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Sample records for prevent iodine deficiency

  1. Ensuring effective prevention of iodine-deficiency disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völzke, Henry; Caron, Philippe Jean; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs initiated to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) may not remain effective due to changes in government policies, commercial factors, and human behavior that may affect the efficacy of IDD prevention programs in unpredictable directions. Monitoring and outcome studies...

  2. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  3. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid problems, such as nodules, hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease. Administration of large amounts of iodine through medications ( ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  4. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  5. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  6. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  7. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  8. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  9. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  10. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children.

  11. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  12. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  13. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  14. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic, providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.

  15. [Iodine deficiency in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirović, H; Toromanović, A; Hadzibegić, N; Stimljanin, D; Budimić, Z; Cengić, H; Roncević, Z; Denjo, E; Huskić, J; Hadzimujić, I; Moro, D; Ivanković, A; Dodig, N; Hasanbegović, S

    2000-01-01

    food industry which is consuming on its teritory, has to be iodinated on the place of its production without looking back whether or not it is produced or imported in Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation, lodination has to be performed with 20 to 30 mg KI per one kg of salt, thereby an average the iodine content has to be 25 mg per kg. In this way it will be prevented the wide spectrum of disorders, which we often are not aware for that its are caused by iodine deficiency. In addition it will be prevented many very important socioeconomical consequences of iodine deficiency.

  16. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Burie and Womberma Districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect millions of people in developing countries mainly due to dietary iodine deficiency and aggravating factors that affect the bioavailability of iodine in the body. Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the public health problems of Ethiopia. Recent findings show that both endemic and ...

  17. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age living in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Soboleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the assessment of iodine status and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age. In this regard, we examined 200 individuals from 18 up to 44 years old living in Saint Petersburg for more than 3 years permanently. Most of the examined individuals had mild iodine deficiency, less than half of people of reproductive age (46 % used iodized salt at home. Goiter was found by palpation in 8 % of participants. More than half of the surveyed individuals are women of reproductive age who are at risk for the development of iodine deficiency disorders. Our data reflect an unfavorable situation in fight against iodine deficiency disorders in Saint Petersburg. Probably, the voluntary model of using iodized salt as the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation is not effective enough.

  18. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India

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    Kapil Umesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency (ID is the world′s single most important preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is a public health problem in 130 countries, affecting 13% of the world population. The simplest solution to prevent the IDD is to consume iodized common salt every day. In India, significant progress has been achieved toward elimination of IDD, in the last 30 years. Satisfactory levels of urinary iodine excretion and iodine content of salt have been documented by the research surveys conducted by research scientists. The results indicate that we are progressing toward elimination of IDD. IDD is due to a nutritional deficiency, which is prima-rily that of iodine, in soil and water. IDD is known to re-appear if the IDD Control Program is not sustained. To ensure that the population continues to have intake of adequate amount of iodine, there is a need of i periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD with respect to impact of iodized salt (IS intervention; ii strengthening the health and nutrition education activities to create demand for IS and iii development of a monitoring information system (MIS for ensuring that the adequately IS is available to the beneficiaries.

  19. Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianjun Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of iodine deficiency through salt iodization has been recognized as a global success story, and China stands at the forefront of this achievement with one of the most successful programs in the world. High level political commitment, national mandatory legislation, a state-managed edible salt industry and a complex and highly sophisticated surveillance system have facilitated the success of the program. Challenges have arisen however, including: (i concern that adequate iodine status in pregnant women cannot be achieved without causing above adequate iodine intakes in children; (ii declining iodine intake as a result of reductions in salt consumption and increased consumption of processed foods, which may not be made with iodized salt; (iii the existence of areas with high iodine content in the water; and (iv declines in household use of iodized salt due to concerns about excess iodine intake and thyroid disease. This article reviews the achievements and challenges of the Chinese Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD Elimination Program and reflects on lessons learned and implications for other national salt iodization programs.

  20. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: More than two billion individuals worldwide have inadequate iodine intake and the adverse consequences of iodine deficiency are widely observed. Objective: To assess the iodine status of primary school children and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders among their caretakers. Methods: A ...

  1. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  2. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Iodine deficiency causes reduced production of thyroid hormones (T3/T4). A decrease in the serum level of T3/T4 triggers the secretion of high amount of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone, which stimulates thyroid glandular activities that results in enlargement of the gland (9). Thyroid hormones play an ...

  3. Iodine Deficiency in Latvia: Current Status and Need for National Recommendations

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    Konrāde Ilze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a mandatory salt iodisation programme, two nationwide cross-sectional cluster surveys revealed persisting iodine deficiency among Latvian schoolchildren during the spring season and a noteworthy iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia; these deficiencies warrant intervention. The consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can adversely affect foetal brain development. Data from a Latvian population survey revealed the consumption of approximately 100 μg of iodine per day through foods and iodised salt. Therefore, strategies to increase the consumption of iodine-containing products should be implemented, particularly for children. In addition, to meet the increased iodine requirement during pregnancy, pregnant women should take daily supplements containing 150 μg iodine from the earliest time possible. All women of childbearing age should be advised to increase their dietary iodine intake by using iodised table salt and iodine-rich products: seafood, milk and milk products. For women with pre-existing thyroid pathologies, the medical decision should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Urinary iodine concentration monitoring among schoolchildren and pregnant women and neonatal thyrotropin registry analysis every five years would be an appropriate strategy for maintaining iodine intake within the interval that prevents iodine deficiency disorders.

  4. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  5. Prevalence and serverity of Iodine deficiency disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median urinary iodine level was 56 4g/L that indicates iodine deficiency. Out of 389 households in the study area, 277 (71.2%) were using non-iodinated salt, 102 (26.2%) of the households were using iodinated salt. Cabbage usage was significantly associated with goiter. CONCLUSION: Endemic goiter is quite ...

  6. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  7. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    ) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during...

  8. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed. The thyroid gland needs iodine ... most recognized form of deficiency is goiter. Additionally, across the globe iodine deficiency is thought to be ...

  9. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  10. An Assessment of the Selenium Status of Iodine-Deficient and Non-Iodine Deficient Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sofia Amarra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare blood selenium levels in iodine-deficient and non-iodine deficient children. Two groups of children were examined: one group with iodine deficiency (n=31 and the other group with normal iodine status (n=32. Blood was extracted by venipuncture from children aged 6-10 years attending first grade in Commonwealth Elementary School in Quezon City. Whole blood selenium was examined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Iodine status was determined by goiter palpation and urinary iodine excretion. Mean selenium levels of deficient and non-deficient children were compared using T-test. Using a cut-off value of 60 mg Se/L whole blood, the proportion of children with normal and deficient iodine status who fell below this cut-off was compared using chi-square test. Whole blood selenium values ranged from 17.6 to 133.6 mg/L. There were no significant differences in mean selenium levels between children with normal and deficient iodine status. Children with normal iodine status had a mean blood selenium level of 55.87 ± 26.3 mg/L while children with deficient iodine status had a mean level of 58.76 ± 26.4 mg/L. Sixty percent of children had blood selenium levels below the arbitrary cut-off of 60 mg/L with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.165, indicating that selenium deficiency is prevalent in this group of children regardless of iodine status. Since selenium deficiency limits the response to iodine supplementation, further investigation is needed to determine whether the same situation exists in children from other areas.

  11. Iodine deficiency and associated factors among school children: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Sintayehu; Wubshet, Mamo; Woldie, Haile; Tariku, Amare

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the world. It is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage worldwide. Though 12 million school age children are at risk of developing iodine deficiency, there is a scarcity of literature showing the magnitude of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school children in Robe District, southeast Ethiopia. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 422 children. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with iodine deficiency. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a P -value of deficiency were higher among female [AOR = 2.23; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.55] and older (10-12 years) [AOR = 2.21; 95 % CI: 1.44, 3.42] children. In this community, the prevalence of goiter and low urine iodine level is high. Thus, iodine deficiency exists as severe public health problem. In addition, there is a low utilization of iodized salt in the setting. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify efforts in the implementation of iodized salt. Moreover, attention should be given to school children to address ID.

  12. Iodine deficiency and associated factors among school children: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia

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    Sintayehu Hailu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the world. It is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage worldwide. Though 12 million school age children are at risk of developing iodine deficiency, there is a scarcity of literature showing the magnitude of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school children in Robe District, southeast Ethiopia. Methods A school based cross–sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 422 children. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with iodine deficiency. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 393 school children participated in the study. The median urinary iodine level was 78 μg/l. About 57 and 43.5 % of the children were found with low urinary iodine level and goiter, respectively. Only 29 % of the households utilized adequately iodized salt. The result of the multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of iodine deficiency were higher among female [AOR = 2.23; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.55] and older (10–12 years [AOR = 2.21; 95 % CI: 1.44, 3.42] children. Conclusion In this community, the prevalence of goiter and low urine iodine level is high. Thus, iodine deficiency exists as severe public health problem. In addition, there is a low utilization of iodized salt in the setting. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify efforts in the implementation of iodized salt. Moreover, attention should be given to school children to address ID.

  13. Iodine Deficiency: Where Are We Now? (Efficiency of Belarusian Strategy in Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: 15-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Mokhort

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the former Soviet republics, which became independent states, there are big differences in the state of iodine provision and in technology to eliminate iodine deficiency in the diet of the population. The publication presents a strategy for the elimination of iodine deficiency, developed and implemented in the Republic of Belarus in order to achieve an adequate level of iodine nutrition in the state. In the Republic of Belarus, 94 % of salt consumption is iodized salt that ensures adequate iodine intake, confirmed by urinary iodine excretion (median 169 mcg/l. The effectiveness of the model for iodine prophylaxis used in Belarus and based on the widespread use of iodized salt in the food industry gives reason to recommend this model for implementation in other countries.

  14. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

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    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  15. Iodine deficiency persists in the Zanzibar Islands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, V D; Greiner, T; Mzee, R K; Abuu, H; Mgoba, C; Kimboka, S; Peterson, S

    2006-12-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient for normal human growth and development. It is estimated that more than 1.6 billion people live in iodine-deficient environments, yet there are still some countries and areas where the prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders is unknown. To establish the prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders in the Zanzibar Islands, a community assumed to have ready access to iodine-rich seafoods. In a cross-sectional study, 11,967 schoolchildren were palpated for goiter prevalence, a subsample was evaluated for urinary iodine concentration, and the availability of iodated salt was assessed at the household and retail levels. The mean total goiter prevalence was 21.3% for Unguja and 32.0% for Pemba. The overall median urinary iodine concentration was 127.5 microg/L. For Unguja the median was 185.7 microg/L, a higher value than the median of 53.4 microg/L for Pemba (p Zanzibar Islands belies the common assumption that an island population with access to seafood is not at risk for iodine-deficiency disorders. We urge health planners to implement mandatory salt iodation and education efforts to alleviate the situation.

  16. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 248.5μg/l and the Interquartile Range (IQR) was 145 – 380 μg/L. These results indicated that Iodine Deficiency was not of public health concern among children in Zambia at the time of this study. However, the proportion of households with access to adequately iodised ...

  17. Iodine deficiency among goiter patients in rural South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuot, Chep C; Galukande, Moses; Ibingira, Charles; Kisa, Nicholas; Fualal, Jane Odubu

    2014-10-23

    It is estimated that 2.2 billion or approximately 30% of the world's population live in iodine-deficient areas. In a 2005 study households consuming iodized salt in South Sudan increased from 40% to 73%. Despite this achievement, there are still many goiter cases in rural South Sudan and iodine deficiency remains as a major public health problem in this part of sub Saharan Africa.The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency among rural Southern Sudan goiter patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three South Sudan counties, adults with goiter were from three centers following a mobilization campaign that lasted 4 weeks for free medical care. They were clinically evaluated and completed interviewer administered questionnaires to determine their age, gender, diet, family history, drug history, and medical history. Urine samples were then taken for urinary iodine levels. The outcome was iodine deficiency measured as urinary iodine less than 100 μg per/ L. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish the factors associated with iodine deficiency in South Sudan. Ethical approval was obtained. A total of 286 goitre patients were recruited. The mean age was 38 years (SD 9), 262(92%) were females (F: M ratio 11:1), and 257(90%) were rural- peasants, 25% (20/286) had moderate to severe iodine deficiency. 174(62%) consumed non-iodized salts. Iodine deficiency is highly prevalent among rural South Sudan communities and a likely cause for goiters. Rural poor women are highly vulnerable.

  18. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  19. Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region

    OpenAIRE

    Costeira, Maria José; Oliveira, Pedro; Santos, Nadine Correia; Ares, Susana; Saenz-Rico, Belen; Escobar, Gabriella Morreale de; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region. OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychomotor development of the progeny of women from a moderately iodine-deficient area for whom thyroid function during pregnancy was measured. STUDY DESIGN: The development of 86 children was assessed by the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 12, 18, and 24 months. RESULTS: Maternal serum free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels in the first trimester of pregnancy were the major determin...

  20. The story of iodine deficiency: An international challenge in nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for the growth and development of up to 800 million people living in iodine deficient environments throughout the world. The effects on growth and development, called the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), comprise goiter, stillbirths and miscarriages, neonatal and juvenile thyroid deficiency, dwarfism, mental defects, deaf mutism, and spastic weakness and paralysis, as well as lesser degrees of loss of physical and mental function. All these effects are due to inadequate thyroid hormone production because iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormone. In the West, IDD has been largely eliminated by the addition of iodine to the diet through iodized salt or through changes in food distribution and technology. IDD still persists in certain areas of Europe where these dietary changes have not occurred. In the Third World, IDD is a major problem in many countries with large populations, such as China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Zaire. In these and other Third World countries, IDD is a significant barrier to social and economic progress which can be removed by correction of the deficiency. This book shows that elimination of iodine deficiency is feasible within the next decade, only requiring a modest financial and technical effort from the West. Part 1 reviews IDD in man and animals. Part 2 discusses the control of iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, and considers action at the national and international level. Part 3 presents a global review of the status of IDD control. There is a brief conclusion on the way forward to successful control programs

  1. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  2. Early gestation screening of pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency in urban centre in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K; Nair, S; Khade, C; Rajan, M G R

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women.

  3. EFFICIENCY ON GROUP PROPHYLAXIS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN LIVING IN IODINE DEFICIENCY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex examination detected that kalium iodide dosage 100 mkg daily promote a rapid normalization of median of ioduria in children aged 8 to 12 years. Even in a case of normal initial level of ioduria iod active at the same dosage doesn't promote an increase of median of ioduria over than optimum level. It wasn't detected any decrease of goiter frequency during 6 months of prophylaxis, while the level of some cognitive indexes (an attention and the frequency of absence from school by the reason of acute respiratory deseases significantly increased. It could be concluded, that iodine prophylaxis using iod active is more effective in mild goiter endemia combine to decrease of attention in prepubertal children. In the case of combination of moderate endemic goiter and normal cognitive function kalium iodide is more preferable in prophylaxis in children.Key words: children, iod deficiency, prophylaxis.

  4. Use of oral iodized oil to control iodine deficiency in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Untoro, J.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable mental retardation and universal salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for its control. However additional strategies are required where iodized salt cannot be made available in the short term or only with difficulty in the

  5. Monitoring the severity of iodine deficiency disorders in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimenya, Gabriel S; Olico-Okui; Kaviri, Dentos; Mbona, Nazarius; Byarugaba, Wilson

    2002-08-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) cover a variety of pathological conditions including goitre, mental retardation and perinatal mortality in millions of individuals globally. IDD was initially identified as a problem in 1970 and was confirmed in 1991. In 1993, the Uganda government introduced a policy of Universal Salt Iodization (USI) requiring all household salt to be iodized. After 5 years this study evaluates the USI programme. To determine goitre prevalence rate, establish the proportion of household consuming iodized salt and determine the levels of iodine intake in the sample districts. A sample of 2880 school children aged 6-12 years from 72 Primary schools in 6 districts of Uganda was studied in October 1999. Goitre was established by palpation, salt iodine was analysed by thiosulphate titration, while urinary iodine was analyzed using ICCIDD recommended method F in which iodine is detected colorimetrically at 410 nm. The over all total goitre rate was 60.2% down from 74.3 in 1991 and visible goitre was 30% down from 39.2% in 1991. The proportion of households taking adequately iodized salt was 63.8% and the median urinary iodine was 310 microg/L. Whereas 36% of 95 urine samples analysed in 1991 had urinary iodine below 50 microg/L, only 5% of the 293 urine samples studied in 1999 had the same urine levels. This represents a considerable improvement in iodine intake, which is confirmed by the fact that 63.8% of the study households consume adequately iodized salt. If maintained and evenly spread, this will enable Uganda to control IDD. USI has improved iodine intake in Uganda. However, iodine malnutrition is still a severe public health problem because some communities in this study such as in Kisoro still have low iodine consumption, while others such as Luwero now have iodine excess. The latter is likely to predispose to hyperthyroidism. The national set standard of household salt iodine of 100 ppm be revised. Locally produced salt be iodized, and a

  6. [Study on the iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders status in pasturing areas of Tibet-a non-epidemic area of iodine deficiency disorders in serious iodine deficiency district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Dan; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Shu-Hua; Nima, Cangjue; Danzeng, Sangbu; Zhuang, Guang-Xiu

    2010-08-01

    To explore the status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders in the pasturing areas and agricultural regions in Tibet. 30 families were selected respectively in pastoral Dangxiong county and agricultural Qushui county of Lasa. Drinking water and edible salt were collected for testing the iodine contents. In each type of the following populations including children aged 8 - 10, women of child-bearing age and male adults, 50 subjects were randomly sampled to examine their urinary iodine contents. Among them, 50 children and 50 women were randomly selected for goiter examination by palpation. Water iodine content was less than 2 µg/L, both in pasturing area and in agricultural areas. There was no iodized salt used in the families of pasturing areas, while 90% people consumed iodized salt in agricultural areas. The median of urinary iodine in pasturing area was 50.2 µg/L, significantly lower than that of agricultural area (193.2 µg/L). However, the goiter rate of children and women in pasturing area was significantly lower than that in agricultural area. Although iodine intake of populations in pasturing area of Tibet was severely deficient, there was no epidemic of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This phenomenon noticed by the researchers deserved further investigation.

  7. The challenge of the global elimination of iodine deficiency disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.

    1997-01-01

    Most nations of the world are well positioned for success in their pursuit of the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) by the year 2000. In 1990 at the World Summit for Children, Heads of State and Government had agreed on this global goal and in 1992 at the International

  8. Iodine deficiency and functional performance of schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel-van Ingen, van den T.

    2001-01-01

    The notion that iodine deficiency may lead not only to goiter and cretinism, but to a much wider range of disorders, from stillbirth and abortions, to hearing problems and mental and physical underdevelopment began to be accepted beyond the research community since the early 1980's. In 1990 it was

  9. Determinants of iodine deficiency in school children in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the magnitude of goitre in school children and measure indicators of iodine deficiency including the most commonly consumed staple foods. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Ten villages from four administrative regions of Ethiopia. Subjects: A total of 2485 randomly selected elementary ...

  10. Prevalence of vitamin a, zinc, iodine deficiency and anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are the most nutritionally vulnerable group of society as children are dependants and they are also at a critical stage of the growing process. They need adequate vitamin A, zinc, iron and iodine for their development and school performance. Most often iron deficiency causes anaemia with resultant fatigue and low ...

  11. Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland. ... UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... One hundred and sixty five pregnant women aged between 14 years and 42 years from the four physiographic regions of Swaziland were palpated for goitre, gave urine samples for ...

  12. Population Survey of Iodine Deficiency and Environmental Disruptors of Thyroid Function in Young Children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oettingen, Julia E; Brathwaite, Tesha D; Carpenter, Christopher; Bonnell, Ric; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Larco, Philippe; Larco, Nancy Charles; Jean-Baptiste, Eddy; Brown, Rosalind S

    2017-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable neurodevelopmental delay in children worldwide and a possible public health concern in Haiti. To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Haitian young children and its influence by environmental factors. Cross-sectional study, March through June 2015. Community churches in 3 geographical regions in Haiti. 299 healthy Haitian children aged 9 months to 6 years; one-third each enrolled in a coastal, mountainous, and urban region. Urinary iodide, serum thyrotropin (TSH), goiter assessment, and urinary perchlorate and thiocyanate. Mean age was 3.3±1.6 years, with 51% female, median family income USD 30/week, and 16% malnutrition. Median urinary iodide levels were normal in coastal (145 μg/L, interquartile range [IQR] 97 to 241) and urban regions (187 μg/L, IQR 92 to 316), but revealed mild iodine deficiency in a mountainous region (89 μg/L, IQR 56 to 129), P < 0.0001. Grade 1 goiters were palpated in 2 children, but TSH values were normal. Urinary thiocyanate and perchlorate concentrations were not elevated. Predictors of higher urinary iodide included higher urinary thiocyanate and perchlorate, breastfeeding, and not living in a mountainous region. Areas of mild iodine deficiency persist in Haiti's mountainous regions. Exposure to two well-understood environmental thyroid function disruptors is limited. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  13. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...

  14. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. Results: The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. Conclusions: It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore.

  15. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    -containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...

  16. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia – the life’s work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podoba J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991–95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 – October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women.

  17. Past, present, and future of iodine deficiency disorders in India: Need to look outside the blinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs have been recognized as one of the major nutritional disorders throughout the world affecting 200 million people who are at risk and another 71 million suffering from goiter and other IDDs. These groups of disorders can affect every stage of life, but most vulnerable age group is between 6 and 12 years and these disorders together constitute the single largest preventable cause of brain damage leading to learning disabilities and psychomotor impairment. The existence of endemic goiter in an extensive belt along the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Alps, and Andes has long been described, but consistently high prevalence of IDDs outside the endemic zones and failure to attain goals set by the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program questions the strategy and achievements till date. Therefore, the present article is an attempt to critically examine the program since inception in India.

  18. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Kedir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia. Data on the study subjects’ background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150 μg/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC was 58.1 μg/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13 and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50, but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52. Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy.

  19. Recalculation of thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident in a iodine deficient area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.; Niewiadomski, T.; Budzanowski, M.; Szybinski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The thyroid doses were estimated in Poland shortly after the Chernobyl accident with assumption of stable iodine consumption for the reference man and areas with ''standard'' stable iodine consumption. These estimates are not representative for southern part of Poland which is known as the iodine deficient area. Therefore the thyroid doses were recalculated based on the real and differentiated stable iodine intakes for people groups of different age without and with thyroid blockade after the accident. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Results of epidemiological studies on the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in the Republic of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In spite of the works performed against iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, they still remain severe in Uzbekistan. The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of the prevalence of IDD among the population in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Materials and methods. Epidemiological study of IDD in the Republic of Uzbekistan has been performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Degree of thyroid enlargement was determined according to the WHO classification. Such indexes, as assessment of urinary iodine concentration and evaluation of salt iodine concentration, have been analyzed. The data were compared with the results of previous years’ studies. Results. Estimation of the severity of IDD by the level of ioduria showed that the proportion of severe iodine deficiency (less than 20 μg/l decreased from 94.4 % in 1998 to 21.4 % in 2004, to 1.9 % in 2010 and to 1.9 % in 2016. The optimal level of iodine intake (more than 100 μg/l increased from 0 % in 1998 to 46.3 % in 2004, to 63.7 % in 2010 and 76.3 % in 2016. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of degree I and II diffuse goiter showed that in total the proportion of this disease was 72.8 % in 1998, 58.8 % in 2004, 40.2 % in 2010 and 28.3 % in 2016. Conclusions. The acceptance of law of Uzbekistan “On prevention of iodine deficiency diseases” in 2007 has substantially decreased the prevalence of IDD in Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, despite of large scale actions, our study of ioduria and salt iodine content in 2016 indicated that about 25 % of people in the country still prone to IDD.

  1. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  2. Modelling protection behaviour towards micronutrient deficiencies: Case of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes as health intervention for school-going children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-02-01

    Despite successes recorded in combating iodine deficiency, more than 2 billion people are still at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Rural landlocked and mountainous areas of developing countries are the hardest hit, hence the need to explore and advance novel strategies such as biofortification. We evaluated adoption, purchase, and consumption of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes (IBVL) using the theory of protection motivations (PMT) integrated with an economic valuation technique. A total of 1,200 participants from three land-locked locations in East Africa were recruited via multi-stage cluster sampling, and data were collected using two, slightly distinct, questionnaires incorporating PMT constructs. The survey also elicited preferences for iodine biofortified foods when offered at a premium or discount. Determinants of protection motivations and preferences for iodine biofortified foods were assessed using path analysis modelling and two-limit Tobit regression, respectively. Knowledge of iodine, iodine-health link, salt iodization, and biofortification was very low, albeit lower at the household level. Iodine and biofortification were not recognized as nutrient and novel approaches, respectively. On the other hand, severity, fear, occupation, knowledge, iodine status, household composition, and self-efficacy predicted the intention to consume biofortified foods at the household level; only vulnerability, self-efficacy, and location were the most crucial elements at the school level. In addition, results demonstrated a positive willingness-to-pay a premium or acceptance of a lesser discount for biofortification. Furthermore, preference towards iodine biofortified foods was a function of protection motivations, severity, vulnerability, fear, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, iodine status, gender, age. and household head. Results lend support for prevention of iodine deficiency in unprotected populations through biofortification; however

  3. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  4. Developmental Indicators of School-Age Children, Living in the Regions with Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying developmental indicators of children living in the areas of iodine deficiency. The basic anthropometric parameters (height and weight, chest circumference were defined, the estimation of intellectual development in 819 children aged 7–16 years living in the regions with mild (472 persons and moderate (347 persons iodine deficiency was carried out. Examined children were standardized by major factors of developmental effect. Anthropometric measurements were carried out by standard methods. Maturity of intellectual functioning was determined using the fragment of R. Cattell test, indicators of mental activity — with proofreading test in conjunction with reading rate test. In all children we have carried out measurement of daily ioduria (Sandell — Kolthoff reaction, palpation of the thyroid gland, determination of its size and structure using ultrasound. It was found that the diet of children is characterized by deficiency of food rich in iodine. Iodized salt was used only by 1 of 50 families. Children living in the regions with moderate iodine deficiency in all age subgroups have lower rates of physical development. A third of children living in areas of iodine deficiency have disharmonic physical development. 13.8 % of children from the regions of iodine deficiency have changes in the majority of the studied cognitive functions. Leading disabilities in the whole group of children were memory impairment and fine motor skills disorders. The level of intellectual maturity, productivity and accuracy of human performance decreases with growing iodine deficiency.

  5. Are weaning infants at risk of iodine deficiency even in countries with established iodized salt programs?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Because iodine deficiency (ID) during infancy can irreversibly impair neurodevelopment and increase mortality, it is critical that dietary iodine is adequate in this vulnerable group. Lactating mothers consuming iodized salt can transfer adequate iodine to the infant via breast milk, but during the weaning period, infants are at risk for ID for several reasons: (1) requirements per kg bodyweight for iodine and thyroid hormone during infancy are higher than at any other time in the life cycle; (2) experts recommend no extra salt (iodized or not) be given to infants during the first year; (3) cow's milk (a major source of dietary iodine in many countries) is also not recommended for infants during the first year; and (4) iron deficiency, a common disorder during infancy, can impair iodine metabolism and reduce thyroid hormone production. For many weaning infants in industrialized countries, iodine fortified into commercial infant foods becomes important. This has recently been demonstrated in Switzerland, where a long-standing iodized salt program provides adequate iodine to pregnant women and school-age children, but new national data suggest weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing commercial baby foods have inadequate iodine intakes. Thus, even in countries with effective iodized salt programs, infants may be at risk of ID during weaning and may need additional dietary and/or supplemental sources of iodine. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... in various regions of Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two healthy pregnant women admitted to five different Danish departments of obstetrics participated in the study. Iodine status was evaluated by measurement of iodine in spot urine at day five after delivery and by careful history of the intake of iodine...... containing vitamin/mineral tablets. Approximately one third of the women had received tablets containing iodine. In women who had not received iodine supplementation urinary iodine was low with a median value of 39.7 micrograms/g creatinine (Aalborg 28, Randers 33, Ringkøbing 34, Arhus 43 and Copenhagen 62...

  7. Assessing the status of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and associated factors in Wolaita and Dawro Zones School Adolescents, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Abebe, Yemane Gebremariam; Gelaye, Amha Admasie; Mekonen, Tefera Chane

    2017-04-18

    Iodine deficiency is the major preventable cause of irreversible mental retardation in the world. Ethiopia is a country with high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders which continue to affect a large number of the country's population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder in Wolaita and Dawuro zones. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in high school and preparatory students in Wolaita and Dawuro zones between April and May 2012. Data were collected from 718 school adolescents using pre-tested questionnaire through systematic random sampling technique. Data were entered and cleaned using Epi-info version 3.5.3 and then transported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and Multivariable logistic regression were done and the cut off value set was P deficiency disorder was a serious public health concern. Nearly half of adolescent students in Wolaita and Dawuro zones were affected by goiter. Therefore, emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population level, particularly at females is mandatory. Nutrition education along with adequate Universal Salt Iodization program is urgently required.

  8. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Iodine Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about iodine? Disclaimer What is iodine and what does it do? Iodine is a ...

  9. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg......-containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification...

  10. Goiter incidence in region of Katowice in relation to iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis (Katowice coordinating center).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, B; Kozłowska, A

    1993-01-01

    Geographical region of Katowice is situated in an upland built of carbonate rocks, often with predominance of loss. A randomized trial was carried out in the urban population of this area. 1080 children aged 7-13 were examined. In 505 urine iodine was measured. 17.5% of the examined children had enlarged thyroid glands (Ib, II, III) in palpation, 82.3% did not have goiter (O, Ia). Interviews with patients revealed that 48.8% of the examined children used iodized salt, while 51.2% did not. Mean urine iodine concentration was 70.6 micrograms/l. No correlation between use of iodized salt, urine iodine concentration, and goiter was found. However, prevalence of goiter and low urine concentration suggested deficiency of this microelement in the examined industrial region. Therefore there is need for further investigations and for a profound change of the existing ineffective iodine prophylaxis.

  11. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  12. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  13. Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: The Effect on Neurodevelopment in the Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Skeaff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4 and tri-iodothyronine (T3, necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T3, generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T4 (fT4, is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby’s requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT4 results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child.

  14. The prevalence of iodine deficiency in women of reproductive age in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Joseph G; Haddow, James E

    2007-12-01

    To review the iodine status of women as assessed through National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1971 to 2002. National normative estimates of iodine status of the civilian, non-institutionalized population in the United States of America. Women of reproductive age and pregnant women. In the United States of America, iodine began to be added to the diet in the 1920s. An excessive iodine intake was documented by the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) in the 1970s which reported a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 320 microg l-1. In the NHANES III survey, conducted between 1988 and 1994, the median UI concentration had decreased to 145 microg l-1, while 14.9% of women aged 15-44 years and 6.9% of pregnant women had a UI concentration 50 microg l-1. The concentrations of serum T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone of women with a low UI concentration did not, however, indicate an iodine deficiency. Further studies of the association between iodine excretion and biochemical and physiological changes should be undertaken to better understand women's needs for iodine and to develop criteria to monitor them in pregnancy. Because of the potential harm caused by iodine deficiency during pregnancy, we support the use of iodine supplements for all pregnancies while these data are being collected.

  15. Factors affecting sustainable iodine deficiency elimination in Pakistan: A global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Mehmood Khattak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency remains a considerable challenge worldwide, even after decades of efforts to address the problem. The aim of this review is to present the current situation in historically iodine-deficient Pakistan regarding iodine nutritional status and place it in a global perspective. We collected relevant articles from online bibliographic databases and websites of concerned organizations that addressed prevalence of goiter/iodine deficiency and barriers to sustainable control. We divided the studies into pre- and post-1994, a landmark year when Pakistan formally adopted the universal salt iodization (USI programme. Overall, 56 studies reported goiter/iodine deficiency prevalence in Pakistan. Before 1994, six studies (30% reported a goiter prevalence ≥70%, while nine studies (45% reported a goiter prevalence between 30% and 70%. Only five studies (25% found a goiter prevalence less than 30%, of which only two studies reported prevalence <10%. From 1994 onwards, 15 studies (41.7% reported a goiter/iodine deficiency (ID prevalence ≥50%, of which seven studies reported prevalence ≥70%, while three studies (8.3% found a goiter prevalence of 30%–49%, nine studies (25% found a goiter prevalence of 10%–29%, and five studies (13.9% reported prevalence of <10%. Four studies (11.1% reported lower goiter prevalence but higher prevalence of iodine deficiency. The efforts in the past two decades resulted in up to a 50% decline in iodine deficiency disorders (IDD. Variable remaining factors and the recent results, however, indicate that this decline may be non-uniform and even over-estimated. Coordinated and regionally adopted efforts for eradication of IDD from all stakeholders should be pursued. Policy makers should take steps to protect future generations and alert concerned organizations about the importance of careful assessments and estimates of iodine nutritional status.

  16. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  17. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    , Ethiopia. Brief Communication. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray. Teklay Kidane1, Aregai Woldegebriel2. Abstract. A cross-sectional community based goiter prevalence survey was conducted in February ...

  18. Impact of Ecologically Unfriendly Environment on the Formation of Thyroid Pathology in Children Against Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Kosmynina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By prevalence among thyroid pathological conditions in Ukraine, the diffuse nontoxic goiter is dominated, the frequency of which, in addition to iodine deficiency, is influenced by anthropogenic pollution of environment. The article evaluated the role of the negative impact of polluted environment on the formation of thyroid disease in children from ecologically unfriendly region on the background of endemic iodine deficiency compared with children from ecologically friendly area of iodine deficiency. It has been determined the frequency of diffuse endemic goiter in children from studied groups according to palpation and ultrasonography. The functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system in children living in iodine deficiency environmentally unfriendly and ecologically friendly areas has been researched.

  19. Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency impairs hippocampal myelinated growth in lactational rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency causes neurological deficits and impairments of brain function in offspring. Hypothyroxinemia is prevalent in developing and developed countries alike. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits remains less well known. Given that the myelin plays an important role in learning and memory function, we hypothesize that hippocampal myelinated growth may be impaired in rat offspring exposed to hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency. To test this hypothesis, the female Wistar rats were used and four experimental groups were prepared: (1) control; (2) maternal mild iodine deficiency diet inducing hypothyroxinemia; (3) hypothyroidism induced by maternal severe iodine deficiency diet; (4) hypothyroidism induced by maternal methimazole water. The rats were fed the diet from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of lactation. Our results showed that the physiological changes occuring in the hippocampal myelin were altered in the mild iodine deficiency group as indicated by the results of immunofluorescence of myelin basic proteins on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Moreover, hypothyroxinemia reduced the expressions of oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 and myelin-related proteins in the treatments on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Our data suggested that hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency may impair myelinated growth of the offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessment of iodine deficiency in school going children in Abbottabad - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Shah, S.M.; Bano, S.

    1999-01-01

    A bout 1628 school going children were surveyed for the assessment of iodine deficiency in school going children in Abbottabad city, The purpose of this survey was to find out prevalence of goiter, severity of iodine deficiency and iodine content of the salts used by the people of the area. It was found that total goiter rate (TGR) was 23.9%. Among males 176 (23.1%) and among females 214 (24.7) were suffering from goiter, On the basis of urinary iodine (UI) 5.2% children were facing severe. Analysis of salts provided by students showed that 58.8% families were using salts with recommended level of iodine while the remaining 41-2% families were using salts with inadequate quantity of iodine. It is clear iodine deficiency is still a major public health problem in the area and most of the people in the area do not use iodized salt with recommended level of iodine. (A.B.)

