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  1. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  2. Ensuring effective prevention of iodine-deficiency disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völzke, Henry; Caron, Philippe Jean; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs initiated to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) may not remain effective due to changes in government policies, commercial factors, and human behavior that may affect the efficacy of IDD prevention programs in unpredictable directions. Monitoring and outcome studies...... by the lack of centralized standardization procedures. In addition, data on outcomes and the cost of achieving them are needed in order to provide evidence of the beneficial effects of IDD prevention in countries with mild iodine deficiency. CONCLUSION: Monitoring studies can be optimized by including...... in mildly iodine-deficient areas and that it should include populations from regions with different environmental, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds....

  3. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  4. Prevention of iodine deficiency in the Tyumen region: success or failure?

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    Ludmila Aleksandrovna Suplotova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of regional programs for the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Tyumen region and explore the awareness and behaviors of different groups of the population in matters of iodine prophylaxis in the conditions absence of federal law on universal salt iodization. Materials and methods. The results are presented of the realization of regional programs for the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Tyumen region for the period 1994–2014 years. As part of the medical monitoring examined 18,906 prepubertal children 8–12 years with the use of a unified system of identification of iodine deficiency. The results of sociological research are presented, as part of a public health monitoring conducted by surveying students (n = 744 and their parents (n = 677 on a representative sample. Results. Iodine nutrition use was normalization through 3 years against the background of the realization regional program of iodine prophylaxis since 1997 in the Tyumen region, as evidenced by normalization of urinary iodine excretion in prepubertal children. The median urinary iodine in prepubertal children significantly increased from baseline 71.4 mg/l to 142 mg/l in 2009, and as a result decreased the frequency of goiter in children 8–10 years from 87% to 8%, which corresponds to mild endemic goiter region. It noted a lack of awareness of parents of iodine deficiency in the area of residence (54.8% informed their parents of schoolchildren; indicator is linked to gender, age (p < 0.01, education (p < 0.001, and where do you live respondents (p < 0.001. Knowledge of the existence and availability of prevention of iodine deficiency showed 75% of parents and 46.6% of students. Regular use of iodized salt in the home diet (“always used” and “often iodized salt than non-iodised” 57.4% of parents say. To identify various models of preventive behaviors of parents of schoolchildren in the prevention of iodine deficiency

  5. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  7. Child’s Intellect and Iodine Deficiency: Mechanisms of Negative Impact and Ways of Prevention

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    V.V. Berezhnoy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of scientific literature on the effect of iodine deficiency on the intellectual development of the child. The conclusion was made about the need for a mass iodine prophylaxis in the population and the individual one — in groups at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, which include children, pregnant women and nursing mothers.

  8. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  9. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

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    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  10. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  11. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  12. Consensus statement on iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Betty; Chan, C W; Chan, Fredriech; Chan, K W; Cheng, Anna W F; Cheung, Patrick; Choi, K L; Chow, C B; Chow, Francis C C; Eastman, Creswell; Fok, T F; Fung, L M; Gomes, Cynthia; Huen, K F; Ip, T P; Kung, Annie W C; Lam, Karen S L; Lam, Y Y; Lao, Terence; Lee, C Y; Lee, K F; Leung, Jenny; Leung, N K; Li, Dominic; Li, June; Lo, K W; Lo, Louis; Ng, K L; Siu, S C; Tam, Sidney; Tan, Kathryn C B; Tiu, S C; Tse, H Y; Tse, Winnie; Wong, Gary; Wong, Shell; Wong, William; Yeung, Vincent T F; Young, Rosie; Yu, C M; Yu, Richard

    2003-12-01

    This article reviews the available data on the study of iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong and to discuss the approach towards preventing such disorders in Hong Kong. The importance of iodine and iodine deficiency disorders is described, and the available data on the dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentration in different populations of Hong Kong are summarised and discussed. Dietary iodine insufficiency among pregnant women in Hong Kong is associated with maternal goitrogenesis and hypothyroxinaemia as well as neonatal hypothyroidism. Borderline iodine deficiency exists in the expectant mothers in Hong Kong. Women of reproductive age, and pregnant and lactating women should be made aware and educated to have an adequate iodine intake, such as iodised salt, as an interim measure. A steering group involving all stakeholders should be formed to advise on the strategy of ensuring adequate iodine intake, including universal iodisation of salt in Hong Kong. Continuous surveillance of iodine status in the Hong Kong population is necessary.

  13. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children.

  14. Severe Hypothyroidism From Iodine Deficiency Associated With Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golekoh, Marjorie C; Cole, Conrad R; Jones, Nana-Hawa Yayah

    2016-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is crucial for supply of nutrients in children who cannot tolerate a full enteral diet. In the United States, it is not standard of care to give iodine to children dependent on parenteral nutrition, hence iodine is not routinely included in the micronutrient package. Herein, we present a case of a boy with hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency after prolonged exclusive use of parenteral nutrition. Our case highlights the importance of screening for iodine deficiency and administering timely iodine supplementation in these at-risk children to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  16. Experimental reproduction of iodine deficiency in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, M A; Smyth, J A; Ellis, W A; Arthur, J R; Kennedy, D G

    1997-11-22

    The role of iodine deficiency in stillbirth/perinatal weak calf syndrome was investigated in pregnant heifers. Five heifers were fed an iodine deficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 0.06 [0.01] mg/kg dry matter [DM]) and six received an iodine sufficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 1.45 [0.27] mg/kg DM). The diets consisted of wheat and soyabean meal with added minerals and vitamins (with or without iodine) and were fed to the heifers over the final four to five months of pregnancy. The iodine deficient diet produced clinicopathological changes and pathological changes in the thyroid glands of both the heifers and their offspring. However, all the calves in the iodine deficient group were born clinically normal.

  17. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency...

  18. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  19. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  20. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  1. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD control in India

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    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic, providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.

  2. Overview of Iodine Deficiency Prevention Strategies in the South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region: 2009–2016

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    Gregory A. Gerasimov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal salt iodization (USI strategies gained strong momentum in countries of the Southern Europe and Central Asia (SECA region during the 2000–2009 decade. By the end of the first decade, several countries in the region had already reached the goal of optimum iodine nutrition; other countries were quickly approaching this goal, and in only a few countries the progress toward USI had remained slow. This paper reports an overview of the two Sub-Regional workshops (for countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and South-Eastern Europe conducted in 2015 and 2016. Both workshops demonstrate that the SECA region remains on track in the pursuit of USI for sustainable IDD elimination. Notwithstanding the noted imperfections, none of the data or information from countries of the region suggested that the conquest of iodine deficiency is seriously threatened. However, more efforts should be made to develop and streamline USI strategies in Russia and Ukraine, two major countries that are lagging behind.

  3. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  4. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India

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    Kapil Umesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency (ID is the world′s single most important preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is a public health problem in 130 countries, affecting 13% of the world population. The simplest solution to prevent the IDD is to consume iodized common salt every day. In India, significant progress has been achieved toward elimination of IDD, in the last 30 years. Satisfactory levels of urinary iodine excretion and iodine content of salt have been documented by the research surveys conducted by research scientists. The results indicate that we are progressing toward elimination of IDD. IDD is due to a nutritional deficiency, which is prima-rily that of iodine, in soil and water. IDD is known to re-appear if the IDD Control Program is not sustained. To ensure that the population continues to have intake of adequate amount of iodine, there is a need of i periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD with respect to impact of iodized salt (IS intervention; ii strengthening the health and nutrition education activities to create demand for IS and iii development of a monitoring information system (MIS for ensuring that the adequately IS is available to the beneficiaries.

  5. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  6. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

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    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  7. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  8. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cord blood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine...

  9. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  10. Iodine deficiency status and iodised salt consumption in Malaysia: findings from a national iodine deficiency disorders survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Rusidah; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Rahim, Nor Syamlina Che Abdul; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul; Aris, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    A nationwide cross-sectional school-based survey was undertaken among children aged 8-10 years old to determine the current iodine deficiency status in the country. Determination of urinary iodine (UI) and palpation of the thyroid gland were carried out among 18,012 and 18,078 children respectively while iodine test of the salt samples was done using Rapid Test Kits and the iodometric method. The results showed that based on WHO/ ICCIDD/UNICEF criteria, the national median UI was 109 μg/L [25th, 75th percentile (67, 166)] showing borderline adequacy. The overall national prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) with UIMalaysia using adequately iodised salt as recommended by Malaysian Food Act 1983 of 20-30 ppm was only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1, 9.0). In conclusion, although a goitre endemic was not present in Malaysia, almost half of the states in Peninsular Malaysia still have large proportion of UI level review on the current approach of the national IDD prevention and control programme.

  11. An Assessment of the Selenium Status of Iodine-Deficient and Non-Iodine Deficient Filipino Children

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    Ma. Sofia Amarra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare blood selenium levels in iodine-deficient and non-iodine deficient children. Two groups of children were examined: one group with iodine deficiency (n=31 and the other group with normal iodine status (n=32. Blood was extracted by venipuncture from children aged 6-10 years attending first grade in Commonwealth Elementary School in Quezon City. Whole blood selenium was examined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Iodine status was determined by goiter palpation and urinary iodine excretion. Mean selenium levels of deficient and non-deficient children were compared using T-test. Using a cut-off value of 60 mg Se/L whole blood, the proportion of children with normal and deficient iodine status who fell below this cut-off was compared using chi-square test. Whole blood selenium values ranged from 17.6 to 133.6 mg/L. There were no significant differences in mean selenium levels between children with normal and deficient iodine status. Children with normal iodine status had a mean blood selenium level of 55.87 ± 26.3 mg/L while children with deficient iodine status had a mean level of 58.76 ± 26.4 mg/L. Sixty percent of children had blood selenium levels below the arbitrary cut-off of 60 mg/L with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.165, indicating that selenium deficiency is prevalent in this group of children regardless of iodine status. Since selenium deficiency limits the response to iodine supplementation, further investigation is needed to determine whether the same situation exists in children from other areas.

