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Sample records for prevent iron deficiency

  1. Preventing Iron Deficiency and Anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Anaemia, often due to iron deficiency, is one of the most widespread causes of mortality and morbidity in ... Pregnant women must make many new red blood cells, provide iron for the foetus and may lose much blood during .... Do not give tea and coffee to children. • Eat fermented porridges and germinate/malt cereals and ...

  2. Preventing Iron Deficiency and Anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Eat fermented porridges and germinate/malt cereals and legumes to reduce phytates. • Eat foods fortified with iron if feasible, such as some wheat flours. Families can use home fortification products if available. • Breastfeed babies exclusively for 6 months and then to include iron-rich foods such as suitably prepared meat or ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  6. [Prevention of mineral deficiencies (iron, calcium and magnesium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, M P; Hercberg, S

    1993-01-15

    The calcium, magnesium and iron intakes provided by food must be sufficient to fulfil the physiological demands of each individual, to avoid the clinical manifestations of mineral deficiencies and to ensure an optimal state of health. For these reasons, it is desirable to ensure a sufficient calcium intake (notably by milk products) at all ages and particularly in children, adolescents and young adults up to the age of 25 (and also in elderly people to prevent osteoporosis); to recommend the consumption of magnesium-rich foods, such a little sifted cereals and dry vegetables to ensure sufficient intakes; to prescribe pharmaceutical preparations on iron systematically in pregnant women and by repeated courses in infants aged 10 to 36 months (to avoid complications due to iron deficiency and notably its harmful influence on haematopoiesis). The consumption of "second age" milks for older children must also be encouraged. Finally, the consumption of foodstuffs with a high vitamin C content should be recommended as it increases the bioavailability of nutritional iron, and the consumption of substances, such as tea and coffee, which inhibit iron absorption must be reduced.

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  11. Food Fortification to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency | Chen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia, one of the most prevalent problems of micronutrient malnutrition, occurs in many developing countries. Causes of the problem are many, but one of the major causes is low bioavailability of food iron. An increase in the supply of absorbable iron-rich food in the diet should decrease the prevalence of ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron- ... deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who should be ...

  15. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Methods of Iron Deficiency Prevention in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.А. Bielykh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods of iron deficiency prevention in infants. Materials and Methods. Within 30-cluster regional epidemiological study on the prevalence of iodine and iron deficiency in children, we have analyzed the results of screening for anemia in 948 children, carried out questioning of mothers, determined the concentration of iron in breast milk. The effectiveness of preventive measures was assessed by indicators of iron supplementation of the body in 96 children depending on the existing method of iron prophylaxis. Results of the Study. It was found that the use by mother during lactation of iron-containing vitamin-mineral complexes had no effect on the iron content in breast milk. It is proved that administration of iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex 1 mg/kg/day for 2 months is the most effective way to prevent iron deficiency in children who are exclusively breastfed.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend to prevent your iron- ... colon under sedation to view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... to iron-deficiency anemia. We are interested in studying in more detail how iron levels are regulated ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Taking ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  8. Iron deficiency anemia in sports and preventive dietetic and nutrition interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia in athletes is a very common condition that leads to reduced physical performance. Athletes are susceptible of falling iron deposits, mainly by an increase in its use, by its loss, or by insufficient intake. The present review aims to establish the basis of current knowledge environment: sports-athletes who have increased risk of anemia, etiology of iron deficiency anemia in the sporting group, providing dietary and nutritional guidelines for its prevention. The databases searched were Pubmed, Scirus and Scielo, as well as the official pages of prestigious organizations, recovering items by keywords: “iron-deficiency anemia”, “sports”, “athletic performance”, “iron intake “or Spanish counterparts. Iron deficiency anemia affects mainly endurance athletes (especially women and marathon and the members of team sports with high impact (volleyball and handball. Usually secondary anemias from hemolysis and oxidative stress resulting from the practice of sport, but it cases have also been documented by increased iron losses associated with exercise. Dietary and nutritional practices to prevent iron deficiency anemia in athletes should aim to ensure: carbohydrate intake between 60-65% of total energy daily minimum intake of 1.4 g of protein per day and a consumption of 20-40 mg iron daily, separating the intake of the main absorption inhibitors (phytate, tanetos and calcium. You need assessed by analytical iron status of the athlete every 2-3 months.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  10. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heavy blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who ... heavy menstrual flow, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help reduce your monthly blood flow. ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special measures can help prevent the condition in these groups. ... is a complete blood count (CBC). The CBC measures many parts of your blood. This test checks ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  20. Tactile stimulation partially prevents neurodevelopmental changes in visual tract caused by early iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan; Bray, Douglas; Lachat, Joao-Jose

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency has a critical impact on maturational mechanisms of the brain and the damage related to neuroanatomical parameters is not satisfactorily reversed after iron replacement. However, emerging evidence suggest that enriched early experience may offer great therapeutic efficacy in cases of nutritional disorders postnatally, since the brain is remarkably responsive to its interaction with the environment. Given the fact that tactile stimulation (TS) treatment has been previously shown to be an effective therapeutic approach and with potential application to humans, here we ask whether exposure to TS treatment, from postnatal day (P) 1 to P32 for 3min/day, could also be employed to prevent neuroanatomical changes in the optic nerve of rats maintained on an iron-deficient diet during brain development. We found that iron deficiency changed astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber, and myelinated fiber density, however, TS reversed the iron-deficiency-induced alteration in oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber and myelinated fiber density, but failed to reverse astrocyte density. Our results suggest that early iron deficiency may act by disrupting the timing of key steps in visual system development thereby modifying the normal progression of optic nerve maturation. However, optic nerve development is sensitive to enriching experiences, and in the current study we show that this sensitivity can be used to prevent damage from postnatal iron deficiency during the critical period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proof packages for supplements can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency ... within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts of iron can be harmful, so ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have iron-deficiency anemia, you'll have a high level of transferrin that has no iron. Other ... may include dietary changes and supplements, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require a blood ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and paler than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency ... if you have iron-deficiency anemia or another type of anemia. You may be diagnosed with iron- ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of blood ... iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition because they need twice ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... and is recruiting by invitation only. View more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for the condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and ... of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who have iron-deficiency anemia may have ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about diet and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young ... who should be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ... iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you may get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With If you have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. ...

  20. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  2. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  3. Plant Ferritin—A Source of Iron to Prevent Its Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia affects a significant part of the human population. Due to the unique properties of plant ferritin, food enrichment with ferritin iron seems to be a promising strategy to prevent this malnutrition problem. This protein captures huge amounts of iron ions inside the apoferritin shell and isolates them from the environment. Thus, this iron form does not induce oxidative change in food and reduces the risk of gastric problems in consumers. Bioavailability of ferritin in human and animal studies is high and the mechanism of absorption via endocytosis has been confirmed in cultured cells. Legume seeds are a traditional source of plant ferritin. However, even if the percentage of ferritin iron in these seeds is high, its concentration is not sufficient for food fortification. Thus, edible plants have been biofortified in iron for many years. Plants overexpressing ferritin may find applications in the development of bioactive food. A crucial achievement would be to develop technologies warranting stability of ferritin in food and the digestive tract. PMID:25685985

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  6. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayupova, I M

    2015-01-01

    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  7. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all ... growth and development, and behavioral problems. Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Signs and symptoms of iron ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ... body can damage your organs. You may have fatigue (tiredness) and other symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to get the ... iron-deficiency anemia, red blood cells will be small in size with an MCV of less than ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting less than the recommended daily ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen ... mean corpuscular volume (MCV) that would suggest anemia. Different tests help your doctor screen for iron-deficiency ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... specialists also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron ...

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    Full Text Available ... often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron added). If you don't eat these foods regularly, or if you don't take an iron supplement, you're more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science ... deficiency anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español What Is ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition ... for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia. The condition can increase ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition ... symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you ... get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood ...

  3. Using of health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Baharzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional problems during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. The study was performed on 80 pregnant women that were randomized equally into the experimental and control groups. A self-administered questionnaire based on health belief model constructs was applied to gather data. The experimental group received two educational sessions. The mean age of women was 27.96±5.6 years and mean gestational age was 16.6±1 weeks. Before the intervention, no significant differences in terms of demographic characteristics and health belief model constructs were found between the groups, while after the intervention, the scores of health belief model were different significantly between the control and experimental groups . Since the results of the study indicated the applicability of health belief model to promote nutritional behavior in regard to anemia in pregnancy, implementing health belief model based educational sessions in health centers is suggested to reduce complications of this problem.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially harmful donations and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ages of 14 and 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ... anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia ... iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research ... Is Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  10. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prescribes. Keep iron supplements out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you use ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special ...

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the first prenatal visit. For pregnant women, medical care during pregnancy usually includes screening for anemia. Also, ... while checking for other problems. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors often diagnose and treat iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells ... cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... explain tests and procedures that your doctor may use to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will ...

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... test called a complete blood count (CBC) to see if you have lower than normal red blood ... iron-deficiency anemia: Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Grants & Training Grants and Training Home Policies and Guidelines Funding Opportunities and Contacts Training and Career Development ... Study - Red Blood Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... people who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This urge to move often occurs with strange ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ... flow. In some cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If ...

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    Full Text Available ... size of your liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam to check for internal bleeding ... bleeding in the stomach, upper intestines, colon, or pelvic organs. Treatment Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

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  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mouth Pale skin Swelling or soreness of the tongue Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest ... Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of your eyelids are ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can cause complications and may be life-threatening. Signs and Symptoms Common signs of iron-deficiency anemia ... abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Are you curious about how ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing all ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for ... be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia if they're underweight or have chronic (ongoing) illnesses. Teenage girls who ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... treat iron-deficiency anemia. These doctors include pediatricians, family doctors, gynecologists/obstetricians, and internal medicine specialists. A hematologist (a blood disease specialist), a gastroenterologist (a digestive system specialist), and ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... bleeding in the GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... All News NHLBI News NHLBI in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming Events About ... NHLBI Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the likelihood of bleeding in the GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Are you ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... Reticulocytes are young, immature red blood cells. Over time, reticulocytes become mature red blood cells that carry ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as ice, dirt, paint, or starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children who have lead in their blood from ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water that contains lead. Teens Teens are at risk ... out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements ...

  17. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    prevented iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. Field-trials on nutritional iron deficiency include an acidified milk formula plus ferrous sulphate for infants; biscuits with added bovine hemoglobin for children in Chile; sugar plus sodium ferric EDTA in Guatemala; salt with ferric orthophosphate and sodium acid sulphate in India; and Salt with ferrous sulphate plus sodium hexametaphosphate.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z ... usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or advise you to eat more iron-rich foods. This not only will help you avoid iron-deficiency anemia, but also may lower your risk of having a low-birth-weight baby. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications The signs and ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and low-birth-weight babies (weighing less than 5.5 pounds) are at even greater risk for iron- ... loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  3. Iron deficiency anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán-Ibañez, G.; Santoyo-Sánchez, A.; Ramos-Peñafiel, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best sources of iron. Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you ...

  5. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron deficiency anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barragán-Ibañez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency anaemia, its metabolism, epidemiology, symptoms and diagnosis, and explore different therapeutic approaches.

  7. Dietary Factors Modulate Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells from an Iron Ingot Used as a Home Fortificant to Prevent Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Rodriguez-Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen.

  8. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program now includes participants with anemia, which may help us understand how genes contribute to differences in disease severity and how patients respond to treatment. The ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... woman's risk for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal bleeding, such as intestinal bleeding, can develop iron-deficiency anemia due to blood loss. Certain conditions, such as colon cancer and bleeding ...

  11. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia is a worldwide health problem affecting developed and developing countries. Children <5 years of age and women of child-bearing age are the most vulnerable. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) ranked 15th and 14th in the global disability-adjusted life-years in. 1990 and 2010, respectively.[1] Globally, the ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another ... may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI resources Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease ( ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate ... Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another condition. Finally, the CBC looks at mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV). MCV is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. The results may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may ask whether you might be pregnant. Physical Exam Your doctor will do a physical exam to look for signs of iron-deficiency anemia. ... liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam to check for internal bleeding Diagnostic Tests and ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working at the NHLBI Contact and FAQs Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to ... treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... body. People with severe iron-deficiency anemia or who have chronic conditions such as kidney disease or celiac disease may be more likely to ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor about delayed clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants & ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ... Topics Anemia Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other ... poorly because of money, social, health, or other problems. Follow a very low-fat diet over a ...

  5. [A FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSESS DIET QUALITY IN THE PREVENTION OF IRON DEFICIENCY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui Abascal, Laura; Díaz Álvarez, Alejandra; Vaquero, María Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge on iron bioavailability, a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for application in population groups predisposed to iron deficiency anaemia has not been implemented. To design a FFQ based on enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption and to assess its applicability in a group of women at childbearing age. the FFQ included 28 items and the time of consumption for 10 of them, breakfast (B) and lunch/dinner(LD). One hundred and seventy nine healthy young women were selected and distributed into three groups according to their iron status measured by serum ferritin: 30 ng/mL. the reproducibility of this FFQ was very high(Spearman coefficient > 0.500, p nuts-LD were negatively associated (p < 0.05). Citric fruits-LD was negatively associated with red meat (p < 0.05) and positively with legumes, fish, salad, vegetables,foods fortified with fiber, other fruits (p < 0.001)and brown bread (p < 0.05). The consumption of fruit juices with breakfast was lower in women with ferritin <15 ng/ml compared to ferritin 15-30 ng/ml. this questionnaire is simple and reproducible.Red meat is the main dietary factor related with higher iron status in young women, thus its influence on iron absorption compared to other enhancers and inhibitors is highlighted. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Ferrotherapy of iron deficiency anemia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhniy V.V.; Korneva V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Present article devoted to the steps for implementation unified clinical protocol of the primary, secondary (specialized) medical care «Iron deficiency» to the practical activities of pediatricians, family physicians. The features of ferrotherapy in children of different age groups and the issues of prevention of iron deficiency states are highlighted.

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you use ... and Blood Institute (NHLBI) leads or sponsors many studies aimed at preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the body from breathing in lead dust, eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water ... prevent the body from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you experience heavy periods. During pregnancy, after delivery, or when breastfeeding you may be consuming less ... store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... person’s body to make too much of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking ... is inflammation, your liver makes more of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells ...

  12. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  14. Iron deficiency anemia refractory to iron preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with iron deficiency anemia are treated effectively with oral iron preparations. However, a small number of these patients are refractory to such treatments, even when the pathologic condition underlying the anemia is concurrently treated. The pathological basis for this refractoriness can be explained by several factors, including malabsorption of iron, e.g. atrophic gastritis, deficiency of other hematopoietic vitamins or minerals, e.g. vitamin B12 or zinc, other undiagnosed anemic disorders, e.g. renal anemia or hematopoietic diseases, as well as certain hereditary disorders of iron metabolism, e.g. iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) caused by genetic mutation of the TMPRSS6 gene. This review focuses on the diagnosis and pathoetiology of iron deficiency anemia that is refractory to conventional oral iron preparations.