  1. Iodization of village water supply in the control of endemic iodine deficiency in rural Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, L C; Zainab, T; Goh, S Y; Letchuman, G R; Nafikudin, M; Doraisingam, P; Khalid, B

    1996-09-01

    A simple water iodizing system, which incorporates the Venturi principle in combination with the controlled release mechanism of a silicone-sodium iodide elastomer, for the iodization of rural piped-water supply in the control of endemic iodine deficiency has been developed and its effectiveness evaluated in three Iban longhouse villages in the iodine-deficient district of Lubok Antu, Sarawak. Urines were collected for iodine assays from women aged 15-40 years before and at 6 and 12 months after the connection of the iodinating device; goiter assessment was performed on the women at the start and end of the 1-year study. Water samples were collected for iodine assays at 2-weekly intervals. In all three villages, significant and sustained increases in median urinary iodine excretions, reaching levels recommended for an iodine-sufficient population, were observed; goitre prevalences were reduced in all the villages (by 22.6% to 35.8%). The iodine levels in the water ranged from 34 micrograms/l to 212 micrograms/L. In the control village, median urinary iodine excretions remained essentially unchanged but a small increase in goiter prevalence was observed. The iodized water was well received by the villagers and no adverse effects of water iodization were observed. The system functioned unattended throughout the one year period. The cost of providing supplemental iodine via the iodizing device is approximately 60 cents (U.S.) per family per year which is affordable by either the Government or the villagers. It is concluded that the iodizing system offers a new cost-effective strategy for the control of endemic iodine deficiency in Sarawak and may have applications in other areas with similar water sources.

  2. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  3. Contemporary State of the Problem of the Iodine Deficiency Elimination in the Belarus Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Mokhort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of implementation governmental strategy of the iodine deficiency diseases elimination in the Belarus Republic based on the wide using of iodinated salt is presented. For the control of this program fulfillment more than 1300 children from 6 districts of Republic were examined. Middle Republic level of median of the urine iodine elimination for the period of the program realization has increased in more than 4 times and was equal to 179.2 ug/l and iodine deficiency decreased from 80.9 per cent in 1997 to 14.0 per cent in 2006. Consumption of iodinated salt has increased from 30.0 per cent in 1997 to 93.6 per cent in 2006. As the result the goiter rate in Belarus decreased from 17.2 per cent to 12.8 per cent. These results allow getting conclusion concerning efficiency of the strategy of using the iodinated salt recommended by the UNICEF as universal prophylaxis measure for the iodine deficiency diseases elimination.

  4. Iodine deficiency-still a major public health problem in some areas of Swat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, S.; Mati-ul-Haq; Khan, S.M.; Shah, S.A.; Iqbal, N.

    1999-01-01

    To assess iodine deficiency in four villages of Kabal, Swat, a survey was conducted in children of age of 5-15 years. 728 school going children were surveyed for the purpose. 175(62.3%) male and 256 (57.3%) female children were suffering from goiter. Overall Total Goiter Rate (TGR) was 59.2% . Goiter prevalence among male and female children was almost the same (p 0.05); while in females the prevalence almost remained unchanged (P>0.05). Estimation of urinary iodine revealed that 91 (26.5%), 73(21.3%) and 109(31.8%) children were suffering from severe, moderate, mild and no deficiency, respectively. Analysis of salt samples collected from 400 families of the area showed that 28 (7.0%) families were using salt without iodine, 218 (54.5%) were using salt with less than 20 ppm of iodine while 154 (38.5%) families were using salt with more than 20 ppm of iodine. On the basis of this study we conclude that iodine deficiency is still a major public health problem in the area and needs correction. To improve the situation universal salt iodination needs to be implemented at least in this area. (author)

  5. Reparative Osteogenesis in Normal Conditions and in Micronutrient Iodine and Selenium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ye. Kovalchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, a number of unresolved issues remains without researchers’ attention and should be explored, among them: the impact of selenium and iodine deficiencies on bone tissue, healing of bone defects and morphological peculiarities of the process under micronutrient iodine and selenium deficiency. This paper presents the results of experimental study of physiological features and reparative osteogenesis in posttraumatic defects of femoral metadiaphysis under selenium and iodine deficiency. The data that we have shown testify the negative impact of micronutrient deficiency on reparative osteogenesis that is manifested by inhibition of this process and is accompanied by the formation of bone regenerate, deterioration of structural and functional state of bone tissue, development of degenerative and necrotic changes in bone tissue and epiphyseal cartilage.

  6. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  7. Seven deadly sins in confronting endemic iodine deficiency, and how to avoid them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J T

    1996-04-01

    Iodine deficiency is a problem for almost all countries of the world. Goiter is its most obvious consequence, but others do more damage, particularly effects on the developing brain. In 1990, most countries and international agencies pledged the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency by the year 2000. The technology for the assessment and implementation is sufficient to attain this goal, but translating its potential into success requires careful planning. This article reviews seven major errors that frequently occur in iodine supplementation programs and offers suggestions for their avoidance. They are 1) unreliable assessment of iodine deficiency: the best indicators are urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size (preferably by ultrasound), blood spot thyroglobulin levels, and neonatal TSH determinations; the best group for surveys is schoolchildren; 2) poor iodine supplementation plan: iodized salt is the preferred supplement; its effective application frequently requires extensive changes in salt production and marketing, and poor handling of these changes will endanger the iodization program; other measures include iodized oil, iodized water, and iodine drops; all are occasionally useful, but the long range solution should generally be iodized salt; 3) exclusion of relevant stake-holders: the program should include not only health authorities but other arms of the government as well (education, commerce, agriculture, and standards), the salt industry, health professionals, and the iodine-deficient community itself; 4) inadequate education: an understanding of the effects of iodine deficiency and the means for its correction is essential at all levels, from government to affected population; 5) insufficient monitoring: the best instruments are urinary iodine levels, iodized salt use, and thyroid size, measured in representative groups at regular intervals with public reporting of results; 6) inattention to cost: the expense of iodization must be recognized

  8. Status of iodine deficiency among pregnant mothers in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Umesh; Prakash, Shyam; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Khenduja, Preetika; Nigam, Sukirty; Vijay, Jyoti

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient needed for the production of thyroid hormones. Pregnant mothers who are deficient in iodine provide less iodine to the fetal thyroid. This results in low production of thyroid hormones by the fetal thyroid, thereby leading to compromised mental and physical development of the fetus. The current study aimed to assess the current status of iodine nutrition among pregnant mothers in Himachal Pradesh, India, a known endemic region for iodine deficiency. Three districts, namely Kangra, Kullu and Solan, were selected. In each district, thirty clusters (villages) were identified by utilizing the population-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each cluster, seventeen pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinics were included. A total of 1711 pregnant mothers (647 from Kangra, 551 from Kullu and 513 from Solan) were studied. Clinical examination of the thyroid of each pregnant mother was conducted. Spot urine samples were collected from ten pregnant mothers in each cluster. Similarly, salt samples were collected from eleven pregnant mothers in each cluster. Total goitre rate was 42·2 % (Kangra), 42·0 % (Kullu) and 19·9 % (Solan). The median urinary iodine concentration was 200 μg/l (Kangra), 149 μg/l (Kullu) and 130 μg/l (Solan). The percentage of pregnant mothers consuming adequately iodized salt (iodine content of 15 ppm and more) was found to be 68·3 % (Kangra), 60·3 % (Kullu) and 48·5 % (Solan). Pregnant mothers in Kullu and Solan districts had iodine deficiency as indicated by a median urinary iodine concentration less than 150 μg/l.

  9. Autonomy in euthyroid goitre: Precursor of non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.

    1984-01-01

    There is evidence that in an area of iodine deficiency NIM-HY exists to a considerable percentage, probably originating from euthyroid goitre with autonomy, especially if iodine intake is suddenly increased. Separation of IM-HY and NIM-HY is possible with a probability of 90% by clinical criteria and available laboratory investigations. This might be important not only from a pathophysiological point of view but also for diagnosis and selection of the kind of therapy. (orig.)

  10. Iodine deficiency and subclinical hypothyroidism are common in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naehrlich, Lutz; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Bagheri-Behrouzi, Azadeh; Rauh, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Disorders of thyroid function have been inconsistently described in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in CF transmembrane regulator protein knockout animals. The literature lacks reports on iodine status of CF individuals. We hypothesize, that iodine deficiency is common in CF and account for abnormal thyroid function in CF patients. We investigated 129 children, adolescents, and adults with CF, who were living in the northern part of Bavaria/Germany. Malnutrition and lung function were analyzed. Urinary iodine excretion, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), and ft4 (free thyroxine) were measured and set in relation to population-based, age-adjusted reference ranges. Subclinical hypothyroidism (normal fT4, elevated TSH) was found in 11.6% of subjects, and iodine deficiency in 83.7%. No correlations were found with age, BMI, status of malnutrition, or lung function. Dramatic iodine deficiency was found in our cohort of CF patients. This condition can cause subclinical hypothyroidism; therefore, an individual iodine supplementation program is necessary and should be started immediately. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Strain differences among rats in response to Remington iodine-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; Krulich, L.

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of five different strains (Simonsen albino, Wistar, Long-Evans, Holtzman Sprague-Dawley, and Charles River Sprague-Dawley) were tested for their response to the U.S. Biochemical Corp. Remington low iodine diet containing 15-18 microgram I/kg. Measurements made after the diet had been fed for 28-30 days indicated that Simonsen albino and Wistar strains consistently showed the greatest response, based on degree of thyroid enlargement, depletion of thyroidal iodine, reduction in serum T4, and elevation of serum TSH. Long-Evans and Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats responded relatively poorly to the low iodine diet. One experiment included female rats, and the limited data suggested that within a given strain there was no significant sex difference. With more prolonged feeding (84 days), the difference between a rapidly responding strain (Simonsen albino) and a more slowly responding strain (Holtzman Sprague-Dawley) was not so marked. Our results indicate that given sufficient time and a diet sufficiently low in iodine, even a more slowly responding strain will ultimately develop signs of extreme iodine deficiency. However, it is inconvenient and expensive to maintain rats on a Remington low iodine diet for 3 months, and studies on the effect of severe iodine deficiency are much more rapidly performed using a rapidly responding strain such as the Simonsen albino. Our observation that rats of different strains differ markedly in their responses to an iodine-deficient diet suggests that hereditary factors play an important role in this response

  12. The Role of the World Health Organization in Eliminating Iodine Deficiency Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Paulina; Breda, Joao

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has been one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world, causing many health disorders, particularly in pregnant women and children. Despite increased salt iodization in some countries and regions, the process has lacked global coordination and sustainability, two prerequisites for reaching the aim of eliminating iodine deficiency. This goal can be reached only by evidence-based, effectively monitored joint and committed actions of all countries. The aim of the article is to present the role of WHO in leading and coordinating public health actions aiming elimination of iodine deficiency. WHO was given a mandate to coordinate such public health actions, including developing and strengthening relevant public health legislation, issuing technically sound and evidence-based norms and standards, and monitoring the health situation and trends. WHO has coordinated and fostered collaboration between countries, international organizations, scientific associations and non-governmental organization to reach the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency. No recent patents are discussed for this WHO report. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Monitoring the severity of iodine deficiency disorders in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives : To determine goitre prevalence rate, establish the proportion of household consuming iodized salt and determine the levels of iodine intake in the sample districts. Methods : A sample of 2880 school children aged 6-12 years from 72 Primary schools in 6 districts of Uganda was studied in October 1999.

  14. Iodine Deficiency and Hypothyroidism From Voluntary Diet Restrictions in the US: Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Stephanie; Hill, Elizabeth; Kulhanek, Leah; Vredeveld, Jennifer; Gregg, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed. We present here 2 cases of iodine deficiency resulting from severe food restriction and associated primary hypothyroidism. In 1 case a classic presentation with a goiter was seen. These children were able to discontinue thyroid hormone treatment once iodine levels were normalized. There were no adverse events or unanticipated outcomes. The occurrence of these cases of iodine deficiency in the United States points to the need for thyroid function testing in children with severe food restrictions, especially those who have limited exposure to dairy, baked goods, and table salt. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  16. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy: a national cross-sectional survey in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrade, Ilze; Kalere, Ieva; Strele, Ieva; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Jekabsone, Anna; Tetere, Elina; Veisa, Vija; Gavars, Didzis; Rezeberga, Dace; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Lejnieks, Aivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2015-11-01

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction, which results in inadequate fetal brain development. In the absence of a universal salt iodization programme, we conducted a nationwide survey of iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia. A countrywide twenty-cluster survey, with at least twenty women per cluster. Participants completed a questionnaire on dietary habits concerning iodine intake (n 739). Thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and thyroperoxidase antibodies) was measured (n 550). Urinary iodine was measured using the ammonium persulfate method (n 696). The survey was performed in all regions of Latvia during the spring and autumn seasons in 2013. Pregnant women (n 829). The median creatinine (Cr)-standardized urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 80·8 (interquartile range (IQR) 46·1-130·6) µg/g Cr or 69·4 (IQR 53·9-92·6) µg/l during pregnancy, and 81% of pregnant women had UIC levels below the WHO recommended range of 150-250 µg/g Cr. The UIC was lowest during the first trimester of pregnancy, 56·0 (IQR 36·4-100·6) µg/g Cr, reaching higher concentrations of 87·5 (IQR 46·4-141·7) µg/g Cr and 86·9 (IQR 53·8-140·6) µg/g Cr in the second and third trimesters, respectively. Women taking supplements containing ≥150 µg iodine (6·8% of respondents) had non-significantly higher UIC than did women without supplementation (96·2 v. 80·3 µg/g Cr, respectively, P=NS). Thyroperoxidase antibody concentration did not correlate significantly with UIC: Spearman's ρ=-0·012, P=0·78. The median UIC indicates iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia. Iodine supplementation (150 µg daily) and regular UIC monitoring should be suggested to overcome iodine deficiency and to reach the recommended levels without inducing autoimmune processes.

  17. Iodine deficiency up-regulates monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression of mouse thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhimei; Zhuo, Xiaohua; Shi, Yanan; Liu, Xin; Yuan, Jihong; Li, Lanying; Sun, Yina

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major factor affecting thyroid auto-regulation, the quantity of iodine may greatly influence the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs). It has long been believed that TH enters the cell through passive diffusion. Recent studies have suggested that several transporters could facilitate transportation of TH. The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) was identified as a very active and specific TH transporter. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether iodine insufficient affected the expression of MCT8 in the thyroid gland. Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups: control group was fed with standard feed (iodine concentration of 300 µg/kg); while low-iodine (LI) group received iodine-insufficient feed (iodine concentration of 20-40 µg/kg). After 3 months, 10 mice of each group were sacrificed. The remaining 20 mice of each group were kept till 6 months. From the LI group, we randomly selected 15 mice and injected triiodothyronine (T3, 100 µg/kg body weight per day) intraperitoneally for 24, 48 or 72 hours (5 mice for each time-point). Then, all the mice were sacrificed. Mouse serum thyroxine (T4), T3, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The protein content or messenger RNA (mRNA) level of thyroid MCT8 was measured by Western blotting analysis or real time RT-PCR respectively. MCT8 subcellular location in thyroid tissues was probed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. We found that mouse serum T3 and T4 levels decreased and TSH level increased by the end of the third month. Consistent with these findings, there was significant goiter and hypothyroidism in the LI group. Meanwhile, the MCT8 mRNA increased to 1.36-fold of the level in the control group at the 3(rd) month. At 6(th) month, the serum T4 level in LI mice remained at a lower level, and MCT8 mRNA expression continued rising to nearly 1.60-fold compared with the control group. The protein content

  18. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybinski, Z.; Mazurek-Przybylik, E.

    1996-01-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. The effect of iodine-deficiency disorders on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolka, Eskinder; Shiferaw, Solomon; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of iodine deficiency on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. School-based comparative cross-sectional study. Primary school in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. A sample population of 270 children with goitre and 264 without goitre. All students in each class were examined for the presence of goitre and classified based on WHO recommendations. Among children with goitre, a higher proportion (54·8 %) was female and the proportion increased with age. The odds of scoring low on school performance was higher among children whose fathers were illiterate (adjusted OR = 1·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 3·5) and those who were absent for more than 5 d in the last academic year (adjusted OR = 1·5; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·3). Goitre was significantly associated with low academic achievement (adjusted OR = 1·8; 95 % CI 1·2, 2·5). The study showed that the presence of goitre has a negative effect on academic achievement even after accounting for parental education and absenteeism from school. Awareness of endemic goitre and its impact on school performance, and an emphasis on prevention and control by concerned bodies, are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  20. Perinatal iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism increase cell apoptosis and alter doublecortin and reelin protein expressions in rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhong, Jiapeng; Xu, Hongde; Wei, Wei; Dong, Jing; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Gong, Jian; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2012-05-01

    Adequate thyroid hormone is critical for cerebellar development. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during the perinatal period results in permanent impairments of cerebellar development with an unclear mechanism. In the present study we investigated effects of perinatal iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism on cerebellar cell apoptosis, doublecortin (Dcx) and reelin. Apoptosis is an essential part of neural development. Dcx and reelin are two important molecules involved in neuronal migration, structure, and development in cerebellum. Two developmental rat models were created by administering dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 until postnatal day (PND) 28. TUNEL assay and protein levels of Dcx and reelin in cerebella were assessed on PND14, 21 and 28. Apoptotic cells were increased in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. Dcx protein levels in the cerebella of iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats were significantly downregulated on PND14. Interestingly, iodine deficiency and PTU treatment upregulated the levels of Dcx protein on PND21 and 28. Reelin expressions in iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats were significantly decreased on PND14 and 21. On PND28, reelin expressions of three treated groups were still lower than control group, although without significant difference. These findings may implicate alterations in cell apoptosis and levels of Dcx and reelin in the impairments of cerebellar development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development in rat hippocampus: involvement of doublecortin and NCAM-180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Jiapeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental iodine deficiency results in inadequate thyroid hormone (TH, which damages the hippocampus. Here, we explored the roles of hippocampal doublecortin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM-180 in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Methods Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil (PTU-adulterated water (5 ppm or 15 ppm to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN 28. Silver-stained neurons and protein levels of doublecortin and NCAM-180 in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28, and PN42. Results The results show that nerve fibers in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats were injured on PN28 and PN42. Downregulation of doublecortin and upregulation of NCAM-180 were observed in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats from PN14 on. These alterations were irreversible by the restoration of serum TH concentrations on PN42. Conclusion Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair the expression of doublecortin and NCAM-180, leading to nerve fiber malfunction and thus impairments in hippocampal development.

  2. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development in rat hippocampus: involvement of doublecortin and NCAM-180

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Developmental iodine deficiency results in inadequate thyroid hormone (TH), which damages the hippocampus. Here, we explored the roles of hippocampal doublecortin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-180 in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Methods Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil (PTU)-adulterated water (5 ppm or 15 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN) 28. Silver-stained neurons and protein levels of doublecortin and NCAM-180 in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28, and PN42. Results The results show that nerve fibers in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats were injured on PN28 and PN42. Downregulation of doublecortin and upregulation of NCAM-180 were observed in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats from PN14 on. These alterations were irreversible by the restoration of serum TH concentrations on PN42. Conclusion Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair the expression of doublecortin and NCAM-180, leading to nerve fiber malfunction and thus impairments in hippocampal development. PMID:20412599

  3. The spectrum of thyroid disorders in an iodine-deficient community: the Pescopagano survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghini-Lombardi, F; Antonangeli, L; Martino, E; Vitti, P; Maccherini, D; Leoli, F; Rago, T; Grasso, L; Valeriano, R; Balestrieri, A; Pinchera, A

    1999-02-01

    We carefully assessed thyroid status and goiter by ultrasound in 1411 subjects virtually representing the entire resident population of Pescopagano, an iodine-deficient village of Southern Italy. Median urinary iodine excretion was 55 microg/L. The prevalence of goiter was 16.0% in children and 59.8% in adults. Thyroid nodularity was 0.5% in children and progressively increased with age to 28.5% in the 56- to 65-yr-old group. The prevalence of present or past hyperthyroidism was 2.9%, including 9 cases with toxic diffuse goiter and 20 with toxic nodular goiter. Functional autonomy was rare in children, progressively increased with age up to 15.4% in the elderly, and was related to nodular goiter. The prevalences of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism in the adults were 0.2% and 3.8%, respectively. Serum autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase were detected in 12.6% of the entire population. The prevalence of diffuse autoimmune thyroiditis was 3.5%, being very low in children. Thyroid cancer was found in only 1 case. In conclusion, in the present survey of an iodine-deficient community, a progressive increase with age of goiter prevalence, thyroid nodularity, and functional autonomy was observed. Hyperthyroidism was twice as high as that reported in iodine-sufficient areas, mainly due to an increased frequency of toxic nodular goiter. Although low titer serum thyroid antibodies were relatively frequent, the prevalences of both overt and subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism were not different from those observed in iodine-sufficient areas.

  4. From Research to Policy to Programme: Success Story of Seven State Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD Survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. In India the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. Of these, an estimated 350 million people are at higher risk of IDDs as they consume salt with inadequate iodine. Every year nine million pregnant women and eight million newborns are at risk of IDD in India.On September 13, 2000, the Government of India lifted the ban at the national level on the sale of non-iodized salt (India Gazette 2000. Scientists, civil society, international agencies and other stakeholders joined ranks to fight against this retrograde step by the government of India. The four pronged approach to fight the removal of ban on non- iodized salt comprised of writing advocacy documents, meeting with stakeholders, media campaign and tracking of Universal Salt Iodization (USI in states by state iodine status surveys.But effective advocacy and media campaign were hampered by lack of scientific data substantiating the magnitude of Iodine Deficiency disorders (IDD in India. To address this lacuna, state level Iodine status surveys were planned in seven states of India and were executed over next five years in collaboration with various national and international stakeholders.State level IDD surveys were carried out in seven states (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Goa and Jharkhand from 2000 to 2006 by International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD in collaboration with state medical colleges, Micronutrient Initiative (MI and UNICEF. The surveys were carried as per the recommended guidelines of WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD and used 30 cluster into 40 children sampling methodology. Children in the age group of 6-12 years, women in the household, retail shop keepers and other community stakeholders constituted the study population. All three indicators

  5. Preventing Iron Deficiency and Anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Anaemia, often due to iron deficiency, is one of the most widespread causes of mortality and morbidity in ... Pregnant women must make many new red blood cells, provide iron for the foetus and may lose much blood during .... Do not give tea and coffee to children. • Eat fermented porridges and germinate/malt cereals and ...

  6. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in pregnant thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency: is iodine supplementation safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Jørgensen, A; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    In moderately iodine-deficient, pregnant, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab)-positive women the role of iodine supplementation in the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) was studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind trial. Screening for TPO-Ab was performed in e......-Ab-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency did not induce or worsen PPTD. The study confirmed that screening for TPO-Ab in early pregnancy can predict women at high risk for development of PPTD. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Sep......In moderately iodine-deficient, pregnant, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab)-positive women the role of iodine supplementation in the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) was studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind trial. Screening for TPO-Ab was performed...... abnormal serum TSH only. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of PPTD in the three groups: +/+ group, 59% (95% confidence interval, 36-79%); +/- group, 60% (36-81%); and -/- group, 46% (26-67%). There were also no differences in the severity of the PPTD, as evaluated...

  7. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

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    Kimboka Sabas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8 of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0 in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4, n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s to 12.3% (2004. The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215 μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in improving quality control at production level and

  8. Iodine deficiency, pollutant chemicals, and the thyroid: new information on an old problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Walter J; Paulson, Jerome A; Baum, Carl; Brock-Utne, Alice C; Brumberg, Heather L; Campbell, Carla C; Lanphear, Bruce P; Lowry, Jennifer A; Osterhoudt, Kevin C; Sandel, Megan T; Spanier, Adam; Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-06-01

    Many women of reproductive age in the United States are marginally iodine deficient, perhaps because the salt in processed foods is not iodized. Iodine deficiency, per se, can interfere with normal brain development in their offspring; in addition, it increases vulnerability to the effects of certain environmental pollutants, such as nitrate, thiocyanate, and perchlorate. Although pregnant and lactating women should take a supplement containing adequate iodide, only about 15% do so. Such supplements, however, may not contain enough iodide and may not be labeled accurately. The American Thyroid Association recommends that pregnant and lactating women take a supplement with adequate iodide. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pregnant and lactating women also avoid exposure to excess nitrate, which would usually occur from contaminated well water, and thiocyanate, which is in cigarette smoke. Perchlorate is currently a candidate for regulation as a water pollutant. The Environmental Protection Agency should proceed with appropriate regulation, and the Food and Drug Administration should address the mislabeling of the iodine content of prenatal/lactation supplements.

  9. Community monitoring of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in the National Capital Region of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Juhi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Karmarkar, Madhukar G; Nair, Sirimavo

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the current status of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in the National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR Delhi) and evaluate the implementation and impact of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP). Cross-sectional study. School-going children (n 1230) in the age group of 6-12 years were enrolled from thirty primary schools in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Thirty schools were selected using the probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each identified school forty-one children were surveyed. Urine and salt samples were collected and studied for iodine concentration. A total of sixty salt samples from retail level were also collected. Schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was found to be 198·4 μg/l. The percentage of children with UIE levels of salt (salt with iodine levels of at least 15 ppm at consumption level) was 88·8%. The assessment of iodine content of salt revealed that only 6·1% of the families were consuming salt with iodine content less than 7 ppm. At retail level 88·3% of salt samples had >15 ppm iodine. Significant progress has been achieved towards elimination of IDD from NCR Delhi. There is a need for further strengthening of the system to monitor the quality of iodized salt provided to the beneficiaries under the universal salt iodization programme and so eliminate IDD from NCR Delhi.

  10. Symposium on ‘Geographical and geological influences on nutrition’ Iodine deficiency in industrialised countries: Conference on ‘Over- and undernutrition: challenges and approaches’ on 30 June–2 July 2009, The Summer Meeting of the Nutrition Society, was held at the University of Surrey, Guildford

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is not only a problem in developing regions; it also affects many industrialised countries. Globally, two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and approximately 50% of continental Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. Iodine intakes in other industrialised

  11. Analysis of epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in Tomsk region from 1998 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilova, Y. G.; Oleynik, O. A.; Yurchenko, E. V.; Zinchuk, S. F.; Sivolobova, T. V.; Rotkank, M. A.; Mazhitova, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present research is the comparative analysis of the epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in the Tomsk region from 1998 to 2014. There were examined 9901 and 15174 children of the school age including within the medical examination of the children’s population in 1998 and 2014 in Tomsk. At all school pupils there were analyzed anamnestic data and carried out anthropometrical measurements, ultrasonography of the thyroid gland was carried out using the portable scanner "Aloka SSD 500" with the linear sensor of 7,5 MHz frequency in the real time, the thyroid volume was evaluated according to Delange (1997). The excretion of inorganic iodine was determined at 264 in 1998 and at 120 children in 2014, respectively, in a one-time portion of urine by the cerium-arsenic method. There was additionally carried out the analysis of results of determination of TSH at 10717 in 1998, and at 15091 in 2014 in a spot of the whole blood at newborn children on the 4-5 day after birth at full-term and on the 7-14 day at prematurely born children. Neonatal TSH in the dried-up samples of capillary blood was determined by the method of the fluorometric immune-ferment analysis with the use of sets of TSH-Neonatal: Delfia, Finland. Statistical processing of the data obtained was carried out with the use of the applied software package pspp. The descriptive analysis included calculation of the median for the quantitative and the calculation of frequencies for qualitative data. The comparative analysis included calculation of distinctions reliability by the Mann-Whitney criterion for independent and to Wilcoxon’s criterion for dependent data. The comparative analysis of epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in Tomsk and the Tomsk region in 1998 and 2014 specifies decreasing the iodine deficiency diseases in the Tomsk region, increasing the iodine provision of the population within 15 years by 27%, decreasing neonatal hyperthyroidism by 1.5 times.

  12. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Position statement of the working group on disorders related to iodine deficiency and thyroid dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnay, Sergio; Arena, Jose; Lucas, Anna; Velasco, Inés; Ares, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Severe and mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation affects thyroid function of the mother and neonate as well as the infant's neuropsychological development. Studies performed in Spain confirm that most women are iodine deficient during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant and breast feeding women and women planning to become pregnant should take iodine supplements. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Parental generation rats were fed until they reached reproductive age; first filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After 3 months of feeding, first filial generation rats gave birth to second filial generation rats; second filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After feeding for 90, 180, and 270 days, rats were sacrificed. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze body weight, food intake, and food utilization rate data collected during the time of feeding and blood iodine hormone level, which was determined after sacrifice. Results: The LI and LII groups generally demonstrated decreased activity, slow reaction, and growth retardation compared with the NI group. After 270 days, the urine iodine levels of the LI and LII groups were 1.7 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the NI group (255.2 μg/L) ( Pfood intake of female and male rats after 270 days were (465.0±27.7), (658.4±28.6) and (423.0±13.2), (548.0±18.8) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((499.5±21.8), (760.8±33.0) g) ( Pfood utilization rate of female rats in the LI and LII groups was (8.7±0.4)% and (6.0±0.58)%, which was lower than that of the NI group ((11.7±3.5)%) ( Pfood intake, and food utilization rate among second filial

  14. Hypothyroxinemia Induced by Mild Iodine Deficiency Deregulats Thyroid Proteins during Gestation and Lactation in Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect on thyroidal proteins following mild iodine deficiency (ID-induced maternal hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy and lactation. In the present study, we established a maternal hypothyroxinemia model in female Wistar rats by using a mild ID diet. Maternal thyroid iodine content and thyroid weight were measured. Expressions of thyroid-associated proteins were analyzed. The results showed that the mild ID diet increased thyroid weight, decreased thyroid iodine content and increased expressions of thyroid transcription factor 1, paired box gene 8 and Na+/I− symporter on gestational day (GD 19 and postpartum days (PN 21 in the maternal thyroid. Moreover, the up-regulated expressions of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1 and type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2 were detected in the mild ID group on GD19 and PN21. Taken together, our data indicates that during pregnancy and lactation, a maternal mild ID could induce hypothyroxinemia and increase the thyroidal DIO1 and DIO2 levels.

  15. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China.

  16. [Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Bajkin, Ivana; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Zavisić, Branka Kovacev

    2012-01-01

    Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger a utoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction. is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consuquences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  17. [Thyroid gland pathology in children population exposed to the combination of iodine deficiency and fluoride pollution of environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, M F; Efimova, N V; Manueva, R S; Nikolaeva, L A; Shin, N S

    The article presents results of study of the impact of iodine deficiency and technogenic fluoride on the state of the thyroid gland in children. On the example of two districts of the city of Bratsk there were executed dynamic investigations (2002 and 2012), including the estimation of the pollution of ambient air and soil by fluorine compounds, levels of iodine intake by the body, the clinical examination of children aged from 5 to 7 years d and interviewing of their parents. In the course of the medical examination there were executed: physical examination by the pediatrician, endocrinologist, ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland, the determination both of serum hormone content by radioimmunoassay and urinary excretion offluorine and iodine. Concentrations of hydrogen fluoride and a solidfluorides in ambient air led to the accumulation offluoride ion in the soil. The iodine entering with drinking water and food, was established to provide only 37.5-50% of the daily requirement of iodine. Increased fluoride ion content in urine and milk teeth in children is associated with the concentrations of the fluorine-containing pollutants in the ambient air and soil. The fluoride pollution against the background of the natural iodine deficiency was established to increase the frequency of functional and morphological disorders of the thyroid gland in children.

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Methods of Iron Deficiency Prevention in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.А. Bielykh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods of iron deficiency prevention in infants. Materials and Methods. Within 30-cluster regional epidemiological study on the prevalence of iodine and iron deficiency in children, we have analyzed the results of screening for anemia in 948 children, carried out questioning of mothers, determined the concentration of iron in breast milk. The effectiveness of preventive measures was assessed by indicators of iron supplementation of the body in 96 children depending on the existing method of iron prophylaxis. Results of the Study. It was found that the use by mother during lactation of iron-containing vitamin-mineral complexes had no effect on the iron content in breast milk. It is proved that administration of iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex 1 mg/kg/day for 2 months is the most effective way to prevent iron deficiency in children who are exclusively breastfed.

  19. Developmental iodine deficiency resulting in hypothyroidism reduces hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are implicated in the impaired learning and memory in lactational and adolescent rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Methods Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Then, the total and phorsporylated ERK1/2 and total and phorsporylated CREB in the hippocampus were detected with western blot on PN14, PN21, PN28 and PN42. Results The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed lower serum FT3 and FT4 levels, smaller body size, and delayed eyes opening. The mean number of surviving cells in the hippocampus of the iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats was significantly reduced compared to controls (P hypothyroidism down-regulate hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats. PMID:20021662

  20. The Study of Iodine Status among Schoolchildren from Kyiv and Ways to Correct the Revealed Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Stroi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Lack of iodine in the environment is one of the topical medico-social problems in many countries of the world. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for the developmental delay, memory loss, or the ability for analysis and abstract thinking. Traditionally in Ukraine the problem of iodine deficiency was relevant in Western regions, but recent studies indicate the existence of moderate iodine deficiency in all areas. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status of primary schoolchildren from Kyiv. Materials and methods. The examination of 52 children aged 6–12 years was performed, which involved a survey of families on awareness of the consequences of iodine deficiency and frequency of consumption of foods containing iodine, objective and ultrasound thyroid investigation, determination of urine iodine content in single portions of urine. Results. Iodine deficiency was detected in 87 % of pupils, mostly mild. Diffuse goiter grade 1 was diagnosed in 23 % of patients. To correct iodine deficiency, we have used new generation product — jodis-concentrate as an aqueous solution. Conclusions. Research of iodine status in schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in Kyiv showed the presence of mild iodine deficiency in 87 % of them (in 68 and 19 %, respectively. In 12 (23 % children, we have diagnosed thyroid volume increase under normal echogenicity and homogeneous echostructure. Lack of iodine nutrition is caused by poor nutrition, lack of mass, group and individual iodine prophylaxis, low sanitary hygienic culture of the population. Pupils with iodine deficiency were administered an individual subsidy of iodine in the form of an aqueous solution of jodis-concentrate for 12 months, which has significantly improved the iodine status of children, normalized the level of urine iodine content. Early detection of iodine deficiency and its correction are the promising directions of modern pediatrics in terms of the prevention of thyroid

  1. Thyroid function in girls with menstrual disturbances in iodine-deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Konstantinova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimate the functional state of the female adolescent thyroid with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine deficiency regions, 130 female adolescents with irregular menstrual cycle were examined. Hypothyroidism incidence (in them was 16.9%. In addition we considered TSH range 2.5–4.0 mU/l (highly normal TSH level the extent of which was 12.3%. High extent of antibody carriage to the thyroid (31.3% in girls with irregular menses, having high blood TSH level. There were no statistical differences between the structure of menstrual dysfunction and menstrual duration depending on thyroid function (p = 0.2383, respectively, as well as the average values of estradiol levels depending on TSH level (p = 0.3213. Thus, the influence of highly normal TSH on menstrual function development in female adolescents.

  2. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in a Country of Endemic Iodine Deficiency (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Muonir Der

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC has historically been linked to iodine deficiency. Although Ghana is among the iodine deficient regions of the world, the proportions, trends, and the clinical features of FTCs have not been studied as a single disease entity. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequencies, trends, and the clinicopathological characteristics of FTCs among all thyroid malignancies in our institution. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study from January 1994 to December 2013. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 23 (Chicago and Graph pad prism version 5.00. Results. Follicular thyroid cancer was the second thyroid malignancy (35.0% and showed a gradual rise in relative proportions over the period. The male-female ratio was 1 : 1.5. The mean ages were 46.9 (SD ±17.3 for males and 46.4 (SD ±13.3 years for females. Enlarged palpable anterior neck swelling was the commonest symptom in males (86.7% and females (91.3% (P=0.730. Hurthle cell carcinoma was the commonest variant of FTC, with 26.7% males and 10.6% females (P=0.116. Distant spread was found in 23.3% of males compared to 19.1% of females (P=0.633. The common sites of distant spread were bones (57.2% in males and cervical lymph nodes (44.4% in females (P=0.106. Conclusion. Follicular thyroid cancer was the second common thyroid malignancy (35.0% with a gradual rise in trend over the study period and male-female ratio of 1.5 : 1. Large anterior neck swelling was the commonest clinical presentation of FTC.