  12. Iodine deficiency, thyroid function and hearing deficit: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; MacKenzie, I.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects an estimated 241 million school-aged children in the world. Little is known about iodine deficiency in relation to auditory function, except for the fact that deaf-mutism is one of the features of cretinism. In the present review, we documented the scientific knowledge on

  13. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obican, Sarah G; Jahnke, Gloria D; Soldin, Offie P; Scialli, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

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    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  15. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Making Decisions What you Need To Know About Supplements Dietary ... mild iodine deficiency and of iodine supplements on cognitive ... breasts. It mainly affects women of reproductive age but can also occur ...

  16. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access to iodized salt in Zambia. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... It was carried out in 2011 and entailed determining the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among 1, 283 school children from 30 selected schools and the amount ...

  17. Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region

    OpenAIRE

    Costeira, Maria José; Oliveira, Pedro; Santos, Nadine Correia; Ares, Susana; Saenz-Rico, Belen; Escobar, Gabriella Morreale de; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region. OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychomotor development of the progeny of women from a moderately iodine-deficient area for whom thyroid function during pregnancy was measured. STUDY DESIGN: The development of 86 children was assessed by the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 12, 18, and 24 months. RESULTS: Maternal serum free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels in the first trimester of pregnancy were the major determin...

  18. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  19. Prophylactic iodine in two Tasmanian cultures in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of goitre in two separate cultural groups in Tasmania, the island State of Australia, is discussed, firstly on the basis of serendipitous iodine prophylaxis by a ''primitive race'' (Tasmanian Aborigine), and secondly the deliberate dietary supplementation by European occupation in the 20th Century. The Tasmanian Aborigine did not suffer from goitre. Cultural habits that included diet and craft enabled them to avoid this disease in an otherwise moderately iodine-deficient environment. Following an extended occupation since 1803, and with an eventual change in dietary habit, loss of traditional craft and culture, the population that survived both the introduction of European diseases and incarceration succumbed to goitre that was evidenced in the last half of the 19th Century. This paper explores the reasons why the Tasmanian Aborigines did not develop goitre until after European occupation. It also highlights the fortuitious introduction of iodine as a prophylactic measure in the prevention of goitre in the State of Tasmania during the second half of the 20th Century

  20. The story of iodine deficiency: An international challenge in nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzel, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for the growth and development of up to 800 million people living in iodine deficient environments throughout the world. The effects on growth and development, called the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), comprise goiter, stillbirths and miscarriages, neonatal and juvenile thyroid deficiency, dwarfism, mental defects, deaf mutism, and spastic weakness and paralysis, as well as lesser degrees of loss of physical and mental function. All these effects are due to inadequate thyroid hormone production because iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormone. In the West, IDD has been largely eliminated by the addition of iodine to the diet through iodized salt or through changes in food distribution and technology. IDD still persists in certain areas of Europe where these dietary changes have not occurred. In the Third World, IDD is a major problem in many countries with large populations, such as China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Zaire. In these and other Third World countries, IDD is a significant barrier to social and economic progress which can be removed by correction of the deficiency. This book shows that elimination of iodine deficiency is feasible within the next decade, only requiring a modest financial and technical effort from the West. Part 1 reviews IDD in man and animals. Part 2 discusses the control of iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, and considers action at the national and international level. Part 3 presents a global review of the status of IDD control. There is a brief conclusion on the way forward to successful control programs.

  1. The story of iodine deficiency: An international challenge in nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for the growth and development of up to 800 million people living in iodine deficient environments throughout the world. The effects on growth and development, called the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), comprise goiter, stillbirths and miscarriages, neonatal and juvenile thyroid deficiency, dwarfism, mental defects, deaf mutism, and spastic weakness and paralysis, as well as lesser degrees of loss of physical and mental function. All these effects are due to inadequate thyroid hormone production because iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormone. In the West, IDD has been largely eliminated by the addition of iodine to the diet through iodized salt or through changes in food distribution and technology. IDD still persists in certain areas of Europe where these dietary changes have not occurred. In the Third World, IDD is a major problem in many countries with large populations, such as China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Zaire. In these and other Third World countries, IDD is a significant barrier to social and economic progress which can be removed by correction of the deficiency. This book shows that elimination of iodine deficiency is feasible within the next decade, only requiring a modest financial and technical effort from the West. Part 1 reviews IDD in man and animals. Part 2 discusses the control of iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, and considers action at the national and international level. Part 3 presents a global review of the status of IDD control. There is a brief conclusion on the way forward to successful control programs

  2. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  3. Strategy for elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus: evaluation of 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kachan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Article presents results of implementation of successful program of elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus. Government decree (2001 requires mandatory use of iodized salt in food industry and public catering. While retail trade of non-iodized salt is not prohibited, all foods shops must have iodized salt on sale. All these measures resulted in increase of iodized salt consumption: 94% of house-holds in Belarus were using iodized salt. Iodine nutrition of population also sig-nificantly improved: median urinary iodine levels in general population (school-children reached 169 mcg/l and in pregnant women – 224 mcg/l. Endemic goiter morbidity decreased significantly in children, adolescents and adults as well as frequency of transitory thyroid dysfunctions in newborns. Belarus experience in prevention of iodine deficiency can be used by other industrialized countries of Europe and rest of the world.

  4. EFFICIENCY ON GROUP PROPHYLAXIS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN LIVING IN IODINE DEFICIENCY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex examination detected that kalium iodide dosage 100 mkg daily promote a rapid normalization of median of ioduria in children aged 8 to 12 years. Even in a case of normal initial level of ioduria iod active at the same dosage doesn't promote an increase of median of ioduria over than optimum level. It wasn't detected any decrease of goiter frequency during 6 months of prophylaxis, while the level of some cognitive indexes (an attention and the frequency of absence from school by the reason of acute respiratory deseases significantly increased. It could be concluded, that iodine prophylaxis using iod active is more effective in mild goiter endemia combine to decrease of attention in prepubertal children. In the case of combination of moderate endemic goiter and normal cognitive function kalium iodide is more preferable in prophylaxis in children.Key words: children, iod deficiency, prophylaxis.

  5. Use of oral iodized oil to control iodine deficiency in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Untoro, J.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable mental retardation and universal salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for its control. However additional strategies are required where iodized salt cannot be made available in the short term or only with difficulty in the

  6. Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayedur Rahman Miah; Chowdhury Habibur Rasul; Ashoke Kumar Paul

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

  7. [Study on the iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders status in pasturing areas of Tibet-a non-epidemic area of iodine deficiency disorders in serious iodine deficiency district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Dan; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Shu-Hua; Nima, Cangjue; Danzeng, Sangbu; Zhuang, Guang-Xiu

    2010-08-01

    To explore the status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders in the pasturing areas and agricultural regions in Tibet. 30 families were selected respectively in pastoral Dangxiong county and agricultural Qushui county of Lasa. Drinking water and edible salt were collected for testing the iodine contents. In each type of the following populations including children aged 8 - 10, women of child-bearing age and male adults, 50 subjects were randomly sampled to examine their urinary iodine contents. Among them, 50 children and 50 women were randomly selected for goiter examination by palpation. Water iodine content was less than 2 µg/L, both in pasturing area and in agricultural areas. There was no iodized salt used in the families of pasturing areas, while 90% people consumed iodized salt in agricultural areas. The median of urinary iodine in pasturing area was 50.2 µg/L, significantly lower than that of agricultural area (193.2 µg/L). However, the goiter rate of children and women in pasturing area was significantly lower than that in agricultural area. Although iodine intake of populations in pasturing area of Tibet was severely deficient, there was no epidemic of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This phenomenon noticed by the researchers deserved further investigation.

  8. Prevalence of vitamin a, zinc, iodine deficiency and anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are the most nutritionally vulnerable group of society as children are dependants and they are also at a critical stage of the growing process. They need adequate vitamin A, zinc, iron and iodine for their development and school performance. Most often iron deficiency causes anaemia with resultant fatigue and low ...

  9. The challenge of the global elimination of iodine deficiency disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.

    1997-01-01

    Most nations of the world are well positioned for success in their pursuit of the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) by the year 2000. In 1990 at the World Summit for Children, Heads of State and Government had agreed on this global goal and in 1992 at the International

  10. Iodine deficiency and functional performance of schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel-van Ingen, van den T.

    2001-01-01

    The notion that iodine deficiency may lead not only to goiter and cretinism, but to a much wider range of disorders, from stillbirth and abortions, to hearing problems and mental and physical underdevelopment began to be accepted beyond the research community since the early 1980's. In 1990 it was

  11. Problem of Combined Selenium and Iodine Deficiency in the Development of Thyroid Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article organizes data on the role of iodine and selenium deficiency in the functioning of the thyroid gland (TG, its importance in the development of thyropathies. Markers needed to determine the provision of the organism with iodine and selenium are given, as well as deficiency conditions associated with these trace elements, and their physiological daily doses are recommended. It was concluded that the use of selenium compounds (average dose 75 μg/day and iodine (average dose 150 μg/day with the purpose of prevention or treatment in physiological doses is safe, can reduce the severity or inhibit pathological processes in TG, including improving the course of autoimmune diseases.