  15. Iron and vitamin D deficiency in children living in Western-Europe : Diagnostic tests, epidemiological aspects, and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are two of the most common micronutrient deficiencies in young children worldwide and they contribute substantially to the global burden of disease due to their varied negative health consequences. Micronutrient deficiencies in European children

  16. Pagophagia in iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Kawati, Yasunori

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between pagophagia (ice pica) and iron deficiency anemia was studied. All 81 patients with iron deficiency anemia defined as hemoglobin Pagophagia was defined as compulsive and repeated ingestion of at least one tray of ice or ice eating which was relieved after iron administration. Pagophagia was present in 13 patients (16.0%). All patients who received oral iron were periodically assessed employing a questionnaire on pagophagia and laboratory data. Iron therapy can cure the pagophagia earlier than hemoglobin recovery and repair of tissue iron deficiency. Although the pathogenesis of pagophagia is unclear, a biochemical approach involving the central nervous system might elucidate the mechanism underlying these abnormal behaviors.

  17. Perinatal iron deficiency and neurocognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Clare Radlowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is the most common form of nutrient deficiency worldwide. It is highly prevalent due to the limited availability of high quality food in developing countries, and poor dietary habits in industrialized countries. According to the World Health Organization, it affects nearly 2 billion people and up to 50% of women who are pregnant. Maternal anemia during pregnancy is especially burdensome to healthy neurodevelopment in the fetus because iron is needed for proper neurogenesis, development, and myelination. Maternal anemia also increases the risk of low birth weight, either due to premature birth or fetal growth restriction, which is associated with delayed neurocognitive development and even psychiatric illness. As rapid neurodevelopment continues after birth infants that received sufficient iron in utero, but that receive a low iron diet after 6 months of age, also show deficits in neurocognitive development, including impairments in learning and memory. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive complications of iron deficiency during critical pre- and postnatal periods of brain development are difficult to remedy, persisting into adulthood. Thus, preventing iron deficiency in the pre- and postnatal periods is critical as is devising new means to recapture cognitive function in individuals who experienced early iron deficiency. This review will discuss the prevalence of pre- and postnatal iron deficiency, the mechanism, and effects of iron deficiency on brain and cognitive development.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia if they're underweight or have chronic (ongoing) illnesses. Teenage girls who have heavy periods ... because blood is lost during dialysis. Also, the kidneys are no longer able to make ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  19. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods (foods that have iron ... you: Follow a diet that excludes meat and fish, which are the best sources of iron. However, ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat sources ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  8. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark......, is that routine ferritin measurements and iron supplementation are feasible and effective ways of reducing the proportion of donors with low haemoglobin levels....

  9. Iron Deficiency and Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    J?uregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life aft...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods that are high in iron. It is important to know that increasing your intake of iron may not be enough to replace the iron your body normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually go ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is low in iron. For this and other reasons, cow's milk isn't recommended for babies in ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests also are done. Serum ferritin. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements ... are improving. At your checkups, your doctor may change your medicines or supplements. He or she also ...

  4. Iron deficiency in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Naoum

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients, both at diagnosis and during treatment, with a multifactorial etiology in most cases. Iron deficiency is among the most common causes of anemia in this setting and can develop in nearly half of patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Surprisingly, this fact is usually neglected by the attending physician in a way that proper and prompt investigation of the iron status is either not performed or postponed. In cancer patients, functional iron deficiency is the predominant mechanism, in which iron availability is reduced due to disease or the therapy-related inflammatory process. Hence, serum ferritin is not reliable in detecting iron deficiency in this setting, whereas transferrin saturation seems more appropriate for this purpose. Besides, lack of bioavailable iron can be further worsened by the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents that increase iron utilization in the bone marrow. Iron deficiency can cause anemia or worsen pre-existing anemia, leading to a decline in performance status and adherence to treatment, with possible implications in clinical outcome. Due to its frequency and importance, treatment of this condition is already recommended in many specialty guidelines and should be performed preferably with intravenous iron. The evidences regarding the efficacy of this treatment are solid, with response gain when combined with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant increments in hemoglobin as monotherapy. Among intravenous iron formulations, slow release preparations present more favorable pharmacological characteristics and efficacy in cancer patients.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements to build ... Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National ...

  6. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include: Iron-fortified breads and cereals Peas; lentils; white, red, and baked beans; soybeans; and ... and juices usually have more vitamin C than canned ones. If you're taking medicines, ask your ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... carry oxygen throughout your body. A reticulocyte count shows whether your bone marrow is making red blood ... Tests to measure iron levels. These tests can show how much iron has been used from your ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood ... remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chronic conditions such as kidney disease or celiac disease may be more likely to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. If ... produce hemoglobin. Tests and Procedures for Gastrointestinal Blood Loss To check whether internal bleeding is causing your ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to ... called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits. Citrus ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... find out how severe the condition is. Complete Blood Count Often, the first test used to diagnose ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... diets can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ... oh-crit) levels. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how much iron the items contain. The amount is given as a percentage of the total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased ... more detail how iron levels are regulated by hormones and other pathways. ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron- ...

  13. Iron deficiency anemia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochinok T.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the role of iron in the human body is highlighted. The mechanism of development of iron deficiency states, their consequences and the basic principles of diagnosis and correction of children of different ages are shown.

  14. [Recommendations for prevention of iron deficiency. Delay cow's milk intake as a beverage to infants until 10-12 months of age!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I; Gebre-Medhin, M; Hernell, O; Jakobsonn, I; Michaelsen, K F; Samuelson, G

    1999-05-05

    Breast-feeding is to be encouraged during the first six months of life. Iron deficiency is extremely rare in exclusively breast-fed infants during this period. Any cow-milk based formula used should be iron-fortified. During the second half of infancy, the iron content of weaning foods is important in preventing iron deficiency. Indeed, owing to the low iron content of dairy products, it is hard to compose a weaning diet sufficiently rich in iron to meet the demands of rapidly growing infants, if it is to include substantial amounts of cow milk, sour milk or yoghurt. Accordingly, the Paediatric Committee on Nutrition and Health, of the Swedish Paediatric Association and the National Food Administration, recommend delaying the introduction of cow's milk and cow-milk products until the infant is 10-12 months of age. Until then, breast-feeding, and the use of iron-fortified formula or gruel with modified protein and sodium content are encouraged; iron-fortified porridges of softer consistency can be prepared to circumvent the need of extra fluids, or porridge can be served with breast milk or iron-fortified formula; small amounts of milk may be used for cooking purposes.

  15. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.)

  16. Control of iron deficiency in the first 1000 days in life: prevention of impaired child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the first 1000 days of life (the period from the woman’s pregnancy continuing into the child’s second year) is the most critical period. This is where nutritional deficiencies have a significant and often irreversible adverse impact on child survival and growth

  17. Control of iron deficiency in the first 1000 days in life: prevention of impaired child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the first 1000 days of life (the period from the woman’s pregnancy continuing into the child’s second year) is the most critical period. This is where nutritional deficiencies have a significant and often irreversible adverse impact on child survival and growth affecting

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... babies need more iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's ... C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. Eat poorly because of money, social, health, or other problems. Follow a very low-fat ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing all ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  5. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Iron-Deficiency Anemia ... anemia, a common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. This makes it ... could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and ...

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    Full Text Available ... order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about your medical history ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot ... for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried ... If your condition is caused by certain rare genetic conditions, such as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation, you ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... doctor may recommend that you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's doctor about a ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ... the condition in these groups. Infants and Young Children A baby's diet can affect his or her ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during ... concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. This can make it hard to ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of blood loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron- ... Pediatrics recommends testing all infants for anemia at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... low iron levels within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts ... menstrual flow, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help reduce your monthly blood flow. In ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition in which ... to grow and develop. The iron that full-term infants have stored in their bodies is used ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular heartbeat. This is a sign of more ... to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart ... your blood vessels. IV iron therapy presents some safety concerns. It must be done in a hospital ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron or ferritin levels in your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types ... in the GI tract and may require further testing. Upper endoscopy to look for bleeding in the ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the NHLBI Contact and ... to improve health, and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the tongue, cracks in the sides of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ... and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Blood Tests ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also checks the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in your blood. Abnormal ... include: Iron-fortified breads and cereals Peas; lentils; white, red, and baked beans; soybeans; and chickpeas Tofu ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding in the GI tract. ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease). Prescription medicines that reduce acid in the stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors ... and procedures may look for bleeding in the stomach, upper intestines, colon, or pelvic organs. Treatment Treatment ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your abdomen to check the size of your liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam ... of iron is red meat, especially beef and liver. Chicken, turkey, pork, fish, and shellfish also are ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop iron- ... the body needs to produce red blood cells. People who have gastric bypass surgery also may develop ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... Serum ferritin. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. A measure of this ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children who have lead in their blood from their ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support the growth of their unborn babies, so their bodies produce more blood. With more ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some circumstances, including: During menstruation, especially if you experience heavy periods. During pregnancy, after delivery, or when ... more likely to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. ... need 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age 18 need 10 mg while ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ... from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People ... make it hard to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular heartbeat. This is a ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health) Building 31 31 Center ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to support the growth of their unborn babies, so their bodies produce more blood. With ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues ... and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron supplements ... warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell your doctor if you have any new ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood, it may be hard to get enough iron ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate current research into improved health for people with iron- ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such ... part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less ... deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ... deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors that ...

  12. Iron deficiency and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-05-15

    It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients' outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented.

  13. Iron Deficiency and Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron, before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, men need 8 mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant women need ... 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ... especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children who have lead in ... sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study found that many older adults over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... naproxen) Urinary tract bleeding Blood loss from severe injuries, surgery, or frequent blood drawings also can cause ... treat the ulcer. If a polyp or cancerous tumor in your intestine is causing ... this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... also take an iron supplement. Follow your doctor’s recommendations and treatments to control any conditions that lead ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron ... anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issues. For more information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, ... experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... potential for technology commercialization through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal ... prevent the condition in these groups. Infants and Young Children A baby's diet can affect his or ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes and medical care to prevent your condition from recurring, getting worse, ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to help you meet the recommended daily amount ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... back to the lungs. Read less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ... into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, ... Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  9. Effectiveness of FeEDDHA, FeEDDHMA, and FeHBED in Preventing Iron-Deficiency Chlorosis in Soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin, Levi M.; Weng, Liping; Bugter, Marcel H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of FeHBED in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in comparison to FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA was studied, as well as the importance of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para/rest isomers in defining the performance. To this end, chlorophyll production (SPAD),

  10. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in High-School Girl Students of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noori Shadkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency. The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. The main risk factors for IDA include: inadequate iron intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or acute or chronic blood loss, parasite infections such as hookworms, acute and chronic infections, including malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and other micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamins A and B12, folate, riboflavin, and copper deficiency. Methods: This work as a cross-sectional study was done in 2007-2008 in Yazd. Two hundred girls who participated in the study were selected randomly from eight girl high schools. Five ml venous blood was collected for determination of serum ferritin and cell blood count (CBC. Serum ferritin was determined by using ECLIA method and CBC by cell counter SYSMEX KX21N. Iron deficiency was defined as having serum ferritin values below 12 μ/l. Anemia was defined as having Hemoglobin levels below12 g/dl. Iron-deficiency anemia was considered to be the combination of both. Results: The3 mean ageyears and body mass index (kg/m2 were 15.19±0.7years and 21.5±4.2, respectively. Distribution in the 14, 15 and 16 years and more age groups were 13, 58.5 and 28.5 percent, respectively. Mean of Hemoglobin(g/dl, Hematocrit(%, MCV (fl, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dl and ferritin(μ/l were 12.8±0.9, 38.9±3.0, 80.7±4.3, 26.6±1.8, 33.2±3.6 and 23±18.2, respectively. Of the total, 13.5% were anemic, 68% of which had Iron Deficiency Anemia (9.3% of the total. Iron deficiency was present in 34.7% of the population under study. Conclusion: According to world health organization criteria, anemia is a mild public health problem in this region, but iron deficiency is a significant problem and suitable measures for

  11. Daily versus weekly iron supplementation and prevention of iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To demonstrate the effectiveness and social feasibility of weekly versus daily iron supplementation in preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia among anaemic mothers. Design: A longitudinal in nature. Setting: Seven urban slum communities in Teklehaimanot Wereda, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjects: ...

  12. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia and dietary iron intake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased prevalence of iron deficiency among infants can be attributed to the consumption of an iron deficient diet or a diet that interferes with iron absorption at the critical time of infancy, among other factors. The gradual shift from breast milk to other foods and liquids is a transition period which greatly contributes to ...

  13. Ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron is as effective as ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron in the prophylaxis of iron deficiency and anemia during pregnancy in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Jønsson, Lisbeth; Dyre, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron/day vs. ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron/day in the prevention of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Design: Randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study. Setting: Antenatal care clinic...

  14. Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Common and Curable Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffery L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia arises when the balance of iron intake, iron stores, and the body's loss of iron are insufficient to fully support production of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency anemia rarely causes death, but the impact on human health is significant. In the developed world, this disease is easily identified and treated, but frequently overlooked by physicians. In contrast, it is a health problem that affects major portions of the population in underdeveloped countries. Overall, the prevention and successful treatment for iron deficiency anemia remains woefully insufficient worldwide, especially among underprivileged women and children. Here, clinical and laboratory features of the disease are discussed, and then focus is placed on relevant economic, environmental, infectious, and genetic factors that converge among global populations. PMID:23613366

  15. Iron deficiency after bariatric surgery: what is the real problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Nele; Van der Schueren, Bart; Mertens, Ann; Lannoo, Matthias; Grauwet, Tara; Augustijns, Patrick; Matthys, Christophe

    2018-04-05

    The growing prevalence of obesity explains the rising interest in bariatric surgery. Compared with non-surgical treatment options, bariatric surgery results in greater and sustained improvements in weight loss, obesity associated complications, all-cause mortality and quality of life. These encouraging metabolic and weight effects come with a downside, namely the risk of nutritional deficiencies. Particularly striking is the risk to develop iron deficiency. Postoperatively, the prevalence of iron deficiency varies between 18 and 53 % after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and between 1 and 54 % after sleeve gastrectomy. Therefore, preventive strategies and effective treatment options for iron deficiency are crucial to successfully manage the iron status of patients after bariatric surgery. With this review, we discuss the risks and the contributing factors of developing iron deficiency after bariatric surgery. Furthermore, we highlight the discrepancy in the diagnosis of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia and highlight the evidence supporting the current nutritional recommendations in the field of bariatric research. In conclusion, we advocate for more nutrition-related research in patient populations in order to provide strong evidence-based guidelines after bariatric surgery.