  3. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... and mortality. Conclusion: Even minor differences in iodine intake between populations are associated with differences in the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Both iodine intake levels below and above the recommended interval are associated with an increase in the risk of disease in the population. Optimally......, iodine intake of a population should be kept within a relatively narrow interval where iodine deficiency disorders are prevented, but not higher. Monitoring and adjusting of iodine intake in a population is an important part of preventive medicine....

  4. Examination of Urinary Iodine Status from a Sample of Malian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders are common throughout the developing world, yet they are considered one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Iodine deficiency has tremendous consequences on women and girls and can not only impair a woman's reproductive health, but it also has serious consequences for ...

  5. Treatment of iodine deficiency in school-age children increases 1GF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations and improvves somatic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Solomon Mabapa, N.; Mbhenyane, X.; Schoeman, S.; Biebinger, R.; Chaouki, N.; Bozo, M.; Grimci, L.; Bridson, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine if iodine repletion improves somatic growth in iodine-deficient children and to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in this effect. Design, participants, and interventions: Three prospective,

  6. Maternal Different Degrees of Iodine Deficiency during Pregnant and Lactation Impair the Development of Cerebellar Pinceau in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Iodine is critical for synthesis of thyroid hormones (TH. And iodine deficiency (ID is one of the most significant reasons of intellectual disability and motor memory impairment, although the potential mechanisms are still under investigation. Presently, mild ID and marginal ID are largely ignored problems for women of child bearing age. Mild ID is a subtle form of TH deficiency, which shows low levels of free thyroxine (FT4 and relatively normal free triiodothyronine (FT3 or thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH. And marginal ID is a milder form of ID with decreased total T4 (TT4 but relatively normal FT3, FT4, and TSH. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal different degrees of ID on the development of pinceau in cerebellar purkinje cells (PCs and studied the expression of pinceau related protein, which is crucial for the development and maturation of pinceau.Methods and Results: Three developmental iodine deficient rat models were created by feeding dam rats with an iodine-deficient diet and deionized water supplemented with potassiumiodide. Our study showed that different degrees of ID inhibited cerebellar pinceau synapse development and maturation on postnatal day (PN 14 and PN21. What's more, mild and severe ID reduced the expression of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin186 and NrCAM on PN7, PN14, and PN21. However, marginal ID rarely altered expression of these proteins in the offspring.Conclusion: These results suggested that maternal mild and severe ID impaired the development and maturation of cerebellar pinceau, which may be attributed to the decrease of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin 186, and NrCAM. And the alteration of development and maturation in cerebellar pinceau in the offspring were also observed following maternal marginal ID, which is slighter than that of mild ID.

  7. Maternal Different Degrees of Iodine Deficiency during Pregnant and Lactation Impair the Development of Cerebellar Pinceau in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Song, Heling; Wang, Yuan; Li, Min; Yu, Ye; Wang, Yi; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Iodine is critical for synthesis of thyroid hormones (TH). And iodine deficiency (ID) is one of the most significant reasons of intellectual disability and motor memory impairment, although the potential mechanisms are still under investigation. Presently, mild ID and marginal ID are largely ignored problems for women of child bearing age. Mild ID is a subtle form of TH deficiency, which shows low levels of free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and relatively normal free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) or thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH). And marginal ID is a milder form of ID with decreased total T 4 (TT 4 ) but relatively normal FT 3 , FT 4 , and TSH. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal different degrees of ID on the development of pinceau in cerebellar purkinje cells (PCs) and studied the expression of pinceau related protein, which is crucial for the development and maturation of pinceau. Methods and Results: Three developmental iodine deficient rat models were created by feeding dam rats with an iodine-deficient diet and deionized water supplemented with potassiumiodide. Our study showed that different degrees of ID inhibited cerebellar pinceau synapse development and maturation on postnatal day (PN) 14 and PN21. What's more, mild and severe ID reduced the expression of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin186 and NrCAM on PN7, PN14, and PN21. However, marginal ID rarely altered expression of these proteins in the offspring. Conclusion: These results suggested that maternal mild and severe ID impaired the development and maturation of cerebellar pinceau, which may be attributed to the decrease of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin 186, and NrCAM. And the alteration of development and maturation in cerebellar pinceau in the offspring were also observed following maternal marginal ID, which is slighter than that of mild ID.

  8. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  9. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  10. A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousou, S; Stål, M; Larsson, C; Mellberg, C; Lindahl, B; Eggertsen, R; Hulthén, L; Olsson, T; Ryberg, M; Sandberg, S; Nyström, H F

    2018-01-01

    Different diets are used for weight loss. A Paleolithic-type diet (PD) has beneficial metabolic effects, but two of the largest iodine sources, table salt and dairy products, are excluded. The objectives of this study were to compare 24-h urinary iodine concentration (24-UIC) in subjects on PD with 24-UIC in subjects on a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and to study if PD results in a higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (ID), than NNR diet. A 2-year prospective randomized trial in a tertiary referral center where healthy postmenopausal overweight or obese women were randomized to either PD (n=35) or NNR diet (n=35). Dietary iodine intake, 24-UIC, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-UIE), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Completeness of urine sampling was monitored by para-aminobenzoic acid and salt intake by urinary sodium. At baseline, median 24-UIC (71.0 μg/l) and 24-UIE (134.0 μg/d) were similar in the PD and NNR groups. After 6 months, 24-UIC had decreased to 36.0 μg/l (P=0.001) and 24-UIE to 77.0 μg/d (P=0.001) in the PD group; in the NNR group, levels were unaltered. FT4, TSH and FT3 were similar in both groups, except for FT3 at 6 months being lower in PD than in NNR group. A PD results in a higher risk of developing ID, than a diet according to the NNR. Therefore, we suggest iodine supplementation should be considered when on a PD.

  11. Iodinated contrast media and patients with high-risk kidneys. Aiming at rational prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, B.; Frouge, C.; Gagey, N.

    1994-01-01

    Acute renal failure induced by iodinated contrast media (CM) accounts for about 10% of all hospital cases of renal failure, especially in azotemic patients. The specific anatomy and physiology of the inner medulla renalis render it particularly sensitive to even a moderate reduction in blood supply. Renal function will be estimated by measuring serum creatinine levels, before and within 72 hours after administration of the iodinated contrast medium. Hypovolaemia, diabetes mellitus-induced microangiopathy, nephrotoxic drugs and especially dehydratation may provoke renal accidents. Proper hydration, choosing a low osmolality medium and adequately spacing exposures to CM are elementary measures to be adopted to prevent renal failure. (authors)

  12. The goitre rate, its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among women in Ethiopia: Cross-section community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of women on Iodine Deficiency were investigated. Methods A cross-section community based study was conducted during February to May 2005 in 10998 women in child bearing age of 15 to 49 years. To assess the state of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia, a multistage "Proportional to Population Size" (PPS sampling methods was used, and WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommended method for goitre classification. Results Total goitre prevalence (weighted was 35.8% (95% CI 34.5–37.1, 24.3% palpable and 11.5% visible goitre. This demonstrates that more than 6 million women were affected by goitre. Goitre prevalence in four regional states namely Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP, Oromia, Bebshandul-Gumuz and Tigray was greater than 30%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. In the rest of the regions except Gambella, the IDD situation was mild to moderate. According to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD this is a lucid indication that IDD is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Women with goitre experience more pregnancy failure (X2 = 16.5, p 2 = 67.52; p Conclusion Ethiopia is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The findings presented in this report emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly reproductive age women. Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program and iodized oil capsule distribution in some peripheries where iodine deficiency is severe is urgently required.

  13. Research on iodine deficiency and goiter in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    In 1811, Courtois noted a violet vapor arising from burning seaweed ash and Gay-Lussac subsequently identified the vapor as iodine, a new element. The Swiss physician Coindet, in 1813, hypothesized the traditional treatment of goiter with seaweed was effective because of its iodine content and

  14. Global 99mTc-uptake in the differentiation between normal thyroid, goitre with euthyroidism, and thyroid autonomy in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.; Vaitl, C.; Kirsch, C.M.; Knesewitsch, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Horn, K.; Bechtner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Global TcTU was determined in 568 patients without any specific thyroid drug intake - 54 with normal thyroid, 274 with goitre and euthyroidism and 240 with thyroid autonomy. 57 patients with autonomy and overt hyperthyroidism were the only group with TcTU values significantly higher than normals. Common to all groups was a large scatter of the TcTU values. In 332, the effects of individual iodine supply were studied by measuring the iodine concentration in spot urine samples. There was a significant inverse correlation between the TcTU values and the urinary iodine excretion in the groups of normal thyroids and of goitres with euthyroidism. In the group with autonomy an effect of iodine supply could only be seen in cases of greatly increased urinary iodine excretion, resulting in very low TcTU values. Out of 20 patients with autonomy and iodine contamination, only 4 showed overt hyperthyroidism. The large scatter of TcTU values in all groups may be explained by the persistent iodine deficiency as well as by the frequent exposure to unknown amounts of iodine in patients with thyroid disease. Therefore, the spontaneous TcTU alone cannot identify a small group of patients with autonomy and high risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, from a very large group of patients with goitre. (orig.) [de

  15. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in regions of Russia affected by Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, G.; Alexandrova, G.; Arbuzova, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present article provides an update on IDD in the Western regions of Russia (Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Orel) which were contaminated by radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. These surveyed areas meet the criteria of ICCIDD/UNICEF/WHO for mild and moderate IDD. Higher iodine excretion and smaller goiter prevalence (mild level of IDD) were more typical for urban sites, while lower iodine levels and higher goiter endemicity (moderate level of IDD) were found in rural areas. IDD control programmes should be developed and implemented in Chernobyl areas and iodine excretion should be monitored continuously to minimize future thyroid abnormalities

  16. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management; Distribution preventive et plans de gestion des stocks de comprimes d'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  17. Appropriate Iodine Nutrition in Iran: 20 Years of Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Delshad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a trace element in the human body, its only known function is the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Effects of iodine deficiency, termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, include endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, decreased fertility rate, increased infant mortality and mental retardation. 2.2 billion people worldwide are at risk for IDD. Of these, 30-70% have goiter and 1-10% have cretinism. Two decades ago the I.R. Iran was among the countries most severely affected by iodine deficiency, but during the last two decades has made much progress in the development of universal salt iodization strategies and IDD prevention, and since 1996 meets all WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency.

  18. Appropriate Iodine Nutrition in Iran: 20 Years of Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Azizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a trace element in the human body, its only known function is the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Effects of iodine deficiency, termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, include endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, decreased fertility rate, increased infant mortality and mental retardation. 2.2 billion people worldwide are at risk for IDD. Of these, 30-70% have goiter and 1-10% have cretinism. Two decades ago the I.R. Iran was among the countries most severely affected by iodine deficiency, but during the last two decades has made much progress in the development of universal salt iodization strategies and IDD prevention, and since 1996 meets all WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency.

  19. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  20. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva, E-mail: dlinhares@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Garcia, Patrícia Ventura, E-mail: patriciag@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CE3C, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Almada, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra_almada@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Ferreira, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.jl.ferreira@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Queiroz, Gabriela, E-mail: maria.gp.queiroz@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Cruz, José Virgílio, E-mail: jvc@uac.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos, E-mail: rodrigues@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  1. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  2. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  3. Salt iodization and iodine status among infants and lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universal salt iodization is the most effective and sustainable intervention strategy for the prevention, control, and elimination of iodine deficiency. This cross-sectional study assessed the per capita consumption and availability of adequately iodised salt in households, and the iodine status of infants 7 - 120 days old and ...

  4. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  5. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aimed at development planners and students of nutrition, public health, anthropology, and human cultural ecology, this book discusses issues surrounding the use of natural sources of food for the prevention of vitamin A deficiency.

  6. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Book cover Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Auteur(s) : H.V. Kuhnlein and G.H. Pelto. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 220 pages. e-ISBN : 1552504409. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez ...

  7. [Prevention of recurrent amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism by iodine-131].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, J S; Jarry, G; Tcheng, E; Moullart, V; Arlot, S; Rey, J L; Schvartz, C

    2004-03-01

    Amioradone-induced hyperthyroidism is a common complication of amiodarone therapy. Although definitive interruption of amiodarone is recommended because of the risks of aggravation of the arrhythmias, some patients may require the reintroduction of amiodarone several months after normalisation of thyroid function. The authors undertook a retrospective study of the effects of preventive treatment of recurrences of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism with I131. The indication of amiodarone therapy was recurrent, symptomatic, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 13 cases and ventricular tachycardia in 5 cases (M = 14, average age 64 +/- 13 years). The underlying cardiac disease was dilated cardiomyopathy (N = 5), ischaemic heart disease (N = 3), hypertensive heart disease (N = 2), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (N = 2) or valvular heart disease (N = 2). Two patients had idiopathic atrial fibrillation. An average dose of 576 +/- 184 MBq of I131 was administered 34 +/- 37 months after an episode of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Amiodarone was reintroduced in 16 of the 18 patients after a treatment-free period of 98 +/- 262 days. Transient post-radioiodine hyperthyroidism was observed in 3 cases (17%). Sixteen patients (89%) developed hypothyroidism requiring replacement therapy with L-thyroxine. There were no recurrences of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. After 24 +/- 17 months follow-up, the arrhythmias were controlled in 13 of the 16 patients (81%) who underwent the whole treatment sequence. The authors conclude that preventive treatment with I131 is an effective alternative to prevent recurrence of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism in patients requiring reintroduction of amiodarone to control their arrhythmias.

  8. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  9. Iodine deficiency disorders: Public health measures to mitigate the global burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Ram Bihari Lal Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for the synthesis of the hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Iodine insufficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and is rated as one of the most significant public health concern in more than 125 countries. An optimal intake of dietary iodine during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood period is crucial for ensuring proper development of the brain of the fetus/newborn. During the course of implementation of the strategy of universal administration of the iodized salt, a wide gamut of challenges has been identified. In order to combat the same and simultaneously enhance the coverage of universal administration of the iodized salt, many measures have been proposed, namely formulating clear plan with time-based targets; encouraging coordination amongst all stakeholders; strengthening of the existing infrastructure; and increasing consumer awareness and demand for adequately iodized salt. To conclude, iodine has a crucial role in ensuring the normal growth and development of the child. However, to expand the coverage of the universal iodized salt to the vulnerable population, sustained political commitment and transparent monitoring and evaluation mechanism is the need of the hour.

  10. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome. ##

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the extent of neurological impairments associated with low...

  11. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the neurological impairments associated with low level TH ...

  12. Iodine deficiency and endemic goitre in the Langkloof area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mild to severe. Both iodised and non-iodiSed san were available at the local grocery stores but only small percentages of households had iodised salt in the house. The iodine content of drinking water was low. Anthropometric indices of undernutrition indicated medium to high levels of stunting in three of the four.

  13. The prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media are relatively common and potentially life threatening. Opinion is divided as to the utility of medications for preventing these reactions. We performed a systematic review to assess regimes for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media. Methods Searches for studies were conducted in the Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases. Bibliographies of included studies and review articles were examined and experts were contacted. Randomised clinical trials that examined agents given prior to iodinated contrast material for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions were included in the review. The validity of the included studies was examined using a component approach. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria, but only one of these fulfilled all of the validity criteria. There were four studies that examined the use of H1 antihistamines, each was used to prevent anaphylactoid reactions to ionic contrast. The random effects pooled relative risk demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall rate of anaphylactoid reactions (RR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.18-0.9, p = 0.027. There were insufficient studies to produce a pooled statistic for the use of corticosteroids, however regimes of steroids (methylprednisolone 32 mg given at least six hours and again two hours prior to the administration of contrast suggested a reduction in the incidence of anaphylactoid reactions. Conclusion In conclusion, there are few high quality randomised clinical trials that have addressed the question of the optimal methods to prevent allergic type reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media. Allowing for these limitations, the results suggest that H1 antihistamines given immediately prior to the administration of ionic contrast may be useful in preventing reactions to ionic contrast and are suggestive of a protective effect of corticosteroids when given in two doses

  14. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  15. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...... to increase the risk for development of multiple nodules (P=0.087).Conclusions: Low serum selenium concentration was associated with a larger thyroid volume and a higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement....

  16. Effect of a mandatory iodization program on thyroid gland volume based on individuals' age, gender, and preceding severity of dietary iodine deficiency: A prospective, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans

    2007-01-01

    volume in the age groups younger than 45 yr. When adjusted for confounders, a lower mean volume was seen among those with multiple nodules in both areas and in the group with diffuse structure in the area with moderate iodine deficiency. Before the iodization, 17.6% of the total cross-section had thyroid...

  17. Prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y yodo, y parasitosis en niños de Arandas, Jalisco, México Prevalence of iron and iodine deficiency and parasitosis in children from Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Manuel Vásquez-Garibay

    2002-06-01

    security policy holding were associated to parasitosis. Conclusions. The high prevalence rates of iron deficiency, iodine deficiency, and parasitosis, should be addressed by state health services with effective interventions to restrain these preventable diseases.

  18. The Choice of the Iodinated Radiographic Contrast Media to Prevent Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Andreucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with preexisting renal impairment, particularly those who are diabetic, the iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN or contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI, that is, an acute renal failure (ARF, usually nonoliguric and asymptomatic, occurring 24 to 72 hours after their intravascular injection in the absence of an alternative aetiology. Radiographic contrast media have different osmolalities and viscosities. They have also a different nephrotoxicity. In order to prevent CIN, the least nephrotoxic contrast media should be chosen, at the lowest dosage possible. Other prevention measures should include discontinuation of potentially nephrotoxic drugs, adequate hydration with i.v. infusion of either normal saline or bicarbonate solution, and eventually use of antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine, and statins.

  19. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake Necesidad de programas coordinados para mejorar la salud a escala mundial mediante la optimización de la ingesta de sal y yodo

    OpenAIRE

    Norm R. C. Campbell; Omar Dary; Francesco P. Cappuccio; Lynnette M. Neufeld; Kim B. Harding; Michael B. Zimmermann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt f...

  20. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  1. [A longitudinal study regarding the gestational changes in iodine nutrition and thyroid function among pregnant women in the iodine deficient areas of Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zheng, Heming; Li, Xiaofeng; Ying, Huili

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the gestational changes of iodine nutrition and thyroid function and to explore the factors associated with the thyroid function in pregnant women. A longitudinal survey was conducted in 130 pregnant women in Luohe city of Henan province from October 2012 to May 2013. Samples of fasting blood and urine were collected in each trimester to test on thyroid function and urinary iodine. Data regarding social demography and lifestyle behavior were collected through questionnaire in the first trimester. The medians of urinary iodine (MUI) for pregnant women were 238.9, 150.8 and 306.4 µg/L in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively (P 0.05) but the level of free thyroxine (FT4) decreased (P iodine nutrition and thyroid function. With the increase of iodine level, the level of TSH first increased and then decreased while the levels of FT3 and FT4 showed the opposite trend. The level of TSH was influenced by factors as education level, history of chronic diseases, history of CT and X-ray examination, and intake of pickled food etc. The level of FT4 was associated with residence (urban or rural), stressful events in the previous year, daily means of transportation, and the hours of sedentariness, working and sleeping. Significant differences were noticed in iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during the three trimesters. It was essential to establish specific reference ranges for different trimesters. Thyroid functions of pregnant women seemed to be associated with iodine level and lifestyle.

  2. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  3. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain: study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrent Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to

  4. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Auteur(s) : H.V. Kuhnlein et G.H. Pelto. Maison(s) d'édition : ... Évaluation stratégique sur la communication des résultats de la recherche en vue d'exercer une influence : 1re partie. Le CRDI vise à appuyer de la recherche non seulement ...

  5. The ameliorating effects of vitamin E on hepatic antioxidant system and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate-exposed iodine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Caglayan, Aydan; Hincal, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin E (VE) on hepatic antioxidant system and drug-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate (FEN)-exposed iodine-deficient (ID) Wistar rats. ID was produced by perchlorate containing drinking water. VE was introduced by a loading dose of 100 mg/kg/d, i.g. for the first three days in the last week of feeding period; then with a single maintenance dose of 40 mg/kg on the 4th day. During last week, FEN groups (F) received 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. FEN. VE alone did not significantly affect thyroid hormones and antioxidant parameters; however, significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (38%) and cytochrome b5 levels (36%). In all ID groups, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels increased markedly, but remained at control level in vitamin E plus FEN receiving iodine-deficient group (IDVF) group. Glutathione peroxidase activity showed marked increases in F (19%) and FEN-exposed iodine-deficient group (IDF, 48%) groups. FEN treatment significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (28%) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (36%), as well as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (120%), 7-penthoxyresorufin O-deethylase (139%) and glutathione S-transferase (15%) activities and decreased total glutathione concentrations (28%) versus control. Overall results suggest that vitamin E has ameliorating effects on the measured parameters in ID and/or FEN exposure.

  6. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies in a large survey of populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Autoimmune thyroiditis is one of the most common autoimmune disorders. Autoantibodies against the thyroid gland, with thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) as the most common autoantibodies, can often be demonstrated in serum in population...... prevalence rate of thyroid autoantibodies (TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab) was 18.8%. The prevalence rates of TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab were similar (13.1 vs. 13.0%). Both antibodies were more frequent in females than in males, and in females the prevalence rates increased with age. In the age group 60-65 years thyroid...... antibodies were more frequently measured in sera from moderate than from mild iodine-deficient area (P = 0.02), whereas no differences were seen in younger subjects. In 38.8% of participants with thyroid autoantibodies in serum, both antibodies were present. In sera with both TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab present...

  7. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  8. Prevention and Management of Adverse Reactions Induced by Iodinated Contrast Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi Wei; Leow, Kheng Song; Zhu, Yujin; Tan, Cher Heng

    2016-04-01

    Iodinated radiocontrast media (IRCM) is widely used in current clinical practice. Although IRCM is generally safe, serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may still occur. IRCM-induced ADRs may be subdivided into chemotoxic and hypersensitivity reactions. Several factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of ADRs, including previous contrast media reactions, history of asthma and allergic disease, etc. Contrast media with lower osmolality is generally recommended for at-risk patients to prevent ADRs. Current premedication prophylaxis in at-risk patients may reduce the risk of ADRs. However, there is still a lack of consensus on the prophylactic role of premedication. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is another component of IRCM-related ADRs. Hydration remains the mainstay of CIN prophylaxis in at-risk patients. Despite several preventive measures, ADRs may still occur. Treatment strategies for potential contrast reactions are also summarised in this article. This article summarises the pathophysiology, epidemiology and risk factors of ADRs with emphasis on prevention and treatment strategies. This will allow readers to understand the rationale behind appropriate patient preparation for diagnostic imaging involving IRCM.

  9. [Nutritional deficiencies in bariatric surgery patients: prevention, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Chaya; Keidar, Andrei

    2010-11-01

    The number of people suffering from surgery and obesity in the western world is constantly growing. In 1997 the World Health Organization (WHO) defined obesity as a plague and one of greatest public health hazards of our time. The National Institution of Health (NIH) declared that surgery is the only long-term solution for obesity. Today there are four different types of bariatric surgery. Each variation has different implications on the nutritional status of bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery candidates are at risk of developing vitamin and mineral nutritional deficiencies in the post-operative stage, due to vomiting, decrease in food intake, food intolerance, diminution of gastric secretions and bypass of absorption area. It is easier and more efficient to treat nutritional deficiencies in the preoperative stage. Therefore, preoperative detection and correction are crucial. Blood tests before surgery to detect and treat nutritional deficiencies are crucial. In the postoperative period, blood tests should be conducted every 3 months in the first year after operation, every six months in the second year and annually thereafter. Multivitamin is recommended to prevent nutritional deficiencies in all bariatric surgery patients. Furthermore, iron, calcium, Vitamin D and B12 are additionally recommended for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass patients. Patients with Biliopancreatic diversion and Duodenal Switch should also take fat soluble vitamins.

  10. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  11. Causes of referral to the first endocrine visit of patients with thyroid carcinoma in a mildly iodine-deficient area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Michela; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Ceresini, Graziano

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the causes of the first referral to an endocrine visit of patients with thyroid cancer in a mildly iodine-deficient area and to correlate them with prognostic features. We studied 298 consecutive patients (64 M and 234 F) with thyroid cancer. Of these, 281 had differentiated thyroid cancer. The causes of referral were categorized as follows: (Group A) clinical evidence of a neck lump; (Group B) incidental imaging in subjects without known thyroid diseases; (Group C) incidental imaging during a workup of thyroid disorders. Also, in differentiated thyroid cancer cases, clinical, histomorphologic, and prognostic parameters were compared among the three different groups of referral causes. In both total thyroid cancer and differentiated thyroid cancer cohorts, Group A, B, and C accounted for about 25, 35, and 40 % of causes, respectively. Considering the differentiated thyroid cancer, in Group B, ultrasound accounted for 94 % of cases, with 73 % resulting from screening or serendipitous study. Within a median follow-up of 5.6 [IQR: 2.7-9.5] years, disease-free survival was significantly lower in patients of Group A (Log-Rank test p = 0.030 vs. the other groups of causes). However, at the Cox multivariate analysis only male sex (p = 0.002) and stage (p = 0.005), but not referral cause, resulted independent predictors of events. In patients without known thyroid disease, unjustified thyroid ultrasound represents the main cause of referral of thyroid cancer patients to the first endocrine visit. The fact that this is not related to the disease-free survival strengthens the concept of the uselessness of thyroid cancer screening.

  12. Marginal Iodine Deficiency Affects Dendritic Spine Development by Disturbing the Function of Rac1 Signaling Pathway on Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hui; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Ye; Shan, Zhongyan; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID)-induced thyroid hormone (TH) insufficient during development leads to impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. Marginal ID has been defined as subtle insufficiency of TH, characterized as low thyroxine (T 4 ) levels, whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation. The effects of marginal ID on long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated in the hippocampal CA1 region. To study the development of dendritic spines in pyramidal cells, Golgi-Cox staining was conducted on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, PN21, and PN28. The activation of Rac1 signaling pathway, which is essential for dendritic spine development by regulating actin cytoskeleton, was also investigated. Our results showed that marginal ID slightly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Besides, the density of dendritic spines during the critical period of rat postnatal development was mildly decreased, and we found no significant change of spine morphology in marginal ID group. We also observed decreased activation of the Rac1 signaling pathway in pups subjected to maternal marginal ID. Our study may support the hypothesis that decreased T 4 induced by marginal ID results in slight impairments of LTP and leads to mild damage of dendritic spine development, which may be due to abnormal regulation of Rac1 signaling pathway on cytoskeleton.

  13. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-04-05

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population.

  14. False-positive radioactive iodine uptake mimicking miliary lung metastases in a patient affected by papillary thyroid cancer and IgA deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidowich, Andrew Paul; Reynolds, James C. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States); Kundu, Amartya [Dept. of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States); Celi, Francesco S. [Div. of Endocrinology and MetabolismVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A 42-year-old female with immunoglobulin A deficiency and recurrent sinopulmonary infections underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Follow-up {sup 123}I scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake, suggesting metastatic disease. However, subsequent pathologic, biochemical and radiographic testing proved that she was in fact disease free, and the initial {sup 123}I pulmonary uptake was identified as a false positive. Inflammatory conditions may rarely cause iodine uptake in non-thyroidal tissues due to local retention, organification, and/or immunologic utilization. To avoid exposing patients to unnecessary treatments, it is critical for clinicians to recognize that comorbid pulmonary conditions may mimic metastatic PTC on radioiodine scintigraphy.

  15. [Prevention of mineral deficiencies (iron, calcium and magnesium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, M P; Hercberg, S

    1993-01-15

    The calcium, magnesium and iron intakes provided by food must be sufficient to fulfil the physiological demands of each individual, to avoid the clinical manifestations of mineral deficiencies and to ensure an optimal state of health. For these reasons, it is desirable to ensure a sufficient calcium intake (notably by milk products) at all ages and particularly in children, adolescents and young adults up to the age of 25 (and also in elderly people to prevent osteoporosis); to recommend the consumption of magnesium-rich foods, such a little sifted cereals and dry vegetables to ensure sufficient intakes; to prescribe pharmaceutical preparations on iron systematically in pregnant women and by repeated courses in infants aged 10 to 36 months (to avoid complications due to iron deficiency and notably its harmful influence on haematopoiesis). The consumption of "second age" milks for older children must also be encouraged. Finally, the consumption of foodstuffs with a high vitamin C content should be recommended as it increases the bioavailability of nutritional iron, and the consumption of substances, such as tea and coffee, which inhibit iron absorption must be reduced.

  16. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  17. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate versus povidone iodine as preoperative skin preparation for the prevention of surgical site infections in clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Anirudh; Kaman, Lileswar; Raj, Prithivi; Gautam, Vikas; Dahiya, Divya; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Rajinder; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine-gluconate versus povidone iodine in preoperative skin preparation in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) in clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial conducted on patients undergoing clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries. A total of 351 patients 18-70 years old were randomized into two groups; chlorhexidine and povidone iodine skin preparation before surgery. The incidence of SSIs in the chlorhexidine group was 10.8 %, in comparison to 17.9 % in the povidone iodine group. The odds ratio was 0.6 in favor of chlorhexidine use, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.06). In the first postoperative week, SSIs developed in 7 % of patients in the chlorhexidine group and 14.1 % in the povidone iodine group (P = 0.03), and in the second postoperative week, SSIs were present in 4.1 % of the patients in the chlorhexidine group and 4.4 % in the povidone iodine group, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.88). The incidence of SSIs after clean-contaminated upper abdominal surgeries was lower with the use of chlorhexidine skin preparation than with povidone iodine preparation, although the results were not statistically significant. However, the odds ratio between the two groups favored the use of chlorhexidine over povidone iodine for preventing SSIs.

  19. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  20. Is chlorhexidine-gluconate superior than Povidone-Iodine in preventing surgical site infections? A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Safia; Shah, Syed Aslam; Qureshi, Shamim; Siddiqui, Taranum Ruba; Soomro, Iftikhar Ahmed; Ahmed, Waquaruddin; Alam, Syed Ejaz

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate scrubs in preventing surgical site infections. The randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted from May 2012 to April 2013 in two public-sector hospitals of Pakistan; one each in Karachi and Islamabad. Patients undergoing clean or clean contaminated surgeries were included and were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: group I comprised patients whose skin was preoperatively disinfected using 10% povidone-iodine, and in group II by 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol. A predesigned proforma was filled for all patients to record demographic data, diagnosis, surgical procedure and antibiotic used. Patients in both groups were followed up for one month postoperatively to monitor any signs of surgical site infections. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 388 patients from the two hospitals, 220(57%) were in group I and 168(43%) were in group II. Surgical site infection was observed in 22(10%) cases in group I and 12(7.1%) in group II (p=0.324). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.5%) was the predominant pathogen associated with surgical site infections followed by Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%). Chlorhexidine gluconate was associated with lower infection rates compared to povidone-iodine; but it was not statistically significant.

  1. Microdoses uses of iodine in the contamination prevention of mechanical ventilators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.D.; Trivellato, S.V.; Quintas, M.L.; Birolini, D.

    1986-01-01

    Nosocomial respiratory tract infections due to contamination of mechanical ventilators is a major problem complicating the management of intensive care unit patients. A significant source of such infection seems to be water contained in the nebulizers. Its decontamination by various means has been unsatisfactory up to date. In order to control this source of infection, the authors suggest the utilization of a small dose of a 2% iodine alcoholic solution added to the water of the nebulizers in the proportion of 0.125ml of iodine solution to 500ml of water. The results show that the procedure is safe, efficient and unexpensive. (author) [pt

  2. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  3. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  4. [Trace elements storage peculiarities and metallothionein content in human thyroid gland under iodine deficiency euthyroid nodular goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal'fushins'ka, H I; Hnatyshyna, L L; Osadchuk, O Ĭ; Shydlovs'kyĭ, V O; Stoliar, O B

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of iodine and copper in the node, paranodular and contralateral (not affected tissue by node) tissues of thyroid gland in relation to the level of metal-binding proteins, potential antioxidants and oxidative changes in tissue was investigated. To assess the severity of the pathological process the molecular markers of cytotoxicity were used. The reduction of total iodine (by 19.5%), increase of inorganic iodine fraction (by 82.4%) and total copper content (twice) in paranodular and nodular tissues compared with contrlateral part have been established. Excess of copper in goitrous-changes tissue was partially accumulated in the metallothioneins. The level of metal-binding form of metallothioneins and reserve of free thiols of these proteins was higher two-three times and lower content of reduced glutathione in node-affected tissue compared to the contralateral part. Signs of cytotoxicity among them: higher cathepsine D free activity (up to 84.6% and 134.4% in paranodular tissue and node respectively) and higher level of DNA strand breaks in the node (up to 22.6%) were observed. In paranodular tissue the range of indices variability compared with parenchyma of contralateral part is shorter than in the node. Thus, under low level of iodine organification and high copper level in goitrous-modified tissue of thyroid gland metallothionein may provide a partial compensatory effect on prooxidative processes.

  5. Iodine deficiency disorders in 6-12 years old rural primary school children in Kutch district, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Rajesh; Patel, Umed V; R, Ravikant; Verma, Pramod H

    2011-06-01

    To compare prevalence of goitre in primary school children; to determine median urinary iodine concentration in children; and, to assess level of salt iodization at retail trader level. 30 cluster survey study. Primary schools of Kutch district, Gujarat, India. Total 70 students including five boys and five girls from 1st to 7th standard, present in class on the day of visit were selected randomly for Goitre examination (n=2100). Urine sample was collected from one boy and one girl from each standard in each cluster. From the community, 28 children, including two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined, and salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and various salts available were purchased and tested for iodine on the spot with spot kit. Goitre prevalence of 11.2% was found among primary school children (grade 1- 8.6% and grade 2-2.6%). As the age increased, the Goitre prevalence also increased except in age group of 8 years. Median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 µg/L. Iodine level more than 15 ppm was found in 92.3% salts samples tested at the household level. Present study showed mild goitre prevalence in primary school children in Kutch district of Gujarat.

  6. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Galetti, Valeria; Stinca, Sara; Mackenzie, Ian; Thomas, Susan; Thomas, Tinku; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine

  7. Iodine Replete among Populations in Nigeria: Is the Population Tending Towards the Development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeaghala A. Augustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient which is required for normal thyroid function. The recommended daily intake for iodine is 150 µg, however in pregnant women; higher levels up to 250 µg could be required. Deficiency of iodine in any given population results in iodine deficiency disorder (IDD. Researchers in Nigeria as far back as 1967 had reported the existence of IDD. To combat this public health problem with its associated medical consequences, a policy to ensure salt iodization was enacted. The Nation’s consistent approach to combat IDD was globally recognized and it was adjudged as the only country in Africa that had achieved the goals of sustained elimination of IDD. Although the health benefits derivable from salt iodization seem to outweigh its risk, yet recent epidemiological data are pointing that populations within the country could be tending toward the development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH, a common disorder associated with salt iodization following chronic iodine deficiency. The need therefore to use evidence based approach to re-examine the County’s iodization policy as well as investigate the impact of salt iodization on thyroid hormone formation, metabolism and associated pathologies becomes very imperative. This could be very helpful in order to prevent the burden of non- communicable disease in a nation already battling with epidemics of various infectious diseases.