  12. The Findings of Epidemiological Studies on the Prevalence of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Khorezm Region of Republic of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ongoing programs aimed at the liquidation of iodine deficiency in the Republic of Uzbekistan, a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD is being observed. As a result of epidemiological studies in 1998 and 2004 it was found that the prevalence of endemic goiter among children in the country was 64.5 and 51.6%, respectively. Dynamics of iodine deficiency decrease was associated with active work on liquidation of IDD: provision of salt-mining and salt-processing plants with iodizing equipment and potassium iodate, conducting of large-scale community health measures among different social gropus, on public enterprises and in private sector, carrying out of regular monitoring of iodine content in salt and urine. In May 2007 there was passed the law of Republic of Uzbekistan «About prevention of iodine deficiency disorders». In this work there was carried out the analysis of IDD in Khoresm region according to WHO recommendations, by sentinel method. It was revealed that prevalence of endemic goiter has been reduced to 38.7 % in 2012 (positive dymanics. We obtained data on the normal content of iodine in salt and urine — 75 and 60.6 %, respectively. Thus, it is found that the prevalence of IDD in the Khorezm region in the dynamics is reduced, although iodine deficiency remains severe.

  13. 新疆阿克苏地区碘缺乏病综合干预效果追踪调查%A follow up observation of the effects of preventive measures on iodine deficiency disorders in Aksu, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳艳; 李东阳; 廖飞; 阿不来提·阿不拉; 戴思芸; 阿依加马力·阿吾东; 钱明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the iodine nutritional condition among populations in Aksu after implementing free iodized salt in population of Xinjiang.Methods According to the "National Iodine Deficiency Monitoring Programme (Revised)",totally 45 villages (towns) of subordinated 8 counties and Aksu City,Xinjiang were selected for collecting salt samples.Meanwhile,in 27 villages (towns) primary schools,school-aged children (8-10 years old) were selected for collecting disposable urine samples,B ultrasound was used to check thyroid volume and intelligence (IQ) was evaluated by China Combined Raven Test (CRT).Pregnant women were sampled for collecting their disposable urine near the primary schools.Both the children and pregnant women were evaluated the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) knowledge awareness by questionnaire.The urine iodine concentration was measured by the ammonium persulfate digestion-As-Ce catalytic spectrophotometer method.The salt iodine concentration was measured by the direct titrimetric method,and other kinds of iodine in salt were measured by referee method (GB/T 13025.7-2012).Results A total of 2 700 household salt samples were collected,the average of iodine concentration in household salt was (26.95 ± 5.10) mg/kg.The coverage of household iodized salt was 98.56% (2 661/2 700).The coverage of edible iodized salt was 98.00% (2 646/2 700).A total of 2 159 urine samples were collected,the median of urine iodine concentration (UIC) among school-aged children (8-10 years old) was 235.50 μg/L.The total goiter rate was 1.51% (33/2 179) among children aged 8-10 years old.A total of 2 098 people were conducted IQ test,the average IQ was 88.03 ± 17.14.A total of 1 047 urine samples were collected,the median of UIC among pregnant women was 213.50 μg/L.The IDD knowledge awareness rate of children and women were 98.82% (751/760) and 99.23% (258/260),respectively.Conclusions The iodine nutrition is in an adequate range,awareness of IDD prevention

  14. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. Results: The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. Conclusions: It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore.

  15. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Zama, Syed Y; Nagarajarao, Vadiraja; Khan, Mudassir A

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore).

  16. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Jaiswal, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency during foetal development and early childhood is associated with cognitive impairment. Randomised clinical studies in school-aged children encountered in the literature indicate that cognitive performance can be improved by iodine supplementation, but most studies suffer from

  17. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    -containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...

  18. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification...... in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg...

  19. Past, present, and future of iodine deficiency disorders in India: Need to look outside the blinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs have been recognized as one of the major nutritional disorders throughout the world affecting 200 million people who are at risk and another 71 million suffering from goiter and other IDDs. These groups of disorders can affect every stage of life, but most vulnerable age group is between 6 and 12 years and these disorders together constitute the single largest preventable cause of brain damage leading to learning disabilities and psychomotor impairment. The existence of endemic goiter in an extensive belt along the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Alps, and Andes has long been described, but consistently high prevalence of IDDs outside the endemic zones and failure to attain goals set by the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program questions the strategy and achievements till date. Therefore, the present article is an attempt to critically examine the program since inception in India.

  20. The Adverse Effects of Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency during Pregnancy and Childhood: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal brain development, and the fetus, newborn, and young child are particularly vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The iodine requirement increases during pregnancy and recommended intakes are in the range of 220¿250

  1. Recalculation of thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident in a iodine deficient area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.; Niewiadomski, T.; Budzanowski, M.; Szybinski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The thyroid doses were estimated in Poland shortly after the Chernobyl accident with assumption of stable iodine consumption for the reference man and areas with ''standard'' stable iodine consumption. These estimates are not representative for southern part of Poland which is known as the iodine deficient area. Therefore the thyroid doses were recalculated based on the real and differentiated stable iodine intakes for people groups of different age without and with thyroid blockade after the accident. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Recalculation of thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident in a iodine deficient area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olko, P; Niewiadomski, T; Budzanowski, M [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Szybinski, Z [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1996-08-01

    The thyroid doses were estimated in Poland shortly after the Chernobyl accident with assumption of stable iodine consumption for the reference man and areas with ``standard`` stable iodine consumption. These estimates are not representative for southern part of Poland which is known as the iodine deficient area. Therefore the thyroid doses were recalculated based on the real and differentiated stable iodine intakes for people groups of different age without and with thyroid blockade after the accident. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs.

  3. Thyroid function and deiodinase activities in rats with marginal iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.L.T.M.K. Janssen (Karin); D. van der Heide (Daan); T.J. Visser (Theo); E. Kaptein (Ellen); A.C. Beynen (Anton)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe hypothesis tested was whether marginal iodine deficiency for a period of 6 wk affects iodothyronine deiodinase activities in liver and brain of rats. Male rats were fed purified diets either deficient or sufficient in iodine; the diets were fed on a restricted basis (60% of ad

  4. Results of epidemiological studies on the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in the Republic of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In spite of the works performed against iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, they still remain severe in Uzbekistan. The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of the prevalence of IDD among the population in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Materials and methods. Epidemiological study of IDD in the Republic of Uzbekistan has been performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Degree of thyroid enlargement was determined according to the WHO classification. Such indexes, as assessment of urinary iodine concentration and evaluation of salt iodine concentration, have been analyzed. The data were compared with the results of previous years’ studies. Results. Estimation of the severity of IDD by the level of ioduria showed that the proportion of severe iodine deficiency (less than 20 μg/l decreased from 94.4 % in 1998 to 21.4 % in 2004, to 1.9 % in 2010 and to 1.9 % in 2016. The optimal level of iodine intake (more than 100 μg/l increased from 0 % in 1998 to 46.3 % in 2004, to 63.7 % in 2010 and 76.3 % in 2016. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of degree I and II diffuse goiter showed that in total the proportion of this disease was 72.8 % in 1998, 58.8 % in 2004, 40.2 % in 2010 and 28.3 % in 2016. Conclusions. The acceptance of law of Uzbekistan “On prevention of iodine deficiency diseases” in 2007 has substantially decreased the prevalence of IDD in Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, despite of large scale actions, our study of ioduria and salt iodine content in 2016 indicated that about 25 % of people in the country still prone to IDD.

  5. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  6. Modelling protection behaviour towards micronutrient deficiencies: Case of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes as health intervention for school-going children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-02-01

    Despite successes recorded in combating iodine deficiency, more than 2 billion people are still at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Rural landlocked and mountainous areas of developing countries are the hardest hit, hence the need to explore and advance novel strategies such as biofortification. We evaluated adoption, purchase, and consumption of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes (IBVL) using the theory of protection motivations (PMT) integrated with an economic valuation technique. A total of 1,200 participants from three land-locked locations in East Africa were recruited via multi-stage cluster sampling, and data were collected using two, slightly distinct, questionnaires incorporating PMT constructs. The survey also elicited preferences for iodine biofortified foods when offered at a premium or discount. Determinants of protection motivations and preferences for iodine biofortified foods were assessed using path analysis modelling and two-limit Tobit regression, respectively. Knowledge of iodine, iodine-health link, salt iodization, and biofortification was very low, albeit lower at the household level. Iodine and biofortification were not recognized as nutrient and novel approaches, respectively. On the other hand, severity, fear, occupation, knowledge, iodine status, household composition, and self-efficacy predicted the intention to consume biofortified foods at the household level; only vulnerability, self-efficacy, and location were the most crucial elements at the school level. In addition, results demonstrated a positive willingness-to-pay a premium or acceptance of a lesser discount for biofortification. Furthermore, preference towards iodine biofortified foods was a function of protection motivations, severity, vulnerability, fear, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, iodine status, gender, age. and household head. Results lend support for prevention of iodine deficiency in unprotected populations through biofortification; however

  7. Developmental Indicators of School-Age Children, Living in the Regions with Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying developmental indicators of children living in the areas of iodine deficiency. The basic anthropometric parameters (height and weight, chest circumference were defined, the estimation of intellectual development in 819 children aged 7–16 years living in the regions with mild (472 persons and moderate (347 persons iodine deficiency was carried out. Examined children were standardized by major factors of developmental effect. Anthropometric measurements were carried out by standard methods. Maturity of intellectual functioning was determined using the fragment of R. Cattell test, indicators of mental activity — with proofreading test in conjunction with reading rate test. In all children we have carried out measurement of daily ioduria (Sandell — Kolthoff reaction, palpation of the thyroid gland, determination of its size and structure using ultrasound. It was found that the diet of children is characterized by deficiency of food rich in iodine. Iodized salt was used only by 1 of 50 families. Children living in the regions with moderate iodine deficiency in all age subgroups have lower rates of physical development. A third of children living in areas of iodine deficiency have disharmonic physical development. 13.8 % of children from the regions of iodine deficiency have changes in the majority of the studied cognitive functions. Leading disabilities in the whole group of children were memory impairment and fine motor skills disorders. The level of intellectual maturity, productivity and accuracy of human performance decreases with growing iodine deficiency.