  16. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 47, Number RR-3. Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-03

    receive non-iron-fortified cereal had iron-deficiency anemia at age 8 months (49). The effect of prolonged exclusive breastfeeding on iron status is not...M.P.H., R.D. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services Anchorage, AK Katherine W. Davis, M.P.H., R.D. Maternal and Child Health Bureau Health...deficiency anemia during pregnancy (10,39-42), but trials of the effect of uni- versal iron supplementation during pregnancy on adverse maternal and infant

  17. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  18. Physiological and Transcriptional Changes of Three Citrus Rootstock Seedlings under Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms to improve iron acquisition from soils. Grafting on iron deficiency-tolerant rootstock is an effective strategy to prevent iron deficiency-chlorosis in fruit-tree crops. To determine the mechanisms underlying iron uptake in iron deficiency, two iron deficiency-tolerant citrus rootstocks, Zhique (ZQ and Xiangcheng (XC, as well as iron deficiency-sensitive rootstock trifoliate orange (TO seedlings were studied. Plants were grown in hydroponics system for 100 days, having 50 μM iron (control and 0 μM iron (iron deficiency nutrient solution. Under iron deficiency, more obvious visual symptoms of iron chlorosis were observed in the leaves of TO, whereas slight symptoms were observed in ZQ and XC. This was further supported by the lower chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of TO than in leaves of ZQ and XC. Ferrous iron showed no differences among the three citrus rootstock roots, whereas ferrous iron was significantly higher in leaves of ZQ and XC than TO. The specific iron absorption rate and leaf iron proportion were significantly higher in ZQ and XC than in TO, suggesting the iron deficiency tolerance can be explained by increased iron uptake in roots of ZQ and XC, allowed by subsequent translocation to shoots. In transcriptome analysis, 29, 298, and 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in response to iron deficiency were identified in ZQ, XC, and TO, respectively (Fold change ≥ 2 and Probability ≥ 0.8 were used as thresholds to identify DEGs. A Gene Ontology analysis suggested that several genotype-specific biological processes are involved in response to iron deficiency. Genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transduction pathways were involved in iron deficiency responses in citrus rootstocks. The results of this study provide a basis for future analyses of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of

  19. Pica and refractory iron deficiency anaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Garnier Christophe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia worldwide. Pica, the ingestion of substances that are inappropriate for consumption, is associated with iron deficiency and may be under-diagnosed. Case presentation A 34-year-old woman presented with iron deficiency anaemia refractory to treatment for more than a decade. The clinical presentation, endoscopic findings and laboratory investigations were consistent with pica. Subsequent geophysical analysis confirmed that the ingested material was kaolin, a negatively charged silicate. Conclusion Prolonged unexplained iron deficiency anaemia should prompt clinicians to remember and inquire about pica. In our patient, this would have averted numerous unnecessary investigations and prevented a decade-long suffering.

  20. Iron-fortified wheat flour and iron deficiency among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Sullivan, Kevin M; Alasfoor, Deena; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Suleiman, Ali Jaffer Mohammed; Kaur, Meenu; Al-Hatmi, Fatima Obaid; Ruth, Laird J

    2012-09-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to impact more than 1.6 billion individuals worldwide, affecting child, maternal, and perinatal mortality. Iron supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are strategies to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency. However, there are relatively few studies demonstrating the effectiveness of iron-fortified wheat flour as an intervention. To assess the relationship between average monthly per capita household consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour and iron deficiency among women of childbearing age in Oman. Data were obtained from the National Micronutrient Status and Fortified Food Coverage Survey, 2004. Iron deficiency status was compared between women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of 1 kg or more and women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of less than 1 kg. The analyses excluded women with elevated or unknown levels of C-reactive protein and controlled for characteristics of the women and household demographics. Consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour was associated with a lower prevalence of iron deficiency among women in our sample (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60), after controlling for age, employment status, marital status, intake of iron or multivitamin supplements, self-reported presence of a blood disorder, household income, educational level of head of household, and family size. These results suggest that women in our study living in households with a greater consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour have a lower prevalence of iron deficiency; however, additional study is needed.

  1. Pica as a manifestation of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Zanella, Sara

    2016-11-01

    Pica is the compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances. It is often associated with iron deficiency but its pathophysiology is unknown. Areas covered: We searched the literature using the keywords listed below. Our aim was to describe the phenomenon in its various aspects, to touch briefly on the historical and cultural background, and to examine in more detail the studies that tried to analyze the relative roles of iron deficiency and pica. Expert commentary: Pica is an intriguing symptom known for centuries. Pregnant women and preadolescents are at the highest risk of pica. Iron absorption is reduced in the presence of non-nutritive substances. Iron therapy usually cures the pica behavior. There are different forms of pica, one caused directly by iron deficiency probably due to the lack of iron in some areas of the brain and one more culturally driven and including mostly geophagy.

  2. [Iron deficiency towards the year 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrisse, M

    1999-09-01

    This is a non-comprehensive overview of the latest 50 years about the evolution of iron metabolism and the methodology we currently have for the diagnosis of iron deficiency and its effects on human health. In the 40's iron absorption was determined by chemistry. The amount of iron absorbed was calculated as the difference between dietary iron and excreted iron. The other methods used to measure dietary iron was hemoglobin repletion. In the 70's the measurement of plasmatic ferritin was an important contribution to iron metabolism to assess iron deficiency and iron overload. In the same decade the extrinsic and intrinsic labelled methodology was an important advancement. The 70's and 80's were years where scientists aimed at finding iron absorption inhibitors, namely coffee, calcium, tea, zinc and fiber. The 80's and 90's were characterized for the emerging knowledge an iron absorption from a food, a meal and a complete diet and for the favorable effect of food iron fortification in developing countries. Also for the effect of iron excess in overall health and myocardial infarction in developed countries were studied.

  3. [Advances on the study of iron deficiency and mental development in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxia; Zeng, Guo; Zhang, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period for mental development. Iron deficiency will affect the development of nerve system and depress the learning ability, memory and cognitive function of children. There are a large number of literatures focusing on the mechanism of iron deficiency on mental retardation and the effect of iron reinforcement on iron deficient children in recent years. More attention has been paid to the prevention of iron deficiency. It has been proposed that the prevention of iron deficiency during early life of infants is more important than the reinforcement of iron in childhood. Exploring the relationship between iron deficiency and mental development is very important to improve the intelligence of children and the quality of whole population.

  4. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yılmaz Keskin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demir, oksijenin taşınması, DNA sentezi ve hücre çoğalması gibi çeşitli biyolojik reaksiyonlar için vazgeçilmez olduğundan, yaşam için zorunludur. Demir metabolizması ve bu elementin düzenlenmesiyle ilgili bilgilerimiz, son yıllarda belirgin şekilde değişmiştir. Demir metabolizması ile ilgili yeni bozukluklar tanımlanmış ve demirin başka bozuklukların kofaktörü olduğu anlaşılmaya başlamıştır. Hemokromatozis ve demir tedavisine dirençli demir eksikliği anemisi (IRIDA; “iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia” gibi genetik durumlar üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar, vücuttaki demir dengesini kontrol eden moleküler mekanizmalar ile ilgili önemli ipuçları sunmuştur. Bu ilerlemeler, gelecekte, hem genetik hem de kazanılmış demir bozukluklarının daha etkili şekilde tedavi edilmesi amacıyla kullanılabilir. IRIDA, demir eksikliği ile giden durumlarda, hepsidin üretimini baskılayan matriptaz-2’yi kodlayan TMPRSS6 genindeki mutasyonlardan kaynaklanmaktadır. Hastalığın tipik özellikleri, hipokrom, mikrositer anemi, çok düşük ortalama eritrosit hacmi, oral demir tedavisine yanıtsızlık (veya yetersiz yanıt ve parenteral demire kısmi yanıttır. Klasik demir eksikliği anemisinin aksine, serum ferritin değeri genellikle hafif düşük ya da normal aralıkta; serum ve idrar hepsidin değerleri ise, aneminin derecesi ile orantısız şekilde yüksek bulunur. Şimdiye kadar literatürde bildirilmiş olguların sayısı 100’ü geçmediği halde, IRIDA’nın, “atipik” mikrositik anemilerin en sık nedeni olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu derlemenin amacı, IRIDA hakkındaki güncel bilgileri araştırıcılar ile paylaşmak ve bu alandaki farkındalıklarını arttırmaktır.

  5. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms “iron deficiency” and “iron deficiency anemia” are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake toge...

  6. Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Wollmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33, and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value < 0.05. Results: Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03 compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6. Conclusion: The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results.

  7. Current misconceptions in diagnosis and management of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Besser, Martin; Pavía, José; Gomollón, Fernando; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Bhandari, Sunil; Cladellas, Mercé; Shander, Aryeh; Auerbach, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The prevention and treatment of iron deficiency is a major public health goal. Challenges in the treatment of iron deficiency include finding and addressing the underlying cause and the selection of an iron replacement product which meets the needs of the patient. However, there are a number of non-evidence-based misconceptions regarding the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, as well as inconsistency of terminology and lack of clear guidance on clinical pathways. In particular, the pathogenesis of iron deficiency is still frequently not addressed and iron not replaced, with indiscriminate red cell transfusion used as a default therapy. In our experience, this imprudent practice continues to be endorsed by non-evidence-based misconceptions. The intent of the authors is to provide a consensus that effectively challenges these misconceptions, and to highlight evidence-based alternatives for appropriate management (referred to as key points). We believe that this approach to the management of iron deficiency may be beneficial for both patients and healthcare systems. We stress that this paper solely presents the Authors' independent opinions. No pharmaceutical company funded or influenced the conception, development or writing of the manuscript.

  8. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...

  9. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...... anemia....

  10. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy -- how much iron is needed? A randomized dose- response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.......To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy....

  11. An Approach to Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasul, Imran; Kandel, Gabor P

    2001-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is a common reason for referral to a gastroenterologist. In adult men and postmenopausal women, gastrointestinal tract pathology is often the cause of iron-deficiency anemia, so patients are frequently referred for endoscopic evaluation. Endoscopy may be costly and at times difficult for the patient. Therefore, physicians need to know what lesions can be identified reliably and, more importantly, the importance of ruling out life-threatening conditions such as occult ma...

  12. Practical recommendations concerning prevention and correction of iron deficit in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vdovenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To develop practical recommendations for the prevention and correction of iron deficiency in athletes to improve the effectiveness of training and competitive activities, and accelerate recovery processes. Material: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature on the exchange of iron, as well as ways of prevention and correction of iron deficiency in athletes. Results: It was found that iron deficiency in the body athletes may reduce sports (general and special capacity and the situation of overtraining. The basic approaches on how to prevent and correct iron deficiency in athletes through nutrition. Conclusions: practical recommendations for the prevention and correction of iron deficiency in athletes.

  13. Understanding the management of iron deficiency anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the management of anaemic patients, the type and severity of the anaemia will dictate the appropriate therapeutic strategy. Globally, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia.1. Once iron therapy is initiated, regular follow-up visits are essential to monitor the therapeutic response, and to manage unpleasant ...

  14. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, K.D.C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  15. Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Distance Runner

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, D. B.; Taunton, J. E.; Poskitt, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study of a 19-year-old male student who engaged in daily long distance running and presented with complaints of fatigue and dizziness. Laboratory test revealed a hemoglobin of 7.7 g/dl and a bone marrow negative for iron. After a complete evaluation no source of blood loss was identified. His iron deficient state may be caused by his exposure to long distance running for some years. Recent work from Sweden reports iron deficiency in eight runners, demonstrated by b...

  16. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in anaemic under-5 children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia has been described as the commonest type of nutritional anaemia in infancy and childhood. The associated adverse health sequelae include permanent behavioural and cognitive impairments. Early detection and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent these complications. Aim: To ...

  17. IRON DEFICIENCY AND INFANT MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Jing, Yuezhou; Lu Angelilli, Mary; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) during early development impairs myelination and basal ganglia function in animal models. Aims To examine the effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and iron deficiency (ID) without anemia on infant motor skills that are likely related to myelination and basal ganglia function. Study design Observational study. Subjects Full-term inner-city African-American 9- to 10-month-old infants who were free of acute or chronic health problems with iron status indicators ranging from IDA to iron sufficiency (n = 106). Criteria for final iron status classification were met by 77 of these infants: 28 IDA, 28 non-anemic iron-deficient (NA ID), and 21 iron-sufficient (IS). Outcome measures Gross motor developmental milestones, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB), motor quality factor of the Bayley Behavioral Rating Scale, and a sequential/bi-manual coordination toy retrieval task. General linear model analyses tested for linear effects of iron status group and thresholds for effects. Results There were linear effects of iron status on developmental milestones, Peabody gross motor (suggestive trend), INFANIB standing item, motor quality, and toy retrieval. The threshold for effects was ID with or without anemia for developmental milestones, INFANIB standing item, and motor quality and IDA for toy retrieval. Conclusions Using a comprehensive and sensitive assessment of motor development, this study found poorer motor function in ID infants with and without anemia. Poorer motor function among non-anemic ID infants is particularly concerning, since ID without anemia is not detected by common screening procedures and is more widespread than IDA. PMID:18272298

  18. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nu- tritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in. Lagos. Methodology: The study ...

  19. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. Methodology: The study was ...

  20. Iron Supplements for Infants at Risk for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna C. MacQueen MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Professional societies have published recommendations for iron dosing of preterm neonates, but differences exist between guidelines. To help develop standardized guidelines, we performed a 10-year analysis of iron dosing in groups at risk for iron deficiency: IDM (infants of diabetic mothers, SGA (small for gestational age, and VLBW premature neonates (very low birth weight, <1500 g. We analyzed iron dosing after red cell transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA. Of IDM, 11.8% received iron in the hospital; 9.8% of SGA and 27.1% of VLBW neonates received iron. Twenty percent of those who received iron had it started by day 14; 63% by 1 month. Supplemental iron was stopped after red cell transfusions in 73% of neonates receiving iron. An ESA was administered to 1677, of which 33% received iron within 3 days. This marked variation indicates that a consistent approach is needed, and using this report and a literature review, we standardized our iron-dosing guidelines.

  1. Potential for iron enriched yeast in recovery of rats from iron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kyyaly, Aref; Powell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that iron deficiency can lead to anemia, resulting in a variety of symptoms and health issues. Negative effects can be prevented by ensuring foods with a naturally high iron content are ingested, or countered by taking nutrient supplements. As an alternative it is possible to influence the nutritional content of foods to ensure that dietary requirements are met. In this study we aimed to evaluate the potential for using iron-enriched baker’s yeast as a source of iron for cur...

  2. Iron deficiency anemia in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Tarasova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on incidence, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA, principles of its diagnostics and treatment in children and adolescents. Author gives a description of iron drugs for oral and parenteral treatment that are frequently used in Russia, their advantages and shortcomings; principles of the control of their efficacy are described as well. Different types of prophylaxis are described: on population level (fortification, in the risk groups of IDA (supplementation, primary and secondary prophylaxis. The recommendation of American Academy of Pediatrics on prophylaxis of IDA in the most vulnerable group — infants and young children — is presented.Key words: children, adolescents, iron deficiency anemia, diagnostics, treatment, iron drugs, prophylaxis.

  3. Iron deficiency anemia in a distance runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, D B; Taunton, J E; Poskitt, K

    1982-05-01

    This paper discusses a case study of a 19-year-old male student who engaged in daily long distance running and presented with complaints of fatigue and dizziness. Laboratory test revealed a hemoglobin of 7.7 g/dl and a bone marrow negative for iron. After a complete evaluation no source of blood loss was identified. His iron deficient state may be caused by his exposure to long distance running for some years. Recent work from Sweden reports iron deficiency in eight runners, demonstrated by bone marrow examination. Further work in West Germany shows low ferritin values in runners. Source of iron loss may be from hemoglobinuria and/or excessive sweating. Hemoglobin and ferritin values should be monitored in runners every six to 12 months.