  8. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    include iodine compatible control valves with internal heaters and temperature sensors to coincide with the iodine-compatible thruster. A key advantage to using iodine as a propellant is that it may be stored in the tank as an unpressurized solid on the ground and before flight operations. During operations, the tank is heated to vaporize the propellant. Iodine vapor is then routed through custom flow control valves to control mass flow to the thruster and cathode assembly. The thruster then ionizes the vapor and accelerates it via magnetic and electrostatic fields, resulting in high specific impulse, characteristic of a highly efficient propulsion system. The iSat spacecraft is a 12-unit (12U) CubeSat with dimensions of about 8 inches x 8 inches x 12 inches (20 centimeters x 20 centimeters x 30 centimeters). The spacecraft frame will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSat spacecraft includes full three-axis control and will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system. After the CubeSat has successfully detached from its launch vehicle, it will deploy its solar panels, correct for tip-off and maintain attitude control before ground contact. An initial check-out period of two weeks is planned for testing all subsystems. The spacecraft will charge the power system while in sunlight, using momentum wheels and magnetic torque rods to rotate the vehicle to the required attitude.

  9. The Effect of Topical Iodine and Fluoride Varnish Combination in Preventing Early Childhood Caries: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC in the earliest stage is preventable. The studies indicate oral bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis of dental caries. According to high prevalence of ECC, alternative therapies should be explored in order to reduce the occurrence of it. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a product containing Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% as a supplementary intervention for preventing ECC.Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven children aged 4 to 6 year-old were recruited. Maxillary incisors on each side of the mouth were selected either as a test or control group. Early caries detection examinations were conducted using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS clinically and photographically. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, a product containing a mixture of  Povidone Iodine 10%  and Sodium Fluoride 0.2%  was applied to the designated incisors of the test group participants. This application was performed every week for a 3-month. The control group participants received a placebo mixture during the same time interval. The caries detection examinations were conducted again after 6 months and the results were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS V.18, using McNemar test.Results: The incidence of carious lesions increased for the control group while it decreased in the test group (P

  10. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2017-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency cannot be under estimated. There has been an association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders. This review is to put into perspective the controversy surrounding the definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as well as providing guidance for how to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency.

  11. Developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency leads to HFS-induced LTD in rat hippocampal CA1 region: involvement of AMPA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Song, Binbin; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Min, Hui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Hypothyroidism induced by severe iodine deficiency (ID) during developmental period seriously damages the central nervous system function. In addition to developmental hypothyroidism induced by severe ID, developmental hypothyroxinemia induced by mild ID is potentially damaging for neurodevelopment and learning and memory in children. Wistar rats were treated with iodine-deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) during pregnancy and lactation to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism in the present study. Pups were weaned on postnatal day (PN) 21 and used for electrophysiological recordings on PN80. It is generally accepted that long-term depression (LTD) is induced at low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in hippocampal CA1 region. Surprisingly, we observed developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism led to high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced LTD in hippocampal CA1 region. The abnormal HFS-induced LTD suggests not only developmental hypothyroidism but also developmental hypothyroxinemia impairs learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms responsible for the HFS-induced LTD, the phosphorylation status of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) was investigated. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism decreased the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) at serine 831 and serine 845 in hippocampal CA1 region. Neither developmental hypothyroxinemia nor developmental hypothyroidism altered the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) at serine 880. Increased levels of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) were also observed in hippocampal CA1 regions of pups subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased levels of PP1 caused by developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism may account for the dephosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 and

  12. Body iodine status in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanca, Tufan; Korkmaz, Vakkas; Arslanca, Seyma B; Karadag, Burak; Ergün, Yusuf

    2018-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a frequent cause of morbidity and can negatively impact life expectancy; iodine is an essential element for bone mineralization, and iodine deficiency is frequently observed. The aim of the present study was to understand the connection between postmenopausal osteoporosis and the level of iodine in the body. A total of 132 participants were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 34), group 2 comprised osteopenic women (n = 38), and group 3 included women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 60). The three groups were compared according to demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings. The urinary iodine levels were recorded as 216.1 ± 125.2 in the control group, 154.6 ± 76.6 in the osteopenic group, and 137.5 ± 64.9 in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (P < 0.001). These differences were maintained after adjustment for body mass index (P < 0.001). The urinary iodine level accurately correlated with the total T-score for the lumbar spine (r = 0.236, P = 0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that corrected for body mass index, alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme, and urinary deoxypyridinoline, the urinary iodine level was significantly associated with total T-score (beta coefficient = 0.270, P = 0.006). The urinary iodine level was significantly lower in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and iodine replacement may be important in preventing osteoporosis in areas where iodine deficiency is endemic.

  13. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  14. [Vitamin D deficiency in childhood: an opportunity for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Desirée; Méndez-Sánchez, Lucía; Guagnelli, Miguel Ángel; Clark, Patricia

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric population has increased in recent years and continues to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. According to data from the "ENSANUT 2006" (National Health and Nutrition Survey), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Mexico was 16% in children aged 2-12 years. Vitamin D plays a critical role in the formation and bone homeostasis and consequently on growth. Its deficiency is clearly associated with diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia, and it has been linked to other diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, respiratory infections and immune system disease. Specific risk groups have been described in the medical literature for vitamin D deficiency in which supplementation may offer a benefit. Currently, there is still controversy in defining the serum levels of proficiency and dose supplementation. In Mexico, the daily suggested intake of vitamin D is 5.6μg (224 IU), which is significantly lower than the recommendations in the U.S. and Europe (i.e., between 400 and 1000 IU/day). An increase in vitamin D deficiency has been reported in recent years. There is no consensus regarding the sufficiency levels of vitamin D. Cut-off values vary from 20 to 30ng/ml. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide an overview of the problem in the pediatric population and to describe the groups at risk, as well as to analyze the current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was considered rare in Mexico according to the National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán. Lack of evidence did not help to establish the international recommended daily intake. Currently, vitamin D deficiency must be recognized as a health problem, worthy of attention and action. We suggest that prospective studies are carried out in our country where the relationship between serum vitamin D deficiency and poor bone mineralization will be established. Copyright

  15. Food Fortification to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency | Chen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia, one of the most prevalent problems of micronutrient malnutrition, occurs in many developing countries. Causes of the problem are many, but one of the major causes is low bioavailability of food iron. An increase in the supply of absorbable iron-rich food in the diet should decrease the prevalence of ...

  16. ASC deficiency suppresses proliferation and prevents medulloblastoma incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, E R W; Patel, E Y; Flowers, C A; Crowther, A J; Ting, J P; Miller, C R; Gershon, T R; Deshmukh, M

    2015-01-15

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is silenced by promoter methylation in many types of tumors, yet ASC's role in most cancers remains unknown. Here, we show that ASC is highly expressed in a model of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain cancer; ASC is also expressed in human medulloblastomas. Importantly, while ASC deficiency did not affect normal cerebellar development, ASC knockout mice on the Smoothened (ND2:SmoA1) transgenic model of medulloblastoma exhibited a profound reduction in medulloblastoma incidence and a delayed tumor onset. A similar decrease in tumorigenesis with ASC deficiency was also seen in the hGFAP-Cre:SmoM2 mouse model of medulloblastoma. Interestingly, hyperproliferation of the external granule layer (EGL) was comparable at P20 in both wild-type and ASC-deficient SmoA1 mice. However, while the apoptosis and differentiation markers remained unchanged at this age, proliferation makers were decreased, and the EGL was reduced in thickness and area by P60. This reduction in proliferation with ASC deficiency was also seen in isolated SmoA1 cerebellar granule precursor cells in vitro, indicating that the effect of ASC deletion on proliferation was cell autonomous. Interestingly, ASC-deficient SmoA1 cerebella exhibited disrupted expression of genes in the transforming growth factor-β pathway and increased level of nuclear Smad3. Taken together, these results demonstrate an unexpected role for ASC in Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, thus identifying ASC as a promising novel target for antitumor therapy.

  17. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  18. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  19. Environmental factors other than iodine deficiency in the pathogenesis of endemic goiter in the basin of river Ganga and Bay of Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar K Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In iodine-replete basin of the river Ganga and the Bay of Bengal, we studied iodine nutritional status of school children by goiter prevalence and their urinary iodine (UI, iodine content in edible salt, and the bioavailability of iodine through water and its contribution to iodine nutrition. We also studied consumption pattern of common goitrogenic plants by measuring urinary thiocyanate (USCN, hardness of water (calcium and magnesium salt content and assessed the effect of concomitant exposure of those environmental factors in goitrogenesis. Methods: 4603 children aged 6-12 years were examined for goiter by palpation, 520 urine samples were analyzed for UI and USCN; iodine content was estimated in 455 household salt and 130 water samples tested both for iodine and hardness. Results: The total goiter rate was 35.9%, median UI was 231 ΅g/l, mean USCN was 0.857 ± 0.48 mg/dl, iodine content in water was 44.7 ± 4.1 ΅g/l, 66.4% of salt samples contained iodine (15 ppm, and water was found to be hard. UI was correlated with both the drinking water iodine content and USCN and the degree of hardness in drinking water was associated with goiter prevalence. Conclusions: The studied population has endemic goitre despite iodine sufficiency. The concomitant exposure of a number of environmental factors, i.e., thiocyanate of cyanogenic plant food, hardness of drinking water, and excess iodine from environmental sources other than iodide salt are likely responsible for the causation and persistence of endemic goiter in the region.

  20. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  1. Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Soo Moon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to control children’s daily sedentary life style and their intakes of high caloric foods in order to prevent obesity. Recent assessment of breastfeeding in Korea has shown that the rate is between 63% and 89%; thus, up-to-dated evidence-based nutritional management of breastfeeding infants to prevent common nutrient deficiencies or excesses should be taught to all clinicians and health care providers.

  2. Treatment and Prevention of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Abaturov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the data on vitamin D metabolism. The causes and clinical picture of its deficiency, the role of the latter in the development of rickets, osteoporosis, some diseases of childhood are discussed. The guidelines on the treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in the population of Central Europe countries relative to the recommended doses of vitamin D preparations are presented.

  3. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Andrea B.; Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  4. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  5. National trends in iodine nutrition: is everyone getting enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States and remains the mainstay of iodine deficiency disorder eradication efforts worldwide. Although urinary iodine values have decreased by 50% since the early 1970s, the United States remains iodine sufficient. However, U.S. iodine nutrition, particularly among women of childbearing age, may remain an area worthy of public health concern. There is a wide amount of variation in the iodine content of some common foods, and the iodine content of foods is not well reflected by package labeling. There needs to be increased awareness of the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, among the U.S. public.

  6. Underlying Mechanisms of Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Function Disruption by Chronic Iodine Excess in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil-Silveira, Jamile; Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; Laconca, Raquel Cardoso; Schmiedecke, Letícia; Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Kondo, Ayrton Kimidi; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2016-10-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and is an important regulator of thyroid function. Chronic iodine deficiency leads to hypothyroidism, but iodine excess also impairs thyroid function causing hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and/or thyroiditis. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which exposure to chronic iodine excess impairs pituitary-thyroid axis function. Male Wistar rats were treated for two months with NaI (0.05% and 0.005%) or NaI+NaClO 4 (0.05%) dissolved in drinking water. Hormone levels, gene expression, and thyroid morphology were analyzed later. NaI-treated rats presented high levels of iodine in urine, increased serum thyrotropin levels, slightly decreased serum thyroxine/triiodothyronine levels, and a decreased expression of the sodium-iodide symporter, thyrotropin receptor, and thyroperoxidase mRNA and protein, suggesting a primary thyroid dysfunction. In contrast, thyroglobulin and pendrin mRNA and protein content were increased. Kidney and liver deiodinase type 1 mRNA expression was decreased in iodine-treated rats. Morphological studies showed larger thyroid follicles with higher amounts of colloid and increased amounts of connective tissue in the thyroid of iodine-treated animals. All these effects were prevented when perchlorate treatment was combined with iodine excess. The present data reinforce and add novel findings about the disruption of thyroid gland function and the compensatory action of increased thyrotropin levels in iodine-exposed animals. Moreover, they draw attention to the fact that iodine intake should be carefully monitored, since both deficient and excessive ingestion of this trace element may induce pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction.

  7. Prognostic Characteristics of Hypothyroidism Prevalence in the Poltava Region and in Ukraine under Conditions of Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Yu. Horodynskа

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion. These data suggest that the constant growth of this pathology in various regions of Ukraine, in particular in the Poltava region, leads to the need to identify the features of development, clinical course, regimens of treatment and prevention depending on regional characteristics.

  8. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal cognitive development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    established role of iodine in preventing iodine deficiency disorders such as retarded mental and physical development in children and adolescents, and impaired mental function and reduced cognitive capacity for people of all ages. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established...

  10. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Ičin Tijana; Bajkin Ivana; Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is r...

  11. The potential of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Fekadu; Hussein, Shimelis; Laing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is among major health problems worldwide that leads to blindness, retarded growth and death, particularly in developing countries. In these countries, vitamin A deficiency largely affects pre-school children, pregnant and lactating mothers, and the rural poor. For instance, the predicted prevalence of vitamin A deficiency for 36 sub-Saharan African countries is 19.1%. Different strategies, including vitamin A supplementation, food fortification and dietary diversification, have been used to combat this problem. However, these strategies are not sustainable due to their high costs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) is a low priced crop, which is part of staple foods in most of sub-Saharan Africa that can be a year-round source of vitamin A. Most of the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties contain 3000-16000 μg 100 g(-1) of β-carotene and this contributes to 250 to 1300 μg 100 g(-1) Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE). Therefore, by using orange-fleshed sweet potato, it is possible to improve vitamin A status, increase the bio-availability of different micro-nutrients such as Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg, reduce vitamin A deficiency and hence reduce child mortality rates by 23 to 30%. The article highlights the significance of vitamin A for human nutrition, the effect of vitamin A deficiency, the different prevention methods and the potential of orange- fleshed sweet potato as a food crop to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

  12. Tactile stimulation partially prevents neurodevelopmental changes in visual tract caused by early iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan; Bray, Douglas; Lachat, Joao-Jose

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency has a critical impact on maturational mechanisms of the brain and the damage related to neuroanatomical parameters is not satisfactorily reversed after iron replacement. However, emerging evidence suggest that enriched early experience may offer great therapeutic efficacy in cases of nutritional disorders postnatally, since the brain is remarkably responsive to its interaction with the environment. Given the fact that tactile stimulation (TS) treatment has been previously shown to be an effective therapeutic approach and with potential application to humans, here we ask whether exposure to TS treatment, from postnatal day (P) 1 to P32 for 3min/day, could also be employed to prevent neuroanatomical changes in the optic nerve of rats maintained on an iron-deficient diet during brain development. We found that iron deficiency changed astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber, and myelinated fiber density, however, TS reversed the iron-deficiency-induced alteration in oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber and myelinated fiber density, but failed to reverse astrocyte density. Our results suggest that early iron deficiency may act by disrupting the timing of key steps in visual system development thereby modifying the normal progression of optic nerve maturation. However, optic nerve development is sensitive to enriching experiences, and in the current study we show that this sensitivity can be used to prevent damage from postnatal iron deficiency during the critical period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antecedentes, diagnóstico, repercusión y prevención del déficit de yodo en la salud humana Backgrounds, diagnosis, repercussion and prevention of iodine deficits in human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Silvio Noa Cordero

    2011-12-01

    leading cause of brain damage in children, hypothyroidism and goitre in the adult, all are preventable and in dependence of the together will of national and international organisms and institutions it is possible to eradicate it with a simple practice, e.g. iodized salt. The diagnostic methods used to assess its deficiency are very useful in the clinical practice. Nowadays, the use of echography as an assisting method to carry out the mensuration of the thyroid gland and to define the goitre in zones of iodine sufficiency like ours, will be very useful due its high level of specificity and sensitivity. The aim of present paper is to offer a general panorama of the significance of iodine functions in the organism and its relation to the thyroid gland, its diagnostic methods, the impact, the repercussion and the prevention of disorders due to iodine deficit in human health, as well as the implementation of our national program of salt iodization.

  14. Iodine Deficiency in a Study Population of Norwegian Pregnant Women-Results from the Little in Norway Study (LiN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Lisbeth; Wik Markhus, Maria; Sanchez, Perla Vanessa Roldan; Moe, Vibeke; Smith, Lars; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-04-20

    Iodine sufficiency is particularly important in pregnancy, where median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in the range of 150⁻250 µg/L indicates adequate iodine status. The aims of this study were to determine UIC and assess if dietary and maternal characteristics influence the iodine status in pregnant Norwegian women. The study comprises a cross-sectional population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women (Little in Norway (LiN)). Median UIC in 954 urine samples was 85 µg/L and 78.4% of the samples ( n = 748) were ≤150 µg/L. 23.2% ( n = 221) of the samples were ≤50 µg/L and 5.2% ( n = 50) were above the requirements of iodine intake (>250 µg/L). Frequent iodine-supplement users ( n = 144) had significantly higher UIC (120 µg/L) than non-frequent users (75 µg/L). Frequent milk and dairy product consumers (4⁻9 portions/day) had significantly higher UIC (99 µg/L) than women consuming 0⁻1 portion/day (57 µg/L) or 2⁻3 portions/day (83 µg/L). Women living in mid-Norway ( n = 255) had lowest UIC (72 µg/L). In conclusion, this study shows that the diet of the pregnant women did not necessarily secure a sufficient iodine intake. There is an urgent need for public health strategies to secure adequate iodine nutrition among pregnant women in Norway.

  15. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    By now it is a well-known fact that iodine is an essential trace element for the growth and development of the human body. Because of iodine deficiency, some countries have added iodate to salt in order to increase the iodine intake. However, some people prefer iodine from more natural sources like...... seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods...... for determining the different iodine species. For determining the total iodine concentration in marine samples five different extraction methods were compared. The most efficient and precise method was then used for determining the total concentration of iodine in seaweed and fish samples using inductively...

  16. Conc goitro centrat ogens i Akor tions o in two ru in N of iodin select ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    Anderson et al., 2005; Venturi ... countries, iodine deficiency is a significant public health problem. It is more common in third-world nations. ... Studies indicate that iodine deficiency, either die- tary or pharmacologic is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  17. NH4Cl Treatment Prevents Tissue Calcification in Klotho Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibrock, Christina B.; Alesutan, Ioana; Voelkl, Jakob; Pakladok, Tatsiana; Michael, Diana; Schleicher, Erwin; Kamyabi-Moghaddam, Zahra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kuro-o, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Klotho, a cofactor in suppressing 1,25(OH)2D3 formation, is a powerful regulator of mineral metabolism. Klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) exhibit excessive plasma 1,25(OH)2D3, Ca2+, and phosphate concentrations, severe tissue calcification, volume depletion with hyperaldosteronism, and early death. Calcification is paralleled by overexpression of osteoinductive transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, Alpl, and senescence-associated molecules Tgfb1, Pai-1, p21, and Glb1. Here, we show that NH4Cl treatment in drinking water (0.28 M) prevented soft tissue and vascular calcification and increased the life span of kl/kl mice >12-fold in males and >4-fold in females without significantly affecting extracellular pH or plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3, Ca2+, and phosphate. NH4Cl treatment significantly decreased plasma aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone concentrations and reversed the increase of Runx2/Cbfa1, Alpl, Tgfb1, Pai-1, p21, and Glb1 expression in aorta of kl/kl mice. Similarly, in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs), NH4Cl treatment reduced phosphate-induced mRNA expression of RUNX2/CBFA1, ALPL, and senescence-associated molecules. In both kl/kl mice and phosphate-treated HAoSMCs, levels of osmosensitive transcription factor NFAT5 and NFAT5-downstream mediator SOX9 were higher than in controls and decreased after NH4Cl treatment. Overexpression of NFAT5 in HAoSMCs mimicked the effect of phosphate and abrogated the effect of NH4Cl on SOX9, RUNX2/CBFA1, and ALPL mRNA expression. TGFB1 treatment of HAoSMCs upregulated NFAT5 expression and prevented the decrease of phosphate-induced NFAT5 expression after NH4Cl treatment. In conclusion, NH4Cl treatment prevents tissue calcification, reduces vascular senescence, and extends survival of klotho-hypomorphic mice. The effects of NH4Cl on vascular osteoinduction involve decrease of TGFB1 and inhibition of NFAT5-dependent osteochondrogenic signaling. PMID:25644113

  18. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  19. Systematic Review and Cost Analysis Comparing Use of Chlorhexidine with Use of Iodine for Preoperative Skin Antisepsis to Prevent Surgical Site Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ingi; Agarwal, Rajender K.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Fishman, Neil O.; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare use of chlorhexidine with use of iodine for preoperative skin antisepsis with respect to effectiveness in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) and cost. Methods We searched the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and EMBASE up to January 2010 for eligible studies. Included studies were systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing preoperative skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine and with iodine and assessing for the outcomes of SSI or positive skin culture result after application. One reviewer extracted data and assessed individual study quality, quality of evidence for each outcome, and publication bias. Meta-analyses were performed using a fixed-effects model. Using results from the meta-analysis and cost data from the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, we developed a decision analytic cost-benefit model to compare the economic value, from the hospital perspective, of antisepsis with iodine versus antisepsis with 2 preparations of chlorhexidine (ie, 4% chlorhexidine bottle and single-use applicators of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate [CHG] and 70% isopropyl alcohol [IPA] solution), and also performed sensitivity analyses. Results Nine RCTs with a total of 3,614 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that chlorhexidine antisepsis was associated with significantly fewer SSIs (adjusted risk ratio, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, [0.51–0.80]) and positive skin culture results (adjusted risk ratio, 0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.35–0.56]) than was iodine antisepsis. In the cost-benefit model baseline scenario, switching from iodine to chlorhexidine resulted in a net cost savings of $16–$26 per surgical case and $349,904–$568,594 per year for the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Sensitivity analyses showed that net cost savings persisted under most circumstances. Conclusions Preoperative skin antisepsis

  20. Iron deficiency anemia in sports and preventive dietetic and nutrition interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia in athletes is a very common condition that leads to reduced physical performance. Athletes are susceptible of falling iron deposits, mainly by an increase in its use, by its loss, or by insufficient intake. The present review aims to establish the basis of current knowledge environment: sports-athletes who have increased risk of anemia, etiology of iron deficiency anemia in the sporting group, providing dietary and nutritional guidelines for its prevention. The databases searched were Pubmed, Scirus and Scielo, as well as the official pages of prestigious organizations, recovering items by keywords: “iron-deficiency anemia”, “sports”, “athletic performance”, “iron intake “or Spanish counterparts. Iron deficiency anemia affects mainly endurance athletes (especially women and marathon and the members of team sports with high impact (volleyball and handball. Usually secondary anemias from hemolysis and oxidative stress resulting from the practice of sport, but it cases have also been documented by increased iron losses associated with exercise. Dietary and nutritional practices to prevent iron deficiency anemia in athletes should aim to ensure: carbohydrate intake between 60-65% of total energy daily minimum intake of 1.4 g of protein per day and a consumption of 20-40 mg iron daily, separating the intake of the main absorption inhibitors (phytate, tanetos and calcium. You need assessed by analytical iron status of the athlete every 2-3 months.

  1. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  2. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY: CURRENT LOOK AT THE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Lashkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current data on the metabolism of vitamin D and its role in the development of bone tissue in children and the further condition thereof. Natural vitamin D sources, as well as the current routine practice of preventing deficiency of this organic substance are unable to fully satisfy a child's demand for this vitamin, which is why recommendations on vitamin D intake ought to be revised. The article details schedules for prescription of vitamin D for preventing and treating the body deficiency thereof based on results of the studies completed in the recent years. The role of the main marker enabling assessing vitamin D concentration in the body — 25(OHD — the reference values whereof are yet to be commonly established has been analyzed. The article lists recommendations on rickets prevention and treatment in children. The article presents data on the possible mechanisms of development of toxic effects in the setting of vitamin D intake.

  3. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  4. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  5. INFLUENCE OF IODINATED OIL AND MARGARINE ON THE THYROID SYSTEM OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica A. Sturza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world today. Food fortification is an important compliment to food-based approaches, and iodine fortification of foods as one of the strategies for the control of iodine deficiency. Manufacturing and consumption of sunflower oil fortified with iodine as well as derivative products on it basis is a perspective direction for elimination of alimentary dependent iodine deficiency disorders. The present work examines morphological changes in the thyroid system of rats at the experimental mercatholile-induced hypothyroidism. As well it determines the influence of iodinated oil and margarine on the thyroid system of rats. It specifies the safe value of iodinated oil and margarine for rats. In-vivo study demonstrated the efficacy of fortification of lipid products with iodine under iodine deficiency status.

  6. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: preventive strategies and key recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Soriano, Jose; Louie Cruz, Allan; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2013-01-01

    Advances in bariatric surgery have brought about a paradigm shift in the management of obesity, with benefits extending beyond weight loss. However, nutritional deficiencies are an inherent problem in the postoperative period and often require lifelong supplementation. Vitamin B12, also referred to as cobalamin, is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies affecting this population. This review explores the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and provides an overview of the effectiveness of various available vitamin B12 formulations. To identify the relevant literature, a systematic review of MEDLINE was conducted from the earliest dates through September 2012 for English-language articles describing the prevention and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Intramuscular vitamin B12 continues to be the gold standard of therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially in symptomatic patients. In select patients with asymptomatic vitamin B12 deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), high-dose oral cyanocobalamin should be given a consideration, especially when there are concerns with the adherence to intramuscular therapy or if compliance comes into question. Unlike patients post-RYGB, those undergoing restrictive procedures such as gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy may be maintained postoperatively on a lower-dose daily vitamin B12 supplementation. Efficacy data of nasal and sublingual routes for maintenance therapy is currently awaited. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery must be continuously educated on proper nutrition, the risk of developing significant vitamin B12 deficiency, and the role of supplements in avoiding catastrophic consequences. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Steenweg- de Graaff, J.; Peeters, R.P.; Ross, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; White, T.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that

  9. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were ...

  10. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  11. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  12. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  13. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Knowledge and prevention management of vitamin D deficiency in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan Sanz, M R; Gilaberte Calzada, Y; Olona Tabueña, N; Magallón Botaya, R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the knowledge and management of vitamin D (Vit D) in primary care (PC). Observational study. A total of 69 primary care centres, with 57 in Barcelona and 12 in Huesca. All medical and nursing graduates of these centres. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to collect knowledge on the actions of Vit D (on bone metabolism, cardiovascular and immune systems), its deficiency and prevention measures. Of the total of 2100 professionals, 785 completed the survey (37.78%), of whom 79.9% were women. Their mean age was 47 years (SD: 9.7). Only 4.8% knew the overall actions of Vitamin D, although the majority (66%) knew only its effects on bone metabolism. Almost two-thirds (62.4%) were unaware that its deficiency was a common problem, and 54.9% believed that photoprotection was contraindicated. Almost three-quarters of those surveyed (73.6%) never or almost never determined Vit D levels in their patients. A minority (23%) offered advice to maintain an adequate level of Vit D, with the most frequent being sun exposure (16.8%). Pediatricians were more knowledgeable (p<.001) and offered more advice for maintaining adequate levels of Vit D in blood (p<.001). Most of the professionals were unaware of the overall actions of Vit D, or that its deficiency was common, or the factors contributing to this. The advice that was more often offered to avoid its deficiency was not the safest. Paediatricians are more aware of how to prevent Vit D deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of Vitamin D deficiency in infancy: daily 400 IU vitamin D is sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizmecioglu Filiz M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Aim-objective Vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developing countries continues to be a major health problem. Additionally, the increase of cases of rickets in children of some ethnic groups in the United States and European countries has provided this issue to be updated. Obviously, powerful strategies are necessary to prevent vitamin D deficiency nation-wide. In 2005, a nationwide prevention program for vitamin D deficiency was initiated, recommending 400 IU vitamin D per a day. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the prevention program. Methods Eighty-five infants who were recalled as part of the national screening program for congenital hypothyroidism between February 2010 and August 2010 at Kocaeli University Children's Hospital were evaluated in terms of their vitamin D status as well. All babies had been provided with free vitamin D (Cholecalciferol solution and recommended to receive 400 IU (3 drops daily. Information regarding the age at start of supplementation, the dosage and compliance were obtained from the mothers with face-to-face interview. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D, alkaline phosphatase (AP, parathormone (PTH levels were measured. Results The mean age at which Vitamin D3 supplementation began was 16.5 ± 20.7 (3-120 days. Ninety percent of cases (n:76 were receiving 3 drops (400 IU vitamin D3 per day as recommended; 70% of cases (n:59 were given vitamin D3 regularly, the remainder had imperfect compliance. Among those children who are older than 12 months, only 20% continued vitamin D supplementation. No subject had clinical signs of rickets. The mean 25-OH-D level was 42,5 ± 25,8 (median: 38.3 ng/ml. Ten subjects (12% had their serum 25-OH-D levels lower than 20 ng/ml (6 between 15-20 ng/ml, 3 between 5-15 ng/ml and only one Conclusions 400 U/day vitamin D seems adequate to prevent vitamin D deficiency. However, we believe that the program for preventing vitamin D deficiency in Turkey, needs

  16. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  17. Transdermal delivery of vitamin K using dissolving microneedles for the prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Aaron R J; Quinn, Helen L; McCague, Paul J; Jarrahian, Courtney; Rein-Weston, Annie; Coffey, Patricia S; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Zehrung, Darin; Larrañeta, Eneko; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2018-04-25

    Vitamin K deficiency within neonates can result in vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Ensuring that newborns receive vitamin K is particularly critical in places where access to health care and blood products and transfusions is limited. The World Health Organization recommends that newborns receive a 1 mg intramuscular injection of vitamin K at birth. Evidence from multiple surveillance studies shows that the introduction of vitamin K prophylaxis reduces the incidence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Despite these recommendations, coverage of vitamin K prophylactic treatment in low-resource settings is limited. An intramuscular injection is the most common method of vitamin K administration in neonates. In low- and middle-income countries, needle sharing may occur, which may result in the spread of bloodborne diseases. The objective of our study was to investigate the manufacture of microneedles for the delivery of vitamin K. Following microneedle fabrication, we performed insertion studies to assess the microneedle's mechanical properties. Results indicate that vitamin K in a microneedle array was successfully delivered in vitro across neonatal porcine skin with 1.80 ± 0.08 mg delivered over 24 h. Therefore, this initial study shows that microneedles do have the potential to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Future work will assess delivery of vitamin K in microneedle array in vivo. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants : Lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Koning, Tom J.; Kvist, Nina; de Vries, Elsemieke; Lundin, Christina Rydahl; Berger, Ruud; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.; Jorgensen, Marianne Horby; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    OBJECTIVE. Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different propylactic regimens in

  19. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  20. SOCS-1 deficiency does not prevent diet-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emanuelli, Brice; Macotela, Yazmin; Boucher, Jérémie

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, which inhibit cytokine and insulin signaling. Thus, reducing SOCS expression could prevent the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Using SOCS-1 knockout mice, we...... investigated the contribution of SOCS-1 in the development of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). SOCS-1 knockout mice on HFD gained 70% more weight, displayed a 2.3-fold increase in epididymal fat pads mass and increased hepatic lipid content. This was accompanied by increased mRNA expression...... of leptin and the macrophage marker CD68 in white adipose tissue and of SREBP1c and FAS in liver. HFD also induced hyperglycemia in SOCS-1 deficient mice with impairment of glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Thus, despite the role of SOCS proteins in obesity-related insulin resistance, SOCS-1 deficiency...

  1. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent...... question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...

  3. Deficiency of Nox2 prevents angiotensin II-induced inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Lung eChan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II is an important determinant of inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles. Many of the vascular effects of angiotensin II are mediated by reactive oxygen species generated from homologues of NADPH oxidase with Nox2 predominating in small arteries and arterioles. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that superoxide generated by Nox2 plays a role in angiotensin II-induced cerebral arteriolar remodeling. We examined Nox2-deficient and wild-type mice in which a pressor or a non-pressor dose of angiotensin II (1000 or 200 ng/kg/day or saline was infused for 4 weeks via osmotic minipumps. Systolic arterial pressure was measured by a tail-cuff method. Pressure and diameter of cerebral arterioles were measured through an open cranial window in anesthetized mice. Cross-sectional area (by histology and superoxide level (by hydroethidine staining of cerebral arterioles were determined ex vivo. The pressor, but not the non-pressor, dose of angiotensin II significantly increased systolic arterial pressure in both wild-type and Nox2-deficient mice. Both doses of angiotensin II increased superoxide levels and significantly reduced external diameter in maximally dilated cerebral arterioles in wild-type mice. Increased superoxide and inward remodeling were prevented in Nox2-deficient mice. Moreover, only the pressor dose of AngII increased cross-sectional area of arteriolar wall in wild-type mice and was prevented in Nox2-deficient mice. In conclusion, superoxide derived from Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase plays an important role in angiotensin II-mediated inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles. This effect appears to be independent of pressure and different from that of hypertrophy.

  4. Transient thyroid dysfunction caused by excessive iodine intake

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 清; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects almost one billion of people worldwide, and is by far the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Japan is unique in that there are no single patients with hypothyroidism due to nutritional iodine deficiency. Thyroid abnormalities induced by excessive iodine intake, however, is not infrequent in Japan. We report here a case of young woman with severe hypothyroidism. Symptoms such as weight gain, edema, amenorrhea, and constipation were accompanied. She had habitual excessiv...

  5. Melatonin Therapy Prevents Programmed Hypertension and Nitric Oxide Deficiency in Offspring Exposed to Maternal Caloric Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO deficiency is involved in the development of hypertension, a condition that can originate early in life. We examined whether NO deficiency contributed to programmed hypertension in offspring from mothers with calorie-restricted diets and whether melatonin therapy prevented this process. We examined 3-month-old male rat offspring from four maternal groups: untreated controls, 50% calorie-restricted (CR rats, controls treated with melatonin (0.01% in drinking water, and CR rats treated with melatonin (CR + M. The effect of melatonin on nephrogenesis was analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The CR group developed hypertension associated with elevated plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, decreased L-arginine, decreased L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio (AAR, and decreased renal NO production. Maternal melatonin treatment prevented these effects. Melatonin prevented CR-induced renin and prorenin receptor expression. Renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein levels in the M and CR + M groups were also significantly increased by melatonin therapy. Maternal melatonin therapy had long-term epigenetic effects on global gene expression in the kidneys of offspring. Conclusively, we attributed these protective effects of melatonin on CR-induced programmed hypertension to the reduction of plasma ADMA, restoration of plasma AAR, increase of renal NO level, alteration of renin-angiotensin system, and epigenetic changes in numerous genes.