  8. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  9. Interactions of vitamin A and iodine deficiencies: effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) and the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect > 30% of the global population and these deficiencies often coexist in vulnerable groups. VAD has multiple effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis; VA status modulates thyroid gland metabolism, peripheral metabolism of

  10. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...... in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg....../l) were measured. Predictors of iodine supplement use were examined by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The pregnant women from Eastern Denmark had a median age of 30 years and the median gestational week at which they were included in the study was week 19. The majority took iodine...

  11. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  12. Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: The Effect on Neurodevelopment in the Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Skeaff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4 and tri-iodothyronine (T3, necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T3, generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T4 (fT4, is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby’s requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT4 results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child.

  13. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid volume, as well as the association between serum selenium concentration and risk for an enlarged thyroid gland in an area with mild iodine deficiency before and after iodine fortification was introduced...

  14. Vitamin D and Iodine Deficiency:Impact on Health and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kuprinenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the key highlights of the conference on Vitamin D and Iodine Deficiency, which took place on 21-22 of April in Chernivtsy (Ukraine. Data about status of Vitamin D in Ukrainian population, impact of Vitamin D and Iodine intake disorders on endocrine status are presented.

  15. Factors affecting sustainable iodine deficiency elimination in Pakistan: A global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Mehmood Khattak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency remains a considerable challenge worldwide, even after decades of efforts to address the problem. The aim of this review is to present the current situation in historically iodine-deficient Pakistan regarding iodine nutritional status and place it in a global perspective. We collected relevant articles from online bibliographic databases and websites of concerned organizations that addressed prevalence of goiter/iodine deficiency and barriers to sustainable control. We divided the studies into pre- and post-1994, a landmark year when Pakistan formally adopted the universal salt iodization (USI programme. Overall, 56 studies reported goiter/iodine deficiency prevalence in Pakistan. Before 1994, six studies (30% reported a goiter prevalence ≥70%, while nine studies (45% reported a goiter prevalence between 30% and 70%. Only five studies (25% found a goiter prevalence less than 30%, of which only two studies reported prevalence <10%. From 1994 onwards, 15 studies (41.7% reported a goiter/iodine deficiency (ID prevalence ≥50%, of which seven studies reported prevalence ≥70%, while three studies (8.3% found a goiter prevalence of 30%–49%, nine studies (25% found a goiter prevalence of 10%–29%, and five studies (13.9% reported prevalence of <10%. Four studies (11.1% reported lower goiter prevalence but higher prevalence of iodine deficiency. The efforts in the past two decades resulted in up to a 50% decline in iodine deficiency disorders (IDD. Variable remaining factors and the recent results, however, indicate that this decline may be non-uniform and even over-estimated. Coordinated and regionally adopted efforts for eradication of IDD from all stakeholders should be pursued. Policy makers should take steps to protect future generations and alert concerned organizations about the importance of careful assessments and estimates of iodine nutritional status.

  16. Impact of Ecologically Unfriendly Environment on the Formation of Thyroid Pathology in Children Against Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Kosmynina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By prevalence among thyroid pathological conditions in Ukraine, the diffuse nontoxic goiter is dominated, the frequency of which, in addition to iodine deficiency, is influenced by anthropogenic pollution of environment. The article evaluated the role of the negative impact of polluted environment on the formation of thyroid disease in children from ecologically unfriendly region on the background of endemic iodine deficiency compared with children from ecologically friendly area of iodine deficiency. It has been determined the frequency of diffuse endemic goiter in children from studied groups according to palpation and ultrasonography. The functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system in children living in iodine deficiency environmentally unfriendly and ecologically friendly areas has been researched.

  17. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    , Ethiopia. Brief Communication. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray. Teklay Kidane1, Aregai Woldegebriel2. Abstract. A cross-sectional community based goiter prevalence survey was conducted in February ...

  18. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  19. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  20. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in pregnant thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency: is iodine supplementation safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Jørgensen, A; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    In moderately iodine-deficient, pregnant, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab)-positive women the role of iodine supplementation in the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) was studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind trial. Screening for TPO-Ab was performed......-Ab-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency did not induce or worsen PPTD. The study confirmed that screening for TPO-Ab in early pregnancy can predict women at high risk for development of PPTD. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Sep...... microg iodine or no iodine. The +/+ group received iodine during pregnancy and the postpartum period, the +/- group received iodine during pregnancy only, and the -/- group received no iodine supplementation. A total of 66 TPO-Ab positive women were followed, and in the postpartum period sera were...

  1. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HUMAN THYROID GLAND UNDER IODINE DEFICIENCY NODULAR GOITER: FROM HARMLESSNESS TO HAZARD DEPENDING ON COPPER AND IODINE SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Falfushynska

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Excess of copper unbound to metallothionein in goitrous-changed tissue and high level of inorganic iodine could be the reason for elevated DNA fragmentation and increased lysosomal membrane permeability and activation of antioxidant defense. The main criterions of goiter formation were represented by low level of organificated iodine and high level of DNA damage in thyroid gland. KEY WORDS: iodine deficiency nodular colloidal goiter, iodine, copper, metallothioneins, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity

  2. Short report: documentation of iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren: implication for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, M J; Streit, T G; Houston, R; May, W A; Addiss, D G; Lammie, P J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we documented unexpected moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren although they live in a coastal community where presumably they have access to iodine-containing seafood. This fact combined with the lack of an iodized salt supply and endemic lymphatic filariasis makes community distribution of diethylcarbamazine-fortified, iodized salt an attractive strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and iodine deficiency disorders in this area of Haiti. Combining lymphatic filariasis elimination with other public health interventions is one strategy to increase its public health benefit and maximize the impact of limited public health resources.

  3. Assessment of iodine deficiency in school going children in Abbottabad - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Shah, S.M.; Bano, S.

    1999-01-01

    A bout 1628 school going children were surveyed for the assessment of iodine deficiency in school going children in Abbottabad city, The purpose of this survey was to find out prevalence of goiter, severity of iodine deficiency and iodine content of the salts used by the people of the area. It was found that total goiter rate (TGR) was 23.9%. Among males 176 (23.1%) and among females 214 (24.7) were suffering from goiter, On the basis of urinary iodine (UI) 5.2% children were facing severe. Analysis of salts provided by students showed that 58.8% families were using salts with recommended level of iodine while the remaining 41-2% families were using salts with inadequate quantity of iodine. It is clear iodine deficiency is still a major public health problem in the area and most of the people in the area do not use iodized salt with recommended level of iodine. (A.B.)

  4. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...... containing vitamin/mineral tablets. Approximately one third of the women had received tablets containing iodine. In women who had not received iodine supplementation urinary iodine was low with a median value of 39.7 micrograms/g creatinine (Aalborg 28, Randers 33, Ringkøbing 34, Arhus 43 and Copenhagen 62...

  5. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  6. Iodine Deficiency and Excess Coexist in China and Induce Thyroid Dysfunction and Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fangang; Liu, Shoujun; Fan, Zhipeng; Wu, Junhua; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    Background In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate) and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water. Objective This study aimed to clarify the association of iodine deficiencies resulting from a low coverage rate of iodized salt, excess iodine intake from drinking water with thyroid function and disease in adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults in different iodine nutrition areas in three provinces in China. Results The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 15.52%, 8.66% and 22.17% in the iodine excess, sufficient and deficient groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 20.09%, 10.41%, and 2.25% in the excess, sufficient and deficient iodine groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism in the iodine deficient group was higher than that in the iodine excess group ( = 9.302, p = 0.002) and iodine sufficient group ( = 7.553, p = 0.006). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was significantly correlated with excess iodine intake (β = 1.764,P = 0.001) and deficient iodine intake (β = −1.219, P = 0.028). Conclusions Thyroid nodules are more likely to be present in the iodine excess and deficient areas than in the iodine sufficient areas. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism are more likely to be prevalent in the iodine deficient areas than in the iodine excess or sufficient areas. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more likely to be prevalent in the high iodine intake areas than in the iodine deficient or sufficient areas. Median TSH may be deemed as an alternative indicator for monitoring the iodine nutrition status of the adult population in iodine excess and deficient areas. PMID:25375854

  7. Iodine deficiency and excess coexist in china and induce thyroid dysfunction and disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the association of iodine deficiencies resulting from a low coverage rate of iodized salt, excess iodine intake from drinking water with thyroid function and disease in adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults in different iodine nutrition areas in three provinces in China. RESULTS: The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 15.52%, 8.66% and 22.17% in the iodine excess, sufficient and deficient groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 20.09%, 10.41%, and 2.25% in the excess, sufficient and deficient iodine groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism in the iodine deficient group was higher than that in the iodine excess group ([Formula: see text] = 9.302, p = 0.002 and iodine sufficient group ([Formula: see text] = 7.553, p = 0.006. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH was significantly correlated with excess iodine intake (β = 1.764,P = 0.001 and deficient iodine intake (β = -1.219, P = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid nodules are more likely to be present in the iodine excess and deficient areas than in the iodine sufficient areas. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism are more likely to be prevalent in the iodine deficient areas than in the iodine excess or sufficient areas. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more likely to be prevalent in the high iodine intake areas than in the iodine deficient or sufficient areas. Median TSH may be deemed as an alternative indicator for monitoring the iodine nutrition status of the adult population in iodine excess and deficient areas.