  4. Single-dose intravenous iron for iron deficiency: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Michael; Deloughery, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration. We realize safety concerns abound and therefore will analyze evidence based overstated concerns regarding serious adverse events highlighting unnecessary interventions for minor, self-limiting infusion reactions, which infrequently occur with intravenous iron administration. Recent data for the use of IV iron in a variety of clinic situations will be reviewed including women with heavy uterine bleeding, pregnancy, bariatric surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, and restless legs syndrome. Briefly discussed is the new frontier of IV iron's use in the prevention of acute (high altitude) mountain sickness. It is clear that in many clinical situations IV iron is a new and improved standard of care offering advantages over oral iron in efficacy, toxicity, and convenience to patients and health care providers. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitha, Sindhu; Bashir, Muhammad; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is frequently overlooked as a complication. Patients with IBD are commonly found to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) secondary to chronic blood loss, and impaired iron absorption due to tissue inflammation. Patients with iron deficiency may not always manifest with signs and symptoms; so, hemoglobin levels in patients with IBD must be regularly monitored for earlier detection of anemia. IDA in IBD is associated with poor quality of life, necessitating prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. IDA is often associated with inflammation in patients with IBD. Thus, commonly used laboratory parameters are inadequate to diagnose IDA, and newer iron indices, such as reticulocyte hemoglobin content or percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin, are required to differentiate IDA from anemia of chronic disease. Oral iron preparations are available and are used in patients with mild disease activity. These preparations are inexpensive and convenient, but can produce gastrointestinal side effects, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, that limit their use and patient compliance. These preparations are partly absorbed due to inflammation. Non-absorbed iron can be toxic and worsen IBD disease activity. Although cost-effective intravenous iron formulations are widely available and have improved safety profiles, physicians are reluctant to use them. We present a review of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of IDA in IBD, improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, efficacy, and safety of iron replacement in IBD. PMID:26301120

  6. Risk factors associated with anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in rural Nepali pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Zeina; Taren, Douglas; Duncan, Burris; Pandey, Pooja; Thomson, Cynthia; Winzerling, Joy; Muramoto, Myra; Shrestha, Ram

    2012-05-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study to investigate risk factors associated with severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) anemia and the soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) was measured among a subsample of 479 women. The iron status categories were: 1) normal (Hb> or = 11.0 g/dl and sTfR anemia without iron deficiency (Hbanemia (Hb > or = 11.0 g/dl and sTfR>8.5 mg/l); and 4) iron deficiency anemia (IDA): (Hb8.5 mg/l). Factors associated with severe anemia and poor iron status were determined using logistic regression. Hookworm infection increased the risk for developing severe anemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.26; 95% CI 1.67-10.89; panemia. Intake of iron supplements as tablets and/or tonic was protective against severe anemia, anemia without iron deficiency and IDA. Dietary heme iron was significantly associated with iron deficiency without anemia (RRR: 0.1; 95% CI 0.02-0.47; pclassification and multiple approaches are needed to reduce anemia and associated nutrient deficiencies.

  7. Approaches for Reducing the Risk of Early-Life Iron Deficiency-Induced Brain Dysfunction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Cusick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Women of reproductive age and young children are particularly vulnerable. Iron deficiency in late prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to long-term neurobehavioral deficits, despite iron treatment. This may occur because screening and treatment of iron deficiency in children is currently focused on detection of anemia and not neurodevelopment. Anemia is the end-stage state of iron deficiency. The brain becomes iron deficient before the onset of anemia due to prioritization of the available iron to the red blood cells (RBCs over other organs. Brain iron deficiency, independent of anemia, is responsible for the adverse neurological effects. Early diagnosis and treatment of impending brain dysfunction in the pre-anemic stage is necessary to prevent neurological deficits. The currently available hematological indices are not sensitive biomarkers of brain iron deficiency and dysfunction. Studies in non-human primate models suggest that serum proteomic and metabolomic analyses may be superior for this purpose. Maternal iron supplementation, delayed clamping or milking of the umbilical cord, and early iron supplementation improve the iron status of at-risk infants. Whether these strategies prevent iron deficiency-induced brain dysfunction has yet to be determined. The potential for oxidant stress, altered gastrointestinal microbiome and other adverse effects associated with iron supplementation cautions against indiscriminate iron supplementation of children in malaria-endemic regions and iron-sufficient populations.

  8. iron deficiency in rural ghanaian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 5 May 2001. IRON DEFICIENCY IN RURAL GHANAIAN CHILDREN V v. MT. Agyei=Frempong, BSc, MSc, PhD, G. Asme. BSc, MSc, W.K.B.A. Owiredu, BSc, MSc, PhD and F A. Yeboah, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department ofMolecular Medicine,. School of Medical Sciences, University of ...

  9. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  10. Current approaches to diagnosing iron-deficiency anemia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balashova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron-deficiency anemia is a common and, despite the available wide range of iron preparations, unsolved problem in pediatric practice. This is often associated with inadequate diagnosis in primary health care, which is due to both objective problems and underestimation of the seriousness of sequels of iron deficiency. This review gives data on the epidemiology of iron-deficiency anemia in the Russian Federation and worldwide, existing approaches to denning concepts, such as anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia in children, and possible diagnostic methods from the simplest to high-tech.

  11. Efficiency of Carbonyl Iron in Prevention of Anaemia in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svoboda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency of elemental iron preparation in the form of carbonyl iron in prevention of iron deficiency in piglets. The piglets in group I (n = 14 were given 210 mg of carbonyl iron orally at the age of 3 days. The piglets in group II (n = 15 received 210 mg of carbonyl iron orally on days 3 and 9. In group III (n = 14 the piglets were injected i.m. with 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran. Fourteen days after birth, haemoglobin concentration in group I started to decrease and the piglets developed anaemia. In group II, at the age of 28 days, Hb dropped below 80 g/l and the piglets developed anaemia. Under conditions of this trial, the oral administration of carbonyl iron did not prevent development of iron deficiency in piglets.

  12. Prevalence of iron deficiency in children with cyanotic heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of iron deficiency was found to be 16.9% (95% CI 9.8- 24.1%). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of iron deficiency among patients with congenital heart disease with cyanosis in the two institutions. Routine screening for iron deficiency is recommended for these children and those found to be ...

  13. Higher Prevalence of Iron Deficiency as Strong Predictor of Attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 4 | Special Issue 3 |. 291. Address ... to determine the association between iron deficiency and ADHD and the impact and role of iron deficiency ... Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Case‑control, Epidemiology, Iron deficiency,. Risk factors ...

  14. of iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malczewska-Lenczowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of new haematology parameters related to reticulocytes and mature red blood cells to differentiate pre latent and latent iron deficiency. The study included 219 female athletes (aged 15-20 years representing volleyball, handball, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, swimming and judo. To assess iron status the concentration of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC were determined in serum. In addition to blood morphology, the mean cellular haemoglobin content in erythrocytes (CH and reticulocytes (CHr, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration in reticulocytes (CHCMr, the percentage of erythrocytes (HYPOm and reticulocytes (HYPOr with decreased cellular haemoglobin concentration, the percentage of erythrocytes (LowCHm and reticulocytes (LowCHr with decreased cellular haemoglobin content, and percentage of erythrocytes with decreased volume (MICROm were determined. Subjects with ferritin <30 ng/ml were classified as having stage I (pre-latent iron deficiency (ID. The second stage (latent ID was diagnosed when low ferritin was accompanied by elevated sTfR and/or elevated TIBC values. The frequency of ID (without anaemia symptoms was high, amounting to 60% (stage I in 45%, stage II in 15% of subjects. In subjects with stage I ID significant changes in haematological variables concerned mainly reticulocytes: CHCMr (p<.001, CHr (p<.05, LowCHr (p<.05, HYPOr (p<.001 in comparison to normal iron stores. In athletes with latent ID, there were also significant changes (p<.001 in many indices of mature red blood cells, i.e. haemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, CH, %LowCHm, as well as %MICROm (p<.01 in relation to the group without iron deficiency. The main finding of this study was that the diminished or exhausted iron stores had already caused changes in reticulocytes

  15. [The association between iron deficiency and learning disorders in preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Sigler, D; Colomer Revuelta, J; Barona, C; Momparler, P; Colomer Revuelta, C

    1992-01-01

    With the aim preventing future problems of underachievement at school, we studied the possible relationship between learning difficulties and iron deficiency in nursery-school children. To do this, we determined the prevalence of iron deficiency and the prevalence or learning difficulties in the different areas of mental development in a sample of 136 nursery school children coming from the Alaquàs public school (Valencia), aged between four and five years. Their nutritional state and ferric state, socioeconomic and cultural level, and psychomotor development were evaluated. All the children were in a good nutritional state, coming from homogeneous families as regards their socio-cultural level and being divided into two groups as regards their economic situation. The iron deficiency prevalence was 17.6% in stage I (ferritina sérica < 12 ng/l) and 22.8% in stage III (anemia ferropénica). The coefficient for overall development was 85.95, the lowest marks being in the speech area. A positive association (prevalence ratio = 2; IC 95% = 1.1-8.3) between iron deficiency in its III stage and changes in the specific area of analysis and synthesis.

  16. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    中西,徳彦

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  17. Hemorrhage-Adjusted Iron Requirements, Hematinics and Hepcidin Define Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia as a Model of Hemorrhagic Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnamore, Helen; Le Couteur, James; Hickson, Mary; Busbridge, Mark; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methodology/Principal Findings The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (pstopped. Conclusions/significance HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals’ iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses. PMID:24146883

  18. Iron Deficiency Among Non‑Anemic Under‑Five Children in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency has been described as the world most common nutritional deficiency and the commonest cause of nutritional anemia in infancy and childhood. The deleterious behavioral and cognitive deficit associated with iron‑deficiency anemia could be irreversible. Therefore, the latter should be prevented ...

  19. [Effect of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in the first two years of life on cognitive and mental development during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Yael; Bilenko, Natalya

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among infants and children over the world ranges between 2%-22.5%. Iron is essential for intact development of the body, and especiaLLy for the development of the central nervous system in the first two years of Life. To examine, through a review of the literature, if there is any relation between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and cognitive and mental development in the first two years of life. A review of 10 longitudinal and clinical trials from the last 16 years, in which this correlation was examined. According to recent studies, the relation between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia to cognitive and mental development in childhood is stiLL unclear. Followup studies found poorer cognitive scores on measures of mental and cognitive functioning in the long run. Intervention trials in which iron supplementation was administered to infants with IDA, found an improvement in Language and mental deveLopmental test scores. However, micronutrient intervention, or zinc and iron combined or alone, did not improve performance on mental tests. The studies differed in the characteristics of the study population, definition of exposure, type of treatment and confounders. It is difficult to assess a causal relationship between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, and cognitive and mental development in childhood, mainly due to methodoLogical and ethical reasons. However, most studies from recent years support a negative association. The Ministry of Health in israel recommends iron as a preventive action for iron deficiency in infants.

  20. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  1. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study

  2. [Effect of copper deficiency on iron metabolism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kebo; Wang, Chaoxu; Liu, Baosheng; Jiang, Shan

    2010-07-01

    To study the effect of copper deficiency on the nutritional status of iron, the expression of hepcidin mRNA and transferrin receptor mRNA in rats. Forty eight clean male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight; and there were 12 rats in each group. The groups are normal iron and copper control group (group I), normal iron and copper deficiency group (group II), normal iron and copper slightly deficient group (group III), both iron and copper slightly deficient group (group IV). Serum, liver and spleen of rats were collected by the end of 8th week. Serum copper, serum iron, hemoglobin, serum transferrin receptor, serum ferritin, liver iron and liver copper, spleen iron and spleen copper were determined. The expression of liver transferring receptor mRNA and hepcidin mRNA were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Compared with the controls, the contents of serum iron and serum ferritin decreased (P copper deficiency. The expression of transferrin receptor mRNA in liver increased but the expression of hepcidin mRNA in liver decreased significantly under copper deficiency (P copper deficiency through influencing the absorption, storage and transportation of iron. Under the condition of copper deficiency, the expression of hepcidin mRNA in liver was lowered and the expression of transferrin receptor mRNA was enhanced through the way of iron response element-iron regulatory protein (IRE-IRP) to regulate iron metabolism.

  3. Pica in iron deficiency: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisman Glenn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pica is an unusual condition where patients develop cravings for non-nutritive substances that can cause significant health risks. We report three patients with pica, two of them showing evolutionary changes associated with pica and the third demonstrating a peculiar nature of pica, which has yet to be reported. Case presentation We describe three patients who presented with symptoms of pica. The first patient is a 36-year-old Caucasian woman who had dysfunctional uterine bleeding associated with daily ingestion of two super-sized cups of ice as iced tea. The second patient is a 62-year-old Caucasian man who presented with bleeding from colonic polyps associated with drinking partially frozen bottled water. Lastly, the third patient, a 37-year-old Hispanic woman, presented with dysfunctional uterine bleeding and habitually chewed rubber bands. All three patients presented with hematological parameters diagnostic for iron deficiency anemia. Conclusion Pica has been practiced for centuries without a clear etiology. We have noticed that the younger community of academic and community physicians are not aware of the importance of complaints related to pica. None of our patients we describe here, as well as their primary care physicians, were aware of the importance of their pica related symptoms. Pica symptoms abated in one of our patients upon iron supplementation, while the other two are currently under treatment as of this writing. We believe pica is an important sign of iron deficiency that should never be ignored, and the craving for any unusual substance should compel clinicians to search for occult blood loss with secondary iron deficiency.

  4. Functional significance of early-life iron deficiency: outcomes at 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoff, Betsy; Smith, Julia B; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Katy M; Guevara, Silvia; Jimenez, Elias

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate adulthood function following chronic iron deficiency in infancy. At 25 years, we compared 33 subjects with chronic iron deficiency in infancy to 89 who were iron-sufficient before and/or after iron therapy. Outcomes included education, employment, marital status, and physical and mental health. Adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status, a higher proportion of the group with chronic iron deficiency did not complete secondary school (58.1% vs 19.8% in iron-sufficient group; Wald value = 8.74; P = .003), were not pursuing further education/training (76.1% vs 31.5%; Wald value = 3.01; P = .08; suggestive trend), and were single (83.9% vs 23.7%, Wald value = 4.49; P = .03). They reported poorer emotional health and more negative emotions and feelings of dissociation/detachment. Results were similar in secondary analyses comparing the chronic iron-deficient group with subjects in the iron-sufficient group who had been iron-deficient before treatment in infancy. Path analysis showed direct paths for chronic iron deficiency in infancy and being single and more detachment/dissociation at 25 years. There were indirect paths for chronic iron deficiency and not completing secondary school via poorer cognitive functioning in early adolescence and more negative emotions via behavior problems in adolescence, indicating a cascade of adverse outcomes. The observational nature of this study limits our ability to draw causal inference, even when controlling for background factors. Nonetheless, our results indicate substantial loss of human potential. There may be broader societal implications, considering that many adults worldwide had chronic iron deficiency in infancy. Iron deficiency can be prevented or treated before it becomes chronic or severe. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Young Children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Priya M.; Perrine, Cria G.; Mei, Zuguo; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with impaired neurocognitive development and immune function in young children. Total body iron, calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, and hemoglobin allow for monitoring of the iron and anemia status of children in the United States. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children 1–5 years using data from the 2007–201...

  6. Caregiver perceptions of iron deficiency anemia and iron replacement therapies in young children with nutritional iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., approximately 3% of young children develop iron deficiency anemia (IDA), with Hispanic/Latino children disproportionately affected. IDA is associated with inferior neurodevelopmental outcomes. Treatment with oral iron mitigates its consequences yet non-adherence often results in treatme...