  6. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  7. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  8. Consumption of iodized salt may not represent a reliable indicator of iodine adequacy: Evidence from a cross-sectional study on schoolchildren living in an urban area of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Carmela; Tuccilli, Chiara; Prinzi, Natalie; D'Armiento, Eleonora; Pepe, Mario; Del Maestro, Francesca; Cacciola, Giovanni; Forlini, Benedetto; Verdolotti, Sergio; Bononi, Marco; Nacca, Remo; Baldini, Enke; Cirillo, Giovanni; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that iodine prophylaxis prevents endemic goiter. In this study we reported the amount of iodized salt sold by the retailers of Cassino, a city of central Italy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of an iodine prophylaxis program started in 2005 on urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TV), and their correlation with anthropometric parameters in a population of schoolchildren. The study included 234 schoolchildren (119 girls and 115 boys) ages 13 to 14 y. Each student provided a morning urine sample for UIC determination, and TV was evaluated by ultrasonography. Body weight and height also were measured. Each participant completed a questionnaire reporting the presence of thyroid disease and the consumption of iodized salt and iodine-rich food. The percentage of iodized salt sold by local markets was 42.4%. Median UIC in schoolchildren was 133.9 μg/L (range 33.2-819.5 μg/L), with 71 children having mild (range 50.1-99.9 μg/L) and 10 moderate (range 33.2-48.8 μg/L) iodine deficiency. Eleven children showed excessive iodine intake (range 300.4-819.5 μg/L). Median UIC was higher in children using iodized salt or consuming milk. Goiter prevalence was 3.8%. A positive correlation between TV and body weight, height, and surface was observed. The data reported may suggest the presence of an adequate iodine intake in the population of Cassino despite the low percentage of iodized salt sold by local retailers. This indicates that silent iodine prophylaxis through the consumption of iodine-rich or iodine-enriched food is of importance in the prevention of iodine deficiency disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  10. A fortified street food to prevent nutritional deficiencies in homeless men in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole

    2009-04-01

    To develop a food policy approach to prevent nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition in homeless men in France. A dietary survey was conducted among homeless men visiting an emergency shelter in Paris to assess their nutritional status and the quality of food aid provided. The use of a fortified food easy to eat in the street was identified as the best strategy to improve nutrient intake in this population. A fortified street food was therefore designed and its acceptability was tested in eight emergency centers. The dietary survey showed that there is a high frequency of malnutrition and inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals in homeless men in France although they are receiving food aid. A chocolate-flavored spread, naturally rich in potassium and n-3 fatty acids and fortified with nutritional doses of calcium, zinc, vitamins C, D, E, B(12), thiamin, niacin and folic acid was designed. It presents multiple advantages in the context of homeless nutrition: good resistance to bacterial contamination, a suitable viscosity for people with limited chewing capacity and high energy density. The acceptability study showed that approximately two thirds of the homeless men visiting emergency centers in Paris would consume the fortified food often, or daily, if available. Another advantage of this fortified street food is its high quality/price ratio, demonstrated by linear programming analysis in the present study. Encouraging the use of fortified street foods in food aid programs is a practical and economic way to prevent nutritional deficiencies in homeless individuals.

  11. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... and mortality. Conclusion: Even minor differences in iodine intake between populations are associated with differences in the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Both iodine intake levels below and above the recommended interval are associated with an increase in the risk of disease in the population. Optimally......Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...

  12. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  13. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism...

  14. [Urinary iodine levels and dairy consumption in pre-school children in Southwest Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesú Fernández, Esther; Serrano Peraza, M Haydee; Eguia Angeles, Hans Abdón; Sotelo García, César Oliver; Saint Jean, Claude Henrry; Musa Martín, Nache Ismael

    2017-07-01

    For decades dairy products have been a major source of iodine for decades. The purpose of this study was to determine the iodine nutritional status and its relationship with dairy consumption in pre-schooler children between 2 to 5 years old in a rural area with 27,847 inhabitants. It was planned to study 200 participants, selected by random sampling, proportional to the size of the municipality, age, and sex. Parents provided urine samples to analyse urinary iodine, as well as the nutritional information through an interview. A glass of milk or a slice of cheese was considered as a ration, and a portion of other milk derivatives were considered as half rations. The nutritional status of iodine was interpreted with the median (P[percentile] 50 ) of the urinary iodine levels, and iodine intake was estimated using the mean of ration/day of milk and dairy products, fish, and eggs. Of the total of 198 subjects that took part, 193 provide urine specimens for the determination of iodine levels. The mean dairy ration/day was 3.8 (SD:1.4). More than two-thirds (69.9%) drank ≥ 2 glasses of milk/day, and 88.1% consumed a dairy ration of another dairy product. The median urinary iodine level was 184 μg/l, but was dependent on glasses of milk/day (282.5 μg/l ≥ 4 glasses) and/or the type of milk (233.0 μg/l in semi-skimmed). An intake of 115.1 μg/day to 170.2 μg/day of iodine was estimated, and that milk was the food which provided more iodine (89.9 μg/day). Iodine intake was adequate, although higher than necessary when four or more glasses of milk were consumed, and/or when the milk was skimmed. The consumption of dairy products should be monitored to prevent both excessive and deficient intake of iodine. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Moving from efficacy to effectiveness: red palm oil's role in preventing vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amy L; Burns, Jennifer B

    2010-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Hundreds of millions of children and tens of millions of women living in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia are at particularly high risk of the adverse health consequences associated with this largely preventable condition. Red palm oil comes from oil palms that are traditionally grown in tropical regions of West Africa and are now cultivated on a large-scale commercial basis in Southeast Asia. Red palm oil is the richest naturally occurring source of beta-carotene, a carotenoid that the human body can convert into usable vitamin A (retinol). This paper reviews a series of key intervention studies designed to investigate the impact of using red palm oil-based interventions to improve vitamin A status. These included studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America in which red palm oil was used (or proposed for use) (1) as a dietary supplement, (2) as an in-home fortificant, (3) to fortify foods used for distribution in targeted supplementary feeding programs, and (4) to fortify staple food products. Overall, the results suggest that red palm oil is highly efficacious in improving vitamin A status among populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. The time has come to move beyond trials of biological efficacy and focus on conducting operational research projects, effectiveness trials, and cost-benefit analyses that will help expand the use of red palm oil in areas where it is likely to be well accepted but remains underutilized as a dietary source of provitamin A.

  16. Adipocyte Deficiency of Angiotensinogen Prevents Obesity-Induced Hypertension in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gupte, Manisha; Putnam, Kelly; Thatcher, Sean; Charnigo, Richard; Rateri, Debra L.; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations and elevated systolic blood pressures in male mice. Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides. We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low fat or high fat feeding in Agtfl/fl and adipocyte-angiotensinogen deficient mice (AgtaP2). Adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency had no effect on diet-induced obesity. Basal 24 hour systolic blood pressure was not different in low fat-fed Agtfl/fl compared to AgtaP2 mice (124 ± 3 vs. 128 ± 3 mmHg, respectively). In Agtfl/fl mice, high fat feeding significantly increased systolic blood pressure (24 hr; 134 ± 2 mmHg; P<0.05). In contrast, high fat-fed AgtaP2 mice did not exhibit an increase in systolic blood pressure (126 ± 2 mmHg). Plasma angiotensin II concentrations were increased by high fat-feeding in Agtfl/fl mice (low fat, 32 ± 14; high fat, 219 ± 58 pg/ml, P<0.05). In contrast, high fat-fed AgtaP2 mice did not exhibit elevated plasma angiotensin II concentrations (high fat, 18 ± 7 pg/ml). Similarly, adipose tissue concentrations of angiotensin II were significantly decreased in low fat and high fat-fed AgtaP2 mice compared to controls. In conclusion, adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency prevented high fat-induced elevations in plasma angiotensin II concentrations and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that adipose tissue serves as a major source of angiotensin II in the development of obesity-hypertension. PMID:23108647

  17. Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Franke, Katrin; Meyer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Schöne, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and it is incorporated into the thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which have multiple functions in energy metabolism and growth, but also as transmitter of nervous stimuli and as an important factor for brain development. Because of the small range between iodine requirements and the upper level for humans (between 1:2.5 and 3), the requirements should be met, but excesses should be avoided. One of the most important iodine sources for humans is milk of ruminants. Therefore, various influencing factors on the iodine content of milk of ruminants should be analyzed in the paper. The iodine content of milk depends on many factors, such as iodine content and level of iodine supplementation of feed, iodine source, iodine antagonists such as glucosinolates in the feed, farm management, teat dipping with iodine-containing substances, and milk processing in the dairy. The effects of some factors on the iodine content of milk are demonstrated and discussed. Feed iodine supplementation has the main effect on milk iodine. However, the iodine content of milk may vary considerably depending on many other influencing factors. As a consequence of preventive consumer protection, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a reduction in the iodine upper level for lactating ruminants from 5 to 2 mg/kg complete feed.

  18. Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Coers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In women C. trachomatis can establish persistent genital infections that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. In contrast to natural infections in humans, experimentally induced infections with C. trachomatis in mice are rapidly cleared. The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ plays a critical role in the clearance of C. trachomatis infections in mice. Because IFNγ induces an antimicrobial defense system in mice but not in humans that is composed of a large family of Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs, we questioned whether mice deficient in IRG immunity would develop persistent infections with C. trachomatis as observed in human patients. We found that IRG-deficient Irgm1/m3((-/- mice transiently develop high bacterial burden post intrauterine infection, but subsequently clear the infection more efficiently than wildtype mice. We show that the delayed but highly effective clearance of intrauterine C. trachomatis infections in Irgm1/m3((-/- mice is dependent on an exacerbated CD4(+ T cell response. These findings indicate that the absence of the predominant murine innate effector mechanism restricting C. trachomatis growth inside epithelial cells results in a compensatory adaptive immune response, which is at least in part driven by CD4(+ T cells and prevents the establishment of a persistent infection in mice.

  19. Using of health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Baharzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional problems during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. The study was performed on 80 pregnant women that were randomized equally into the experimental and control groups. A self-administered questionnaire based on health belief model constructs was applied to gather data. The experimental group received two educational sessions. The mean age of women was 27.96±5.6 years and mean gestational age was 16.6±1 weeks. Before the intervention, no significant differences in terms of demographic characteristics and health belief model constructs were found between the groups, while after the intervention, the scores of health belief model were different significantly between the control and experimental groups . Since the results of the study indicated the applicability of health belief model to promote nutritional behavior in regard to anemia in pregnancy, implementing health belief model based educational sessions in health centers is suggested to reduce complications of this problem.

  20. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  1. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  2. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  3. A STUDY OF COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PREOPERATIVE SKIN PREPARATION WITH CHLORHEXIDINE-ALCOHOL VERSUS POVIDONE-IODINE IN PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Danasekaran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Surgical site infections is a dangerous condition posing a heavy burden on the patient and social health system. The use of preoperative skin preparation by effective antiseptic plays an important role in reducing postoperative wound infections. Hence, the present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine-alcohol versus 5% povidone-iodine in abdominal surgeries for prevention of SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present one year randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, over a period from 2014 to 2015 on 120 patients undergoing elective abdominal surgeries. The patients were divided into two groups by computer randomisation that is Group A (chlorhexidine-alcohol group and Group B (povidone-iodine group. The surgical wounds were examined for any infections present. RESULTS Most of the patients were males in both the groups (73.33% and 61.67% in group A and B, respectively. Half of the patients (50% in both the groups had chronic appendicitis. The mean duration of surgery in group A was 44.66 ± 5.86 minutes, and in group B, it was 45.00 ± 6.24 minutes. Staphylococcus aureus (1.67% in group A and 10% in group B was the most common organism isolated after skin preparation. After the application of antiseptic agents, there was reduction of bacterial colonisation in both the groups, but significant reduction was seen in chlorhexidine group. In group A, two patients had superficial SSIs compared to 14 patients in group B (p=0.001. The mean length of hospital stay in group A was significantly less (7.20 ± 1.10 vs. 8.67 ± 3.17. CONCLUSION Preoperative skin cleansing with chlorhexidine significantly reduces risk of postoperative SSIs and colonisation of bacteria in clean abdominal surgeries.

  4. Iodine intake before and after mandatory iodization in Denmark: results from the Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases (DanThyr) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carle, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben Walther

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is still common in some European countries. In Denmark an iodine fortification programme was introduced in 1998 and a monitoring programme was established prior to iodization. This study reports the change in urinary iodine excretion caused by fortification and investigates dete...

  5. Considerations for Secondary Prevention of Nutritional Deficiencies in High-Risk Groups in High-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike J. Bruins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys in high-income countries show that inadequacies and deficiencies can be common for some nutrients, particularly in vulnerable subgroups of the population. Inadequate intakes, high requirements for rapid growth and development, or age- or disease-related impairments in nutrient intake, digestion, absorption, or increased nutrient losses can lead to micronutrient deficiencies. The consequent subclinical conditions are difficult to recognize if not screened for and often go unnoticed. Nutrient deficiencies can be persistent despite primary nutrition interventions that are aimed at improving dietary intakes. Secondary prevention that targets groups at high risk of inadequacy or deficiency, such as in the primary care setting, can be a useful complementary approach to address persistent nutritional gaps. However, this strategy is often underestimated and overlooked as potentially cost-effective means to prevent future health care costs and to improve the health and quality of life of individuals. In this paper, the authors discuss key appraisal criteria to consider when evaluating the benefits and disadvantages of a secondary prevention of nutrient deficiencies through screening.

  6. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayupova, I M

    2015-01-01

    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  7. Lecithin-Bound Iodine Prevents Disruption of Tight Junctions of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Hypoxic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sugimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We investigated whether lecithin-bound iodine (LBI can protect the integrity of tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelial cells from hypoxia. Method. Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with LBI. To mimic hypoxic conditions, cells were incubated with CoCl2. We compared the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs of control to cells with either LBI alone, CoCl2 alone, or LBI + CoCl2. The levels of cytokines in the conditioned media were also determined. Results. Significant decrease in the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 intensity in the CoCl2 group compared to the control (5787.7 ± 4126.4 in CoCl2 group versus 29244.6 ± 2981.2 in control; average ± standard deviation. But the decrease was not significant in the LBI + CoCl2 (27189.0 ± 11231.1. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and Chemokine (C-C Motif Ligand 11 (CCL-11 were significantly higher in the CoCl2 than in the control (340.8 ± 43.3 versus 279.7 ± 68.3 pg/mL for MCP-1, and 15.2 ± 12.9 versus 12.5 ± 6.1 pg/mL for CCL-11. With LBI pretreatment, the levels of both cytokines were decreased to 182.6 ± 23.8 (MCP-1 and 5.46 ± 1.9 pg/mL for CCL-11. Blockade of MCP-1 or CCL-11 also shows similar result representing TJ protection from hypoxic stress. Conclusions. LBI results in a protective action from hypoxia.

  8. Effectiveness of FeEDDHA, FeEDDHMA, and FeHBED in Preventing Iron-Deficiency Chlorosis in Soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin, Levi M.; Weng, Liping; Bugter, Marcel H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of FeHBED in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in comparison to FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA was studied, as well as the importance of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para/rest isomers in defining the performance. To this end, chlorophyll production (SPAD),

  9. Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Borthne, Sandra; Pajalic, Zada; Blix, Ellen; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2018-02-28

    Norway has been considered iodine replete for decades; however, recent studies indicate reemergence of inadequate iodine status in different population groups. We assessed iodine status in pregnant women based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine intake from food and supplements. In 804 pregnant women, 24-h iodine intakes from iodine-rich foods and iodine-containing supplements were calculated. In 777 women, iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, 49 of the women collected a 24-h urine sample for assessment of UIE and iodine intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Median UIC was 92 µg/L. Fifty-five percent had a calculated iodine intake below estimated average requirement (EAR) (160 µg/day). Iodine intake from food alone did not provide the amount of iodine required to meet maternal and fetal needs during pregnancy. In multiple regression models, hypothyroidism, supplemental iodine and maternal age were positively associated with UIC, while gestational age and smoking were negatively associated, explaining 11% of the variance. This study clearly shows that pregnant women in the Oslo area are mild to moderate iodine deficient and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status.

  10. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  11. Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Single Operator Technique with Use of Povidone-Iodine, Double Gloving, Meticulous Aseptic/Antiseptic Measures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Melita, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is complicated by infection still at a worrisome rate of 2-5%. Since early on during device implantation procedures, we have adopted an infection-preventive technique which has hitherto resulted in effective prevention of infections. Herein we present our results of applying this technique by a single operator in a prospective series of 762 consecutive patients undergoing device implantation. A meticulous search for and treatment of active, occult, or smoldering infection was undertaken preoperatively. An aseptic/antiseptic technique was used for implantation of each device. Skin preparation is thorough with initial cleansing performed with alcohol followed by povidone-iodine 10% solution, which is also used in the wound and inside the pocket. In addition, we routinely use double gloving, and IV antibiotic prophylaxis 1 hour before and for 48 hours afterwards followed by oral antibiotic for 2-3 days after discharge. The skin is closed with absorbable sutures. The study includes 382 patients having a new pacemaker (n = 333) or battery change, system upgrade or lead revision (n = 49), and 380 patients having a new implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (n = 296) or device replacement/upgrade/lead revision (n = 84). The pacemaker group, aged 70.2 ± 16.5 years, includes 18% VVI, 49% DDD, 29% VDD, and 4% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The ICD group, aged 61.3 ± 13.0 years, with a mean ejection fraction of 36 ± 13%, includes 325 ICD and 55 CRT implants. Over 26.6 ± 33.4 months for the pacemaker group and 36.6 ± 38.3 months for the ICD group, infection occurred in one patient in each group (0.26%) having a device replacement. A consistent and strict approach of aseptic/antiseptic technique with the use of double gloving and povidone-iodine solution within the pocket plus a 4-day regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis minimizes infections in CIED implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yarrington; Elizabeth N. Pearce

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  14. Practical use of povidone-iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagalingam, J; Feliciano, R; Hah, J H; Labib, H; Le, T A; Lin, J-C

    2015-11-01

    To better inform medical practitioners on the role of antiseptics in oropharyngeal health and disease, this article focuses on povidone-iodine (PVP-I), an established and widely-available antiseptic agent. Review of the anti-infective profile, efficacy and safety of PVP-I in managing common upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, influenza and tonsillo-pharyngitis, as well as oral complications resulting from cancer treatment (oral mucositis), and dental conditions (periodontitis, caries). Antiseptics with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity and low resistance potential offer an attractive option in both infection control and prevention. While there is some evidence of benefit of antiseptics in a variety of clinical settings that include dental and oral hygiene, dermatology, oncology, and pulmonology, there appears to be discordance between the evidence-base and practice. This is especially apparent in the management and prevention of oropharyngeal infections, for which the use of antiseptics varies considerably between clinical practices, and is in marked contrast to their dermal application, where they are extensively used as both a prophylaxis and a treatment of skin and wound infections, thus minimising the use of antibiotics. The link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large-scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importance of an increasing armamentarium for infection prevention and control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of Potassium Iodate Application on the Biomass and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine is a trace element in soil and water that is involved in some important metabolic functions in human development. In many areas of the world, the surface soil becomes progressively poorer in iodide through accelerated deforestation, flooding and soil erosion. Hence, the food grown in iodine deficient regions can ...

  16. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  17. Mandatory iodine fortification of bread and salt increases iodine excretion in adults in Denmark - A 11-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    in the use of iodine supplements, and with bread intake at follow-up. Salt intake, education, self-rated health, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were not associated with the increase in iodine excretion. Conclusions: The strategy to combat iodine deficiency in Denmark seems to be working......Background & aims: Iodine fortification is widespread. Systematic monitoring of iodine fortification programs should be carried out to secure an optimal fortification level. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the Danish iodine fortification program by comparing iodine excretion...... at baseline and at 11-year follow-up, and to study determinants for any change in iodine intake including dietary habits, education, life style factors and health parameters. Methods: A follow-up study based on the Danish DanThyr cohort examined in 1997-1998 just before iodine fortification was introduced...

  18. Immunotherapy holds the key to cancer treatment and prevention in constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westdorp, Harm; Kolders, Sigrid; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Jongmans, Marjolijn C J; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2017-09-10

    Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in MMR genes. This syndrome is characterized by the development of childhood cancer. Patients with CMMRD are at extremely high risk of developing multiple cancers including hematological, brain and intestinal tumors. Mutations in MMR genes impair DNA repair and therefore most tumors of patients with CMMRD are hypermutated. These mutations lead to changes in the translational reading frame, which consequently result in neoantigen formation. Neoantigens are recognized as foreign by the immune system and can induce specific immune responses. The growing evidence on the clinical efficacy of immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, offers the prospect for treatment of patients with CMMRD. Combining neoantigen-based vaccination strategies and immune checkpoint inhibitors could be an effective way to conquer CMMRD-related tumors. Neoantigen-based vaccines might also be a preventive treatment option in healthy biallelic MMR mutation carriers. Future studies need to reveal the safety and efficacy of immunotherapies for patients with CMMRD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant Ferritin—A Source of Iron to Prevent Its Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia affects a significant part of the human population. Due to the unique properties of plant ferritin, food enrichment with ferritin iron seems to be a promising strategy to prevent this malnutrition problem. This protein captures huge amounts of iron ions inside the apoferritin shell and isolates them from the environment. Thus, this iron form does not induce oxidative change in food and reduces the risk of gastric problems in consumers. Bioavailability of ferritin in human and animal studies is high and the mechanism of absorption via endocytosis has been confirmed in cultured cells. Legume seeds are a traditional source of plant ferritin. However, even if the percentage of ferritin iron in these seeds is high, its concentration is not sufficient for food fortification. Thus, edible plants have been biofortified in iron for many years. Plants overexpressing ferritin may find applications in the development of bioactive food. A crucial achievement would be to develop technologies warranting stability of ferritin in food and the digestive tract. PMID:25685985

  20. Humanin preserves endothelial function and prevents atherosclerotic plaque progression in hypercholesterolemic ApoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yun K; Bachar, Adi R; Zacharias, David G; Kim, Sung Gyun; Wan, Junxiang; Cobb, Laura J; Lerman, Lilach O; Cohen, Pinchas; Lerman, Amir

    2011-11-01

    Humanin (HN) is a cytoprotective peptide derived from endogenous mitochondria, expressed in the endothelial layer of human vessels, but its role in atherogenesis in vivo is not known. In vitro study, however, HN reduced oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced formation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. The present study tested the hypothesis that long term treatment with HN will have a protective role against endothelial dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis in vivo. Daily intraperitonial injection of the HN analogue HNGF6A for 16 weeks prevented endothelial dysfunction and decreased atherosclerotic plaque size in the proximal aorta of ApoE-deficient mice fed on a high cholesterol diet, without showing direct vasoactive effects or cholesterol-reducing effects. HN was expressed in the endothelial layer on the aortic plaques. HNGF6A treatment reduced apoptosis and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the aortic plaques without affecting the systemic cytokine profile. HNGF6A also preserved expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in aorta. HN may have a protective effect on endothelial function and progression of atherosclerosis by modulating oxidative stress and apoptosis in the developing plaque. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  3. Dietary iodine intake in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hai Xia; Li, Jian Wen; Mao, Wei Feng; Zhu, Jiang Hui; He, Yu Na; Song, Xiao Yu; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sa Na; Liu, Zhao Ping; Li, Feng Qin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 μg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 μg/L and higher than 300 μg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively. The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 μg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between ε2/3/4, promoter polymorphism (-491A/T, -427T/C, and -219T/G) at the apolipoprotein E gene, and mental retardation in children from an iodine deficiency area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Fuchang; Wang, Yunliang; Wang, Yan; Qin, Wei; Xing, Qinghe; Qian, Xueqing; Guo, Tingwei; Gao, Xiaocai; He, Lin; Gao, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at apolipoprotein E (ApoE) have been linked with late onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease and declining normative cognitive ability in elder people, but we are unclear about their relationship with cognition in children. We studied -491A/T, -427T/C, and -219G/T promoter polymorphisms and ε2/ε3/ε4 at ApoE among children with mental retardation (MR, n = 130), borderline MR (n = 124), and controls (n = 334) from an iodine deficiency area in China. The allelic and genotypic distribution of individual locus did not significantly differ among three groups with Mantel-Haenszel χ (2) test (P > 0.05). However, frequencies of haplotype of -491A/-427T/-219T/ε4 were distributed as MR > borderline MR > controls (P uncorrected = 0.004), indicating that the presence of this haplotype may increase the risk of disease. In this large population-based study in children, we did not find any significant association between single locus of the four common ApoE polymorphisms (-491A/T, -427T/C, -219T/G, and ε2/3/4) and MR or borderline MR. However, we found that the presence of ATTε4 haplotype was associated with an increased risk of MR and borderline MR. Our present work may help enlarge our knowledge of the cognitive role of ApoE across the lifespan and the mechanisms of human cognition.

  5. Impact evaluation of iron & iodine fortified salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K M; Brahmam, G N; Ranganathan, S; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sivakumar, B; Krishnaswamy, K

    1998-11-01

    As a novel approach to tackle the problems of iron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which often coexist, the National Institute of Nutrition has developed iron and iodine fortified common salt (double fortified salt-DFS) as a public health measure. This salt has undergone a battery of laboratory and field tests to evaluate its feasibility for use in a national programme. The DFS is designed to provide 1 mg of iron and 15 micrograms of iodine per gram of common salt. This was made possible by the inclusion of a polyphosphate stabilizer, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) at 1 per cent level. The stability of iron and iodine was found to be good up to 6 months. However, the stability of iodine depended upon the quality of the salt used for fortification. The biological effects of long-term consumption of DFS were evaluated in experimental rats and in field trials. Both iron and iodine from the salt were found to be biologically available in regenerating haemoglobin and in increasing excretion of iodine in urine. When this salt was tested in tribal villages endemic for goitre and iron deficiency anaemia, the bioresponse was good with regard to the iodine status but was not uniform in all segments with regard to iron, probably due to confounding variables. In a study carried out in residential school children where such variables did not exist, DFS was found to have significant impact on haemoglobin status in anaemic children and improved their urinary iodine excretion. The consumption of DFS for 2 yr did not have any adverse effects in school children as well as in the tribal population. Parameters related to calcium homeostasis were not altered in children receiving DFS. Histopathological examination of tissues and radiological examination of bone did not reveal any abnormality in DFS fed rats. Similarly serum and urinary parameters related to calcium and phosphorus were not altered in DFS fed rats. Therefore, DFS is presented as a feasible and

  6. Low iodine content in the diets of hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Preterm formula provided 16.4-28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0-17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.

  7. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during...... lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status...... the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake...

  8. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease, DanThyr: status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Jørgensen, T.; Perrild, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Denmark was an area of iodine deficiency, and mandatory iodine fortification of table salt and salt in bread (13 p.p.m. iodine) was initiated in 2000/2001. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease (DanThyr) is the monitoring of the iodine fortification program...... in risk, oral contraception and alcohol consumption), and the individual risk depended on the genetic background. Environmental factors had only a minor influence on the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in the population. There were more cases of overt hypothyroidism in mild than in moderate iodine...

  9. Screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can prevent severe neonatal jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouh, A A; Imseeh, G; Abu-Osba, Y K; Hamdan, J A

    1992-01-01

    Infants with the severe variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may develop hyperbilirubinaemia sufficiently severe to cause kernicterus and death, acute haemolysis on exposure to oxidant stress, congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia and, rarely, increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. In spite of these potential problems, G6PD deficiency is often not included among screening programmes for inherited disorders. In a comprehensive screening and educational programme, we tested around 34,000 infants for G6PD deficiency. Of the total group, 18.4% (24.5% boys and 11.8% girls) were deficient. Forty-two of the 6246 (0.67%) G6PD-deficient infants required exchange transfusion. None of them developed kernicterus. By contrast, of 4755 infants who had not been screened because they were born at home, three developed kernicterus. In addition, four G6PD-deficient infants had developed kernicterus in the 20-month period prior to the screening programme. None of the hyperbilirubinaemic infants had blood group incompatibility or any other identifiable cause of hyperbilirubinaemia. To avoid this disastrous result, we believe that neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency, together with a comprehensive education programme, is advisable in those parts of the world where the severe variant of G6PD deficiency is prevalent.

  10. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  11. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  12. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  13. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  14. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  15. The Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine exertion in school-aged children in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mozhgan Padyab

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency and its related disorder such as goiter are endemic in Lorestan province. Following initiation of iodine deficiency control program in 1989, production, distribution and consumption of iodinated salt were begun. This survey was conducted in the framework of national monitoring survey in 2001 to find out the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine level in order to evaluate the iodine status of school- aged children in Lorestan. Materials and Methods: 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Lorestan. The grade of goiter in 600 boys and 600 girls, was determined according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren. Findings: Total goiter rate was 7.8% 7.8% in girls and 7.7% in boys. Median urinary iodine was 17 μg/dl. Urinary iodine was above 10 μg/dl in 85.7% and less than 5 μg/dl in 1.7%. No one had urinary iodine below 2 μg/dl. Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of goiter in Lorestan has decreased significantly since 1996 and urinary iodine levels in schoolchildren are indicative of adequate iodine intake. Therefore Lorestan province can be considered as an 'iodine deficiency free' zone.

  16. Low Urinary Iodine Excretion during Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Alterations in Executive Functioning in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mil, N.H.; Tiemeier, H.; Bongers-Schokking, J.J.; Ghassabian, A.; Hofman, A.; Hooijkaas, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Visser, T.J.; Visser, W. de; Ross, H.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; de Rijke, Y.B.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The rare but deleterious effects of severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy on cognitive functioning of children are well known. Reports on possible associations between mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency and child development, however, are scarce. In a population-based cohort we examined

  17. Iodine and human health, the role of environmental geochemistry and diet, a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuge, Ron; Johnson, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is an essential element in the human diet and a deficiency can lead to a number of health outcomes collectively termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The geochemistry of iodine is dominated by its volatility with volatilisation of organo-iodine compounds and elemental iodine from biological and non-biological sources in the oceans being a major component of its global cycle. As a result of the dominant oceanic source, iodine is strongly enriched in near-coastal soils, however, the major zone of marine influence generally stretches to only 50–80 km inland and terrestrial sources of volatilised iodine, from wetlands, soils and plants are also an important aspect of its global geochemical cycle. Iodine in soils is strongly bound with transfer factors from soil to plants being generally small and as a consequence there is only limited uptake of iodine through the plant root system. It is likely that uptake of atmospheric iodine by the aerial parts of plants is an essential process and, along with iodine deposited on plant surfaces, is a major source for grazing animals. Human intake of iodine is mainly from food with some populations also obtaining appreciable quantities of iodine from drinking water. Plant-derived dietary iodine is generally insufficient as evidenced from the low dietary iodine of strict vegan diets. Seafood provides major iodine-rich dietary items but other inputs are mainly from adventitious sources, such as the use of iodised salt and from dairy produce, which is a rich source mainly due to cattle-feed being fortified with iodine, and to the use of iodine-containing sterilants in the dairy industry. While the distribution and geochemistry of iodine are reflected in the global distribution of IDD, the recent upsurge of IDD in developed countries would seem to reflect changes in diet. - Highlights: • Iodine is an ultra-trace element in the lithosphere. • Volatilisation from marine and terrestrial sources is vital in iodine

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  19. Imaging colon cancer development in mice: IL-6 deficiency prevents adenoma in azoxymethane-treated Smad3 knockouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Kaitlin; Leung, Sarah; Faith Rice, Photini; Jones, Mykella; Barton, Jennifer K.; Bommireddy, Ramireddy

    2016-02-01

    The development of colorectal cancer in the azoxymethane-induced mouse model can be observed by using a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. This system is uniquely capable of tracking disease development over time, allowing for the monitoring of morphological changes in the distal colon due to tumor development and the presence of lymphoid aggregates. By using genetically engineered mouse models deficient in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Smad family member 3 (Smad3), the role of inflammation on tumor development and the immune system can be elucidated. Smad3 knockout mice develop inflammatory response, wasting, and colitis associated cancer while deficiency of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 confers resistance to tumorigenesis. We present pilot data showing that the Smad3 knockout group had the highest tumor burden, highest spleen weight, and lowest thymus weight. The IL-6 deficiency in Smad3 knockout mice prevented tumor development, splenomegaly, and thymic atrophy. This finding suggests that agents that inhibit IL-6 (e.g. anti-IL-6 antibody, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], etc.) could be used as novel therapeutic agents to prevent disease progression and increase the efficacy of anti-cancer agents. OCT can also be useful for initiating early therapy and assessing the benefit of combination therapy targeting inflammation.

  20. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  1. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  3. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding

  4. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Iodine stability in salt double-fortified with iron and iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, L L; Alberti, J O; Ramcharan, K; Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2002-06-01

    Deficiencies in small quantities of micronutrients, especially iodine and iron, severely affect more than a third of the world's population, resulting in serious public health consequences, especially for women and young children. Salt is an ideal carrier of micronutrients. The double fortification of salt with both iodine and iron is an attractive approach to the reduction of both anemia and iodine-deficiency disorders. Because iodine is unstable under the storage conditions found during the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of salt in most developing countries, the effects of packaging materials and environmental conditions on the stability of salt double-fortified with iron and iodine were investigated. Salt was double-fortified with potassium iodide or potassium iodate and with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The effects of stabilizers on the stability of iodine and iron were followed by storing the salt under three conditions that represent the extremes of normal distribution and sale for salt in developing countries: room temperature (25 degrees C) with 50%-70% relative humidity, 40 degrees C with 60% relative humidity, and 40 degrees C with 100% relative humidity. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, and dextrose were investigated. None of the combinations of iron and iodine compounds was stable at elevated temperatures. Essentially all of the iodine was lost over a period of six months. SHMP effectively slowed down the iodine loss, whereas magnesium chloride, a typical hygroscopic impurity, greatly accelerated this process. Calcium carbonate did not have a sparing effect on iodine, despite contrary indications in the literature. Ferrous sulfate-fortified salts generally turned yellow and developed an unpleasant rusty flavor. Salt fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium, iodide was reasonably stable and maintained its organoleptic properties, making it more likely to be

  6. Iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego-Iraeta, A; Pérez-Fdez, R; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Tomé, M; Fdez-Mariño, A; Mato, J A; Botana, M; Solache, I

    2007-02-01

    To identify the current state of iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain), which is considered iodine sufficient based on results from studies carried out on schoolchildren. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and its relationship with different socio-demographic variables were assessed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the population aged above 18 years in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (Spain) during 2004. The UICs were determined in an isolated urine sample using Dunn's colorimetric method. Iodine status was based on World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (WHO/ICCIDD) UIC. A total of 2877 urine samples were taken. Median UIC for the total Galician population was 75.6 microg/L. About 30% of the population showed a UIC below 50 microg/L. Educational level, place of residence (coast vs. inland), and consumption of iodized salt were independent variables associated with the iodine nutrition of the adult population of Galicia. There is "mild" iodine deficiency (WHO) in the adult population of Galicia, which affects all the groups analyzed and which is particularly significant in the group of women of a fertile age. The data obtained on the state of iodine nutrition in school-age populations cannot be extended to the adult population.

  7. Iodine nutrition among indigenous Tarahumara schoolchildren in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monárrez-Espino, J; Greiner, T

    2005-10-01

    This paper adds iodine data to the nutritional survey recently published in the Eur J Clin Nutr (2004;58:532-540) to identify growth retardation and micronutrient deficiencies among Tarahumara children from five selected indigenous boarding schools in Mexico. Total goiter rate (TGR) (n=384), urinary iodine concentrations (UI) (n = 100), and iodine content of salt were measured. Overall, TGR was 7.0% (grade 1 = 6.8%, grade 2 = 0.2%). The median UI of the group was 125 microg/l, while the median UI across the schools ranged from 92.0-156.5 microg/l, with 32 and 6% of the children having UI between 50-99 microg/l and 20-49 microg/l, respectively. The iodine content in all the salt packages checked at the schools was above 25 parts per million. Based on TGR and UI, there is a marginal iodine deficiency in this sample of children, probably due to an insufficient iodine intake. These results add to existing evidence that iodine deficiency still constitutes a public health problem in certain populations living in the mountainous regions in Mexico.

  8. Red palm oil as an intervention food to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an important cause of blindness. Red palm oil (RPO) is the richest food source of VA-forming carotenoids. We evaluated RPO carotenoid concentration and bioavailability, and used this data to estimate the amount of RPO needed to meet VA requirements. Amounts ranged fr...

