: 0= homogeneously low signal intensities; 1= irregular signal intensities within the menisci without communicating or contact to the marginal joint; 2= linear shadow without communicating or contact to the marginal joint; 3= linear or spherical shadow with communicating or contact to the marginal joint; 4= disappearance of signals in the menisci. The menisci scored as scales 3 or more was judged as having tear. A diagnostic accuracy for meniscal tears was 88%. MRI may prove to be useful for screening the presence or absence of meniscal tears. (N.K.)

  6. The MRI study of usefulness for the injury of cruciate ligaments and menisci in the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Yoichi (National Hirosaki Hospital, Aomori (Japan)); Komatsu, Mitsuru; Harada, Masayuki; Muraoka, Yoshitaka; Hoshi, Tadayuki

    1989-09-01

    From March 1988 through February 1989, 80 knees from 76 consecutive patients have been examined by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI scans were available for review in 47 knees (43 patients) which were concurrently examined by arthroscopy. Sagittal appearances of the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) were morphologically classified into (I) disappearance (signal disappearance of the normal ACL); (II) tear on the side of the femur; (III) midsubstance tear (tear in the central part); (IV) incomplete tear (swelling associated with some tonicity); (V) tear on the side of the tibia; and (VI) others (unclassified). Using arthroscopy as the standard, an overall diagnostic accuracy of this classification was 70%. Depending upon the time of MRI scanning, it varied from 80% within 2 weeks after injury to 65% after 2 weeks. When swelling associated with some tonicity was seen on sagittal views, the presence or absence of tear in the ACL and the posterior cruciate ligaments was easy to diagnose (diagnostic accuracy of 98% for ACL and 100% for PCL). Meniscal tears of the knee were graded on a scale of 0-4: 0= homogeneously low signal intensities; 1= irregular signal intensities within the menisci without communicating or contact to the marginal joint; 2= linear shadow without communicating or contact to the marginal joint; 3= linear or spherical shadow with communicating or contact to the marginal joint; 4= disappearance of signals in the menisci. The menisci scored as scales 3 or more was judged as having tear. A diagnostic accuracy for meniscal tears was 88%. MRI may prove to be useful for screening the presence or absence of meniscal tears. (N.K.).

  7. A pilot study of the effect of Kinesiology tape on knee proprioception after physical activity in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, Simona; Bottoni, Giuliamarta; Heinrich, Dieter; Kofler, Philipp; Hasler, Michael; Nachbauer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Kinesiology tape has gained significant popularity in recent years and is widely used as an adjunct for treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries. However, evidence regarding its influence on knee proprioception is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kinesiology tape on knee proprioception after physical activity in healthy women. It was hypothesized that Kinesiology tape enhances knee proprioception. Longitudinal analysis, pretest-posttest design. Twelve young women with healthy knees were tested for knee proprioception without the use of Kinesiology tape and wearing Kinesiology tape at the knee. The joint position sense was measured at the start and after a 30-min uphill walking protocol on a treadmill. Outcome was the knee angle deviation. No significant difference of proprioceptive performance between the application with Kinesiology tape and without Kinesiology tape was found after uphill walking (p > 0.05). However, when the participants' results for knee angle deviation were graded into good ( 6.1°), Kinesiology tape significantly enhanced those with poor proprioceptive ability after uphill walking, compared to the untaped knee (p = 0.002). This study has shown that the application of Kinesiology tape did not improve knee proprioception in a group of healthy young women. However, it also has demonstrated that Kinesiology tape provided significant proprioceptive enhancement at the knee joint after uphill walking in healthy women with poor proprioceptive ability. This may support its use in sports medicine for preventing knee injuries. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes

  9. 76 FR 7217 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the...

  10. Preseason physical examination for the prevention of sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, D B

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.

  11. Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Christer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. Aim To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Methods Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. Results This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2 after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. Conclusion We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated

  12. Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyami, Masoud; Rolf, Christer

    2009-05-07

    Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2) after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively) however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated by MRI and a modified knee function score occurred between 5 to 7

  13. Meaningful Change Scores in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingelsrud, Lina Holm; Terwee, Caroline B; Terluin, Berend

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningful change scores in the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have not yet been established. PURPOSE: To define the minimal important change (MIC) for the KOOS after ACL reconstruction. STUDY....... Presurgery KOOS scores were retrieved from the registry. The MIC for improvement was calculated with anchor-based approaches using the predictive modeling method adjusted for the proportion of improved patients, the mean change method, and the receiver ope