  7. Behavior of Infants with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoff, Betsy; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-olds with iron-deficiency anemia to that of 139 infants with better iron status. Found that iron-deficient infants maintained closer contact with caregivers; showed less pleasure and playfulness; were more wary, hesitant, and easily tired; made fewer attempts at test items; and attended less to…

  8. Urinary Schistosomiasis And Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Malian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, unlike malaria and hookworm infections, little is known on the role of urinary schistosomiasis in iron deficiency anemia. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and the effect of iron supplementation on hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) levels among school children ...

  9. Evaluation of iron and folate deficiencies as possible causes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since experience shows that iron and folate deficiencies are common causes of anaemia in the population, it is desirable to investigate the iron and folate status of prospective donors who fail the blood donor fitness test to confirm whether or not, iron and folate deficiencies are part of the reasons for failure. AIM AND ...

  10. Prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated risk factors among primary school children in Kelantan. H Halib, W.M.W. Muda, P.C. Dam, H.J.J. Mohamed. Abstract. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common micronutrient deficiency that may leads to serious health problems such as poor behavior, cognitive and ...

  11. Breastfeeding, Mixed, or Formula Feeding at 9 Months of Age and the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Two Cohorts of Infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katy M; Li, Ming; Zhu, Bingquan; Liang, Furong; Shao, Jie; Zhang, Yueyang; Ji, Chai; Zhao, Zhengyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-02-01

    To assess associations between breastfeeding and iron status at 9 months of age in 2 samples of Chinese infants. Associations between feeding at 9 months of age (breastfed as sole milk source, mixed fed, or formula fed) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iron deficiency, and iron sufficiency were determined in infants from Zhejiang (n = 142) and Hebei (n= 813) provinces. Iron deficiency was defined as body iron infants had IDA compared with 0% of formula-fed infants. The odds of iron deficiency/IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants compared with formula-fed infants: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 28.8 (95% CI, 3.7-226.4) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 11.0 (95% CI, 1.2-103.2). In Hebei, 44.0% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 2.8% of formula-fed infants. With covariable adjustment, odds of IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed groups: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 78.8 (95% CI, 27.2-228.1) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 21.0 (95% CI, 7.3-60.9). In both cohorts, the odds of iron deficiency/IDA at 9 months of age were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants, and iron deficiency/IDA was common. Although the benefits of breastfeeding are indisputable, these findings add to the evidence that breastfeeding in later infancy identifies infants at risk for iron deficiency/IDA in many settings. Protocols for detecting and preventing iron deficiency/IDA in breastfed infants are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00642863 and NCT00613717. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of green spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) addition in physical, chemical, and sensory properties of marshmallow as an alternative prevention of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Affandi, D. R.; Nusantari, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Consuming vegetable which contain iron, including spinach, is an alternative to fulfill iron requirement. Fe will be more easily absorbed in the presence of vitamin C. Tomato is one of vitamin C source that can be used. Spinach can be applied into confectionary products in the form of marshmallow. This research aimed to find out the physical, chemical and sensory properties of green spinach Marshmallow in addition of Tomato, the best formula, and define the category of nutrition contents based on Acuan Label Gizi (ALG). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor that was different proportion of spinach:tomato (75%: 25%; 50%: 50%; 25%: 75%). The data were analyzed using One Way Anova with 5% significance level. The result of this study showed that the difference of spinach and tomato proportion affect tensile strength, moisture, ash content, Fe content, crude fiber, vitamin C, color and marshmallow’s flavor. Best marshmallow formulation of 25% spinach in addition of 75% tomato had Fe content of 1.159 mg/100g and vitamin C of 44 mg/100g.

  13. Iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg ND

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neil D Goldberg Emeritus Chief of Gastroenterology, University of Maryland St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide, caused by poor iron intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are increasingly likely to have iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated prevalence of 36%–76%. Detection of iron deficiency is problematic as outward signs and symptoms are not always present. Iron deficiency can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, necessitating prompt management and treatment. Effective treatment includes identifying and treating the underlying cause and initiating iron replacement therapy with either oral or intravenous iron. Numerous formulations for oral iron are available, with ferrous fumarate, sulfate, and gluconate being the most commonly prescribed. Available intravenous formulations include iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, and ferumoxytol. Low-molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose have been shown to be safe, efficacious, and effective in a host of gastrointestinal disorders. Ferumoxytol is the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved intravenous iron therapy, indicated for iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is also being investigated in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients without chronic kidney disease, including subgroups with IBD. A review of the efficacy and safety of iron replacement in IBD, therapeutic considerations, and recommendations for the practicing gastroenterologist are presented. Keywords: anemia, inflammatory bowel disease, intravenous iron, iron deficiency, oral iron, therapy

  14. Iron deficiency anemia: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan F

    2009-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) still remains universally problematic worldwide. The primary focus of this review is to critique articles published over the past 18 months that describe strategies for the diagnosis and management of this prevalent condition. The medical community continues to lack consensus when identifying the optimal approach for the diagnosis and management of IDA. Current diagnostic recommendations revolve around the validity and practicality of current biomarkers such as soluble transferrin-receptor concentrations and others, and cause-based diagnostics that potentially include endoscopy. Management of IDA is based on supplementation combined with effective etiological treatment. Advances in oral and parenteral low-molecular-weight iron preparations has expanded and improved treatment modalities for IDA. Since the introduction of low versus high-molecular-weight intravenous iron administration, there have been fewer serious adverse events associated with parenteral iron preparations. Best practice guidelines for diagnosing and managing IDA should include the design of an algorithm that is inclusive of multiple biomarkers and cause-based diagnostics, which will provide direction in managing IDA, and distinguish between IDA from the anemia of chronic disease.

  15. Deficiência de ferro na mulher adulta The iron deficiency in adult woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian P. Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A anemia ferropriva é a doença nutricional de maior prevalência no mundo, atingindo 20% a 30% da população. As mulheres, gestantes ou não, fazem parte dos grupos considerados vulneráveis. Entre as possíveis causas da anemia por deficiência de ferro, as perdas sanguíneas menstruais constituem o principal fator de anemia ferropriva da mulher adulta. A proposta deste estudo é rever as causas da anemia na mulher adulta, principalmente decorrente de sangramentos uterinos, assim como o diagnóstico e adoção de medidas preventivas.Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disease in the world, affecting from 20 to 30% of the population. Women, both pregnant and otherwise, are included as groups considered vulnerable. Among the possible causes of iron-deficiency anemia, menstruation blood loss is the main cause of iron-deficiency anemia in adult women. The purpose of this study was to review the causes of anemia in adult women, in particular in relation to uterine blood loss including the diagnosis and the adoption of preventive measures.

  16. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  17. Biliary Dysfunction in Children with Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional disorders of the biliary tract (FDBT remain a topical problem of pediatric gastroenterology due to the high incidence and progressive course with formation of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis in patients. Iron deficiency (ID has a well-known effect on the course of the gastrointestinal tract pathology. With the aim of evaluating the state of the biliary system and clinical features of FDBT associated with ID, a case-control study was conducted in 160 children aged 9 to 17 years, who underwent in-patient treatment for exacerbation of biliary tract pathology. According to the iron metabolism tests, children were divided into 3 groups: I — 29 children with FDBT and I degree anemia; II — 91 children with FDBT and latent ID; III — 40 children with FDBT and normal iron metabolism parameters. Research methods included: the study of anamnesis, clinical examination, complete blood count, serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, calculation of percent transferrin saturation, ultrasound of the abdominal organs and dynamic ultrasound cholecystography with choleretic breakfast. Results. The study found that children with FDBT and ID have a higher incidence of FDBT exacerbations, increased intensity of dyspeptic and asthenovegetative symptoms in case of FDBT exacerbation, increase in size, reduced contractile function of gallbladder (GB and hypotonic-hypokinetic FDBT type. Conclusions. Children with FDBT and ID have burdened course of FDBT due to the high incidence of exacerbations, severe dyspeptic and asthenovegetative symptoms in the acute phase, as well as reduced contractile function of GB and hypotonic-hypokinetic FDBT type, which is clinically unfavorable because of the risk of biliary sludge and cholelithiasis.

  18. Deficiência de ferro na criança Iron deficiency in infants and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina A. P. Braga

    2010-06-01

    diet and early weaning contribute to the high prevalence, mainly within the first 2 years of life. Other risk factors, such as prematurity, low birth weight, early umbilical cord clamping and weaning from exclusive breastfeeding may contribute. The impact of iron deficiency on growth is controversial as several other variables contribute to improve or worsen the nutritional status. Alterations in the psychomotor and neural-cognitive development of infants with iron deficiency have been reported in various studies with the catch-up growth rate after treatment being controversial. Additionally, some studies have demonstrated a decrease in the intellectual development and cognitive acquisition in school age children and adolescents that is reverted after iron therapy. The best preventive measure is nutritional education, however due to the high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, other measures should also be used as iron supplementation and food fortification with iron.

  19. [Rapid regression of prolonged pagophagia after treatment of iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, C; Kettaneh, A; Fain, O; Eclache, V; Thomas, M

    2001-02-24

    Pica is an eating disorder characterized by the irrepressible and elective craving for food and non-food substances. Pagophagia is a particular form characterized by an ingestion of ice, often associated with iron deficiency. We report a case of intense and prolonged pagophagia. We also analyse literature about the nature of the link between pica and iron deficiency. A forty-two year old woman was admitted for severe anaemia secondary to iron deficiency possibly related to chronic gynaecological bleeding. A diet investigation revealed a pagophagia of about eighty ice cubes per day developing over five years. Iron supplement corrected the anaemia and the pagophagia disappeared in less than fifteen days without recurrence in the following year. The disappearance of pagophagia after the correction of iron deficiency supports the theory that pagophagia could well be a symptom of iron deficiency.

  20. Early gestation screening of pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency in urban centre in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K; Nair, S; Khade, C; Rajan, M G R

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women.

  1. Soluble Transferrin Receptor - A Marker For Iron Deficiency; A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters for measuring iron deficiency have been established for decades and have served clinicians in the management of this nutritional disorder. The bone marrow still remains the gold standard in the final diagnosis of iron deficiency. However, researchers have been able to identify the dominating role of the ...

  2. Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Intellectual Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the differences, if any, in the intellectual performance scores of children who have iron deficiency anemia and those who are neither anemic nor iron-deficient in New Kashmir Model. School, Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 108 primary New Kashmir Model School children of Islamabad, Pakistan ...

  3. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. The aim of this questionnaire based survey study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to variables such as age, marital status, education with those attending obstetrics and ...

  4. Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Intellectual Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the differences, if any, in the intellectual performance scores of children who have iron deficiency anemia and those who are neither anemic nor iron-deficient in New Kashmir Model School, Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 108 primary New Kashmir Model School children of Islamabad, Pakistan ...

  5. Iron Deficiency, Anemia and Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenga, Michele F.; Minovic, Isidor; Berger, Stefan P; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; van den Berg, Else; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Van der Meer, Peter; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and iron deficiency (ID) are highly prevalent in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Anemia is associated with poor outcome, but the role of ID is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of ID, irrespective of anemia, with all-cause mortality

  6. Milk versus medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in hospitalised infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, C; Grant, C; Taua, N; Wilson, C; Thompson, J

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare iron fortified follow-on milk (iron follow-on), iron fortified partially modified cows' milk (iron milk), and iron medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in hospitalised infants.

  7. [Effects of copper deficiency on iron metabolism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chaoxu; Yang, Li

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of copper deficiency on iron metabolism, the expression of IRP mRNA and Fn mRNA and transferrin receptor mRNA in rats. Forty clean male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight and there were 10 rats in each group. The groups are normal iron and copper control group (group I), copper deficiency group (group II), normal iron and copper slightly deficient group (group III), both iron and copper slightly deficient group (group IV). After 8 weeks, all the rats were killed by sodium pentobarbital anesthesia and all samples were collected and detected for gene expression. Compared with the controls, the contents of serum iron and serum ferritin in completely copper deficiency group decreased (P copper deficiency (P copper deficiency group was significantly increased (P copper deficiency group was significantly decreased (P copper deficiency through influencing the absorption, the results indicate that copper deficiency influences iron homeostasis in cells through affecting the expression of IRP2 and the activity of IRP-RNA combination which change the expressions of ferritin and transferrin mRNA.

  8. Iron deficiency in sports - definition, influence on performance and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German; Cordes, Mareike; Huber, Andreas; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Noack, Patrick; Scales, John; Kriemler, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is frequent among athletes. All types of iron deficiency may affect physical performance and should be treated. The main mechanisms by which sport leads to iron deficiency are increased iron demand, elevated iron loss and blockage of iron absorption due to hepcidin bursts. As a baseline set of blood tests, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels help monitor iron deficiency. In healthy male and female athletes >15 years, ferritin values sports, a ferritin value of 50 mcg/l should be attained in athletes prior to altitude training, as iron demands in these situations are increased. Treatment of iron deficiency consists of nutritional counselling, oral iron supplementation or, in specific cases, by intravenous injection. Athletes with repeatedly low ferritin values benefit from intermittent oral substitution. It is important to follow up the athletes on an individual basis, repeating the baseline blood tests listed above twice a year. A long-term daily oral iron intake or i.v. supplementation in the presence of normal or even high ferritin values does not make sense and may be harmful.

  9. O impacto da fortificação de alimentos na prevenção da deficiência de ferro The impact of food fortification on the prevention of iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana P. Vellozo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as estratégias utilizadas para a prevenção da carência de micronutrientes, principalmente a anemia carencial ferropriva, considerada distúrbio nutricional de maior prevalência mundial, aponta-se a fortificação de alimentos como prioritária em termos de custo benefício. Vem sendo adotada nas últimas décadas em muitos países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. Ressalta-se que a efetivação das medidas nesses países foram obtidas somente a partir de decisões políticas que culminaram no caráter compulsório da fortificação. Dessa forma, diversos alimentos têm sido utilizados para a fortificação, mostrando-se eficientes, bem aceitos e tolerados, não exigindo necessariamente a cooperação do beneficiário. A adição de nutrientes deve ocorrer em alimentos que efetivamente participem da alimentação da região, com regularidade, e após avaliação do estado nutricional da população alvo. E ainda, todo programa de fortificação deve ser monitorado, o alimento a ser fortificado deve ser consumido em quantidades que não apresentem variação considerável de um indivíduo para o outro, não sofrer mudanças importantes em suas características sensoriais (cor, odor e sabor, não alterar o seu custo final e imprescindível comprovação de sua efetividade através de estudos científicos.Among strategies used for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, considered the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldwide, food fortification is a priority in terms of cost benefit. In recent decades food fortification policies have been adopted in many developed and developing countries. The introduction of such measures was achieved only by political decisions that culminated in enforced fortification. Thus, several foods are efficiently used for fortification as they are well accepted and tolerated and do not necessarily require the cooperation of the recipient. Addition of nutrients

  10. Long-distance signaling of iron deficiency in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Yusuke; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2008-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Planta, we established two points regarding the long-distance signal of iron status in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). One is that the long-distance signal generated in iron deficient tissues is a major factor in positively regulating the expressions of iron uptake genes in tobacco. The expression of a ferric chelate reductase gene (NtFRO1) and an iron-regulated transporter gene (NtIRT1) in roots decreased by cutting off the leaves grown under the iron-deficient condi...