  9. Immunotherapy holds the key to cancer treatment and prevention in constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westdorp, Harm; Kolders, Sigrid; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.J.; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2017-01-01

    Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations

  10. Control of iron deficiency in the first 1000 days in life: prevention of impaired child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the first 1000 days of life (the period from the woman’s pregnancy continuing into the child’s second year) is the most critical period. This is where nutritional deficiencies have a significant and often irreversible adverse impact on child survival and growth

  11. Control of iron deficiency in the first 1000 days in life: prevention of impaired child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the first 1000 days of life (the period from the woman’s pregnancy continuing into the child’s second year) is the most critical period. This is where nutritional deficiencies have a significant and often irreversible adverse impact on child survival and growth affecting

  12. Vitamin A deficiency disorders: international efforts to control a preventable "pox".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Barbara A

    2004-01-01

    Visual symptoms (night blindness) of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) were among the earliest diet-related deficiencies documented. Knowledge of vitamin A chemistry, metabolism and deficiency consequences accrued rapidly during the first eight decades of the 20th century. A series of disorders were described in animals, including impaired growth, reproduction, epithelial integrity, and disease resistance that were relieved by consumption of both animal and plant sources of the vitamin. Identification of the intestinal beta-carotene cleavage enzyme in the laboratory of James Allen Olson was seminal to understanding the mechanism for formation of vitamin A from ingested carotenoids. WHO's 1990 estimate of about 40 million children annually with clinical eye signs of VAD was revised upward to 140-250 million at risk of vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) when epidemiological and clinical trials demonstrated morbidity and mortality risk even in the absence of ocular signs. Alternative methods for VAD status assessment and more reliable analytical techniques were developed, several in Dr. Olson's laboratory. The last decade has seen global progress in VADD control by expanding distribution of medicinal supplements, fortification of foods and dietary diversification through horticulture and education programs. Experience shows that achievements gained through narrowly focused interventions are fragile and vulnerable to national political and economic instability. Contextually relevant, community-centered strategies that improve household food and nutrition security and self-reliance are critical to sustaining international efforts to control the VADD "pox."

  13. Iodine nutrition status in pregnant women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa Amaranta; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Iodine nutrition during pregnancy has become an important public health concern because of the deleterious impact of iodine deficiency on brain development during fetal and early postnatal life. Iodine nutrition status can be assessed in a population by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). World Health Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund, and the International Council for Iodine Deficiency Disorders have established that a median of UIC between 150 and 249 μg/L in pregnant women indicates an adequate iodine intake. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in Mexican pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care in the Public Medical Units of the State Ministry of Health for each pregnancy trimester (first, n=60; second, n=103; and third, n=131) in Queretaro, Mexico, were enrolled to assess UIC by the Sandell-Kholtoff method. The median of UIC was 273, 285, and 231 μg/L in the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. Globally, the median (range) of UIC was 260 (5-1320) μg/L, and the percentage of samples with UIC below 150 μg/L was 28%. There was no significant difference between the UIC of women using iodine-containing multivitamins compared with those who reported the consumption of noniodized multivitamins (p>0.05). In addition, we found no difference between the UIC of women using iodized table salt compared with those who employed noniodized table salt, with those who did not know whether their table salt was iodized (p>0.05). Based on the median UIC, iodine intake in Queretaro, Mexico, is slightly above requirements during the first two trimesters, and adequate in the third trimester. The wide Mexican universal iodized salt program seems to supply adequate dietary iodine to pregnant women without health insurance in this region. However, regular monitoring of iodine status is recommended during pregnancy throughout Mexico.

  14. Fairly elevated incidence of goiter with marginally low urinary iodine in adolescents living in the north-western part of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, M.V.; Bourdoux, P.; Ben Slimane, F.; Ben Abdallah, M.; Mtimet, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the etiology of endemic goiter in the north-western part of Tunisia, we examined 93 adolescents of this region. We measured urinary iodine concentrations, serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, thyroglobulin and antithyrogobulin antibody concentrations. The adolescents were questioned about their alimentary habits, the origin of their drinking water and the presence of known goiter(s) in their family. Among these adolescents, 49.5% of them had a goiter. Urinary iodine concentrations showed mild iodine deficiency. The serum determinations gave results within the reference ranges, without any significative differences between adolescents, with or without goiter. We found two risk factors: the age of adolescents, and the presence of a known goiter in the family. These results suggest that the actual prevention may not be adequate, or most likely that goitrogenic factors are to be looked for, especially in drinking water, since the majority of these adolescents drink no controlled water

  15. Variation in the iodine concentrations of foods: considerations for dietary assessment1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, Alicia L; Spungen, Judith H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Dwyer, Johanna T; Juan, WenYen; Wirtz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-composition tables typically give measured nutrient concentrations in foods as a single summary value, often the mean, without providing information as to the shape of the distribution. Objective: Our objective was to explore how the statistical approach chosen to describe the iodine concentrations of foods affects the proportion of the population identified as having either insufficient or excessive iodine intakes. Design: We used food intake data reported by the 2009−2010 NHANES and measured iodine concentrations of Total Diet Study (TDS) foods from 4 US regions sampled in 2004–2011. We created 4 data sets, each by using a different summary statistic (median, mean, and 10th and 90th percentiles), to represent the iodine concentration distribution of each TDS food. We estimated the iodine concentration distribution of each food consumed by NHANES participants as the 4 iodine concentration summary statistics of a similar TDS food and used these, along with NHANES food intake data, to develop 4 estimates of each participant’s iodine intake on each survey day. Using the 4 estimates in turn, we calculated 4 usual iodine intakes for each sex- and age-specific subgroup. We then compared these to guideline values and developed 4 estimates of the proportions of each subgroup with deficient and excessive usual iodine intakes. Results: In general, the distribution of iodine intakes was poorly characterized when food iodine concentrations were expressed as mean values. In addition, mean values predicted lower prevalences of iodine deficiency than did median values. For example, in women aged 19–50 y, the estimated prevalence of iodine deficiency was 25% when based on median food iodine concentrations but only 5.8% when based on mean values. Conclusion: For nutrients such as iodine with highly variable concentrations in important food sources, we recommend that food-composition tables provide useful variability information, including the mean, SD, and

  16. [Study on prevention and treatment of middle and aged women diabetes with kidney deficiency and bone metabolic disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Li, H; Liu, Y

    1999-04-01

    To Study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for supplementing Qi, activating blood circulation and tonifying Kidney on prevention and treatment of middle and aged women diabetes with Kidney Deficiency and bone metabolic disturbance. Clinical observation was taken in 52 patients, who were divided into two groups, the control group (treated with hypoglycemic agent alone) and the treated group (treated with hypoglycemic agent and CHM). Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood alkaline phosphatase, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) level, urinary beta 2-MG, calcium and phosphorus level, but lower serum estradiol level than those in normal subjects. After 3 months' treatment, no apparent change on serum estradiol level was observed, but other parameters were all lowered obviously in the two groups, the changes revealed more obvious in the treated group. The symptoms of Kidney Deficiency, such as lumbodorsal pain, general fatigue, palpitation and vertigo, were improved after treatment, and the improvement was also more obvious in the treated group. CHM for supplementing Qi, activating blood circulation and tonifying Kidney was effective in improving Kidney Deficiency and mineral substance loss of bone in middle and aged women diabetes patients. The CHM and western drugs may acted synergistically.

  17. Prevention of Kernicterus in South Asia: role of neonatal G6PD deficiency and its identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Yassar H; Bhutani, Vinod K

    2014-06-01

    Extreme hyperbilirubinemia (EHB) caused by neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is strongly associated with mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment, yet there are limited national strategies to reduce this burden in South Asia. Current known and predicted prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan ranges from 3.8 to 15 %, with regional "hot spots" exceeding 22 %. Annually, 3.14 million infants are born at risk for this condition. In 2010, South Asian countries reported 37 million (27 %) of world-wide livebirths ≥ 32 wk gestational-age and G6PD deficiency accounted for > 33 % of the global EHB burden, in contrast to 2.2 % for those born in high-income nations. Traditional national approach includes universal newborn screening in malaria-endemic countries or those with prevalence >3.5 %. However, screening implementation should be best optimized using timely quantitative enzyme assay and identification of at-risk female newborns. Furthermore, economic and social constraints, in context of sub-regional variances, call for flexible problem-solving methods in anticipation of changing community demographics. Thus, incremental and need-based newborn screening programs could be the most optimal approach. A human-centered design (HCD) approach, as an alternate pathway, could build the evidence to translate the complex biology of G6PD deficiency and the biodesign of affordable technologies, allowing facilitation of access to knowledge and services, in order to deliver on a long-term public health mandate. Key steps would encompass the initiation of local inquiry of both quantitative and qualitative data to identify at-risk communities and to prospectively design for local innovative solutions.

  18. Symptomatic acquired zinc deficiency in at-risk premature infants: high dose preventive supplementation is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarot, Sébastien; Chantier, Emilie; Kuster, Alice; Hello, Muriel; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Blouin, Eric; Stalder, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in many metabolisms. Zinc deficiency induces various disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, either inherited or acquired. We report three cases of premature infants (24-31 wks gestational age) with low birthweight (650 to 940 g) and enteropathy, two of whom presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. All infants were fed by total parenteral nutrition. At a chronological age ranging from 73 to 80 days, all infants developed a periorificial dermatitis. Before the onset of the first signs, they had received zinc supplementation ranging from 146% to 195% of the recommended dose (400 microg/kg/day). Increased zinc supplementation over a course of 6-18 days induced a complete resolution of symptoms in all cases. No abnormality in the neurologic examination and no recurrence were observed at the end of the zinc treatment. Low birthweight premature infants with enteropathy on total parenteral nutrition are at risk of developing zinc deficiency. The usual recommended zinc supplementation is probably insufficient for those infants. A delay in the diagnosis of zinc deficiency may lead to severe complications.

  19. TNF-α Deficiency Prevents Renal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiguo Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obese patients and experimental animals exhibit high levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. However, the role of TNF-α in the pathophysiologic process in obesity induced kidney damage is still unknown. Methods: We used TNF-α deficient mice and wild-type (WT C57/BJ6 mice controls to study the effect of TNF-α on inflammation and oxidative stress in kidney by the model of high-fat diet (HFD and primary isolated mouse renal proximal tubule cells treated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA. Results: Compared with the chow diet group, HFD-fed WT mice had higher urinary albumin and increased levels of renal fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in the kidney. These changes were co-related with increased expression of TNF-α in the kidney and were attenuated by TNF-α deficiency. In vitro, accumulation of intracellular lipids induced TNF-α expression and oxidative stress in FFA treated primary proximal tubule cells. However, TNF-α inhibition with siRNA or TNF-α deficiency decreased the lipid induced oxidative stress in these cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that TNF-α plays an important role in the HFD induced kidney damage, and targeting TNF-α and/or its receptors could be a promising therapeutic regimen for progressive nephropathy.

  20. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food-frequency...... questionnaire and by measuring iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Thyroid volume and nodularity were measured with ultrasonography. Results: In multiple linear regression models, significant inverse relations were found between thyroid volume and estimated 24-h iodine excretion, iodine intake from diet...

  1. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  2. Medical follow up after bariatric surgery: nutritional and drug issues. General recommendations for the prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, O; Sirveaux, M A; Brunaud, L; Reibel, N; Quilliot, D

    2009-12-01

    This review is an update of the long-term follow-up of nutritional and metabolic issues following bariatric surgery, and also discusses the most recent guidelines for the three most common procedures: adjustable gastric bands (AGB); sleeve gastrectomy (SG); and roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP). The risk of nutritional deficiencies depends on the percentage of weight loss and the type of surgical procedure performed. Purely restrictive procedures (AGB, SG), for example, can induce digestive symptoms, food intolerance or maladaptative eating behaviours due to pre- or postsurgical eating disorders. GBP also has a minor malabsorptive component. Iron deficiency is common with the three types of bariatric surgery, especially in menstruating women, and GBP is also associated with an increased risk of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies. Rare deficiencies can lead to serious complications such as encephalopathy or protein-energy malnutrition. Long-term problems such as changes in bone metabolism or neurological complications need to be carefully monitored. In addition, routine nutritional screening, recommendations for appropriate supplements and monitoring compliance are imperative, whatever the bariatric procedure. Key points are: (1) virtually routine mineral and multivitamin supplementation; (2) prevention of gallstone formation with the use of ursodeoxycholic acid during the first 6 months; and (3) regular, life-long, follow-up of all patients. Pre- and postoperative therapeutic patient education (TPE) programmes, involving a new multidisciplinary approach based on patient-centred education, may be useful for increasing patients'long-term compliance, which is often poor. The role of the general practitioner has also to be emphasized: clinical visits and follow-ups should be monitored and coordinated with the bariatric team, including the surgeon, the obesity specialist, the dietitian and mental health professionals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  3. Iodine nutrition in elementary state schools of Queretaro, Mexico: correlations between urinary iodine concentration with global nutrition status and social gap index

    OpenAIRE

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa A.; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Leal-García, Luisa; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To estimate median urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and to correlate it with global nutrition indicators and social gap index (SGI) in 50 elementary state schools from 10 municipalities in the State of Queretaro, Mexico. RESULTS: 1,544 students were enrolled and an above of requirements of iodine intake was found (median UIC of 297 µg/L). Iodine status was found as deficient, adequate, more than adequate and excessive in 2, 4, 19 and 25 schools, respectively. Seventy...

  4. Iodine status in Norwegian preschool children and significance of dietary sources of iodine and parental socio-economic factors - A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Odland, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element with important physiological effects in the human body. Iodine is necessary for thyroid hormone synthesis. The hormones are needed for tissue development in the central nervous system, growth and brain development in children, and regulation of basal metabolic rate and macronutrient metabolism. Iodine deficiency is still a global threat despite international efforts to eliminate the condition. In recent years, major progress have been made towards eliminat...

  5. Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Henjum, Sigrun

    2017-05-13

    Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. A cross-sectional study was performed on 804 pregnant women and 175 lactating women from 18 to 44 years of age in 2016 in the Oslo area, Norway. Knowledge about iodine was collected through a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in urine and breast milk were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). 74% of the pregnant women and 55% of the lactating women achieved none to low iodine knowledge scores. Higher educated pregnant women and those who had received information about iodine had significantly higher knowledge scores. In lactating women, increased age was associated with higher knowledge scores. Knowledge scores were not associated with participants' iodine status. This study revealed a lack of knowledge about the importance of iodine in pregnant and lactating women, as well as about the most important dietary sources. Public education initiatives are required to increase the awareness about iodine in these population groups.

  6. Estudo prospectivo dos efeitos da amiodarona na função tiroidiana de pacientes chagásicos em área de deficiência de iodo Prospective study of amiodarone effects on thyroid function of chagasic patients in an iodine deficient area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Enes de Barros

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a junção tiroidiana após uso crônico da amiodarona, em área de deficiência de iodo e endemia chagásica, 24 pacientes foram analisados antes e após três e nove meses de uso da droga. A avaliação constou de exame clínico, dosagem sérica de T4, T3, rT3, TSH, anticorpo antitiroglobulina e TSH 30 minutos após infusão venosa de uma ampola de 200µg de TRH. A captação do iodo radioativo 131 e a cintilografia datiróide foram realizadas antes e aos 9 meses após tratamento. Disfunção tiroidiana ocorreu em 20,8% dos pacientes sendo 12,5% de hipertiroidismo e 8,3% de hipotiroidismo, com anticorpos antitiroglobulina negativos. Captação do iodo radioativo 131 foi positiva em um paciente hipertiroideo com bócio. O diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo foi melhor evidenciado pela resposta reduzida ou bloqueada do TSH ao TRH e não pela concentração do T3 no soro e o de hipotiroidismo pela concentração elevada do TSH. O TSH elevado desde o início do tratamento pode predispor ao aparecimento de bócio. Concluímos que o uso da amiodarona em nossa região deve serjudiciosamente analisado, sendo a função tiroidiana cuidadosamente monitorizada antes e durante o tratamento.In order to evaluate the development of thyroid dysfunction during chronic amiodarone treatment in an area deficient in iodine and endemic for Chagas 'disease, a group of 24patients wasprospectively studied. Clinical examination and measurement of serum T4, T3, rT3, TSH and antithyroglobulin antibodies were performed before and at 3 and 9 months of use of amiodarone. A TSH response 30 minutes after IV injection of 200µg of TRH was also compared to TSH basal levels before and during amiodarone treatment. Thyroid radioative uptake and scan were obtained before and nine months after amiodarone was started. Elevated rT3 concentrations were unexpectedly found in two thirds of the patients before treatment. Thyroid dysfunction developed during

  7. Influence of urinary iodine excretion on thyroid technetium-99m pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression: what happens when iodine supply increases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Hoegerle, S.; Trupkovic, T.; Krause, T.M.; Moser, E.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines how thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression changes as a function of increasing iodine supply. This is of special interest in countries at the threshold of sufficient iodine supply, where thyroid scintigraphy plays a key role in thyroid examination, especially for the diagnosis of Plummer's disease. From 1995 to 1997, a total of 1069 patients with euthyroid goitre, Plummer's disease or Graves' disease were included in the study. All patients underwent thyroid examination including sonography, scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate, and determination of free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH and urinary iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in the range from 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine showed an inverse correlation with thyroid pertechnetate uptake, but no correlation with TSH was observed. There was no correlation between thyroid pertechnetate uptake and iodine excretion when TSH stimulation was eliminated, with two exceptions: thyroid pertechnetate uptake was significantly increased for iodine excretion values below 50 and 100 μg iodine/g creatinine in patients with Graves' and Plummer's disease, respectively. When iodine excretion exceeded 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, pertechnetate uptake was reduced to a basal level independent of the TSH. In conclusion, the influence of TSH on the thyroid pertechnetate uptake seems to be secondary compared with the influence of the iodine supply. It can be concluded further that the reference range of thyroid pertechnetate uptake under TSH suppression will not change significantly when the iodine supply increases from conditions of mild iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency. Thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression cannot be reliably interpreted beyond an iodine excretion of 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. (orig.)

  8. Methods chosen by parents of preschoolers to prevent vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Sochocka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Results of the epidemiologic studies conducted over recent years indicate vitamin D deficiency, especially among children and young people. The following factors affecting occurrence of vitamin D deficiency growth should be mentioned: improper lifestyle, using UV filters and inadequate vitamin D intake. The aim of the research was an attempt to evaluate action carried out as part of preschoolers' vitamin d deficiency prophylaxis taken by their parents. Material and the methods. The research was conducted in 2014. The group contained 118 parents of children aged 4–6. The method of the diagnostic survey was utilized in the research with poll used as a technique and author's survey questionnaire provided as a tool. The obtained results of the research underwent statistical analysis. In order to define the existence of the differences or correlations between analyzed immeasurable parameters, chi–square test was used. Results. Most of the interviewed parents supply their children with fish; 14.4% (n=17 do this 2–3 a week;8.5% (n=10 would never serve their children fish. Whole milk, cheese and eggs were most frequently chosen among products containing vitamin D. Children of 93.2% (n=110 of the interviewed parents spend at least two hours a day outdoors from April to September. However, less than 89.8% (n=106 of the parents state that that children’s skin is protected with UV sunscreen at the time. 14.4% (n=17 of the interviewed parents provide their kids with vitamin D on a daily basis, all year around. Cod liver oil is the most common preparation chosen by parents who declared vitamin D supplementation. Conclusions. On-going education of parents concerning nutrition principles of children seems necessary as they are responsible for cultivating good eating habits among the young.

  9. Persistence of goiter despite adequate iodine intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminzadeh, M.; Karamizadeh, Z.; Amirhakimi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the state of iodine uptake and frequency of goiter in a previously endemic population after use of iodine salt for ten years. In an area in south of Iran following examination of randomly selected 1504, 8-10 year school children, 102 cases with grade 2 or larger goiter were found. One hundred normal cases regarding thyroid examination were also selected as controls. From all 202 children, random urine specimen was assayed for iodine as an indicator of iodide intake. Frequency of goiter grade 2 or larger was 6.8%. Median levels of urinary iodine in goiterous children and controls were 20.00 micro gram/dL and 24.50 micro gram/dL respectively. Values more than 10 micro g/dL indicate sufficient intake. Frequency of iodine deficiency in patients with goiter was 14.0% vs. 12.7% in control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P value=0.748). Iodized salt has been effective to provide acceptable iodide intake but other causes are supposed to be responsible as etiologic factors for persistence of endemic goiter. (author)

  10. Multifactorial skin barrier deficiency and atopic dermatitis: Essential topics to prevent the atopic march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the industrialized world and has multiple causes. Over the past decade, data from both experimental models and patients have highlighted the primary pathogenic role of skin barrier deficiency in patients with AD. Increased access of environmental agents into the skin results in chronic inflammation and contributes to the systemic "atopic (allergic) march." In addition, persistent skin inflammation further attenuates skin barrier function, resulting in a positive feedback loop between the skin epithelium and the immune system that drives pathology. Understanding the mechanisms of skin barrier maintenance is essential for improving management of AD and limiting downstream atopic manifestations. In this article we review the latest developments in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of skin barrier deficiency, with a particular focus on the formation of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, which contributes significantly to skin barrier function. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Iodine Status After Bariatric Surgery—a Prospective 10-Year Report from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Manousou, Sofia; Carlsson, Lena M. S.; Eggertsen, Robert; Hulthén, Lena; Jacobson, Peter; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Trimpou, Penelope; Svensson, Per-Arne; Nyström, Helena Filipsson

    2017-01-01

    Context Bariatric surgery can lead to nutrient deficiencies. Gastric by-pass (GBP) entails restriction and malabsorption, whereas, vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) is only restrictive. Objective The objective of this study is to study whether GBP-patients develop iodine deficiency from malabsorption, and if GBP- and VBG-patients develop lower 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-UIE) than obese non-operated controls (OB-controls) due to lower iodine intake. Design The Swedish Obese Subjects (S...

  12. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  13. OPA1 deficiency promotes secretion of FGF21 from muscle that prevents obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renata Oliveira; Tadinada, Satya M; Zasadny, Frederick M; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Olvera, Angela; Jeffers, Jennifer; Souvenir, Rhonda; Mcglauflin, Rose; Seei, Alec; Funari, Trevor; Sesaki, Hiromi; Potthoff, Matthew J; Adams, Christopher M; Anderson, Ethan J; Abel, E Dale

    2017-07-14

    Mitochondrial dynamics is a conserved process by which mitochondria undergo repeated cycles of fusion and fission, leading to exchange of mitochondrial genetic content, ions, metabolites, and proteins. Here, we examine the role of the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in differentiated skeletal muscle by reducing OPA1 gene expression in an inducible manner. OPA1 deficiency in young mice results in non-lethal progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of muscle mass. Mutant mice are resistant to age- and diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. OPA1-elicited mitochondrial dysfunction activates an integrated stress response that locally induces muscle atrophy, but via secretion of FGF21 acts distally to modulate whole-body metabolism. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Rasagiline prevents neurodegeneration in thiamine deficient rats-a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Vered; Rehavi, Moshe; Biton, Inbal E; Eliash, Sarah

    2014-04-04

    Neuroprotection is a therapeutic approach for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental thiamine deficiency (TD) in rats provides a model for selective neurodegeneration accompanied by chronic oxidative deficits. Rats exhibit neurological and cognitive impairments, which can be partially reversed by thiamine administration, enabling the study of mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as neuroprotection. In this magnetic resonance (MR) study we used various techniques to characterize the neuroprotective effects of rasagiline, a selective MAO-B inhibitor. TD was induced by a thiamine-deficient diet and daily injections of the central thiamine antagonist, pyrithiamine. Daily injections of either saline or rasagiline (3mg/kg) were also administered to untreated-TD rats and rasagiline-treated TD rats respectively. With the appearance of neurological symptoms, all injections were terminated and thiamine was restored. MRI scans were performed before induction of TD (control values), on days 10, 12 (before symptoms appear), 14 (symptomatic stage) and during the recuperation period. Both groups were assessed using in-vivo serial T2-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), from which apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were calculated. A histopathological evaluation was correlated with the MRI analysis. Thalamic hyperintensities were significantly smaller and less severe in the rasagiline-treated TD rats. Enlargement of the lateral ventricles was significantly less pronounced in the rasagiline-treated TD group. FA values of the untreated-TD group decreased significantly in the thalamic on days 12 and 14 and in the corpus callosum on day 14. These results demonstrate significant neuroprotection by rasagiline which could have implications for clinical neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Humanin prevents intra-renal microvascular remodeling and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic ApoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Urbieta-Caceres, Victor H; Eirin, Alfonso; Bell, Caitlin C; Crane, John A; Tang, Hui; Jordan, Kyra L; Oh, Yun-Kyu; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Korsmo, Michael J; Bachar, Adi R; Cohen, Pinchas; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O

    2012-09-04

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondrial-derived cytoprotective peptide that has shown protective effects against atherosclerosis and is expressed in human vessels. However, its effects on the progression of kidney disease are unknown. We hypothesized that HN would protect the kidney in the early phase of atherogenesis. Forty-eight mice were studied in four groups (n=12 each). Twenty-four ApoE deficient mice were fed a 16-week high-cholesterol diet supplemented with saline or HN (4mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal). C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet supplemented with saline or HN. Microvascular architecture was assessed with micro-CT and vascular wall remodeling by alpha-SMA staining. The effects of HN on angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis were evaluated in the kidney tissue by Western blotting and histology. Cortical microvascular spatial density and media/lumen area ratio were significantly increased in high-cholesterol diet fed ApoE deficient mice, but restored by HN. HN up-regulated the renal expressions of anti-angiogenic proteins angiostatin and TSP-1, and inhibited angiopoietin-1. HN attenuated inflammation by down-regulating MCP-1, TNF-alpha and osteopontin. HN also tended to restore pSTAT3 and attenuated Bax expression, suggesting blunted apoptosis. Kidney collagen IV expression was alleviated by HN treatment. HN attenuates renal microvascular remodeling, inflammation and apoptosis in the early stage of kidney disease in hypercholesterolemic ApoE(-/-) mice. HN may serve as a novel therapeutic target to mitigate kidney damage in early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  17. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  18. Iron and vitamin D deficiency in children living in Western-Europe : Diagnostic tests, epidemiological aspects, and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are two of the most common micronutrient deficiencies in young children worldwide and they contribute substantially to the global burden of disease due to their varied negative health consequences. Micronutrient deficiencies in European children

  19. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  20. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  1. Technology of cottage cheese dishes and grain dishes enriched with organic iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Семенівна Незвещук-Когут

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is development of dishes with iodinated raw materials. The problem of iodine deficiency in dietary allowances of population is considered. It leads to violation of such vital processes in a human body as decrease in intellectual and physical development. One of the most perspective directions of iodic insufficiency elimination is use of iodinated raw materials: starwort and cystoseira in grain dishes

  2. Membrane omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for comorbid coronary heart disease in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  3. Semiquantitative test for iodine vapor above "complexed" iodine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, M; Kleinmann, K

    1975-04-01

    A test to determine the extent to which free iodine exists in the vapor phase above the surface of "complexed iodine" solutions is described. The procedure is based on the qualitative starch-iodine test. The results can be related to the degree of complexation occurring between the polymer used in the preparation and iodine. Four products were tested: nonylphenoxypoly ethanol-iodine complex; polyvinyl pyrrolidine-iodine complex; popoxamer-iodine complex; and nonylphenoxypoly ethanol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine complex. Free iodine in the vapor phase of the first product was detected in 90 minutes; the time for the other three was five days. For the tincture of iodine control, the time was 30 minutes.

  4. [A FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSESS DIET QUALITY IN THE PREVENTION OF IRON DEFICIENCY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui Abascal, Laura; Díaz Álvarez, Alejandra; Vaquero, María Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge on iron bioavailability, a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for application in population groups predisposed to iron deficiency anaemia has not been implemented. To design a FFQ based on enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption and to assess its applicability in a group of women at childbearing age. the FFQ included 28 items and the time of consumption for 10 of them, breakfast (B) and lunch/dinner(LD). One hundred and seventy nine healthy young women were selected and distributed into three groups according to their iron status measured by serum ferritin: 30 ng/mL. the reproducibility of this FFQ was very high(Spearman coefficient > 0.500, p nuts-LD were negatively associated (p < 0.05). Citric fruits-LD was negatively associated with red meat (p < 0.05) and positively with legumes, fish, salad, vegetables,foods fortified with fiber, other fruits (p < 0.001)and brown bread (p < 0.05). The consumption of fruit juices with breakfast was lower in women with ferritin <15 ng/ml compared to ferritin 15-30 ng/ml. this questionnaire is simple and reproducible.Red meat is the main dietary factor related with higher iron status in young women, thus its influence on iron absorption compared to other enhancers and inhibitors is highlighted. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  6. Pre-Operative Skin Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Povidone-Iodine to Prevent Port-Site Infection in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaziani, Erasmo; Di Filippo, Annalisa; Orelli, Simone; Fiorini, Flavia; Spaziani, Martina; Tintisona, Orlando; Torcasio, Angelo; De Cesare, Alessandro; Picchio, Marcello

    2018-04-01

    Skin preparation with antiseptic agents is commonly recommended for incisional site cleansing before surgery. We present the result of a prospective case series submitted to a scheduled pre-operative antiseptic procedure combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine before elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Consecutive patients underwent pre-operative standardized cleansing of the operation site combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine. Patients were reviewed one week and four weeks post-operatively. Post-operative infection was observed in seven patients (4.3%). All observed infections were port-site infections, always located at the level of the umbilical incision. In all cases infections involved skin and subcutaneous tissue. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in five patients (71.4%) and miscellaneous aerobic gram-positive bacteria in two subjects (28.6%). Post-operative hospital stay was the only factor significantly associated with the development of port-site infections. Port-site infections are a common complication after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The proposed pre-operative disinfection procedure is effective in reducing port-site infections. Reducing hospital stay may contribute to limiting the occurrence of this complication.

  7. Knowledge of the Importance of Iodine in Nutrition among Adults in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciekure Elīna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.

  8. VITAMIN DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN: MAIN CAUSES, FORMS, AND MEANS OF PREVENTION IN INFANTS AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yu. Volkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture deals with the main causes of development of hypo vitaminoses in infants and preschool children, with the emphasis made on the lack of pathognomonic signs of vitamin in sufficiency, showing the demands for the essential vitamins, and describing the natural sources of their entering the human body. The authors compare the composition of various multivitamin preparations registered in Russian the liquid dosage form convenient for use in 1ctoc7cyearcold children.Key words: avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, prevention, infants, children.

  9. Recovery and storage method for radioactive iodine by vacuum freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ouchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Toru.

    1990-01-01

    After scrubbing off-gas formed in a re-processing process for spent nuclear fuels, scrubbing liquids after use are subjected, as they are or with addition of additives, to a precipitating treatment. Then, liquid wastes containing radioactive iodine was subjected to freeze-drying treatment by freeze-drying under vacuum to recover radioactive iodine as iodine compounds. Off-gas scrubbing is conducted by using a sodium hydroxide solution and copper or silver ions may be added as additives in the precipitating treatment. Recovered iodine compounds containing radioactive iodine are solidified, either directly or after formulating into a composition of naturally existing iodine-containing ores by means of high pressure pressing into ores. This can prevent radioactive iodine 1 29I of long half-decay time from diffusing into the circumference and store the radioactive iodine stably for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  11. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Braverman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1 pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2 prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3 utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4 distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5 education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6 continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7 support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD, the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental to consider these critical recommendations.

  12. Isoflurane prevents learning deficiencies caused by brief hypoxia and hypotension in adult Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Eduardo; Quiroga, Carolina; Erasso, Diana; Bosco, Gerardo; Rubini, Alessandro; Mangar, Devanand; Camporesi, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Hypotension causes histologic changes in the hippocampal CA1 area, while behavior remains unchanged. We believe that an even stronger insult may also cause behavioral changes. We used a rat hemorrhagic shock model plus temporary hypoxia to assess functional outcome at different time points post-injury. Our hypothesis is that the damage can be attenuated by the use of isoflurane. Rats were subjected to brief hypotension. Animals were evaluated at different time points after receiving hypoxia and hypotension, with and without isoflurane treatment. The administration of isoflurane after the insult protected the animals from memory alterations. No histopatologic changes were found in any of the groups. This observation suggests that in this model of hypotension plus hypoxia there is mild cerebral damage that is reflected by memory changes. Exposure to isoflurane after the insult can prevent the onset of memory deficits.

  13. The current impact and potential of biotechnology to improve the capacity of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world and an important cause of premature death in young children and pregnant women. Billions of people get most of their vitamin A from plants that are rich in pro-vitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene. Orange-fleshe...

  14. Production of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses and compares various ways of Iodine-123 production using different targets such as 124 Xe, 122 Te, 123 Te, 124 Te and others. Requirements to targets and their design are discussed as well as nuclear reactions that lead to 123 I. Separation of the Iodine radioisotope is briefly presented along with comparison of the pathways in terms of the isotopic purity of target 123 I

  15. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  16. Assessment of Iodine Status among Hostel Employees and Students of a University in Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, M.; Tufail, M.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Irfan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and related disorders are the major health hazard in the world, especially along the Himalayas. A study has been carried out to assess the status of iodine in students and employees living in the hilly area in the premises of a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. The study was carried out for 76 students living in university hostels and 32 employees serving in the hostels. Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) was used as the biochemical marker of iodine concentration in the donors. Catalytic kinetic method based on Sandell-Kolthoff reaction was employed for the measurement of iodine concentration in the samples of urine. Out of 76 students, 8% had UIE greater or equal to 100 mg/L, while 39% had between 50-99 mg/L, 49% had between 20-49 mg/L and 4% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Similarly, out of 32 employees, 22% had UIE greater or equal 100 mg/L while 28% had between 50-99 mg/L, 44% had between 20-49 mg/L and 6% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Target groups of the study area were iodine deficient, indicating mild to severe iodine deficiency. The iodine level in the employees was relatively better than that in the students. Improvement of iodine status is recommended among the students and employees by the mandatory use of iodized salt in all the cafeterias of the university. (author)

  17. Observation on the adverse reactions of different concentrations of povidone-iodine applied before cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Jun Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of 50g/L povidone-iodine solution in preventing postoperative endophthalmitis through comparing the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis and adverse reactions after conjunctival sac washing with povidone-iodine of different concentrations.METHODS: Totally 500 cataract patients were divided into 50g/L povidone-iodine group and 25g/L povidone-iodine group. All the operated eyes were observed during and after surgery.The patients' subjective discomfort was inquired and their signs of eyes were recorded. RESULTS: The eye irritation of 50g/L povidone-iodine group was more significant than 25g/L povidone-iodine group. No significant difference in the corneal epithelial loss and endophthalmitis was observed between two groups.CONCLUSION:Conjunctival sac washing with 50g/L povidone-iodine is an effective and safe measure to prevent endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

  18. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  19. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  20. Assessment of iodine nutritional status in the general population in the province of Jaén.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with...

  2. Association of iodine fortification with incident use of antithyroid medication – a Danish nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerqueira, Charlotte; Knudsen, Nils; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    iodine fortification program on incidence of hyperthyroidism as measured by the incident use of antithyroid medication. Design: We conducted a register study. Using the unique identification number of all Danes, we linked data from the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics and the Civil Registration......: In the region with moderate iodine deficiency, the number of incident users of antithyroid medication increased 46% in the first 4 yr of iodine fortification. The use increased the most among the youngest age group (younger than 40 yr) and the oldest age group (older than 75 yr). In the mildly iodine......-deficient region, the number of incident users increased only 18%, and only in the youngest age groups (below 40 and 40-59 yr). After 4 yr of fortification, the incidence rates started to fall and reached baseline, for most groups, 6 yr after onset of fortification. Conclusions: This study shows that iodine...