  8. Iodine deficiency and endemic goitre in the Langkloof area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available at the local grocery stores but only small percentages of households ..... dietary factor or factors, did, however, improve the situation in this area during the .... guarantee success in eradicating iodine deficiency and endemic goitre. ... lB, ads. The Prevenrion and Control of lod;ne Deficiency Disorders. Amsterdam: ...

  9. Contemporary State of the Problem of the Iodine Deficiency Elimination in the Belarus Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Mokhort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of implementation governmental strategy of the iodine deficiency diseases elimination in the Belarus Republic based on the wide using of iodinated salt is presented. For the control of this program fulfillment more than 1300 children from 6 districts of Republic were examined. Middle Republic level of median of the urine iodine elimination for the period of the program realization has increased in more than 4 times and was equal to 179.2 ug/l and iodine deficiency decreased from 80.9 per cent in 1997 to 14.0 per cent in 2006. Consumption of iodinated salt has increased from 30.0 per cent in 1997 to 93.6 per cent in 2006. As the result the goiter rate in Belarus decreased from 17.2 per cent to 12.8 per cent. These results allow getting conclusion concerning efficiency of the strategy of using the iodinated salt recommended by the UNICEF as universal prophylaxis measure for the iodine deficiency diseases elimination.

  10. Reparative Osteogenesis in Normal Conditions and in Micronutrient Iodine and Selenium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ye. Kovalchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, a number of unresolved issues remains without researchers’ attention and should be explored, among them: the impact of selenium and iodine deficiencies on bone tissue, healing of bone defects and morphological peculiarities of the process under micronutrient iodine and selenium deficiency. This paper presents the results of experimental study of physiological features and reparative osteogenesis in posttraumatic defects of femoral metadiaphysis under selenium and iodine deficiency. The data that we have shown testify the negative impact of micronutrient deficiency on reparative osteogenesis that is manifested by inhibition of this process and is accompanied by the formation of bone regenerate, deterioration of structural and functional state of bone tissue, development of degenerative and necrotic changes in bone tissue and epiphyseal cartilage.

  11. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

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    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  12. Serum thyroglobulin as a biomarker of iodine deficiency in adult populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejbjerg, Anne; Bjergved, Lena; Bülow Pedersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify which factors may influence the serum Tg level in an adult population and how this may affect Tg as a biomarker of iodine deficiency (ID). DESIGN AND METHODS: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (C1a: 1997-98, n = 4649) and after (C2: 2004-05, n = 3570......) the Danish mandatory iodine fortification (IF) of salt (2000). Additionally, a follow-up study of C1a was performed after IF (C1b: 2008-10, n = 2465). The studies took place in two regions with mild (Copenhagen) and moderate (Aalborg) ID before IF. Serum Tg was measured by immunoradiometric method...... and investigated as outcome variable in multivariate models. RESULTS: Multiple factors were associated with serum Tg. Some were directly related to iodine intake (cohort, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level and region), and some were likely mediators of iodine intake effects on Tg (thyroid nodularity, thyroid...

  13. Autonomy in euthyroid goitre: Precursor of non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.

    1984-01-01

    There is evidence that in an area of iodine deficiency NIM-HY exists to a considerable percentage, probably originating from euthyroid goitre with autonomy, especially if iodine intake is suddenly increased. Separation of IM-HY and NIM-HY is possible with a probability of 90% by clinical criteria and available laboratory investigations. This might be important not only from a pathophysiological point of view but also for diagnosis and selection of the kind of therapy. (orig.)

  14. The Prevalence of Thyroid Disease in the Children and Teenagers in Iodine-Deficient Region

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    A V Kiyaev

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To indicate iodine intake and the prevalence of thyroid disease in the iodine-deficient area we perform complex investigation of 2332 children and teenagers in 23 settlements of Sverdlovsk region. Studying population consisted of1153 7—8 years old children (599 girls and 554 boys and 1179 14—15 years old teenagers (637 girls and 542 boys. Study protocol includes thyroid ultrasound for all children and urinary iodine excretion for younger group and, serum TSH, AT-TG and AT-TPO in older group. The incidence of diffuse goiter was 22.8% and median of urinary iodine excretion was 53 μg/l. We found that Sverdlovsk region is a mild iodine-deficient area. The incidence of significant thyroid diseases is relatively low (thyroid cancer, functional autonomy and overt hypothyroidism — in 0.04%, nodular goiter — 0.26%, autoimmune thyroiditis with subclinical hypothyroidism — 0.6%. There is no significant difference in the prevalence of thyroid disease among children and teenagers. We found that thyroid ultrasound is not a reasonable screening strategy for thyroid cancer and nodular goiter in pediatric population of the iodine-deficient region. We consider that the most reasonable screening strategy is the palpation technique.

  15. Iodine deficiency and subclinical hypothyroidism are common in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naehrlich, Lutz; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Bagheri-Behrouzi, Azadeh; Rauh, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Disorders of thyroid function have been inconsistently described in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in CF transmembrane regulator protein knockout animals. The literature lacks reports on iodine status of CF individuals. We hypothesize, that iodine deficiency is common in CF and account for abnormal thyroid function in CF patients. We investigated 129 children, adolescents, and adults with CF, who were living in the northern part of Bavaria/Germany. Malnutrition and lung function were analyzed. Urinary iodine excretion, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), and ft4 (free thyroxine) were measured and set in relation to population-based, age-adjusted reference ranges. Subclinical hypothyroidism (normal fT4, elevated TSH) was found in 11.6% of subjects, and iodine deficiency in 83.7%. No correlations were found with age, BMI, status of malnutrition, or lung function. Dramatic iodine deficiency was found in our cohort of CF patients. This condition can cause subclinical hypothyroidism; therefore, an individual iodine supplementation program is necessary and should be started immediately. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Strain differences among rats in response to Remington iodine-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; Krulich, L.

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of five different strains (Simonsen albino, Wistar, Long-Evans, Holtzman Sprague-Dawley, and Charles River Sprague-Dawley) were tested for their response to the U.S. Biochemical Corp. Remington low iodine diet containing 15-18 microgram I/kg. Measurements made after the diet had been fed for 28-30 days indicated that Simonsen albino and Wistar strains consistently showed the greatest response, based on degree of thyroid enlargement, depletion of thyroidal iodine, reduction in serum T4, and elevation of serum TSH. Long-Evans and Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats responded relatively poorly to the low iodine diet. One experiment included female rats, and the limited data suggested that within a given strain there was no significant sex difference. With more prolonged feeding (84 days), the difference between a rapidly responding strain (Simonsen albino) and a more slowly responding strain (Holtzman Sprague-Dawley) was not so marked. Our results indicate that given sufficient time and a diet sufficiently low in iodine, even a more slowly responding strain will ultimately develop signs of extreme iodine deficiency. However, it is inconvenient and expensive to maintain rats on a Remington low iodine diet for 3 months, and studies on the effect of severe iodine deficiency are much more rapidly performed using a rapidly responding strain such as the Simonsen albino. Our observation that rats of different strains differ markedly in their responses to an iodine-deficient diet suggests that hereditary factors play an important role in this response

  17. Effects of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women on thyroid function, pregnancy outcomes and newborn development in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency (ID) during pregnancy has been recognized as a major cause of hypothyroidism and adverse health consequences in both mothers and children. Although urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in school-aged children is recommended as an indicator to assess

  18. The Role of the World Health Organization in Eliminating Iodine Deficiency Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Paulina; Breda, Joao

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has been one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world, causing many health disorders, particularly in pregnant women and children. Despite increased salt iodization in some countries and regions, the process has lacked global coordination and sustainability, two prerequisites for reaching the aim of eliminating iodine deficiency. This goal can be reached only by evidence-based, effectively monitored joint and committed actions of all countries. The aim of the article is to present the role of WHO in leading and coordinating public health actions aiming elimination of iodine deficiency. WHO was given a mandate to coordinate such public health actions, including developing and strengthening relevant public health legislation, issuing technically sound and evidence-based norms and standards, and monitoring the health situation and trends. WHO has coordinated and fostered collaboration between countries, international organizations, scientific associations and non-governmental organization to reach the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency. No recent patents are discussed for this WHO report. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. THE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE EMERGENCE OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN DIFFERENT DISTRICTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Osmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Study of this issue is relevant and importantin theoretical andclinical medicine. Low content of iodine in water and food is a cause an iodine deficiency in children and adolescents in the Republic of Dagestan. These data are great importance in medical practice. This article covers one of the pressing issues concerning vitamin and micronutrient deficiency, which affects half of children and teenagers in different areas of the Republic of Dagestan and Russian Federation.Methods. Children and adolescents of the Republic of Dagestan were objects of study. The iodine content in samples of drinking water and food were examined for the 44 administrative districts of the Republic of Dagestan. Data processing programs were carried out in the AU "SGM" and the Excel.Results. Full and proper nutrition is the most important condition for maintaining health, high performance and endurance of man and the nation’s gene. It is established that the Republic of Dagestan is a region with iodine deficiency in water and food, which leads to the development of thyroid diseases.Main conclusions. It is obvious that without appropriate measures for the prevention of iodine deficiency and treatment of diseases associated with it isn't possible to change the situation for the better health of future generations. This problem requires a comprehensive solution that provides replenishment of iodine deficiency in the population (mainly children, including iodization of food and bottled water with affordable and effective technologies.