  11. Reduced risk for placental malaria in iron deficient women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senga, Edward L.; Harper, Gregory; Koshy, Gibby; Kazembe, Peter N.; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency may limit iron availability to the malaria parasite reducing infection risk, and/or impair host immunity thereby increasing this risk. In pregnant women, there is evidence of an adverse effect with iron supplementation, but the few reported studies are strongly

  12. Iron deficiency among children of asylum seekers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Storm, H.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Verkade, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate, in asylum seekers' children in the Netherlands, biochemical iron status and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in relation to age, region of origin, length of stay in the Netherlands, body mass index (BMI), and dietary iron intake. Patients and Methods:

  13. Anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Wilson; Modotti, Caue; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are changes often associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery is responsible for increasing the iron loss and reducing its absorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery and to relate them to possible predisposing factors. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients submitted to open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in which clinical and laboratory data were obtained up to 48 months postoperatively. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of anemia and to the presence or absence of iron deficiency (even without anemia), and all data were compared between these groups. Preoperatively, 21.5% of patients had anemia and 20% had iron deficiency. The number of patients with anemia did not vary through the 4 years of the study, but ferritin levels significantly decreased with time (Pdeficiency. Anemia and iron deficiency are frequent in obese patients and must be treated before surgery. Medical and nutritional surveillance is important in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery. Management of each condition must be directed at correcting the 2 major sources of iron deficiency and anemia: food intolerance (mostly meat intolerance) and losses (frequently due to menstruation). These are the factors more related to iron deficient anemia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics of iron deficiency in soybean leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is an important agricultural concern leading to lower yields and crop quality. A better understanding of the condition, at the metabolome level, could contribute to the design of strategies to ameliorate Fe deficiency problems. Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soybean leaf extract...

  15. Accuracy of various iron parameters in the prediction of iron deficiency in an acute care hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, K. H.; Tan, H. L.; Lai, H. C.; Kuperan, P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iron parameters like serum ferritin and iron saturation are routinely used in diagnosing iron deficiency. However, these tests are influenced by many factors. We aimed to review the accuracy of iron parameters among inpatients in an acute care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From

  16. [The use of food enriched with iron and vitamins for iron deficiency correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2002-01-01

    The data on the usage of fortified with iron food products for iron deficiency correction are summarized. Efficiency of enrichment with different iron forms (heme, organic and inorganic salts etc.) combining with one or several vitamins and possible undesirable effect of iron excess intake are discussed.

  17. Reversing productivity losses from iron deficiency: the economic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Joseph M

    2002-04-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) depresses human productivity, but policymakers do not generally view this effect as an impediment to sustained economic growth. Economic logic should be enfolded in public advocacy for increased investment in the prevention and control of IDA. This paper argues that integrated strategies are required, with each intervention clearly related to particular groups at risk, and benefits carefully calibrated with costs. Protecting women's lives through supplementation has the first call on public resources, but the most productive investments reduce population prevalence at least cost, and these lie with food-based approaches within the competence of the processed food and seed industries. The public and private sectors must embark on modernization of the food industry in developing countries and reorientation of the international agricultural research complex so that iron-enriched essential foods will be affordable and accessible to the poor, especially children. The costs of IDA, the availability of cost-effective strategies and the benefits of sustained iron nutrition improvement to individuals, families and nations are reviewed. The roles of iron supplementation, food fortification, plant breeding and biotechnology, both actual and imminent, are described. The paper concludes that a recast Green Revolution directed toward dietary quality may be the key to enhancing the learning and earning capacity of young people in the developing world.

  18. Hemorrhage-adjusted iron requirements, hematinics and hepcidin define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia as a model of hemorrhagic iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Finnamore

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT.The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided. In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86% met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20% met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001, lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009, and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001. There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001, and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped.HAIR values, providing an indication of

  19. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency, bone remodelling and iron status in iron-deficient young women consuming an iron-fortified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; Zazo, Pilar; de la Piedra, Concepción; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are two of the most widespread nutritional disorders in the world. Our aim was to know whether the consumption of an iron-fortified fruit juice modifies bone remodelling and the possible influence of baseline vitamin D status on the recovery of iron status in a group of iron-deficient women. Iron biomarkers, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dietary intake were measured in 123 iron-deficient menstruating women. A subgroup (n = 41) participated in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of 16-weeks during winter. They consumed a placebo fruit juice (P) or iron-fortified fruit juice (F). Dietary intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminoterminal telopeptide of collagen I (NTX) and iron biomarkers were determined. Ninety-two per cent of the iron-deficient women were vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Transferrin saturation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were positively correlated. Iron status improved in F, 25-hydroxyvitamin D decreased in F and P, and PTH, ALP and NTX levels were within the normal range and did not vary. Women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥ 50 nmol/L compared with 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/L showed a higher increase in transferrin saturation (a marker of iron supply to tissues) during iron recovery. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is very high in iron-deficient women. The recovery of iron status by consuming an iron-fortified food does not affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels; however, the increase in iron supply to tissues is lower if the women also present vitamin D deficiency. Although bone health does not seem to be affected in this group of women, correction of iron and vitamin D deficiencies should be promoted in young women to improve present and future health.

  20. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement...... available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library......, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia...

  1. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Iron Deficiency Anemia, Not Iron Deficiency, Is Associated with Reduced Attention in Healthy Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca L; O'Dwyer, Nicholas J; Parker, Helen M; Donges, Cheyne E; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cox, Eka P; Franklin, Janet L; Garg, Manohar L; Rooney, Kieron B; O'Connor, Helen T

    2017-11-05

    Women of reproductive age are at increased risk for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), with both implicated in decreased cognitive function (CF). Obesity may complicate this association via inflammatory-mediated ferritin elevation. This cross-sectional study examined the association between hematological iron status (iron replete (IR), ID or IDA) and CF in healthy, young (18-35 years) women of normal-weight (NW: BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m²) or obese-weight (OB: BMI >30 kg/m²). Participants completed a validated, computer-based cognition assessment evaluating impulsivity, attention, information processing, memory and executive function; CF reported as z -scores (mean ± SD). Iron status and CF were compared between groups via ANOVA, with adjustment for potential confounders (BMI, physical activity, C-reactive protein) via ANCOVA. A total of 157 NW and 142 OB women (25.8 ± 5.1 years) participated. Prevalence of ID and IDA were 14% and 6% respectively, with no significant difference between NW and OB groups. Women with IDA scored significantly lower on attention (although within normal range; ±1 z -score), compared to ID (IDA: -0.75 ± 1.89; ID: 0.53 ± 1.37; p = 0.004) but not IR (0.03 ± 1.33, p = 0.21) groups; there were no significant differences between ID and IR groups ( p = 0.34). Adjustment for confounders did not significantly alter these results. In conclusion, women with IDA showed significantly reduced attention compared to women with ID.

  3. Iron Deficiency Anemia, Not Iron Deficiency, Is Associated with Reduced Attention in Healthy Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Cook

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Women of reproductive age are at increased risk for iron deficiency (ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA, with both implicated in decreased cognitive function (CF. Obesity may complicate this association via inflammatory-mediated ferritin elevation. This cross-sectional study examined the association between hematological iron status (iron replete (IR, ID or IDA and CF in healthy, young (18–35 years women of normal-weight (NW: BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 or obese-weight (OB: BMI >30 kg/m2. Participants completed a validated, computer-based cognition assessment evaluating impulsivity, attention, information processing, memory and executive function; CF reported as z-scores (mean ± SD. Iron status and CF were compared between groups via ANOVA, with adjustment for potential confounders (BMI, physical activity, C-reactive protein via ANCOVA. A total of 157 NW and 142 OB women (25.8 ± 5.1 years participated. Prevalence of ID and IDA were 14% and 6% respectively, with no significant difference between NW and OB groups. Women with IDA scored significantly lower on attention (although within normal range; ±1 z-score, compared to ID (IDA: −0.75 ± 1.89; ID: 0.53 ± 1.37; p = 0.004 but not IR (0.03 ± 1.33, p = 0.21 groups; there were no significant differences between ID and IR groups (p = 0.34. Adjustment for confounders did not significantly alter these results. In conclusion, women with IDA showed significantly reduced attention compared to women with ID.

  4. Iron-responsive olfactory uptake of manganese improves motor function deficits associated with iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghan Kim

    Full Text Available Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl(2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl(2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT and dopamine receptor D(1 (D1R levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D(2 (D2R levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed "rescue response" with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status.

  5. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron Deficiency and Other Types of Anemia in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mary

    2016-02-15

    Anemia, defined as a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below the mean for age, is prevalent in infants and children worldwide. The evaluation of a child with anemia should begin with a thorough history and risk assessment. Characterizing the anemia as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic based on the mean corpuscular volume will aid in the workup and management. Microcytic anemia due to iron deficiency is the most common type of anemia in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization recommend routine screening for anemia at 12 months of age; the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the benefits vs. harms of screening. Iron deficiency anemia, which can be associated with cognitive issues, is prevented and treated with iron supplements or increased intake of dietary iron. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to recommend screening or treating pregnant women for iron deficiency anemia to improve maternal or neonatal outcomes. Delayed cord clamping can improve iron status in infancy, especially for at-risk populations, such as those who are preterm or small for gestational age. Normocytic anemia may be caused by congenital membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, enzymopathies, metabolic defects, and immune-mediated destruction. An initial reticulocyte count is needed to determine bone marrow function. Macrocytic anemia, which is uncommon in children, warrants subsequent evaluation for vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, hypothyroidism, hepatic disease, and bone marrow disorders.

  7. Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Aigner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.

  8. Iron deficiency anemia and megaloblastic anemia in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Mahmoud; Jaberian Sara; Pazouki Abdolreza; Riazi Sajedeh; Rangraz Maryam Aghababa; Mokhber Somayyeh

    2017-01-01

    Background. The association between obesity and different types of anemia remained uncertain. The present study aimed to assess the relation between obesity parameters and the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia and also megaloblastic anemia among Iranian population.

  9. Adiposity in women and children from transition countries predicts decreased iron absorption, iron deficiency and a reduced response to iron fortification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Zeder, C.; Muthayya, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Chaouki, N.; Aeberli, I.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Overweight is increasing in transition countries, while iron deficiency remains common. In industrialized countries, greater adiposity increases risk of iron deficiency. Higher hepcidin levels in obesity may reduce dietary iron absorption. Therefore, we investigated the association

  10. BESITY AND IRON DEFICIENCY. ONE MORE COMORBIDITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. L.I. Dvoretsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron defi ciency is one of comorbidity in patients with obesity, which allows you to select a particular phenotype (“iron defi ciency” obesity. There is strong evidence of the pathogenetic link between iron defi ciency and the presence of systemic infl ammation associated with obesity. Data on the frequency and pathogenic form of anemia ( iron defi ciency or anemia of chronic disease , obesity are not unique. Further research of iron status in obese patients is needed to decide on the feasibility and methods of correction of disorders of iron metabolism , in particular in the preparation of patients for bariatric surgery.

  11. Importância das práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida na prevenção da deficiência de ferro Importance of food practices during the first year of life to prevent iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiSele Ane Bortolini

    2010-12-01

    not only from its prevalence, but mainly from its harmful effects on child health. In order to investigate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with iron deficiency, domestic and international scientific articles were reviewed and the most relevant articles were selected. Children born at term and with appropriate birth weight get all the iron they need from exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods of any kind being unnecessary in the first six months of life. At about six months of life, the iron reserves are gradually depleted and complementary foods take on a predominant role in meeting the iron requirement. The role of breastfeeding in the occurrence of iron deficiency is still debated, and appears to depend on the country, region and type of milk used to replace breast milk. The replacement of breast milk with cow's milk increases the risk of the child developing iron deficiency. Complementary practices that have been proven to contribute to the prevention of iron deficiency are complementary foods high in bioavailable iron, enriched foods and iron supplementation in prophylactic doses. A diet high in iron bioavailability is that which contains the staple foods of the family, as long as they are healthy, with the presence of meat, vitamin A and vitamin C. The foods consumed in the first year of life have an important role in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, and their correct implementation depends on guidelines that should be adopted as standard practice by primary healthcare units.

  12. Effects of heme iron enriched peptide on iron deficiency anemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Chen, Le-qun; Zhuang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate whether a daily intake of heme iron enriched peptide obtained from bovine hemoglobin is effective in alleviating iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: a control group, an anemic group not treated, and anemic groups treated with FeSO4 or with the heme iron enriched peptide at low, moderate or high doses. The rats in the anemic groups were fed on a low-iron diet to establish the iron deficiency anemia model. After the model had been established, different doses of heme iron enriched peptide were given to the rats once a day via intragastric administration. After the iron supplement administration, it was observed that heme iron enriched peptide had effective restorative action returning the hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and serum iron in IDA animals to normal values or better. In addition, compared with FeSO4, higher Fe bioavailability and fewer side effects were observed. The rats in the moderate dose group had the highest apparent Fe absorption. Moreover, in vivo antioxidant activity was also observed, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde levels in IDA rats. Furthermore, the heme iron enriched peptide also exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activities. In conclusion, heme iron enriched peptide significantly alleviated iron deficiency anemia, and exhibited strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. This suggests that heme iron enriched peptide might be exploited as a safe, efficient new iron supplement.

  13. [The characteristics of iron metabolism under iron-deficiency anemia and chronic disorders anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorkalova, E V; Aznabaeva, L F; Nikulicheva, V I; Safuanova, G Sh; Chepurnaia, A N

    2011-07-01

    The study investigated the issues of iron metabolism under iron-deficiency anemia and chronic disorders anemia and dependencies of production of IL-1? and sICAM-1 immunoinflammatory markers from degree of severity and duration of anemia. The study data indicates that under iron-deficiency anemia lactoferrin and sICAM-1 are the negative regulators of hemopoiesis. The inhibition of transferrin expression by the proinflammatory cytokines is one of the causes of inefficient hemopoiesis under chronic disorders anemia.

  14. Iron deficiency in chronic systolic heart failure(indic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic systolic heart failure (HF is characterized by the left ventricular dysfunction, exercise intolerance and is associated with neurohormonal activation that affects several organs such as kidney and skeletal muscle. Anemia is common in HF and may worsen symptoms. Iron deficiency (ID is also common in HF patients with or without anemia. Iron is the key cofactor in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and the Krebs cycle. There is a paucity of data regarding iron metabolism in chronic systolic HF in India. Methods: IroN Deficiency In CHF study (INDIC is an observational study that investigated forty chronic heart failure patients for the presence of ID. Serum ferritin (micrograms per liter, serum iron (micrograms per liter, total iron binding capacity (micrograms per liter, transferring (milligrams per deciliter, and transferrin saturation were measured to assess iron status. Results: There were 67.5% (27/40 patients who had ID with a mean serum ferritin level of 76.4 μg/L. Of the 27 iron deficient patients, 22 (55% had an absolute ID, and 5 had a functional ID. Eight out of 27 of the iron deficient patients were anemic (20% of the total cohort, 30% of the iron deficient patients. Anemia was seen in 6 other patients, which was possibly anemia of chronic disease. There was a trend for more advanced New York Heart Association (NYHA class (NYHA III and NYHA IV patients with ID (37.4% vs. 30.77%, P = 0.697. Conclusion: In our study, ID was very common, affecting more than half of the patients with systolic HF. Absolute ID was the most common cause of ID and patients with ID had a tendency to have advanced NYHA class. Our study also demonstrated that ID can occur in the absence of anemia (iron depletion.