  3. Iodination-deiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.; Refetoff, S.

    1977-01-01

    Bound iodine is released from radioiodinated nucleotides in polymers exposed to sodium bisulfite. The rate of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of pyrimidines can be controlled both by change of temperature or pH and is also dependent on the molecular association of the nucleotide. The rate of release of iodine from iodocytidine in polycytidylate is greater than the rate of elimination from RNA. Experiments testing the influence of base-pairing of the iodopyrimidines in synthetic polynucleotides showed that pairing of the substituted nucleotide protected the iodine bond. The rates of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of several radioiodinated RNAs were measured. The action of bisulfite on all single-stranded RNAs tested was multiphasic consisting of a rapid early deiodination reaction supplanted by a slower phase which was followed by reacceleration of release. The release of iodine from double-stranded RNA and DNA-RNA duplexes was retarded in comparison with the release from ribosomal and messenger RNA fractions. The deiodination profiles of single- and double-stranded RNA suggested that in the intermediate stage iodine release is governed by melting of paired zones of low stability. Late release may result from destabilization of the molecule through the addition of bisulfite to the pyrimidine ring or deamination. The effect of several substances expected to complex with polynucleotides was tested. The results show that a change in sensitivity to chemical deiodination may follow the interaction of small amounts of protein with polynucleotides

  4. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  5. [Changes of iodine nutrition status and thyroid function among pregnant women in iodine sufficient rural area of Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Xiaonan; Cao, Yongqin; Ge, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 215 pregnant women in Yongjing couty from May to June 2013. Samples of blood and random urine were collected, and serum thyrotrophin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin ( anti-TG)and urinary iodine were measured. The medians of urinary iodine from the three groups of pregnant women(first, second and third trimester) were 189.8 µg/L, 152.5 µg/L and 144.9 µg/L respectively. With the exception of pregnant women in the third trimester, the urinary iodine medians of pregnant women in the first and second trimesters were within the 150-249 µg/L range which was defined as optimal by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. With the increase of gestational age, the level of FT3 decreased (P iodine TSH levels and the gestational age. The medians of anti-TG and anti-TPO appeared the lowest in the first trimester, and remained at a high level in women at second and third trimesters. Significant difference was seen in anti-TG, anti-TPO levels of the three groups of pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) (P iodine levels were not obvious. With the increase of gestational age, the incidence of iodine deficiency also increased among pregnant women. Abnormal thyroid hormones, TSH, positive anti-TG and anti-TPO were mainly existed in the early pregnancy. Programs as monitoring urinary iodine as well as thyroid function targeting all the pregnant women should be carried out.

  6. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  7. Hypothyroidism among military infants born in countries of varied iodine nutrition status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Tyler C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is a global problem representing the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. Recently, the impact of subtle deficiencies in iodine intake on children and pregnant women has been questioned. This study was designed to compare hypothyroidism among infants born to US military families in countries of varied iodine nutrition status. Methods A cohort design was used to analyze data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry for infants born in 2000-04 (n = 447,691. Hypothyroidism was defined using ICD-9-CM codes from the first year of life (n = 698. The impact of birth location on hypothyroidism was assessed by comparing rates in Germany, Japan, and US territories with the United States, while controlling for infant gender, plurality, gestational age, maternal age, maternal military status, and military parent's race/ethnicity. Results Hypothyroidism did not vary by birth location with adjusted odds ratios (OR as follows: Germany (OR 0.82, [95% CI 0.50, 1.35], Japan (OR 0.67, [95% CI 0.37, 1.22], and US territories (OR 1.29, [95% CI 0.57, 2.89]. Hypothyroidism was strongly associated with preterm birth (OR 5.44, [95% CI 4.60, 6.42]. Hypothyroidism was also increased among infants with civilian mothers (OR 1.24, [95% CI 1.00, 1.54], and older mothers, especially ages 40 years and older (OR 2.09, [95% CI 1.33, 3.30]. Conclusions In this study, hypothyroidism in military-dependent infants did not vary by birth location, but was associated with other risk factors, including preterm birth, civilian maternal status, and advanced maternal age.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  11. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  12. Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation.

  13. Immobilization of fission iodine by reaction with insoluble natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.M.; Schmett, G.T.; Kimble, G.; Emerson, D.W.; Turner, M.F.; Rudin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a fission product and highly mobile in the environment. Along with other stable isotopes of iodine, 129 I is released during reprocessing of nuclear fuel and must be trapped to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. Past studies have provided evidence that iodine can become associated with natural organic matter (NOM). This research explores the use of NOM (sphagnum peat and humic acid) to sequester iodine from the vapor and aqueous phases. NOM-associated iodine may be stable for geological storage. NOM-sequestered iodine can be recovered by pyrolysis to prepare target materials for transmutation. The nature of the NOM-iodine association has been explored. (author)

  14. Transient Hypothyroidism in Premature Infants After Short-term Topical Iodine Exposure: An Avoidable Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Pinsker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in preterm infants have shown that prolonged treatment with topical iodine (multiple doses, often over multiple days can transiently suppress thyroid function. However, it is uncertain if topical iodine exposure for very short periods of time can cause significant changes in thyroid function. We report two cases of transient hypothyroidism in preterm infants after short-term exposure to topical iodine during surgical preparation, and review their clinical and laboratory findings before and after iodine exposure. We conclude that premature infants are at risk of developing transient hypothyroidism in response to a single, short-term exposure to topical iodine, even in iodine-sufficient geographical areas. We advise monitoring of thyroid function in these infants after iodine exposure, as treatment with levothyroxine may be needed for a limited duration to prevent the sequelae of untreated hypothyroidism. Consideration of using alternative cleansing agents is also advised.

  15. Exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction of anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in androgen deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, Urszula; Pytlik, Maria; Folwarczna, Joanna; Miozga, Rafał; Piskorz, Szymon; Nowak, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used long-term in elderly patients, increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and decrease the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of physical exercise on the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a PPI, in male rats with androgen deficiency induced by orchidectomy. Male Wistar rats at 3 months of age were divided into: sham-operated control rats, orchidectomized (ORX) control rats, ORX rats receiving alendronate, ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole, ORX rats receiving alendronate and subjected to exercise, and ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole and subjected to exercise. The orchidectomy or sham-operation was performed 7-8 days before the start of drug administration. The rats were subjected to the exercise on the treadmill 1 hour/day for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Alendronate sodium (3 mg/kg p.o.) and lansoprazole (4 mg/kg p.o.) were administered once daily for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Mechanical properties of the tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed. Bone turnover markers, histomorphometric parameters, bone mass and mass of bone mineral were also studied. Lansoprazole weakened the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate. The exercise increased the alendronate effect. Similar changes were observed in the rats treated with lansoprazole and alendronate, subjected to exercise; no deleterious effects of lansoprazole were observed. In conclusion, the exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in orchidectomized rats.

  16. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Slovenia since improved iodine supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaletel, K.; Gaberscek, S.; Pirnat, E.; Hojker, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since the year 1953, when iodine prophylaxis was introduced in Slovenia, several epidemiological studies confirmed the existence of mild iodine deficiency on the whole territory of Slovenia. In January 1999 the implementation of higher iodine content (25 mg of KI or 32 mg of KIO 3 ) was recommended and since then the increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis was observed. Here we present 5-year follow-up data of the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease. We estimated incidence rates from 1997 to 2001 for hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease among 1000000 people, living in the area of Ljubljana. We assumed that most cases were seen and treated in the Outpatient Department for thyroid diseases of Department for Nuclear Medicine of University Medical Centre Ljubljana. Immediately after correction of iodine deficiency, the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy rose almost twice in 1999 (320 cases in 1999 compared to 173 cases in 1997), but afterwards the incidence slightly decreased (240 cases in 2000). Similarly, the incidence of Graves' disease rose in 1999 (267 cases in 1999 compared to 237 in 1997) and in contrast to thyroid autonomy the incidence further increased in the following years (337 in 2000 and 246 in the first half of 2001). The increased incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease after elevation of iodine prophylaxis in Slovenia is comparable with data in some other endemic areas. Those data indicate that stepwise supplementation is preferable to immediate corrections. However, we believe that iodine prophylaxis is reasonable and justified and to reassess the iodine nutrition status we plan a follow up evaluation in year 2002. (author)

  17. Kinetic cartography of radioisotopes of iodine in the thyroid follicles of the new-born rats under low or standard iodine diet: Analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS50): Contribution to the study of the consequences of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbast, M.

    2008-03-01

    The most significant impact of the Chernobylsk accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among children in contaminated areas. To estimate the radiation dose provided by radioiodine released after Chernobylsk (iodine 131 and short-lived isotopes, iodine 132, 133, 134, 135), we used new-born rats to mimic the situation of fallout contamination (young age and iodine deficiency). The pups, under low iodine diet and under standard diet, were contaminated with 129 I at ages varying between 2 to 15 days and sacrificed 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8 days after contamination. The variation in intra colloidal iodine distribution from 1 hour to 8 days was performed using a new ionic nano probe (NanoSIMS50). This method permits to discriminate between the newly incorporated iodine (129) and the initial pool of iodine (127). SIMS observations permit to heterogeneous intra and inter follicular distribution of 129 I. Iodine deficiency increases the absorbed amounts of iodine by a factor 10. Dosimetric estimations show an important contribution of short-lived radioiodine to the total thyrocyte dose. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the age and the iodine deficiency accelerate the absorption of iodine in follicles and that the contribution of short-lived iodine connate ne neglected. (author)

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron- ... deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who should be ...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF IODINIZED OIL ON THE FUNCTION OF HYPOPHYSIS-THYROID SYSTEM AND THE CONTENS OF MIDDLE MOLECULE PEPTIDES IN HEALTHY PEOPLE DEPENDING ON IODINE SUPPLY OF THE BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. ROSTOKA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of iodinized oil (IO on the function of hypophysis-thyroid system and the content of middle molecule peptides (MMP in the blood serum in people of two groups living of biogeochemical zones with different levels of iodine deficiency expression has been investigated. Taking the iodinized oil during 14 days in the dose of 200 μg of iodine daily by the inhabitants of the Tissa-Danube lowland with less expressed iodine deficiency than in highlands, increases iodine dependence of the human body, decreases TSH content and the risk of goitre development, increases the excretion of iodine with urine and after a month’s taking it the mediane ioduria is achieved that corresponds to complete iodine sufficiency. Taking the IO by people constantly living in the Carpathians favours the increase of T3, T4 hormone production, decreases TSH concentration to the norm in people living in better iodine ecological conditions, normalizes MMP production formation in tissues to the level of the inhabitants of lowlands and stimulates the increase of iodine with the urine.

  3. Pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid deseases treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Миколаївна Владимирова

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the increase of endocrine diseases is observed worldwide. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid gland pathologies are the most widespread. Endocrine diseases can be acute or chronic. In some cases, they are life threatening.There are different reasons of thyroid gland pathologies development. Both poor nutrition and poor quality water use, and unfavorable environmental conditions, including radiation, are among them. Iodine deficiency is determined to be one of the main reasons of these diseases.Aim. Determination of the pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid diseases treatment.Methods. Thyroid stimulating action determination (primary screening and model pathology has been carried out by the method of “goiter reaction” in rats at the Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of National University of Pharmacy. Determination of thyroid hormone blood level in rats has been carried out at the Laboratory of Radioactive Endocrinology of the State Institution “Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology NAMS of Ukraine”.Results. According to the research results generalization, correctness of developed algorithms was confirmed; peculiarities of the influence on pathological processes in thyroid, and prospects of implementation and use of herbs and herbal remedies for thyroid diseases prevention and treatment were determined.Conclusion. Obtained experimental data are actual for the modern medicine, and new scientific research, specifying their place in etiology, pathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical course of many diseases, will improve the efficiency of treatment and prevention of thyroid diseases

  4. Iodine Status After Bariatric Surgery-a Prospective 10-Year Report from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousou, Sofia; Carlsson, Lena M S; Eggertsen, Robert; Hulthén, Lena; Jacobson, Peter; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Trimpou, Penelope; Svensson, Per-Arne; Nyström, Helena Filipsson

    2018-02-01

    Bariatric surgery can lead to nutrient deficiencies. Gastric by-pass (GBP) entails restriction and malabsorption, whereas, vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) is only restrictive. The objective of this study is to study whether GBP-patients develop iodine deficiency from malabsorption, and if GBP- and VBG-patients develop lower 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-UIE) than obese non-operated controls (OB-controls) due to lower iodine intake. The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is a prospective, non-randomized study of 4047 obese patients included 1987-2001, who chose bariatric surgery or non-surgical treatment. SOS-groups were compared at baseline, after 2 and 10 years and with population-based subsamples (MONICA-controls). One hundred eighty-eight GBP-patients were matched with 188 VBG-patients and 188 OB-controls and with three subgroups from 412 MONICA-controls. Primary outcome was 24-UIE. Secondary outcomes were iodine intake, iodine supplementation, TSH, FT4, and thyroid morbidity. At baseline, median 24-UIE was higher in GBP-patients, VBG-patients and OB-controls than in MONICA-controls (214, 201, 203 and 137 μg/day, p surgery, GBP- and VBG-patients did not suffer from iodine deficiency, but both groups had lower iodine status than OB-controls. Dietary supplements recommended after bariatric surgery do not need to include iodine, in iodine sufficient countries. clinicaltrials.gov : NCT01479452.

  5. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  6. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  7. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  8. [The changes of processes of free radical oxidation of lipids and proteins, antioxidant defence in rats with hypofunction of the thyroid gland in conditions of iodine and copper deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M; Huranych, T V

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid status, copper balance, correlation of processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL), proteins (POP), antioxidant defence (AOD) were examined in experiments on rats with hypofunction of thyroid gland under iodine monodeficit (HTGI) and combined iodine and copper deficit (HTGI+Cu). It was determined that a combined deficit of microelements is accompanied by a distribution of copper content between different tissues (increase in red blood cell mass and cerebrum, decrease in myocardium), essential changes of indexes of hypotalamo-hypophysis-thyroid axis, oxygen-dependent metabolism, antiradical defense, exacerbating the effects of negative influence of each of them on organism. It was established that HTGI+Cu causes a suppression of oxygen-dependent processes. In thyroid gland, it is shown a decrease of content of dyenic conjugates (DC) by 69,70% , of TBA-reacting products (TBA-RP) by 47,72% in diencephalon, the volume of modified proteins (VMP) - by 37,10-98,98% in the tissues of diencephalons. The results obtained let us to suggest a pivotal role ofmicroelement dysbalance and metabolic mechanisms in pathogenesis of cardiological pathology under thyroid dysfunction. The development of HTGI +Cu exhausts the resources of AOD: decreases the activity of catalase (on 47,05%), superoxide dismutase (on 33,13%), ceruloplasmine (on 33,93%) and saturation of transferrin with iron (on 56,76%) against the background of selective rise in the activity of glu-tationreductase (in 2,8 time) in comparison with the control data. The long-term disturbances ofantyoxidative defence can be the reason of manifestation of oxygendependent processes and the development of pathological changes in separate physiological systems of organism.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  11. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  12. Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; Wesana, Joshua; Makokha, Anselimo; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological trends of iodine-related thyroid disorders: an example from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of thyroid disorders is significantly associated with iodine supply. In 1999, Slovenia increased iodine content in kitchen salt from 10 mg to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kg of salt. According to the WHO criteria, Slovenia shifted from a mildly iodine-deficient country to a country with adequate iodine intake. Ten years after the increase in iodine intake, the incidence of diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy decreased. Now patients with diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy reach older age than the patients before the increase in iodine intake. In addition, patients with thyroid autonomy are less frequently hyperthyroid than ten years ago and iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is less severe. The incidence of highly malignant thyroid carcinoma has also dropped. However, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased, most probably in genetically predisposed individuals. Over the last ten years, many animal and in vitro studies evaluated the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on various aspects of the thyroid function. They mostly studied the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated chemicals, and perchlorate. However, human studies on the effects of EDCs on the thyroid function are very scarce, especially the long-term ones. What they do suggest is that PCBs and dioxins interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones and adversely affect the thyroid function. Many authors agree that iodine deficiency predisposes the thyroid gland to harmful effects of EDCs. Therefore the effects of EDCs in iodine-deficient areas could be more severe than in areas with adequate iodine intake.

  14. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  15. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7–9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.

  16. [Assessment on dietary iodine intake in three areas of Zhejiang province, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-chun; Zhang, Rong-hua; Liu, Li-ping; Gu, Fang; Wu, Wen-qian; Guan, Xu-hui; Li, Xiao-wei

    2012-03-01

    To assess the level of dietary iodine intake in three areas of Zhejiang and the related policy on universal salt iodization in the province. The study involved 497 residents from 180 families living in Hangzhou, Taizhou, Zhoushan cities, representing coastal and inland areas in Zhejiang province in 2009. A total diet study was applied to obtain the typical diet samples at three study areas through food consumption, aggregation, sampling and preparation processes. The contents of iodine in diet samples were determined by tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The amount of dietary iodine intake was calculated by timing the food consumption data and the iodine content in different dietary samples. The safety of dietary iodine intake was evaluated according to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) and tolerable upper intake level (UL) published by the Chinese Nutrition Society in 2001. The dietary iodine intake of reference person in three areas of Zhejiang province was 421.0 µg/d. The levels of P5, P25, median, P75, P90, P95 dietary iodine intake were 145.7 µg/d, 267.6 µg/d, 358.5 µg/d, 495.6 µg/d, 774.1 µg/d and 1273.0 µg/d respectively. Daily dietary iodine intake at RNI, RNI-UL, >UL accounted for 5.2%, 87.5% and 7.2% of all the participants respectively. Without considering the loss through cooking, salt iodine provided 81.6% of the dietary iodine source. The resources of dietary iodine would include vegetables, cereals and marine food, proportionally, as 57.2%, 13.0% and 8.5%, respectively. Participants whose daily dietary iodine intake exceeded the UL level would consume more marine algae products than those whose dietary iodine intakes were lower than RNI or between RNI-UL. Dietary iodine intake among most residents and their average level were among reasonable ranges. Meanwhile, deficiency and excess of iodine intake coexisted. Salt iodine was the main resource of dietary iodine. Participants whose dietary

  17. Thyroid gland protection against radioactive iodine. Fetus and preschool children are more sensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noteboom, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The intake of iodine tablets can prevent the irradiation and accumulation of iodine in the thyroid of humans. The summary of the author's thesis 'Protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine during fetal life and infancy. An experimental approach in chimpanzees' is presented in an edited form. The research was carried out on pregnant and very young chimpanzees. Based on the experimental results recommendations are made for radiation protection for pre-school children and pregnant women. 3 figs., 1 refs

  18. Identification of Organic Iodine Compounds and Their Transformation Products in Edible Iodized Salt Using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lifen; Peng, Yue'e; Chang, Qing; Zhu, Qingxin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-07-05

    The consumption of edible iodized salt is a key strategy to control and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. We herein report the identification of the organic iodine compounds present in different edible iodized salt products using liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 38 organic iodine compounds and their transformation products (TPs) were identified in seaweed iodine salt from China. Our experiments confirmed that the TPs were generated by the replacement of I atoms from organic iodine compounds with Cl atoms. Furthermore, the organic iodine compound contents in 4 seaweed iodine salt samples obtained from different manufacturers were measured, with significant differences in content being observed. We expect that the identification of organic iodine compounds in salt will be important for estimating the validity and safety of edible iodized salt products.

  19. ECONOMICAL BASIS TO ADDRESS MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN DEVELOPING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been called by economists at the World Bank as the “non-human face” of poverty,1 Adults who were malnourished as children earn at least 20% less on average than those who weren’t , 2.Malnutrition is often caused by underlying economics, i.e. the lack of money. Economics is very important in regards to malnutrition; it allows an individual to purchase nutrients. In many places around the world, a lack of money prevents the purchase of a variety of foods. The lack in variety usually leads to micronutrient malnutrition. Economics also decides the production of food in all countries around the world and the ability of a country to overcome difficult times. Thus economics affects ALL people at ALL levels of society, 3.Micronutrient deficiencies also known as ‘hidden hunger’ are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. It is estimated half of anaemia cases are due to iron deficiency , 4.  Almost half of children in low- and middle-income countries – 47% of under-fives are affected by anaemia, impairing cognitive and physical development,5. Iodine deficiency is the greatest single cause of mental retardation and brain damage. Coincidently,  the number of countries in which iodine-deficiency disorders were considered a public health concern reduced by 43% between 1993 and 2007,6.  Zinc deficiency affects children’s health and physical growth; it is also essential for mothers during pregnancy. It is estimated to cause 4% of deaths in pre-school aged children in lower-income countries. 7 . The Global Burden of Disease estimates showed that among the 26 major risk factors of the global burden of disease,8 iron deficiency ranks ninth overall, zinc deficiency is eleventh, and vitamin A deficiency, is thirteenth. Annually each developing country of the world are losing over millions or billions US $ in Gross Domestic Product (GDP to vitamins and minerals deficiencies. But scaling up core

  20. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace S. Marquis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011 was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1 randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2 non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3 prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4 prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies, 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies, 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status, and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status. This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt.

  1. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  2. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  3. Reduced prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) activity eliminates HAI-1 and HAI-2 deficiency-associated developmental defects by preventing matriptase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Roman; Uzzun Sales, Katiuchia; Kosa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Loss of either hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 or -2 is associated with embryonic lethality in mice, which can be rescued by the simultaneous inactivation of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, thereby demonstrating that a matriptase-dependent proteolytic pathway...... is a critical developmental target for both protease inhibitors. Here, we performed a genetic epistasis analysis to identify additional components of this pathway by generating mice with combined deficiency in either HAI-1 or HAI-2, along with genes encoding developmentally co-expressed candidate matriptase...... targets, and screening for the rescue of embryonic development. Hypomorphic mutations in Prss8, encoding the GPI-anchored serine protease, prostasin (CAP1, PRSS8), restored placentation and normal development of HAI-1-deficient embryos and prevented early embryonic lethality, mid-gestation lethality due...

  4. The Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Exertion in 7 – 10 year old School Children of Qom 2001 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sheikholeslam

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesIodine deficiency was a public health problem in Iran before the start of iodine supplementation program in 1989. This study has been conducted in the framework of the national monitoring survey in 2001 to find the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine levels in order to evaluate the effect of national supplementation program on the iodine status of school-aged children in the city of Qom. MethodsIn a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Qom, and the grade of goiter was determined in 600 boys and 600 girls according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren.ResultsGoiter was observed in 26% of children (24.3% of girls and 27.7% of boys. The average urinary iodine level was 15.2 µg/dl. Urinary iodine levels higher than 10 μg/dl was measured in 71.7% and less than 5 µg/dl in 8.1% of children. Urinary iodine levels less than 2 μg/dl has not been observed in any of the cases. No significant difference was observed in prevalence of goiter and the urinary iodine level between males and females, and students in living in urban or rural areas.ConclusionComparison of these results with those of the year 1996 shows that prevalence of goiter has significantly decreased in these students. Also, it shows that in the city of Qom, the urinary iodine levels of schoolchildren fall in the standard range determined by WHO. This indicates that the iodine intake is adequate in the province of Qom. Therefore, this province can be considered as an “iodine deficiency-free” zone.Keywords: Goiter; Goiter Endemic; Iodine.

  5. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  6. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in 35 patients with amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, E.; Aghini-Lombardi, F.; Lippi, F.; Baschieri, L.; Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.; Pinchera, A.

    1985-12-01

    Amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis (AAT) occurs in approximately 10% of patients treated with this iodine rich drug in areas of mild iodine deficiency. The thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) is usually undetectable or very low in iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. In the present study, 35 patients with AAT were evaluated. Twelve patients had no thyroid abnormalities by physical exam and all had 24-hr RAIU less than or equal to 4%. In contrast, nine of 11 patients with AAT and diffuse goiters and eight of 12 patients with AAT and nodular goiters had RAIU values greater than 8%. In patients with AAT and goiter it appears possible that the thyroid fails to adapt normally to the excess iodide load, resulting in an inappropriately high RAIU in the presence of excess plasma iodine.

  7. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  8. Prevention of exacerbations in patients with COPD and vitamin D deficiency through vitamin D supplementation (PRECOVID): a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiq, R.; Aleva, F.E.; Schrumpf, J.A.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Taube, C.; Daniels, J.M.A.; Lips, P.; Bet, P.M.; Hiemstra, P.S.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; den Heijer, M.; de Jongh, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation, but is increasingly studied for its potential immunomodulatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in patients with COPD. Previous studies have not demonstrated a beneficial effect

  9. Prevention of exacerbations in patients with COPD and vitamin D deficiency through vitamin D supplementation (PRECOVID): a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiq, R.; Aleva, F.E.; Schrumpf, J.A.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Taube, C.; Daniels, J.M.; Lips, P.; Bet, P.M.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Heijer, M. den; Jongh, R.T. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation, but is increasingly studied for its potential immunomodulatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in patients with COPD. Previous studies have not demonstrated a beneficial effect

  10. Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by methionine without lowering homocysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Although impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely believed to account for this association, how folate deficiency impairs cognition is uncertain. To better define the role of folate ...

  11. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  12. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Iodine Through Urinary Iodine Screening Among Local Children and Adolescents After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Watanobe, Hajime; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Chiaki; Ochi, Sae; Leppold, Claire; Kinoshita, Hirokatsu; Kato, Shigeaki; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation. However, little information is available on the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011. In order to assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and the prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima, were evaluated. A total of 4410 children and adolescents with a median age of 10 years at examination underwent UIC testing between October 2012 and October 2015. Calculated for all the participants, the median UIC level was 204 μg/L (range 25-21,100 μg/L). There were 133 (3.0%), 732 (16.6%), and 1472 (33.4%) participants with UIC levels of nutritional iodine status, no participants were severely iodine deficient (<20 μg/L), but 16.6% of the population were mildly (50-100 μg/L) or moderately (20-50 μg/L) iodine deficient. While no significant difference in UIC was noted between those who did and did not increase dietary iodine intake after the accident (p = 0.93), there were significant differences by year (p < 0.01), school level (p < 0.001), and residential area at the time of the accident (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the children and adolescents examined had a sufficient amount of iodine during the period 1.5-4.5 years after the nuclear accident. In addition to the differences in the scale and the countermeasures undertaken between the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, differences in dietary iodine intake might have played an additional role in resulting in the reportedly different radiation doses to the thyroid between the two nuclear accidents.

  13. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Shabbir, I.; Hussain, R.; Islam, M.U.; Aasim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  14. Can an Educational Intervention Improve Iodine Nutrition Status in Pregnant Women? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Parisa; Hamzavi Zarghani, Najmeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    Because of their increased need for iodine, pregnant women are among the high-risk groups for iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the iodine nutrition status of pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 pregnant women were randomly selected from five healthcare centers in the southern region of Tehran, the capital of Iran. In the intervention group, pregnant women received a four-month educational program, which included two face-to-face educational sessions, using a researcher-designed educational pamphlet in the second and third trimesters, and two follow-up telephone calls. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and four months after the intervention. At baseline, there were significant associations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.38, p = 0.03) between practice and UIC (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) and between UIC and iodine content of salt (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Although a significant difference was found in mean KAP scores between the two groups after the educational intervention, scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with controls (p educational intervention increasing KAP among women regarding the importance of iodine and iodized salt consumption during pregnancy, their iodine status did not improve. Considering the main socio-environmental determinants of iodine deficiency, in particular, the monitoring of salt fortification, prescribing iodine containing supplements as well as improving health literacy in pregnant women seem essential strategies.

  15. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  16. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  17. Interrelationship between iodine nutritional status of lactating mothers and their absolutely breast-fed infants in coastal districts of Gangetic West Bengal in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, N; Samanta, S K; Chakraborty, A; Chandra, N K; Chandra, A K

    2018-01-01

    Iodine nutritional status of 128 lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants (1-3 months) from iodine-replete villages during post-salt iodization period was evaluated. Mothers' urine, blood, and breast milk (BM) and infants' urine and blood were collected and analyzed for iodine and serum FT 4 and TSH estimation. Mothers' and infants' age, parity, occupation, education, and household income were recorded. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of infants was 250 μg/L, indicating their iodine intake was more than adequate. Mothers' median UIC was 185 μg/L, indicating adequate iodine nutrition; however, 13.28% had mild to severe deficiency. Median breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) was 230 μg/L, which was more than their median UIC 185 μg/L. In iodine-deficient mothers, positive correlation was found between mothers' and infants' serum FT 4 and TSH levels, and negative correlation was found between mothers' and infants' serum FT 4 and TSH levels in excessive iodine nutrition group. Iodine intake of breast-fed infants was at the limit of above requirement, and they are possibly at the risk of excess iodine intake. In iodine deficient and excessive iodine intake mothers, their infants' serum FT 4 and TSH are independent on their iodine nutritional status but dependent on thyroid hormone profile of their mothers but differently. What is Known: • A median urinary iodine of 100 μg/L is used to define adequate iodine intake of lactating mothers and children < 2 years. However, adequate iodine intake in terms of urinary iodine of infants of age 1-3 months is not known. What is New: • Iodine intake of absolutely breast-fed infants (1-3 months) was more than adequate, though their mother's intake was adequate as breast milk contains more iodine than urine. The infants of iodine deficient and excessive iodine intake mothers, infants' hormonal profile is independent of their iodine nutritional status but dependent on their mothers thyroid hormone

  18. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Agronomic Iodine Biofortification: A SWOT-AHP Analysis in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olum, Solomon; Gellynck, Xavier; Okello, Collins; Webale, Dominic; Odongo, Walter; Ongeng, Duncan; De Steur, Hans

    2018-03-24

    Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders' appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings show that stakeholders ( n = 56) are generally positive about agronomic iodine biofortification in Uganda, as its strengths and opportunities outweighed weaknesses and threats. Cultural acceptance and effectiveness are considered the most important strengths while the high IDD prevalence rate and the availability of iodine deficient soils are key opportunities for further developing agronomic iodine biofortification. Environmental concerns about synthetic fertilizers as well as the time needed to supply iodine were considered crucial weaknesses. The limited use of fertilizer in Uganda was the main threat. While this study provides insight into important issues and priorities for iodine biofortification technology in Uganda, including differences in stakeholder views, the application of the SWOT-AHP method will guide future researchers and health planners conducting stakeholder analysis in similar domains.

  19. Effect of 131-iodine therapy on Grave ophthalmopathy: How to prevent?; Risque d'ophtalmopathie et iode 131: comment preparer les patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duron, F. [Service d' endocrinologie, hopital Saint-Antoine, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The propositions to prepare the patients to ira-therapy are as follow: to try to get the smokers to stop tobacco; to get euthyroidism before the treatment; to avoid ira-therapy for the patients bearers of high title of antibodies ( but often, they are in failure of medical treatment and these ones to who it is proposed a radical treatment; to avoid hypothyroidism by quick establishment (possible choice of two weeks) of a treatment by thyroxine; to counter to ira-therapy for patients reached by severe Basedow orbitopathy; to treat preventively the patients bearers of moderated basedow orbitopathy by corticoids, according to the scheme proposed by Bartalena and al. (0.5 mg/kg of prednisone 48 hours before the treatment and the first following month, then at graduated dose on two months) or an other one; however, these propositions must be validated by prospective studies made on a large scale and including reproducible and homogeneous criteria of evaluation like these ones proposed by the European group 'European group on graves orbitopathy' (E.U.G.O.G.O). (N.C.)

  20. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  1. Systematic review of studies evaluating urinary iodine concentration as a predictor of 24-hour urinary iodine excretion for estimating population iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the usefulness of "spot" urine iodine concentrations (UICs in predicting 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE for estimating average population iodine intake. METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted for articles published through 19 May 2013 in MEDLINE (from 1950, EMBASE (from 1980, and the Cochrane Library (from 1993 using the terms "urinary excretion (timed or spot or random and (24 h or 24 hour, iodine (iodine deficiency, iodine (intake," and "urine (timed, spot, random, 24-hour." Full-text articles about studies that examined > 40 healthy human subjects and measured UIE using the 24-hour urine collection method and UIC and/or UIE using one alternative method (spot (random, timed, and "overnight" (first morning urine, fasting or not fasting were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: The review included data from 1 434 participants across the six studies that met the inclusion criteria. The main statistical methods for comparing data from the 24-hour urine collections with the values obtained from the alternative method(s were either regression (β or correlation (r coefficients and concordance analysis through Bland-Altman plots. The urine samples collected using the alternative methods were subject to greater intra-individual and inter-individual variability than the 24-hour urine collections. There was a wide range in coefficient values for the comparisons between 24-hour URE measured in 24-hour urine collection and 24-hour UIE estimated using the alternative sampling methods. No alternative sampling method (spot, timed, or "overnight" was appropriate for estimating 24-hour UIE. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this systematic review suggest current data on UICs as a means of predicting 24-hour UIE for estimating population sodium intake are inadequate and highlight the need for further methodological investigations.

  2. Povidone-Iodine-Based Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyi; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Xinjie; Gao, Yangyang; Liu, Wenxin; Chen, Wanjun; Dong, Alideertu; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2017-08-09

    As microbial contamination is becoming more and more serious, antibacterial agents play an important role in preventing and removing bacterial pathogens from microbial pollution in our daily life. To solve the issues with water solubility and antibacterial stability of PVP-I 2 (povidone-iodine) as a strong antibacterial agent, we successfully obtain hydrophobic povidone-iodine nanoparticles (povidone-iodine NPs) by a two-step method related to the advantage of nanotechnology. First, the synthesis of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles, i.e., P(NVP-MMA) NPs, was controlled by tuning a feed ratio of NVP to MMA. Then, the products P(NVP-MMA) NPs were allowed to undergo a complexation reaction with iodine, resulting in the formation of a water-insoluble antibacterial material, povidone-iodine NPs. It is found that the feed ratio of NVP to MMA has an active effect on morphology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of the P(NVP-MMA) copolymer after some technologies, such as SEM, DLS, elemental analysis, 1 H NMR, GPC, and the contact angle test, were used in the characterizations. The antibacterial property of povidone-iodine NPs was investigated by using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as model bacteria with the colony count method. Interestingly, three products, such as glue, ink, and dye, after the incorporation of povidone-iodine NPs, show significant antibacterial properties. It is believed that, with the advantage of nanoscale morphology, the final povidone-iodine NPs should have great potential for utilization in various fields where antifouling and antibacterial properties are highly required.

  3. Deficiency of NOX1 or NOX4 Prevents Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lan

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX play a key role in liver injury and fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that GKT137831, a dual NOX1/4 inhibitor, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice as well as pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs as well as hepatocyte apoptosis. The effect of NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency in liver fibrosis is unclear, and has never been directly compared. HSCs are the primary myofibroblasts in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of NOX1 and NOX4 in liver fibrosis, and investigated whether NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation. Mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 to induce liver fibrosis. Deficiency of either NOX1 or NOX4 attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after CCl4 compared to wild-type mice. NOX1 or NOX4 deficiency reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS production in mice with liver fibrosis. NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency are approximately equally effective in preventing liver injury in the mice. The NOX1/4 dual inhibitor GKT137831 suppressed ROS production as well as inflammatory and proliferative genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, or sonic hedgehog (Shh in primary mouse HSCs. Furthermore, the mRNAs of proliferative and pro-fibrotic genes were downregulated in NOX1 and NOX4 knock-out activated HSCs (cultured on plastic for 5 days. Finally, NOX1 and NOX4 protein levels were increased in human livers with cirrhosis compared with normal controls. Thus, NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, including the direct activation of HSC.