  20. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybinski, Z.; Mazurek-Przybylik, E.

    1996-01-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z; Mazurek-Przybylik, E [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology; Pawlega, J [Institute of Oncology, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results indicated iodine sufficiency in schoolchildren from the

  3. Vitamin A Repletion in rats with concurrent vitamin A and iodine deficiency affects pituitary THS {beta} gene expression and reduces thyroid hyperstimulation and thyroid size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biebinger, R.; Arnold, M.; Langhans, W.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) and iodine deficiency (ID) are common in developing countries. VAD has effects on thyroid metabolism that may be dependent on iodine status. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of VA supplementation (VAS) and/or dietary iodine repletion,

  4. From Research to Policy to Programme: Success Story of Seven State Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD Survey in India

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    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. In India the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. Of these, an estimated 350 million people are at higher risk of IDDs as they consume salt with inadequate iodine. Every year nine million pregnant women and eight million newborns are at risk of IDD in India.On September 13, 2000, the Government of India lifted the ban at the national level on the sale of non-iodized salt (India Gazette 2000. Scientists, civil society, international agencies and other stakeholders joined ranks to fight against this retrograde step by the government of India. The four pronged approach to fight the removal of ban on non- iodized salt comprised of writing advocacy documents, meeting with stakeholders, media campaign and tracking of Universal Salt Iodization (USI in states by state iodine status surveys.But effective advocacy and media campaign were hampered by lack of scientific data substantiating the magnitude of Iodine Deficiency disorders (IDD in India. To address this lacuna, state level Iodine status surveys were planned in seven states of India and were executed over next five years in collaboration with various national and international stakeholders.State level IDD surveys were carried out in seven states (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Goa and Jharkhand from 2000 to 2006 by International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD in collaboration with state medical colleges, Micronutrient Initiative (MI and UNICEF. The surveys were carried as per the recommended guidelines of WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD and used 30 cluster into 40 children sampling methodology. Children in the age group of 6-12 years, women in the household, retail shop keepers and other community stakeholders constituted the study population. All three indicators

  5. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg ulcers and reduce the chance of a future infection. Conjunctivitis (pinkeye). Research suggests that using eye ... National Institute of Medicine has set Adequate Intake (AI) of iodine for infants: 0 to 6 months, ...

  6. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimboka Sabas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8 of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0 in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4, n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s to 12.3% (2004. The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215 μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in improving quality control at production level and

  7. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  8. The importance of prevention with iodine after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornealo, Elena; Chirca, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Medical negative consequences of the disastrous accident from the Chernobyl are tangible till present and the thyroid pathology has a special place among them. It is caused by the actions of radioactive iodine and can be greatly minimized by the implementation of prophylaxis with stable iodine. The basic principles, benefits and risks of iodine prophylaxis are reported in this article. (authors)

  9. Symposium on ‘Geographical and geological influences on nutrition’ Iodine deficiency in industrialised countries: Conference on ‘Over- and undernutrition: challenges and approaches’ on 30 June–2 July 2009, The Summer Meeting of the Nutrition Society, was held at the University of Surrey, Guildford

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is not only a problem in developing regions; it also affects many industrialised countries. Globally, two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and approximately 50% of continental Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. Iodine intakes in other industrialised

  10. Analysis of epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in Tomsk region from 1998 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilova, Y. G.; Oleynik, O. A.; Yurchenko, E. V.; Zinchuk, S. F.; Sivolobova, T. V.; Rotkank, M. A.; Mazhitova, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present research is the comparative analysis of the epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in the Tomsk region from 1998 to 2014. There were examined 9901 and 15174 children of the school age including within the medical examination of the children’s population in 1998 and 2014 in Tomsk. At all school pupils there were analyzed anamnestic data and carried out anthropometrical measurements, ultrasonography of the thyroid gland was carried out using the portable scanner "Aloka SSD 500" with the linear sensor of 7,5 MHz frequency in the real time, the thyroid volume was evaluated according to Delange (1997). The excretion of inorganic iodine was determined at 264 in 1998 and at 120 children in 2014, respectively, in a one-time portion of urine by the cerium-arsenic method. There was additionally carried out the analysis of results of determination of TSH at 10717 in 1998, and at 15091 in 2014 in a spot of the whole blood at newborn children on the 4-5 day after birth at full-term and on the 7-14 day at prematurely born children. Neonatal TSH in the dried-up samples of capillary blood was determined by the method of the fluorometric immune-ferment analysis with the use of sets of TSH-Neonatal: Delfia, Finland. Statistical processing of the data obtained was carried out with the use of the applied software package pspp. The descriptive analysis included calculation of the median for the quantitative and the calculation of frequencies for qualitative data. The comparative analysis included calculation of distinctions reliability by the Mann-Whitney criterion for independent and to Wilcoxon’s criterion for dependent data. The comparative analysis of epidemiological situation of iodine deficiency in Tomsk and the Tomsk region in 1998 and 2014 specifies decreasing the iodine deficiency diseases in the Tomsk region, increasing the iodine provision of the population within 15 years by 27%, decreasing neonatal hyperthyroidism by 1.5 times.

  11. Hypothyroxinemia Induced by Mild Iodine Deficiency Deregulats Thyroid Proteins during Gestation and Lactation in Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect on thyroidal proteins following mild iodine deficiency (ID-induced maternal hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy and lactation. In the present study, we established a maternal hypothyroxinemia model in female Wistar rats by using a mild ID diet. Maternal thyroid iodine content and thyroid weight were measured. Expressions of thyroid-associated proteins were analyzed. The results showed that the mild ID diet increased thyroid weight, decreased thyroid iodine content and increased expressions of thyroid transcription factor 1, paired box gene 8 and Na+/I− symporter on gestational day (GD 19 and postpartum days (PN 21 in the maternal thyroid. Moreover, the up-regulated expressions of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1 and type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2 were detected in the mild ID group on GD19 and PN21. Taken together, our data indicates that during pregnancy and lactation, a maternal mild ID could induce hypothyroxinemia and increase the thyroidal DIO1 and DIO2 levels.

  12. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Parental generation rats were fed until they reached reproductive age; first filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After 3 months of feeding, first filial generation rats gave birth to second filial generation rats; second filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After feeding for 90, 180, and 270 days, rats were sacrificed. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze body weight, food intake, and food utilization rate data collected during the time of feeding and blood iodine hormone level, which was determined after sacrifice. Results: The LI and LII groups generally demonstrated decreased activity, slow reaction, and growth retardation compared with the NI group. After 270 days, the urine iodine levels of the LI and LII groups were 1.7 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the NI group (255.2 μg/L) ( Pfood intake of female and male rats after 270 days were (465.0±27.7), (658.4±28.6) and (423.0±13.2), (548.0±18.8) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((499.5±21.8), (760.8±33.0) g) ( Pfood utilization rate of female rats in the LI and LII groups was (8.7±0.4)% and (6.0±0.58)%, which was lower than that of the NI group ((11.7±3.5)%) ( Pfood intake, and food utilization rate among second filial

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Methods of Iron Deficiency Prevention in Infants

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    N.А. Bielykh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods of iron deficiency prevention in infants. Materials and Methods. Within 30-cluster regional epidemiological study on the prevalence of iodine and iron deficiency in children, we have analyzed the results of screening for anemia in 948 children, carried out questioning of mothers, determined the concentration of iron in breast milk. The effectiveness of preventive measures was assessed by indicators of iron supplementation of the body in 96 children depending on the existing method of iron prophylaxis. Results of the Study. It was found that the use by mother during lactation of iron-containing vitamin-mineral complexes had no effect on the iron content in breast milk. It is proved that administration of iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex 1 mg/kg/day for 2 months is the most effective way to prevent iron deficiency in children who are exclusively breastfed.

  14. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies in a large survey of populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.

    2003-01-01

    surveys. In the present study we evaluated if TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab tend to develop in parallel or whether one or the other may be more prevalent in subsets of the population. METHODS In a cross-sectional comparative study, performed in two areas of Denmark with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, 4649...... antibodies were more frequently measured in sera from moderate than from mild iodine-deficient area (P = 0.02), whereas no differences were seen in younger subjects. In 38.8% of participants with thyroid autoantibodies in serum, both antibodies were present. In sera with both TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab present...