  15. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  16. Serum transferrin receptors in detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1999-08-01

    A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of serum transferrin receptors in the detection of iron deficiency in pregnant women. The iron status of 100 pregnant women with single uncomplicated term pregnancies in the first stage of labor was established using standard laboratory measures. These included complete hemogram, red cell indices, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In addition, serum transferrin receptor (STFR) was estimated. The results of 81 women with complete laboratory profiles were analyzed. Thirty-five (43.2%) women were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl). Hemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant correlation with MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and percent transferrin saturation, suggesting that the anemia was likely to be due to iron deficiency. The mean STFR level was 18.05+/-9.9 mg/l in the anemic women and was significantly raised (p<0.001) compared with that of the nonanemic women. STFR correlated significantly with Hb (p<0.001), MCH (p<0.05), MCHC (p<0.01), serum iron (p<0.01), and percent transferrin saturation (p<0.01) and also showed a highly significant correlation with the degree of anemia. Serum ferritin in these women did not correlate with Hb, and only 54.4% of the women had levels <12 ng/ml, which does not reflect the true prevalence of iron deficiency. Serum transferrin receptor estimation is thus a useful measure for detecting iron deficiency in pregnancy.

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis mimicking iron deficiency anemia: a delayed diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Aydin Koker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is an uncommon chronic disorder in children. It is characterized by recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage and may result in hemoptysis and pulmonary insufficiency. The most common hematologic manifestation of IPH is iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of IPH is not known and its diagnosis may be difficult due to the variable clinical courses. The most helpful signs for identifying IPH are iron deficiency anemia and recurrent or chronic cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, wheezing. We report here 5 pediatric cases of IPH presenting with iron deficiency anemia and without pulmonary symptoms. Mean corpuscular volume was low in all patients; iron was low in 4 out of 5 cases; total iron binding capacity was high in all of them; ferritin was low in 3 patients. At follow up, none of them had responded successfully to the iron therapy. Although they didn’t present with pulmonary symptoms, chest radiographs incidentally revealed diffuse reticulonoduler shadows in all of them. Computed tomography revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities, consolidation, increased density. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of hemosiderinladen macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gastric aspirate. If patients with iron deficiency anemia don’t respond to iron therapy, they should be examined for IPH. Chest radiographs should be taken even in absence of pulmonary symptoms. Early diagnosis is important for a timely management of IPH.

  18. Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis Mimicking Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Delayed Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koker, Sultan Aydin; Gözmen, Salih; Oymak, Yeşim; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Can, Demet; Genç, Sinan; Vergin, Raziye Canan

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon chronic disorder in children. It is characterized by recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage and may result in hemoptysis and pulmonary insufficiency. The most common hematologic manifestation of IPH is iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of IPH is not known and its diagnosis may be difficult due to the variable clinical courses. The most helpful signs for identifying IPH are iron deficiency anemia and recurrent or chronic cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, wheezing. We report here 5 pediatric cases of IPH presenting with iron deficiency anemia and without pulmonary symptoms. Mean corpuscular volume was low in all patients; iron was low in 4 out of 5 cases; total iron binding capacity was high in all of them; ferritin was low in 3 patients. At follow up, none of them had responded successfully to the iron therapy. Although they didn’t present with pulmonary symptoms, chest radiographs incidentally revealed diffuse reticulonoduler shadows in all of them. Computed tomography revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities, consolidation, increased density. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of hemosiderin-laden macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gastric aspirate. If patients with iron deficiency anemia don’t respond to iron therapy, they should be examined for IPH. Chest radiographs should be taken even in absence of pulmonary symptoms. Early diagnosis is important for a timely management of IPH. PMID:28670434

  19. Iron deficiency and neurologic disease in children | Chiabi | Clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency is a frequent disorder and a public health problem especially in children and pregnant women. The clinical manifestations are varied, and the most dreaded are neurologic. These neurologic manifestations are often missed as differential diagnosis in current clinical practice. The authors review iron ...

  20. Prevalence of iron deficiency and megaloblastic Anaemia at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of iron deficiency and megaloblastic Anaemia at booking in a secondary health facility in north eastern Nigeria. ... Nigerian Medical Journal ... This further supports the continued use of iron supplements for all pregnant women preferably at no cost in the short run and economic empowerment of the women folk in ...

  1. Rethinking Iron Regulation and Assessment in Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Chronic Disease, and Obesity: Introducing Hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Pustacioglu, Cenk; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Braunschweig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed. PMID:22717199

  2. The triad of Iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A triad of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and growth retardation occurring in tandem with zinc deficiency has been reported in the past as components of either Prasad's syndrome or hypopituitarism. There are no documented cases of such triad occurring in the presence of normal serum zinc levels. We report ...

  3. The triad of Iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-04

    Dec 4, 2014 ... A triad of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and growth retardation occurring in tandem with zinc deficiency has been reported in the past as components of either Prasad's syndrome or hypopituitarism. There are no documented cases of such triad occurring in the presence of normal serum zinc ...

  4. Zinc Status in Iron Deficient Anaemic Patients in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagob Mohamed, T.I.; Bode, P.; van de Wiel, A.; Ismail, Fadwa; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a major health problem worldwide, but may be complicated in underdeveloped nations by deficiencies of other micronutrients with consequences for adequate treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2 billion people – over 30% of the world’s population –

  5. The safety of available treatment options for iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Bhandari, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, is highly prevalent worldwide and has clinical consequences. The prevention and treatment of ID is a major public health goal. Accurate diagnosis, selection of the appropriate iron replacement therapy and addressing the underlying cause, remain as the main challenges in ID management. Areas covered: This review aims to provide a narrative review of current available evidence on iron supplementation options regularly used to treat ID, including oral and intravenous (IV) iron formulations, with emphasis on safety issues. Analyzed safety concerns include gastrointestinal side effects (oral iron) and risks of hypotension, anaphylaxis, infection, hypophosphatemia, oxidative stress and mortality (IV iron). Expert opinion: Low-to-moderate doses of oral iron supplementation remains as first line therapy for uncomplicated ID, but it has been scarcely discussed in the setting of inflammation. Confirmatory studies on the efficacy of newer oral iron formulations in this setting are needed. Compared with oral iron, short-term IV iron administration is more efficacious in ID correction, without significant safety concerns. However, long-term safety of IV iron maintenance therapy, head to head comparisons of IV iron preparations, pharmacological modulation of hepcidin and HIF, and extra-erythropoietic effects of iron are among the important areas of research.

  6. High-fat diet causes iron deficiency via hepcidin-independent reduction of duodenal iron absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnweber, Thomas; Ress, Claudia; Nairz, Manfred; Theurl, Igor; Schroll, Andrea; Murphy, Anthony T; Wroblewski, Victor; Witcher, Derrick R; Moser, Patrizia; Ebenbichler, Christoph F; Kaser, Susanne; Weiss, Günter

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is often associated with disorders of iron homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron metabolism and may be responsible for obesity-driven iron deficiency. Herein, we used an animal model of diet-induced obesity to study high-fat-diet-induced changes in iron homeostasis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, and in addition, half of the mice received high dietary iron (Fe+) for the last 2 weeks. Surprisingly, HFD led to systemic iron deficiency which was traced back to reduced duodenal iron absorption. The mRNA and protein expressions of the duodenal iron transporters Dmt1 and Tfr1 were significantly higher in HFD- than in SD-fed mice, indicating enterocyte iron deficiency, whereas the mRNA levels of the duodenal iron oxidoreductases Dcytb and hephaestin were lower in HFD-fed mice. Neither hepatic and adipose tissue nor serum hepcidin concentrations differed significantly between SD- and HFD-fed mice, whereas dietary iron supplementation resulted in increased hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression and serum hepcidin levels in SD as compared to HFD mice. Our study suggests that HFD results in iron deficiency which is neither due to intake of energy-dense nutrient poor food nor due to increased sequestration in the reticulo-endothelial system but is the consequence of diminished intestinal iron uptake. We found that impaired iron absorption is independent of hepcidin but rather results from reduced metal uptake into the mucosa and discordant oxidoreductases expressions despite enterocyte iron deficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A contribuição dos alimentos fortificados na prevenção da anemia ferropriva The contribution of fortified foods in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana P. Vellozo

    2010-06-01

    relatively high due to growth. The World Bank refers to the importance of food fortification as a strategy to fight against micronutrient deficiency throughout the world. It also claims that "no other technology can offer an opportunity to improve lives at such a low cost and in such a short period". Studies have shown that food fortification is one of the best and most effective processes to prevent iron deficiency in the population. Therefore, in developing countries, such as Brazil, fortified foods are imperative to improve and even to cure iron deficiency anemia.

  8. Treatment for women with postpartum iron deficiency anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markova, Veronika; Norgaard, Astrid; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum iron deficiency anaemia is caused by bleeding or inadequate dietary iron intake/uptake. This condition is defined by iron deficiency accompanied by a lower than normal blood haemoglobin concentration, although this can be affected by factors other than anaemia and must...... sample sizes. No analysis of our primary outcomes contained more than two studies.Intravenous iron was compared to oral iron in 10 studies (1553 women). Fatigue was reported in two studies and improved significantly favouring the intravenously treated group in one of the studies. Other anaemia symptoms....... The quality of evidence was low.Clinical outcomes were rarely reported. Laboratory values may not be reliable indicators for efficacy, as they do not always correlate with clinical treatment effects. It remains unclear which treatment modality is most effective in alleviating symptoms of postpartum anaemia...

  9. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. (USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  10. [Effectiveness of iron amino acid chelate versus ferrous sulfate as part of a food complement in preschool children with iron deficiency, Medellín, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maylen Liseth; Sánchez, Juliana; Villada, Óscar; Montoya, Liliana; Díaz, Alejandro; Vargas, Cristian; Chica, Javier; Herrera, Ana Milena

    2013-01-01

    Iron depleted deposits are the first link in the chain of events leading to iron deficiency which is the most prevalent nutritional shortage and main cause of anemia worldwide. This situation can be prevented through food fortification. To compare the efficacy of amino acid chelate iron with ferrous sulfate as fortifier of a dietary complement in preschoolers with iron deficiency. This study was a blinded clinical trial with randomized groups. We analyzed 56 preschoolers with iron deficiency (ferritin children had respiratory tract infection, without statistical differences. Both compounds increased serum ferritin concentration, with a higher increase in those who were given milk with iron amino acid chelate. There were no differences in the adverse reactions and infections incidences between the groups.

  11. [Iron deficiency: A diagnostic and therapeutic perspective in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, A

    2017-02-01

    Iron plays an essential role in balancing the various metabolism in the body. It is also involved in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters. Nutritional iron deficiency is one of the most widespread worldwide; it poses a great health challenge due to the consequences it entails. The aim of this research study is to explore the percentage of psychiatric patients who have a deficiency in iron. In addition, the study investigates the efficacy of iron administered by oral treatment on psychiatric symptomatology among iron deficient patients. The research study utilized the martial biological results, which involved the observation of the level of iron deficiency among the outpatients of a local psychiatrist and assessor from the period of January 2012 until December 2013. Out of 412 patients, 295 were women and 117 men. The age of the participants ranged from 16 to 89years, with an average age of 45years. The only exclusion criterion was a patient's refusal or inability to take the prescribed iron assessment test. We considered a transferrin saturation coefficient (TSC)calculation of the TSC in 138 patients was requested due to suspected iron deficiency despite a blood ferritin level of>100ng/ml. A single method was utilized in the various laboratories to analyse the blood samples to determine whether there was a deficiency in iron. Only those patients with blood ferritin levels ≤100ng/mL and/or a TSC of100ng/mL. Overall, 335 patients (81.3% of the subjects) showed an iron deficiency based on the criteria we set. In the remaining 77 patients (18.7% of the subjects), all of them had blood ferritin levels>100ng/mL and some had TSC≤30%, while the remaining patients' TSC was unknown because it was not measured. The results indicated that there is an iron deficiency in 198 out of 240 patients suffering mostly from mood and behavioural disorders, in 101 out of 126 patients suffering mostly from anxiety disorders, in 18 out of 27 patients suffering mostly from sleep

  12. Prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in older Portuguese adults: An EMPIRE substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalo Nunes, António; Fonseca, Cândida; Marques, Filipa; Belo, Aurora; Brilhante, Dialina; Cortez, José

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in older Portuguese adults, and to compare it with the prevalence in younger individuals. A population-based, cross-sectional study (EMPIRE study) enrolling a representative sample of 6267 adults aged Portuguese adults, particularly among those aged ≥80 years. Better diagnosis, prevention and treatment strategies should be implemented taking into account the outstanding role of iron deficiency in older Portuguese adults, the differences between regions and the intrinsic characteristics of this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1814-1822. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Results of the First American Prospective Study of Intravenous Iron in Oral Iron-Intolerant Iron-Deficient Gravidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Michael; James, Stephanie E; Nicoletti, Melissa; Lenowitz, Steven; London, Nicola; Bahrain, Huzefa F; Derman, Richard; Smith, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Anemia affects up to 42% of gravidas. Neonatal iron deficiency is associated with low birth weight, delayed growth and development, and increased cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. While oral iron is convenient, up to 70% report significant gastrointestinal toxicity. Intravenous iron formulations allowing replacement in one visit with favorable side-effect profiles decrease rates of anemia with improved hemoglobin responses and maternal fetal outcomes. Seventy-four oral iron-intolerant, second- and third-trimester iron-deficient gravidas were questioned for oral iron intolerance and treated with intravenous iron. All received 1000 mg of low-molecular-weight iron dextran in 250 mL normal saline. Fifteen minutes after a test dose, the remainder was infused over the balance of 1 hour. Subjects were called at 1, 2, and 7 days to assess delayed reactions. Four weeks postinfusion or postpartum, hemoglobin levels and iron parameters were measured. Paired t test was used for hemoglobin and iron; 58/73 women were questioned about interval growth and development of their babies. Seventy-three of 74 enrolled subjects completed treatment. Sixty had paired pre- and posttreatment data. The mean pre- and posthemoglobin concentrations were 9.7 and 10.8 g/dL (P iron deficiency anemia. Intravenous iron has less toxicity and is more effective, supporting moving it closer to frontline therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anemia and iron deficiency in gastrointestinal and liver conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jürgen; Connor, Susan; Virgin, Garth; Ong, David Eng Hui; Pereyra, Lisandro

    2016-09-21

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with a number of pathological gastrointestinal conditions other than inflammatory bowel disease, and also with liver disorders. Different factors such as chronic bleeding, malabsorption and inflammation may contribute to IDA. Although patients with symptoms of anemia are frequently referred to gastroenterologists, the approach to diagnosis and selection of treatment as well as follow-up measures is not standardized and suboptimal. Iron deficiency, even without anemia, can substantially impact physical and cognitive function and reduce quality of life. Therefore, regular iron status assessment and awareness of the clinical consequences of impaired iron status are critical. While the range of options for treatment of IDA is increasing due to the availability of effective and well-tolerated parenteral iron preparations, a comprehensive overview of IDA and its therapy in patients with gastrointestinal conditions is currently lacking. Furthermore, definitions and assessment of iron status lack harmonization and there is a paucity of expert guidelines on this topic. This review summarizes current thinking concerning IDA as a common co-morbidity in specific gastrointestinal and liver disorders, and thus encourages a more unified treatment approach to anemia and iron deficiency, while offering gastroenterologists guidance on treatment options for IDA in everyday clinical practice.