  4. Iodine status in schoolchildren living in northeast Italy: the importance of iodized-salt use and milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watutantrige Fernando, S; Barollo, S; Nacamulli, D; Pozza, D; Giachetti, M; Frigato, F; Redaelli, M; Zagotto, G; Girelli, M E; Mantero, F; Mian, C

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the study were: (i) to determine iodine status of schoolchildren living in northeast Italy; (ii) to assess dietary habits and iodine status and (iii) to investigate the level of knowledge concerning iodine sufficiency and ways to ameliorate iodine status. One thousand three hundred seventy-five consecutive 12-13 year-old completed questionnaires collecting demographic data and information about the use of iodized salt and food frequency habits. Iodine concentration in urine samples (UIC) and in commercially available milk samples has been measured. The median UIC was found to be 81 μg/l (95% confidence interval (CI) 74-87); 40% of the subjects had an UIC of ≥ 100 μg/l. Iodine deficiency was prevalent in subjects living in hilly areas. Median iodine concentration in milk was 264 μg/l. Only the combined use of iodized salt plus daily milk normalized UIC, resulting into a median value of 108 μg/l. A logistic regression model confirmed independent associations between low UIC and low intake of milk, use of non-iodized salt and geographical location (Pimportance of iodine. Northeast Italy is still characterized by mild iodine deficiency. An adequate iodine status was achieved only when iodized salt was combined with daily milk intake. The national iodine prophylaxis program has led to greater consumption of iodized salt and, it is now used in 60-70% of the Italian households. The low level of awareness highlights the need for public programs to promote knowledge and efforts to improve iodine status.

  5. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  6. Assessment of iodine nutrition in pregnant north Indian subjects in three trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Grewal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the iodine status of pregnant women, using median urinary iodine concentration (MUI as the measure of outcome, to document the impact of advancing gestation on the MUI in normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the MUI in casual urine samples from 50 pregnant subjects of each trimester and 50 age-matched non-pregnant controls. Results: The median (range of urinary iodine concentration (UIC in pregnant women was 304 (102-859 μg/L and only 2% of the subjects had prevalence of values under 150 μg/L (iodine insufficiency. With regard to the study cohort, median (range UIC in the first, second, and third trimesters was 285 (102-457, 318 (102-805, and 304 (172-859 μg/L, respectively. Differences between the first, second, and third trimesters were not statistically significant. The MUI in the controls (305 μg/L was not statistically different from the study cohort. Conclusion: The pregnant women had no iodine deficiency, rather had high median urinary iodine concentrations indicating more than adequate iodine intake. Larger community-based studies are required in iodine-sufficient populations, to establish gestation-appropriate reference ranges for UIC in pregnancy.

  7. Large differences in incidences of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism associated with a small difference in iodine intake: A prospective comparative register-based population survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.

    2002-01-01

    of the iodine intake levels where the shifts in incidences occur is important for planning of iodine supplementation programs. A computer-based register linked to thyroid diagnostic laboratories was used to continuously identify all new cases of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism in two population cohorts...... toxic goiter. The optimal level of iodine intake to prevent thyroid disease may be a relatively narrow range around the recommended daily iodine intake of 150 mug....

  8. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  13. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aceves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In addition to being a component of thyroid hormone (TH, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine.Methods and Results: Studies from our laboratory shown that in preclinical (cell culture, induced animal cancer and xenographs and clinical studies (mammary cancer protocol, molecular iodine (I2 supplementation exerts suppressive effects on implantation, development, and progression of cancer neoplasias. These effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine modulates the immune/tumor response and through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ triggering apoptotic and/or differentiation pathways.Conclusion: The absence of side effects and the easy availability and handling of I2 have allowed the establishment of clinical protocols to utilize I2 supplementation as an adjuvant in therapies against cancers that take up iodine.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Aceves C, Anguiano B. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3401.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  7. Development of Gaseous Iodine Generation and Sampling Systems Operated under High Pressure and Temperature Conditions for CFVS Performance Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Jong Chan; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Containment Filtered Venting System (hereafter CFVS) is one of the major features to prevent the damage of the containment integrity from the severe accident such as a station blackout. The main functions of CFVS are the filtration of particulate and gaseous form of fission products from the containment. In severe accidents, elemental iodine and organic iodides are main gaseous iodine species in the containment building of nuclear power plant. One of the important purposes of CFVS is to minimize the risk caused by the release of fission products such as radioactive materials. For these reason, the experiment of iodine scrubbing efficiency is very important performance parameter for the CFVS. Generally, Sublimation is an easy way to make gaseous elemental iodine in this system. In elemental iodine generation system, the system can control the pressure and temperature to make sublimation condition of iodine by argon gas and circulating thermostat. Moreover, the elemental iodine vapor pressure is estimated by data sheet shown in Reference 2. The organic iodine such as CH{sub 3}I is generated with two-fluid nozzle technique. The two-fluid nozzle can generate fine CH3I droplets which are easily evaporated from liquid to gas. Elemental iodine sampling system has online and off-line sampling scrubbing columns. In this study, the iodine generation and sampling systems is developed to be used in the iodine scrubbing test for the CFVS. The system can generate the gaseous elemental iodine and organic iodide to be injected into test section at high pressure and temperature conditions. The sampling system can sample the gaseous elemental In this study, the iodine generation and sampling systems is developed to be used in the iodine scrubbing test for the CFVS. The system can generate the gaseous elemental iodine and organic iodide to be injected into test section at high pressure and temperature conditions. The sampling system can sample the gaseous elemental.

  8. Immobilization of Dystrophin and Laminin α2-Chain Deficient Zebrafish Larvae In Vivo Prevents the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are often caused by genetic alterations in the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex or its extracellular ligands. These structures are associated with the cell membrane and provide mechanical links between the cytoskeleton and the matrix. Mechanical stress is considered a pathological mechanism and muscle immobilization has been shown to be beneficial in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy. The zebrafish enables novel and less complex models to examine the effects of extended immobilization or muscle relaxation in vivo in different dystrophy models. We have examined effects of immobilization in larvae from two zebrafish strains with muscular dystrophy, the Sapje dystrophin-deficient and the Candyfloss laminin α2-chain-deficient strains. Larvae (4 days post fertilization, dpf of both mutants have significantly lower active force in vitro, alterations in the muscle structure with gaps between muscle fibers and altered birefringence patterns compared to their normal siblings. Complete immobilization (18 hrs to 4 dpf was achieved using a small molecular inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction (BTS, 50 μM. This treatment resulted in a significantly weaker active contraction at 4 dpf in both mutated larvae and normal siblings, most likely reflecting a general effect of immobilization on myofibrillogenesis. The immobilization also significantly reduced the structural damage in the mutated strains, showing that muscle activity is an important pathological mechanism. Following one-day washout of BTS, muscle tension partly recovered in the Candyfloss siblings and caused structural damage in these mutants, indicating activity-induced muscle recovery and damage, respectively.

  9. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador.

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Haemoglobin Drop after Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Use for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy in Ghana - A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Owusu

    Full Text Available Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP is still the only recommended antimalarial for use in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp in some malaria endemic countries including Ghana. SP has the potential to cause acute haemolysis in G6PD deficient people resulting in significant haemoglobin (Hb drop but there is limited data on post SP-IPTp Hb drop. This study determined the difference, if any in proportions of women with significant acute haemoglobin drop between G6PD normal, partial deficient and full deficient women after SP-IPTp.Prospectively, 1518 pregnant women who received SP for IPTp as part of their normal antenatal care were enrolled. Their G6PD status were determined at enrollment followed by assessments on days 3, 7,14 and 28 to document any adverse effects and changes in post-IPTp haemoglobin (Hb levels. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for their mean Hb (10.3 g/dL for G6PD normal, 10.8 g/dL for G6PD partial deficient and 10.8 g/dL for G6PD full defect women.The prevalence of G6PD full defect was 2.3% and 17.0% for G6PD partial defect. There was no difference in the proportions with fractional Hb drop ≥ 20% as compared to their baseline value post SP-IPTp among the 3 groups on days 3, 7, 14. The G6PD full defect group had the highest median fractional drop at day 7. There was a weak negative correlation between G6PD activity and fractional Hb drop. There was no statistical difference between the three groups in the proportions of those who started the study with Hb ≥ 8g/dl whose Hb level subsequently fell below 8g/dl post-SP IPTp. No study participant required transfusion or hospitalization for severe anaemia.There was no significant difference between G6PD normal and deficient women in proportions with significant acute haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp and lower G6PD enzyme activity was not strongly associated with significant acute drug-induced haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp but a larger

  11. Investigation on efficiency of stable iodine distribution around Golfech nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Simon, J.; Campana Briault, H.; Fenolland, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background. In order to prevent thyroid cancer radio induced during civil nuclear accident french regulations plan stable iodine distribution for populations living near nuclear power stations. We evaluate availability of stable iodine and understanding of such measure with investigation around Golfech nuclear power station. Methods. In 2001, 1148 families living in a 10 km perimeter around power station were questioned through their schooled child. Our anonymous questionnaire (22 questions, 91 items) was linked with stable iodine availability, organ protection, most exposed persons, dosage and time of stable iodine ingestion. Results. 72,1 % families replied. Among them, 60,8% could easily and quickly find stable iodine in case of emergency, 87,8% know that such measure is to protect thyroid, 80,5% know that children and pregnant women (62,7%) are the most exposed people, 82,3% know that such ingestion is allowed by Prefect order. Conclusion. Answer rate and stable iodine prophylaxis knowledge are satisfactory. On the other hand, in case of necessity about 40% of the concerned families don't have a rapid access to stable iodine, which will forced authorities to distribute as a matter of urgency supplementary stable iodine. Statistical analysis of the answers demonstrate that the most iodine prophylaxis ignorant people are the most refractory to this approach. (author)

  12. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  13. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake Necesidad de programas coordinados para mejorar la salud a escala mundial mediante la optimización de la ingesta de sal y yodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norm R. C. Campbell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs.El alto contenido de sal en la dieta es una causa principal de incremento de la presión arterial, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte a escala mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha recomendado que el consumo de sal sea inferior a 5 g/d, una meta que solo logran una pequeña proporción de personas. La falta de yodo puede causar deficiencia cognoscitiva y

  14. Dual fortification of salt with iodine and iron: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of micronized ferric pyrophosphate and encapsulated ferrous fumarate in southern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Thankachan, P.; Muthayya, S.; Goud, R.B.; Kurpad, A.V.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background:Dual fortification of salt with iodine and iron could be a sustainable approach to combating iodine and iron deficiencies. Objective:We compared the efficacy of dual-fortified salt (DFS) made by using 2 proposed contrasting formulas-one fortifying with iron as micronized ground ferric

  15. Standard for administration of stable iodine pilulae. Standard of the nuclear safety commission, action for accident in TEPCO Fukushima-1 and recent European trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Preventive taking of stable-iodine tablets is effective to avoid thyroid gland disorder due to internal exposure to the radioactive iodine if radioactive iodine is released outside by any nuclear accident. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission proposed the standard of the preventive taking in 2002, and, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the head of the local task force instructed to take on the recommendation from the Commission. Author described the action principle of stable-iodine tablets, present concept for the preventive taking, recent change of the concept in Europe for the preventive taking, and some precepts which have shown in past Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. (J.P.N.)

  16. Deficiency of Cathepsin K prevents inflammation and bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis and reveals its shared osteoimmune role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Wang, Min; Jules, Joel; Zhou, Xuedong; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Using RA and periodontitis mouse models, we demonstrated that RA and periodontitis share many pathological features, such as deregulated cytokine production, increased immune-cell infiltration, increased expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and enhanced osteoclast activity and bone erosion. We revealed that genetic deletion of Cathepsin K (Ctsk) caused a radical reduction in inflammation and bone erosion within RA joint capsules and periodontal lesions, a drastic decrease in immune-cell infiltration, and a significant reduction in osteoclasts, macrophages, dendritic and T-cells. Deficiency of Ctsk greatly decreased the expression of TLR-4, 5, and 9 and their downstream cytokines in periodontal gingival epithelial lesions and synovial RA lesions. Hence, Ctsk may be targeted to treat RA and periodontitis simultaneously due to its shared osteoimmune role. PMID:25896020

  17. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  18. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  19. Association between ε2/3/4, Promoter Polymorphism (−491A/T, −427T/C, and −219T/G) at the Apolipoprotein E Gene, and Mental Retardation in Children from an Iodine Deficiency Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuchang; Wang, Yunliang; Wang, Yan; Qin, Wei; Xing, Qinghe; Qian, Xueqing; Guo, Tingwei; Gao, Xiaocai; He, Lin; Gao, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at apolipoprotein E (ApoE) have been linked with late onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease and declining normative cognitive ability in elder people, but we are unclear about their relationship with cognition in children. Results. We studied −491A/T, −427T/C, and −219G/T promoter polymorphisms and ε2/ε3/ε4 at ApoE among children with mental retardation (MR, n = 130), borderline MR (n = 124), and controls (n = 334) from an iodine deficiency area in China. The allelic and genotypic distribution of individual locus did not significantly differ among three groups with Mantel-Haenszel χ 2 test (P > 0.05). However, frequencies of haplotype of −491A/−427T/−219T/ε4 were distributed as MR > borderline MR > controls (P uncorrected = 0.004), indicating that the presence of this haplotype may increase the risk of disease. Conclusions. In this large population-based study in children, we did not find any significant association between single locus of the four common ApoE polymorphisms (−491A/T, −427T/C, −219T/G, and ε2/3/4) and MR or borderline MR. However, we found that the presence of ATTε4 haplotype was associated with an increased risk of MR and borderline MR. Our present work may help enlarge our knowledge of the cognitive role of ApoE across the lifespan and the mechanisms of human cognition. PMID:24790992

  20. [Recommendations for prevention of iron deficiency. Delay cow's milk intake as a beverage to infants until 10-12 months of age!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I; Gebre-Medhin, M; Hernell, O; Jakobsonn, I; Michaelsen, K F; Samuelson, G

    1999-05-05

    Breast-feeding is to be encouraged during the first six months of life. Iron deficiency is extremely rare in exclusively breast-fed infants during this period. Any cow-milk based formula used should be iron-fortified. During the second half of infancy, the iron content of weaning foods is important in preventing iron deficiency. Indeed, owing to the low iron content of dairy products, it is hard to compose a weaning diet sufficiently rich in iron to meet the demands of rapidly growing infants, if it is to include substantial amounts of cow milk, sour milk or yoghurt. Accordingly, the Paediatric Committee on Nutrition and Health, of the Swedish Paediatric Association and the National Food Administration, recommend delaying the introduction of cow's milk and cow-milk products until the infant is 10-12 months of age. Until then, breast-feeding, and the use of iron-fortified formula or gruel with modified protein and sodium content are encouraged; iron-fortified porridges of softer consistency can be prepared to circumvent the need of extra fluids, or porridge can be served with breast milk or iron-fortified formula; small amounts of milk may be used for cooking purposes.

  1. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  2. Direct evaluation of thyroid [sup 127]I and iodine overload: in vivo study by X-ray fluorescence and in vitro by SIMS microscopy. Evaluation directe de l'[sup 127]I thyroidien en situation de surcharge iodee: etude in vivo par fluorescence X et in vitro par microscopie ionique analytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briancon, C.; Jeusset, J.; Halpern, S.; Fragu, P. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France))

    1992-01-01

    This review describes the two methods which allow direct estimation of stable iodine ([sup 127] I) within thyroid gland either in vivo by X-ray fluorescence or in vitro by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) microscopy on tissue section. Although the measurement of thyroid iodine content (TIC) by X-ray fluorescence has little relevance for routine explorations of thyroid function, this is a valuable method for understanding complex pathophysiological conditions such as the thyroid adaptation to iodine overload. On the other hand, SIMS microscopy which is able to characterize the functional activity of thyroid tissue by measuring [sup 127] I concentration within the thyroid follicles, can be used to determine the extent to which exogeneous iodine affects the regulation of iodine within the thyroid follicles. Both methods were used to evaluate the quantitative changes in thyroid [sup 127] I induced by amiodarone iodine overload. TIC measurements shows that hyperthyroidism occured only in patients who increased their iodine stores, while the patients who developed hypothyroidism has low iodine stores. The SIMS microscopy data obtained in mice demonstrated that the thyroid response to amiodarone is related to dietary iodine intake leading to an increase in local iodine concentration in iodine deficient mice and to a decrease in iodine supplemented mice. This response is specific and different from that induced by an iodine overload. These results could explain that hyperthyroidism with high thyroid iodine content occured in areas with low thyroid iodine content in areas with a supplemented iodine diet.

  3. Iodine laser program: SAIL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The iodine laser is the most highly developed near-infrared gas laser available for large-scale laser development. Its fast-repetition-rate potential and prospects for improvements in efficiency make it a primary laser candidate to meet mid-term laser-fusion requirements. It may have adequate efficiency for commercial laser-fusion applications in a hybrid fission/fusion reactor, for fusion-fuel breeding and for laser-fusion power generation using complex pellets. Research progress is reported on: (1) SAIL-1; (2) iodine laser-code development; (3) collision and radiation coupling for iodine atoms; (4) development of multilevel Block-Maxwell equations; (5) approximations for iodine amplifiers; and (6) studies based on the ISTAR code

  4. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  5. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  6. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution. PMID:7051944

  7. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  8. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; r s  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.

  10. Processing method and device for iodine adsorbing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Shiga, Reiko.

    1997-01-01

    An iodine adsorbing material adsorbing silver compounds is reacted with a reducing gas, so that the silver compounds are converted to metal silver and stored. Then, the silver compounds are not melted or recrystallized even under a highly humid condition, accordingly, peeling of the adsorbed materials from a carrier can be prevented, and the iodine adsorbing material can be stored stably. Since the device is disposed in an off gas line for discharging off gases from a nuclear power facility, the iodine adsorbing material formed by depositing silver halides to the carrier is contained, and a reducing or oxidizing gas is supplied to the vessel as required, and silver halides can be converted to metal silver or the metal silver can be returned to silver halide. (T.M.)

  11. Iodine recovery from brine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weetall, H.H.; Hertl, W.

    1985-10-15

    Iodine has been produced by the reaction of iodide with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the catalyst ferrous sulfate. The presence of high concentrations of chloride or bromide in both natural and synthetic brines have no effect on the reaction specificity or kinetics. This approach is potentially a less caustic method for the recovery of iodine from brine as compared to the most commonly used chlorine displacement methods.

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Native versus Migrant Mothers and Newborns in the North of Italy: A Call to Act with a Stronger Prevention Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cadario

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status during pregnancy is related to neonatal vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Aim of this study was to investigate 25OHD levels in maternal serum and in neonatal blood spots in native and migrant populations living in Novara (North Italy, 45°N latitude.We carried out a cross sectional study from April 1st 2012 to March 30th 2013, in a tertiary Care Center. Maternal blood samples after delivery and newborns' blood spots were analyzed for 25OHD levels in 533 pairs. Maternal country of origin, skin phototype, vitamin D dietary intake and supplementation during pregnancy were recorded. Multivariate regression analysis, showed a link between neonatal and maternal 25OHD levels (R-square:0.664. Severely deficient 25OHD values (<25 nmol/L were found in 38% of Italian and in 76.2% of migrant's newborns (p <0.0001, and in 18% of Italian and 48,4% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001 while 25OHD deficiency (≥25 and <50 nmol/L was shown in 40.1% of Italian and 21.7% of migrant's newborns (p <0.0001, and in 43.6% of Italian and 41.3% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001. Italian newborns and mothers had higher 25OHD levels (34.4±19.2 and 44.9±21.2 nmol/L than migrants (17.7±13.7 and 29.7±16.5 nmol/L; p<0.0001. A linear decrease of 25OHD levels was found with increasing skin pigmentation (phototype I 42.1 ±18.2 vs phototype VI 17.9±10.1 nmol/l; p<0.0001. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in higher 25OHD values both in mothers and in their newborns (p<0.0001.Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy and in newborns is frequent especially among migrants. A prevention program in Piedmont should urgently be considered and people identified as being at risk should be closely monitored. Vitamin D supplementation should be taken into account when considering a preventative health care policy.

  13. Kinetic cartography of radioisotopes of iodine in the thyroid follicles of the new-born rats under low or standard iodine diet: Analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS50): Contribution to the study of the consequences of Chernobyl; Cartographie cinetique des radioisotopes de l'iode dans le follicule thyroidien du rat nouveau-ne carence en iode ou non. Analyse par spectrometrie de masse d'ions secondaires (NanoSIMS50). Contribution a l'etude des consequences de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbast, M

    2008-03-15

    The most significant impact of the Chernobylsk accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among children in contaminated areas. To estimate the radiation dose provided by radioiodine released after Chernobylsk (iodine 131 and short-lived isotopes, iodine 132, 133, 134, 135), we used new-born rats to mimic the situation of fallout contamination (young age and iodine deficiency). The pups, under low iodine diet and under standard diet, were contaminated with {sup 129}I at ages varying between 2 to 15 days and sacrificed 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8 days after contamination. The variation in intra colloidal iodine distribution from 1 hour to 8 days was performed using a new ionic nano probe (NanoSIMS50). This method permits to discriminate between the newly incorporated iodine (129) and the initial pool of iodine (127). SIMS observations permit to heterogeneous intra and inter follicular distribution of {sup 129}I. Iodine deficiency increases the absorbed amounts of iodine by a factor 10. Dosimetric estimations show an important contribution of short-lived radioiodine to the total thyrocyte dose. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the age and the iodine deficiency accelerate the absorption of iodine in follicles and that the contribution of short-lived iodine connate ne neglected. (author)

  14. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  15. Iodine filters in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1977-04-01

    On the basis of calculated and recorded release rates of nuclear power plants, the significance of iodine releases in the invironmental impact relative to other nuclides is discussed. The release pathways for iodine in LWR-type reactors and the efficiency of various methods to lower the activity release are given. The airborne species of iodine are discussed with regard to their removal in iodine sorption filters and environmental impact. The technical status of iodine removal by means of iodine sorption filters is studied for normal operation and accident conditions in nuclear power stations on the basis of the data given in the relevant literature for the efficiency of a number of iodine sorption materials. The applicability of concepts for ventilation and containment and their influence on iodine filter systems are discussed. Design, structure, and testing of iodine sorption filters are treated in detail; recommendations for design are given, and failure sources are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  16. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...

  17. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  18. The current salt iodization strategy in Kyrgyzstan ensures sufficient iodine nutrition among school-age children but not pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanalieva, Roza B; Mamutova, Svetlana; van der Haar, Frits

    2010-05-01

    Although goitre and cretinism were brought under control in Kyrgyzstan during the 1960s by centrally directed iodized salt supplies, iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) had made a comeback when the USSR broke up in 1991. Upon independence, Kyrgyzstan started developing its own salt processing industry and by 2001 the Government enacted a law on IDD elimination, mandating universal salt iodization (USI) at 25-55 mg/kg. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the USI strategy on the iodine consumption, iodine status and burden of IDD in the population of Kyrgyzstan. A national, population-representative survey during autumn 2007 collected household salt and urine samples of school-age children and pregnant women for quantitative iodine measurements. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasound. The median iodine content in household salt was 11.2 mg/kg; 97.9 % of salt samples were iodized, but only 39.5 % had >or=15 mg iodine/kg. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 114 microg/l in children did not differ from the UIC of 111 microg/l in pregnant women. Thyroid volume in pregnant women increased with the duration of pregnancy. Strong relationships existed between salt iodine levels and the UIC values in children and women. The iodine nutrition status of the Kyrgyz population is highly responsive to household salt iodization. Although the results in children suggest adequate iodine nutrition, the iodine consumption among pregnant women did not assure their dietary requirements. In-depth analysis of the survey data suggest that excess iodine intake is not likely to become a public health concern in Kyrgyzstan when the salt supply meets agreed standards.

  19. Regular moderate or intense exercise prevents depression-like behavior without change of hippocampal tryptophan content in chronically tryptophan-deficient and stressed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosung Lee

    Full Text Available Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity has not been clarified, in part because the therapeutic response to antidepressant drugs has a time lag in spite of the rapid increase of brain 5-HT upon administration of these drugs. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of brain 5-HT to the antidepressant effect of exercise. Mice were fed a tryptophan-deficient diet and stressed using chronic unpredictable stress (CUS for 4 weeks with or without the performance of either moderate or intense exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week. The findings demonstrated that the onset of depression-like behavior is attributable not to chronic reduction of 5-HT but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with an improvement of adult hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and without the recovery of 5-HT. Concomitantly, the mice that exercised showed increased hippocampal noradrenaline. Regular exercise prevents the impairment of not long-term memory but short-term memory in a 5-HT-reduced state. Together, these findings suggest that: (1 chronic reduction of brain 5-HT may not contribute to the onset of depression-like behavior; (2 regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents the onset of chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior independent of brain 5-HT and dependent on brain adrenaline; and (3 regular exercise prevents chronic tryptophan reduction-induced impairment of not long-term but short-term memory.

  20. Iodine nutrition in elementary state schools of Queretaro, Mexico: correlations between urinary iodine concentration with global nutrition status and social gap index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa A; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Leal-García, Luisa; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis

    2013-08-01

    To estimate median urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and to correlate it with global nutrition indicators and social gap index (SGI) in 50 elementary state schools from 10 municipalities in the State of Queretaro, Mexico. 1,544 students were enrolled and an above of requirements of iodine intake was found (median UIC of 297 µg/L). Iodine status was found as deficient, adequate, more than adequate and excessive in 2, 4, 19 and 25 schools, respectively. Seventy seven percent of table salt samples showed adequate iodine content (20-40 ppm), while 9.6% of the samples had low iodine content (school were positively correlated with medians of body mass index (BMI) by using the standard deviation score (SDS) (r = 0.47; p school were negatively correlated with stunting prevalence (r = -0.39; p = 005) and social gap index (r = -0.36; p coexistence between the two extremes of iodine intake (insufficient and excessive). To our knowledge, the observed positive correlation between UIC and overweight and obesity has not been described before, and could be explained by the availability and consumption of snack food rich in energy and iodized salt.

  1. Control of the amount of free molecular iodine in iodine germicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J; Panicucci, R; Duan, Y; Dinehart, K; Murphy, J; Kessler, J; Gottardi, W

    1997-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase has been used to generate iodine compositions that comprised principally free molecular iodine. The concentration of free molecular iodine in these enzyme-based compositions ranged from 44 to 63% of the thiosulphate titratable iodine; this is substantially higher than the corresponding value for the povidone-iodine preparation betadine. The biocidal efficacy of these compositions was proportional to the concentration of free molecular iodine. Iodine compositions with relatively low total iodine concentrations but high levels of free molecular iodine (20-175 ppm) killed Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Bacillus subtilis more rapidly than betadine. The effects of normal saline and these enzyme-based iodine compositions on the rate of epidermal regeneration in superficial swine wounds were comparable. These results suggest that an effective germicide containing a high level of molecular iodine need not be irritating or toxic.

  2. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants: lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselt, P.M. van; Koning, T.J. de; Vries, E. de

    2008-01-01

    in infants with biliary atresia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From Dutch and Danish national biliary atresia registries, we retrieved infants who were either breastfed and received 1 mg of oral vitamin K at birth followed by 25 microg of daily oral vitamin K prophylaxis (Netherlands, 1991-2003), 2 mg of oral......: A daily dose of 25 microg of vitamin K fails to prevent bleedings in apparently healthy infants with unrecognized cholestasis because of biliary atresia. One milligram of weekly oral prophylaxis offers significantly higher protection to these infants and is of similar efficacy as 2 mg of intramuscular...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Taking ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  5. Preventive effects of Chlorella on skeletal muscle atrophy in muscle-specific mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Nishimaki, Kiyomi; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Maruyama, Isao; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Ohta, Shigeo

    2014-10-11

    Oxidative stress is involved in age-related muscle atrophy, such as sarcopenia. Since Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains various antioxidant substances, we used a mouse model of enhanced oxidative stress to investigate whether Chlorella could prevent muscle atrophy. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is an anti-oxidative enzyme that detoxifies reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxides such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). We therefore used transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of ALDH2 (ALDH2*2 Tg mice) to selectively decrease ALDH2 activity in the muscles. To evaluate the effect of Chlorella, the mice were fed a Chlorella-supplemented diet (CSD) for 6 months. ALDH2*2 Tg mice exhibited small body size, muscle atrophy, decreased fat content, osteopenia, and kyphosis, accompanied by increased muscular 4-HNE levels. The CSD helped in recovery of body weight, enhanced oxidative stress, and increased levels of a muscle impairment marker, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) induced by ALDH2*2. Furthermore, histological and histochemical analyses revealed that the consumption of the CSD improved skeletal muscle atrophy and the activity of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. This study suggests that long-term consumption of Chlorella has the potential to prevent age-related muscle atrophy.

  6. Status of Iodine Nutrition among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic of a Secondary Care Hospital: A Cross-sectional Study from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Haldar, Partha; Lohiya, Ayush; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2017-01-01

    Daily requirement of iodine increases during pregnancy making pregnant women a high-risk group for iodine deficiency disorders. The limited available literature shows that even in iodine sufficient population, pregnant women are iodine deficient. The objective of this study is to assess the current iodine nutrition status among pregnant women in Ballabgarh, district Faridabad, Haryana. Pregnant women were recruited from antenatal clinic (ANC) of subdistrict hospital (SDH), Ballabgarh, Haryana. Consecutive sampling strategy was followed to recruit pregnant women, and women of all trimesters were included in the study. Urinary iodine estimation was done using simple microplate method, and salt iodine was estimated using iodometric titration. The study was approved by Institute Ethics Committee, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. Out of the total 1031 pregnant women, 90.9% were using adequately iodized salt. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) salt consumption by the pregnant women was 8.3 (6.7, 11.1) g/day. Median (IQR) urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for the pregnant women was 260 (199, 323) μg/L. Only 13.5% of pregnant women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC 90% adequately iodized salt coverage in the study population.

  7. Studies in iodine metabolism: monitoring of animal thyroids. Progress report, 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1986-01-01

    This progress report briefly summarizes the counting and re-counting of domestic or wild animal thyroids from the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, the reservation of the Savannah River Plant, or from the DOE reservation at Oak Ridge. The possible effect that a mycotoxin may have an iodine deficiency was investigated. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  8. A cross-sectional survey of urinary iodine status in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Konrade

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that although the overall median UIC in Latvian schoolchildren falls within the lower normal range, almost 50% of the schoolchildren are iodine deficient, especially in urban schools and in the eastern part of Latvia. The absence of a mandatory salt iodization program puts a significant number of children and pregnant women at risk.

  9. Iodine Status of School-Aged Children in Urue Offong/Oruko Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency of school aged children in Urue Offong Oruko local government area of Akwa Ibom State using recommended quantifiable indicators. Subject and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 school ...

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. Astragaloside IV Prevents Cardiac Remodeling in the Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Regulating Cardiac Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-Zhi Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Astragaloside IV (AST-IV possesses cardiovascular protective properties. We hypothesize that AST-IV prevents cardiac remodeling with hypercholesterolemia via modulating tissue homeostasis and alleviating oxidative stress. Methods: The ApoE-/- mice were treated with AST-IV at 1 or 10 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The blood lipids tests, echocardiography, and TUNEL were performed. The mRNA expression profile was detected by real-time PCR. The myocytes size and number, and the expressions of proliferation (ki67, senescence (p16INK4a, oxidant (NADPH oxidase 4, NOX4 and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, SOD were observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results: Neither 1 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg AST-IV treatment could decrease blood lipids in ApoE-/- mice. However, the decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional shortening (FS in ApoE–/– mice were significantly improved after AST-IV treatment. The cardiac collagen volume fraction declined nearly in half after AST-IV treatment. The enlarged myocyte size was suppressed, and myocyte number was recovered, and the alterations of genes expressions linked to cell cycle, proliferation, senescence, p53-apoptosis pathway and oxidant-antioxidants in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were reversed after AST-IV treatment. The decreased ki67 and increased p16INK4a in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were recovered after AST-IV treatment. The percentages of apoptotic myocytes and NOX4-positive cells in AST-IV treated mice were decreased, which were consistent with the gene expressions. Conclusion: AST-IV treatment could prevent cardiac remodeling and recover the impaired ventricular function induced by hypercholesterolemia. The beneficial effect of AST-IV might partly be through regulating cardiac homeostasis and anti-oxidative stress.

  12. MCS-18, a natural product isolated from Helleborus purpurascens, inhibits maturation of dendritic cells in ApoE-deficient mice and prevents early atherosclerosis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietel, Barbara; Muench, Rabea; Kuehn, Constanze; Kerek, Franz; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Achenbach, Stephan; Garlichs, Christoph D; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2014-08-01

    -treated atherosclerotic mice. Also plaque size in the aortic root and the thoracoabdominal aorta was significantly lower following administration of MCS-18. This study provides for the first time evidence that MCS-18 is able to prevent the onset of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. The observed anti-atherogenic effect is associated with the suppression of DC maturation and an inhibited migration and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Rohner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001. Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  14. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  15. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d, normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d, and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d. The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45 of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy, iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P  0.05, all On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A level than the NI controls on PN7 (P  0.05. NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05. Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were

  16. Phosphorylated Peptides from Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) Prevent Estrogen Deficiency Induced Osteoporosis by Inhibiting Bone Resorption in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanghua; Zhao, Yanlei; Yu, Zhe; Tian, Yingying; Wang, Yiming; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2015-11-04

    In the current study, we investigated the improvement of phosphorylated peptides from Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (PP-AKP) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. PP-AKP was supplemented to ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. The results showed that PP-AKP treatment remarkably prevented the reduction of bone mass and improved cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties. PP-AKP also significantly decreased serum contents of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), cathepsin K (Cath-k), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (CTX-1), Ca, and P. Mechanism investigation revealed that PP-AKP significantly increased the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio in mRNA expression, protein expression, and serum content. Further research suggested that NF-κB signaling pathways were inhibited by suppressing the mRNA and protein expressions of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), diminishing the mRNA expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), three key transcription factors in NF-κB pathways. These results suggest that PP-AKP can improve osteoporosis by inhibiting bone resorption via suppressing the activation of osteoclastogenesis related NF-κB pathways.

  17. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  18. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    density of iodine (solid at room temperature) is 4.933 g/cc. Iodine also has a relatively high vapor pressure at low temperatures. Vapor pressures of...unknowns with iodine – Vapor pressure requires temperature control – New flow control system design/complexity – Performance and lifetime? – Safety... Iodine is a demonstrated HET propellant – Cheaper than xenon, similar critical properties – 3x higher storage density – Low pressure storage • Issues

  19. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  20. A cross-sectional survey of urinary iodine status in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrade, Ilze; Neimane, Lolita; Makrecka, Marina; Strele, Ieva; Liepinsh, Edgars; Lejnieks, Aivars; Vevere, Parsla; Gruntmanis, Ugis; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-01-01

    A nationwide survey of schoolchildren was conducted to detect regional differences in urinary iodine excretion in Latvia and to compare the results with data from the newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) screening database as well with the results of a similar study performed in Latvia 10 years ago. We conducted a cross-sectional school-based cluster survey of 915 children aged 9-12 years in 46 randomly selected schools in all regions of Latvia. Urine samples, questionnaires on the consumption of iodized salt and information on socioeconomic status were collected. TSH levels in newborns were also measured. The median creatinine-standardized urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in our study was 107.3μg/g Cr. UIC measurements indicative of mild iodine deficiency were present in 31.6%, moderate deficiency in 11.9% and severe deficiency in 2.8% of the participants. The prevalence of iodine deficiency was the highest in the southeastern region of Latgale and the northeastern region of Vidzeme. The prevalence of TSH values >5mIU/L followed a similar pattern. The self-reported prevalence of regular iodized salt consumption was 10.2%. Children from urban schools had a significantly lower UIC than children from rural schools. Our findings suggest that although the overall median UIC in Latvian schoolchildren falls within the lower normal range, almost 50% of the schoolchildren are iodine deficient, especially in urban schools and in the eastern part of Latvia. The absence of a mandatory salt iodization program puts a significant number of children and pregnant women at risk. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.