  15. An estimation of the risk for the use of stable iodine in radiation protection in an iodine deficient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.; Gloebel, H.; Muth, H.; Andres, C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation risk of the thyroid is estimated by use of data from the literature and our investigations. Comparing these results with the statistical incidence of radiation evoked diseases the risk of a patient to develop thyroid carcinoma receiving 50 μCi 131 I for thyroid diagnostics is about tenfold compared to the spontaneous risk with a twofold risk to develop hypothyroidism. Using sup(99m)Tc or 123 I these risks are minimized to a small percentage. For technicians in the RIA lab or during labelling of proteins the thyroid's radiation risk can be diminished by ingestion of inactive iodine, however, this procedure includes new risks of iodine side-effects. Comparing the pharmacological risks of iodine intake and the radiation risk it seems to be useful to suggest iodine prophylaxis when the expected radiation dose exceeds 10 rad in the thyroid. (author)

  16. Thyroid function in girls with menstrual disturbances in iodine-deficiency region

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    O Konstantinova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimate the functional state of the female adolescent thyroid with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine deficiency regions, 130 female adolescents with irregular menstrual cycle were examined. Hypothyroidism incidence (in them was 16.9%. In addition we considered TSH range 2.5–4.0 mU/l (highly normal TSH level the extent of which was 12.3%. High extent of antibody carriage to the thyroid (31.3% in girls with irregular menses, having high blood TSH level. There were no statistical differences between the structure of menstrual dysfunction and menstrual duration depending on thyroid function (p = 0.2383, respectively, as well as the average values of estradiol levels depending on TSH level (p = 0.3213. Thus, the influence of highly normal TSH on menstrual function development in female adolescents.

  17. The Study of Iodine Status among Schoolchildren from Kyiv and Ways to Correct the Revealed Violations

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    O.A. Stroi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Lack of iodine in the environment is one of the topical medico-social problems in many countries of the world. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for the developmental delay, memory loss, or the ability for analysis and abstract thinking. Traditionally in Ukraine the problem of iodine deficiency was relevant in Western regions, but recent studies indicate the existence of moderate iodine deficiency in all areas. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status of primary schoolchildren from Kyiv. Materials and methods. The examination of 52 children aged 6–12 years was performed, which involved a survey of families on awareness of the consequences of iodine deficiency and frequency of consumption of foods containing iodine, objective and ultrasound thyroid investigation, determination of urine iodine content in single portions of urine. Results. Iodine deficiency was detected in 87 % of pupils, mostly mild. Diffuse goiter grade 1 was diagnosed in 23 % of patients. To correct iodine deficiency, we have used new generation product — jodis-concentrate as an aqueous solution. Conclusions. Research of iodine status in schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in Kyiv showed the presence of mild iodine deficiency in 87 % of them (in 68 and 19 %, respectively. In 12 (23 % children, we have diagnosed thyroid volume increase under normal echogenicity and homogeneous echostructure. Lack of iodine nutrition is caused by poor nutrition, lack of mass, group and individual iodine prophylaxis, low sanitary hygienic culture of the population. Pupils with iodine deficiency were administered an individual subsidy of iodine in the form of an aqueous solution of jodis-concentrate for 12 months, which has significantly improved the iodine status of children, normalized the level of urine iodine content. Early detection of iodine deficiency and its correction are the promising directions of modern pediatrics in terms of the prevention of thyroid

  18. Is serum TSH a biomarker of thyroid carcinoma in patients residing in a mildly iodine-deficient area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swan, Kristine Zøylner; Nielsen, Viveque Egsgaard; Godballe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between the pre-operative serum TSH (s-TSH) level and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in a mildly iodine-deficient area. Methods: Patients undergoing surgery for thyroid nodular disease (TND) were included from three tertiary surgical departments. Da......-TSH between patients with benign and malignant TND, s-TSH is not suitable as a biomarker of DTC in a clinical setting....

  19. Maternal Different Degrees of Iodine Deficiency during Pregnant and Lactation Impair the Development of Cerebellar Pinceau in Offspring

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    Jing Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Iodine is critical for synthesis of thyroid hormones (TH. And iodine deficiency (ID is one of the most significant reasons of intellectual disability and motor memory impairment, although the potential mechanisms are still under investigation. Presently, mild ID and marginal ID are largely ignored problems for women of child bearing age. Mild ID is a subtle form of TH deficiency, which shows low levels of free thyroxine (FT4 and relatively normal free triiodothyronine (FT3 or thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH. And marginal ID is a milder form of ID with decreased total T4 (TT4 but relatively normal FT3, FT4, and TSH. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal different degrees of ID on the development of pinceau in cerebellar purkinje cells (PCs and studied the expression of pinceau related protein, which is crucial for the development and maturation of pinceau.Methods and Results: Three developmental iodine deficient rat models were created by feeding dam rats with an iodine-deficient diet and deionized water supplemented with potassiumiodide. Our study showed that different degrees of ID inhibited cerebellar pinceau synapse development and maturation on postnatal day (PN 14 and PN21. What's more, mild and severe ID reduced the expression of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin186 and NrCAM on PN7, PN14, and PN21. However, marginal ID rarely altered expression of these proteins in the offspring.Conclusion: These results suggested that maternal mild and severe ID impaired the development and maturation of cerebellar pinceau, which may be attributed to the decrease of AnkG, β4-spectrin, neurofascin 186, and NrCAM. And the alteration of development and maturation in cerebellar pinceau in the offspring were also observed following maternal marginal ID, which is slighter than that of mild ID.

  20. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    OpenAIRE

    L Sh Vagapova; O D Konstantinova; Ya I Koz; L M Shukshina; E O Skrynnik

    2011-01-01

    To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different bo...

  1. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  2. The goitre rate, its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among women in Ethiopia: Cross-section community based study

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    Berhane Yemane

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of women on Iodine Deficiency were investigated. Methods A cross-section community based study was conducted during February to May 2005 in 10998 women in child bearing age of 15 to 49 years. To assess the state of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia, a multistage "Proportional to Population Size" (PPS sampling methods was used, and WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommended method for goitre classification. Results Total goitre prevalence (weighted was 35.8% (95% CI 34.5–37.1, 24.3% palpable and 11.5% visible goitre. This demonstrates that more than 6 million women were affected by goitre. Goitre prevalence in four regional states namely Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP, Oromia, Bebshandul-Gumuz and Tigray was greater than 30%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. In the rest of the regions except Gambella, the IDD situation was mild to moderate. According to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD this is a lucid indication that IDD is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Women with goitre experience more pregnancy failure (X2 = 16.5, p 2 = 67.52; p Conclusion Ethiopia is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The findings presented in this report emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly reproductive age women. Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program and iodized oil capsule distribution in some peripheries where iodine deficiency is severe is urgently required.

  3. Iodine Status during Pregnancy in a Region of Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency is not Associated with Adverse Obstetric Outcomes; Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC

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    Barbara Torlinska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with pregnancy/neonatal loss, and adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the impact of mild–to–moderate iodine insufficiency, though prevalent in pregnancy, is not well-documented. We assessed whether mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy was associated with pregnancy/infant loss, or with other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, from 3140 singleton pregnancies and from a further 42 women with pregnancy/infant loss. The group was classified as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient with a median urinary iodine concentration of 95.3 µg/L (IQR 57.0–153.0; median urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat 124 µg/g, IQR 82–198. The likelihood of pregnancy/infant loss was not different across four UI/Creat groups (<50, 50–149, 150–250, >250 µg/g. The incidence of pre-eclampsia, non-proteinuric gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, glycosuria, anaemia, post-partum haemorrhage, preterm delivery, mode of delivery, being small for gestational age, and large for gestational age did not differ significantly among UI/Creat groups, nor were there any significant differences in the median UI/Creat. We conclude that maternal iodine status was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in a mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant population. However, in view of the low number of women with pregnancy/infant loss in our study, further research is required.

  4. Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ara, G.; Boonstra, A.; Roy, S.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh.F.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly

  5. Research on iodine deficiency and goiter in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    In 1811, Courtois noted a violet vapor arising from burning seaweed ash and Gay-Lussac subsequently identified the vapor as iodine, a new element. The Swiss physician Coindet, in 1813, hypothesized the traditional treatment of goiter with seaweed was effective because of its iodine content and

  6. Iodinated contrast media and patients with high-risk kidneys. Aiming at rational prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, B.; Frouge, C.; Gagey, N.

    1994-01-01

    Acute renal failure induced by iodinated contrast media (CM) accounts for about 10% of all hospital cases of renal failure, especially in azotemic patients. The specific anatomy and physiology of the inner medulla renalis render it particularly sensitive to even a moderate reduction in blood supply. Renal function will be estimated by measuring serum creatinine levels, before and within 72 hours after administration of the iodinated contrast medium. Hypovolaemia, diabetes mellitus-induced microangiopathy, nephrotoxic drugs and especially dehydratation may provoke renal accidents. Proper hydration, choosing a low osmolality medium and adequately spacing exposures to CM are elementary measures to be adopted to prevent renal failure. (authors)

  7. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Book cover Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Auteur(s) : H.V. Kuhnlein and G.H. Pelto. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 220 pages. e-ISBN : 1552504409. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez ...