  15. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in children with iron deficiency anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Ahmet; Cengiz, Murad; Ozdemir, Zeynep Canan; Celik, Hakim

    2012-05-01

    Paraoxonase-1 is an esterase enzyme and it has 3 types of activity, namely paraoxonase, arylesterase, and diazoxonase. It has been reported that paraoxonase-1 deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in children with iron deficiency anemia and vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia. Thirty children with iron deficiency anemia, 30 children with vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia, and 40 healthy children aged 6 months to 6 years were enrolled in this study. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured with a spectrophotometer by using commercially available kits. Mean paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia group (103 ± 73 and 102 ± 41 U/L, respectively) were significantly lower than mean activities of control group (188 ± 100 and 147 ± 34 U/L, respectively; P .05). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities significantly increased after treatment with vitamin B(12) in vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia; however, there were no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes after iron treatment in iron deficiency anemia group. Important correlations were found between vitamin B(12) levels and both paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (r = .367, P paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and after vitamin B(12) therapy the activities of these enzymes returned to near-normal levels.

  16. Iron dextran in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia of pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-16

    deficiency anaemia were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group A received the usual recom. mended dose of iron dextran (Imferon; Fisons) and group 8 received two-thirds of the recommended dose. A further 30 patients ...

  17. Iron deficiency anemia in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumante, N M; Kanvinde, S; Sanwalka, N J; Vaidya, M V; Khadilkar, A V

    2008-04-01

    Of this pilot study was to assess the iron status and dietary intake of 1-3 year-old apparently healthy toddlers of the lower socio-economic class, and the effect of eight weeks intervention with liquid oral iron in an urban slum in Pune, India. 50 toddlers (M= 25, F= 25) with mean age of 2.4 years (SD 0.82) were evaluated. Anthropometry, Food Frequency Questionnaire, a hemogram and ferritin were measured. Twenty mg of elemental iron was given to all toddlers. After 8 weeks clinical examination, anthropometry, hemoglobin (HGB) and Ferritin were measured. Prevalence of anemia was 66% (HGB fight against anemia and prescribe iron to all toddlers when they are seen for minor ailments.

  18. Acupuncture Improves Intestinal Absorption of Iron in Iron-deficient Obese Patients: A Randomized Controlled Preliminary Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Cai Xie; Yan-Qiang Cao; Qian Gao; Chen Wang; Man Li; Shou-Gang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity has an adverse effect on iron status. Hepcidin-mediated inhibition of iron absorption in the duodenum is a potential mechanism. Iron-deficient obese patients have diminished response to oral iron therapy. This study was designed to assess whether acupuncture could promote the efficacy of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of obesity-related iron deficiency (ID). Methods: Sixty ID or ID anemia (IDA) patients with obesity were screened at Beijing Hospital of Traditi...

  19. Urinary catecholamines in iron deficiency anemia: effects of environmental temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.M.; Beard, J.L.

    1986-03-05

    Iron deficiency (ID) is associated with increased levels of norepinephrine (NE) in plasma and urine. They investigated the effect of 5-7 days exposure to three different environmental temperatures (10/sup 0/C, 24/sup 0/C, 30/sup 0/C) on urinary catecholamine levels to test the hypothesis that increased thermogenic activity is causal to this increased excretion in iron deficiency. Catecholamines were analyzed from acidified urine by HPLC-EC. The mean Hb in ID animals was 3.1 +/- .5 versus controls of 12.8 +/- 9. These data demonstrate that contrary to previous reports NE excretion is not normalized at a thermoneutral temperature and suggests a basic abnormality in peripheral SNS activity and NE metabolism in iron deficiency that is independent of environmental drive from thermogenesis.

  20. CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND IRON-DEFICIENT ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Melnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 62 chronic heart failure (CHF patients with iron-deficient anemia (IDA were studied. Standard CHF therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides was accompanied with the correction of iron deficiency by intravenous injection of Venofer and subsequent Ferro-Folgamma prescription (average daily dose of iron 137,75±5mg. After treatment serum iron level increased by 95,5% and hemoglobin level – by 9,8%. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 32,2% and physical activity tolerance – by 47,6%. Before treatment 32 CHF patients with IDA (51,6% had III functional class (FC of CHF according to NYHA and 16 patients (25,8% – IV FC. After treatment I FC was observed in 18 CHF patients (29%, II FC – in 26 patients and only 18 patients demonstrated III FC of CHF.

  1. [Cow's milk consumption and iron deficiency anemia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria A A; Osório, Mônica M

    2005-01-01

    To thoroughly investigate the association between the consumption of cow's milk and anemia in childhood. The information was gathered from papers catalogued in Lilacs and MEDLINE and published during the last two decades, and also from textbooks and publications by international organizations. Iron deficiency anemia is a severe public health problem in developing countries. Breast milk contains adequate iron for full term babies in the first 6 months. Thereafter, an additional iron-rich diet becomes essential. In recognition of the importance of the diet in triggering anemia, this paper discusses the relationship in children between a high intake of cow's milk and iron deficiency anemia. Gastrointestinal and allergic problems may be caused by early introduction of cow's milk or by its substitution for breast milk. Furthermore, cow's milk has decreased iron density and bioavailability, excess protein and minerals, notably calcium, and thus interferes in the absorption of iron from other foods, and is also linked to small intestinal hemorrhage in young children. The use of cow's milk in lieu of other foods rich in bioavailable iron was shown to be a risk factor for anemia. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life, discretionary weaning only after the 24th month, and a complementary diet rich in iron are highly important to avoid anemia and its consequences.

  2. Iron dextran in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficiency anaemia were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group A received the usual recommended dose of iron dextran (Imferon; Fisons) and group 8 received two-thirds of the recommended dose. A further 30 patients received oral iron ...

  3. Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure — Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mester András

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency and anemia affect approximately half of the chronic heart failure patients and they are associated with increased hospitalization rate, lower functional capacity, lower quality of life, and higher mortality. The exact mechanism of iron deficiency in heart failure patients is still not fully understood. Current guidelines recommend ferritin as the most accurate serum biomarker for the diagnosis of iron deficiency. The use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents is no longer recommended because of the lack of improvement on mortality or hospital readmission rate, and it was associated with a higher rate of thromboembolic events. Intravenous iron replacement therapy is safe and generally well tolerated, with fewer side effects compared to oral administration. Large randomized studies with ferric carboxymaltose demonstrated its effectiveness and superiority to oral administration, and it was associated with a decreased rate of hospitalization rate and worsening heart failure, and improvement of functional capacity and quality of life. Intravenous iron supplementation for chronic heart failure is strongly recommended by European guidelines. Further studies are needed for a better knowledge of this complex pathology and determination of the long-term safety and effectiveness of iron administration in chronic heart failure patients. .

  4. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of anemia and thrombocytopenia as a result of uterine fibroid and adenomyosis, complicated by immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. Symptoms were presented as menorrhagia and metrorrhagia in a 34-year-old African American woman, who was later treated with blood and platelet transfusion and iron therapy with steroids. Uterine fibroids are commonly found to cause hematologic disturbances such as anemia and reactive thrombocytosis and, less commonly, thrombocytopenia. Moreover, such hematologic disturbances are secondary to heavy and irregular uterine bleeding, which is typically presented. A previous uterine fibroid diagnosis was made and reconfirmed by pelvic and transvaginal ultrasound to exclude other locoregional pathologies. ITP was suggested by Coombs test and several other serologies, leading to confirmation via bone marrow biopsy. In a previous case study, we reported positive responses in hemotecrit and platelet count after the introduction of iron therapy to an iron-depleted middle-aged female presenting severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. 1

  5. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issues. For more information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, ... experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources ...

  6. Iron Supplementation, Response in Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Analysis of Five Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okam, Maureen M; Koch, Todd A; Tran, Minh-Ha

    2017-08-01

    Oral iron-replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for iron-deficiency anemia, but it is often poorly tolerated or ineffective. Hemoglobin response at day 14 of oral iron may be useful in assessing whether and when to transition patients from oral to intravenous (IV) iron. Pooled data from 5 randomized trials were analyzed to compare oral and IV iron-replacement therapy for iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment criteria and assignment to oral versus IV iron were defined per protocol; this analysis included only subjects receiving oral iron. Responders were subjects with ≥1.0-g/dL increases in hemoglobin at day 14, and nonresponders were those with smaller increases. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated for association with hemoglobin response at multiple timepoints. Most subjects (72.8%) were classified as responders. The proportion of subjects with hemoglobin increases ≥1.0, ≥2.0, and ≥3.0 g/dL was greatest among those with postpartum anemia, intermediate among those with heavy uterine bleeding or gastrointestinal-related causes of anemia, and lowest among those with other causes; this proportion was also significantly greater among responders than nonresponders. A ≥1.0-g/dL increase in hemoglobin on day 14 most accurately predicted satisfactory overall hemoglobin response to oral iron on day 42/56 (sensitivity 90.1%; specificity 79.3%; positive and negative predictive values of 92.9% and 72.7%, respectively). Iron-replacement therapy improved quality of life and reduced fatigue. Hemoglobin responses <1.0 g/dL at day 14 of oral iron identify subjects with iron-deficiency anemia who should be transitioned to IV iron supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medication adherence to oral iron therapy in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Asli; Erdogan, Ferit; Kut, Altug

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factors affecting medication adherence in patients who use oral iron therapy due to iron deficiency anemia. A total of 96 female patients in fertile age with mean age of 30±10.1 years (range 18-53) who were admitted to Family Medicine Clinic between 01 January and 31 March 2015 and who had received iron therapy within the recent three years were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire form. Of the patients, 39 (40,6%) were detected not to use the medication regularly or during the recommended period. A statistically significant relationship was found between non-adherence to therapy and gastrointestinal side effects and weight gain (p<0.05). Medication adherence is deficient in patients with iron deficiency anemia. The most important reason for this seems gastrointestinal side effects, in addition to weight gain under treatment.

  8. Diagnóstico diferencial da deficiência de ferro Differential diagnosis of iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Vicari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de ferro é considerada a patologia hematológica mais prevalente no homem. Assim, é fundamental a adequada identificação de suas causas, bem como a diferenciação com outras patologias distintas para adequada abordagem da deficiência de ferro. Neste artigo são brevemente descritas outras condições que podem cursar com anemia microcítica, tais como: talassemias, anemia de doença crônica, anemia sideroblástica e envenenamento por chumbo, patologias estas que devem ser afastadas durante investigação de anemia ferropriva.Iron deficiency is considered to be the commonest hematological pathology in humans. Thus, the essential steps in an adequate approach of iron deficiency include: the proper identification of its causes and the differentiation between iron deficiency and other conditions. This article briefly describes other conditions that may present with microcytic anemia such as thalassemia, anemia of chronic diseases, sideroblastic anemia and lead intoxication. These diseases should be considered during the investigation of iron deficiency anemia.

  9. Dietary heme iron does not prevent postgastrectomy anemia but fructooligosaccharides improve bioavailability of heme iron in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, A; Sakai, K; Takasaki, M; Uehara, M; Tokunaga, T; Adachi, T

    1999-09-01

    Gastrectomized rats exhibit iron deficiency anemia. We observed the effects of dietary heme-iron and short chain frucooligosaccharides (Sc-FOS) in relation to prevention of postgastrectomy anemia in rats. Twelve laparotomized (sham-operated) rats were fed iron-citrate (control) as iron source diet without or with Sc-FOS (75 g/kg of diet) and twenty four totally gastrectomized (Bilroth II) rats, were fed a iron-citrate (control) or heme-iron (heme) as iron source diet without or with Sc-FOS (75 g/kg of diet) for 4 weeks. All rats received an intramuscular injection of vitamin B-12 every two weeks. Tail blood was collected every other week for determination of hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed and whole blood was collected. The total gastrectomy induced the postgastrectomy anemia. Dietary Sc-FOS increase iron absorption and thereby prevented completely this anemia in gastrectomized rats fed the control diet but this effect of Sc-FOS in rats fed heme diet was not complete. Dietary heme iron could not prevent postgastrectomy anemia itself, but fructooligosaccharides improve bioavailability of not only non-heme iron such as iron-citrate, but also heme-iron in rats.

  10. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  11. Higher prevalence of iron deficiency as strong predictor of attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 630 children with ADHD aged 5-18 and 630 controls aged 5-18 years old. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, including physician diagnosis. The health status of the subjects was assessed by ascertaining clinical presentations and symptoms, family history, body mass index (BMI), iron deficiency, ...

  12. prevalence of iron deficiency in children with cyanotic heart disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 86 (Supplement) December 2009. PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN WITH CYANOTIC HEART DISEASE SEEN AT KENYATTA. NATIONAL HOSPITAL AND MATER HOSPITAL NAIROBI. M. O. Lang'o, MBChB, MMed (Paed), Paediatrician, Gertrude's ...

  13. The effects of iron deficiency and anaemia on primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutritional disorder in the developing world and, as a result, a large number of children under the age of 5 years do not reach their developmental potential.[1,2]. ID and ID anaemia (IDA) are widespread health problems among children. Approximately 40% of children are anaemic ...

  14. The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda López, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking them remain

  15. Iron deficiency in children | Thejpal | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal iron deficiency has negative effects during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, which affects maternal health (e.g. depression, stress, interaction) and has negative effects on the baby (e.g. behavioural and immunological effects). Newer tests include the soluble transferrin receptor, reticulocyte haemoglobin ...

  16. Iron Deficiency In Frequent And First Time Female Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and relevant factors in frequent and first time female blood donors at Casablanca blood transfusion centre, Morocco. Methods: Between November 2005 and April 2006, twenty-one female first time and twenty-one frequent female blood ...

  17. differential effects of chronic iron deficiency anaemia on junctional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-12

    Dec 12, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to ...

  18. Iron deficiency differently affects metabolic responses in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Graziano; De Nisi, Patrizia; Dell'Orto, Marta; Espen, Luca; Gallina, Pietro Marino

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency responses were investigated in roots of soybean, a Strategy I plant species. Soybean responds to iron deficiency by decreasing growth, both at the root and shoot level. Chlorotic symptoms in younger leaves were evident after a few days of iron deficiency, with chlorophyll content being dramatically decreased. Moreover, several important differences were found as compared with other species belonging to the same Strategy I. The main differences are (i) a lower capacity to acidify the hydroponic culture medium, that was also reflected by a lower H(+)-ATPase activity as determined in a plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from the roots; (ii) a drastically reduced activity of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme; (iii) a decrease in both cytosolic and vacuolar pHs; (iv) an increase in the vacuolar phosphate concentration, and (v) an increased exudation of organic carbon, particularly citrate, phenolics, and amino acids. Apparently, in soybean roots, some of the responses to iron deficiency, such as the acidification of the rhizosphere and other related processes, do not occur or occur only at a lower degree. These results suggest that the biochemical mechanisms induced by this nutritional disorder are differently regulated in this plant. A possible role of inorganic phosphate in the balance of intracellular pHs is also discussed.

  19. The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda López, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking

  20. Deficiency of a alpha-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background: There is evidence that proteases and anti-proteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this anti-protease in humans are asso...