  8. Global iodine nutrition: Where do we stand in 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2013-05-01

    Dietary iodine intake is required for the production of thyroid hormone. Consequences of iodine deficiency include goiter, intellectual impairments, growth retardation, neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality. In 1990, the United Nations World Summit for Children established the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide. Considerable progress has since been achieved, largely through programs of universal salt iodization. Approximately 70% of all households worldwide currently have access to adequately iodized salt. In 2013, as defined by a national or subnational median urinary iodine concentration of 100-299 μg/L in school-aged children, 111 countries have sufficient iodine intake. Thirty countries remain iodine-deficient; 9 are moderately deficient, 21 are mildly deficient, and none are currently considered severely iodine-deficient. Ten countries have excessive iodine intake. In North America, both the United States and Canada are generally iodine-sufficient, although recent data suggest pregnant U.S. women are mildly iodine-deficient. Emerging issues include discrepancies between urinary iodine status in pregnant women compared to school-aged children in some populations, the problem of re-emerging iodine deficiency in parts of the developed world, the importance of food industry use of iodized salt, regions of iodine excess, and the potential effects of initiatives to lower population sodium consumption on iodine intake. Although substantial progress has been made over the last several decades, iodine deficiency remains a significant health problem worldwide and affects both industrialized and developing nations. The ongoing monitoring of population iodine status remains crucially important, and particular attention may need to be paid to monitoring the status of vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and infants. There is also need for ongoing monitoring of iodized salt and other dietary iodine sources in

  9. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in regions of Russia affected by Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, G.; Alexandrova, G.; Arbuzova, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present article provides an update on IDD in the Western regions of Russia (Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Orel) which were contaminated by radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. These surveyed areas meet the criteria of ICCIDD/UNICEF/WHO for mild and moderate IDD. Higher iodine excretion and smaller goiter prevalence (mild level of IDD) were more typical for urban sites, while lower iodine levels and higher goiter endemicity (moderate level of IDD) were found in rural areas. IDD control programmes should be developed and implemented in Chernobyl areas and iodine excretion should be monitored continuously to minimize future thyroid abnormalities

  10. Global 99mTc-uptake in the differentiation between normal thyroid, goitre with euthyroidism, and thyroid autonomy in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.; Vaitl, C.; Kirsch, C.M.; Knesewitsch, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Horn, K.; Bechtner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Global TcTU was determined in 568 patients without any specific thyroid drug intake - 54 with normal thyroid, 274 with goitre and euthyroidism and 240 with thyroid autonomy. 57 patients with autonomy and overt hyperthyroidism were the only group with TcTU values significantly higher than normals. Common to all groups was a large scatter of the TcTU values. In 332, the effects of individual iodine supply were studied by measuring the iodine concentration in spot urine samples. There was a significant inverse correlation between the TcTU values and the urinary iodine excretion in the groups of normal thyroids and of goitres with euthyroidism. In the group with autonomy an effect of iodine supply could only be seen in cases of greatly increased urinary iodine excretion, resulting in very low TcTU values. Out of 20 patients with autonomy and iodine contamination, only 4 showed overt hyperthyroidism. The large scatter of TcTU values in all groups may be explained by the persistent iodine deficiency as well as by the frequent exposure to unknown amounts of iodine in patients with thyroid disease. Therefore, the spontaneous TcTU alone cannot identify a small group of patients with autonomy and high risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, from a very large group of patients with goitre. (orig.) [de

  11. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management; Distribution preventive et plans de gestion des stocks de comprimes d'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  12. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  13. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  14. Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Wang

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among children in eastern China.This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR with average thyroid volume (Tvol and urinary iodine concentration (UIC in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination.Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8-10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects and salt iodine (10,184 samples using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA.TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children.After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.

  15. Common variants in the G protein beta3 subunit gene and thyroid disorders in a formerly iodine-deficient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völzke, Henry; Bornhorst, Alexa; Rimmbach, Christian; Petersenn, Holger; Geissler, Ingrid; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kroemer, Heyo K; Rosskopf, Dieter

    2009-10-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are key mediators of signals from membrane receptors-including the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor-to cellular effectors. Gain-of-function mutations in the TSH receptor and the Galpha(S) subunit occur frequently in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereby the T allele of a common polymorphism (825C>T, rs5443) in the G protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) is associated with increased G protein-mediated signal transduction and a complex phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this common polymorphism affects key parameters of thyroid function and morphology and influences the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases in the general population. The population-based cross-sectional Study of Health in Pomerania is a general health survey with focus on thyroid diseases in northeast Germany, a formerly iodine-deficient area. Data from 3428 subjects (1800 men and 1628 women) were analyzed for an association of the GNB3 genotype with TSH, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels, urine iodine and thiocyanate excretion, and thyroid ultrasound morphology including thyroid volume, presence of goiter, and thyroid nodules. There was no association between GNB3 genotype status and the functional or morphological thyroid parameters investigated, neither in crude analyses nor upon multivariable analyses including known confounders of thyroid disorders. Based on the data from this large population-based survey, we conclude that the GNB3 825C>T polymorphism does not affect key parameters of thyroid function and morphology in the general population of a formerly iodine-deficient area.

  16. Iodine intake in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.A.; Hetherton, A.M.; O'Carroll, D.; Smith, D.F.; O'Halloran, M.J.; O'Donovan, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A study of urinary iodine excretion and thyroid gland uptake of radioactive iodine 131 I was undertaken in the Dublin area with a view to providing data on the current iodine status in Ireland. A mean urinary iodine excretion of 118±82μg/gram creatinine (Median 96) obtained from 821 subjects attending general hospital outpatient clinics in the Dublin area in 1987, while excluding severe iodine deficiency in this particular cohort, obscured the fact that 250 (30%) had iodine excretion values ≤70 μ/g creatinine, a value approximating to the minimum daily iodine requirement. The results provide sufficient evidence of sporadic iodine deficiency to justify a more widespread study of the iodine status of the Irish population with a view to making recommendations on the possible need for iodine prophylaxis

  17. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...

  18. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  19. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  20. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva, E-mail: dlinhares@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Garcia, Patrícia Ventura, E-mail: patriciag@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CE3C, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Almada, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra_almada@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Ferreira, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.jl.ferreira@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Queiroz, Gabriela, E-mail: maria.gp.queiroz@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Cruz, José Virgílio, E-mail: jvc@uac.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos, E-mail: rodrigues@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  1. [Prevention of recurrent amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism by iodine-131].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, J S; Jarry, G; Tcheng, E; Moullart, V; Arlot, S; Rey, J L; Schvartz, C

    2004-03-01

    Amioradone-induced hyperthyroidism is a common complication of amiodarone therapy. Although definitive interruption of amiodarone is recommended because of the risks of aggravation of the arrhythmias, some patients may require the reintroduction of amiodarone several months after normalisation of thyroid function. The authors undertook a retrospective study of the effects of preventive treatment of recurrences of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism with I131. The indication of amiodarone therapy was recurrent, symptomatic, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 13 cases and ventricular tachycardia in 5 cases (M = 14, average age 64 +/- 13 years). The underlying cardiac disease was dilated cardiomyopathy (N = 5), ischaemic heart disease (N = 3), hypertensive heart disease (N = 2), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (N = 2) or valvular heart disease (N = 2). Two patients had idiopathic atrial fibrillation. An average dose of 576 +/- 184 MBq of I131 was administered 34 +/- 37 months after an episode of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Amiodarone was reintroduced in 16 of the 18 patients after a treatment-free period of 98 +/- 262 days. Transient post-radioiodine hyperthyroidism was observed in 3 cases (17%). Sixteen patients (89%) developed hypothyroidism requiring replacement therapy with L-thyroxine. There were no recurrences of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. After 24 +/- 17 months follow-up, the arrhythmias were controlled in 13 of the 16 patients (81%) who underwent the whole treatment sequence. The authors conclude that preventive treatment with I131 is an effective alternative to prevent recurrence of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism in patients requiring reintroduction of amiodarone to control their arrhythmias.

  2. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  3. Iodine deficiency disorders: Public health measures to mitigate the global burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Ram Bihari Lal Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for the synthesis of the hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Iodine insufficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and is rated as one of the most significant public health concern in more than 125 countries. An optimal intake of dietary iodine during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood period is crucial for ensuring proper development of the brain of the fetus/newborn. During the course of implementation of the strategy of universal administration of the iodized salt, a wide gamut of challenges has been identified. In order to combat the same and simultaneously enhance the coverage of universal administration of the iodized salt, many measures have been proposed, namely formulating clear plan with time-based targets; encouraging coordination amongst all stakeholders; strengthening of the existing infrastructure; and increasing consumer awareness and demand for adequately iodized salt. To conclude, iodine has a crucial role in ensuring the normal growth and development of the child. However, to expand the coverage of the universal iodized salt to the vulnerable population, sustained political commitment and transparent monitoring and evaluation mechanism is the need of the hour.

  4. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome. ##

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the extent of neurological impairments associated with low...

  5. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: The thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development and iodine is required for TH synthesis. Environmental chemicals that perturb the thyroid axis result in modest reductions in TH, yet there is a paucity of data on the neurological impairments associated with low level TH ...

  6. Iodine and thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rim Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency causes hypothyroidism that results in impaired somatic growth and motor development in children. Mild and moderate iodine deficiencies cause multifocal autonomous growth of thyroid, which results in thyrotoxicosis. On the other hand, iodine excess is associated with the development of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. In areas of iodine deficiency, a sudden increase in iodine intake is associated with transient hyperthyroidism. Recent studies demonstrated that long-term thyroid function of subjects who experienced both iodine deficiency and iodine excess during childhood tended to be abnormal despite optimization of their current iodine intake. Iodine status in the Korean Peninsula is very unique because people in the Republic of Korea have been shown to have predominantly excessive iodine levels, whereas the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is known to be an iodine-deficient area. Further research is warranted to verify the optimal ranges of iodine intake and to clarify the effects of iodine intake on thyroid disorders in the Korean Peninsula.

  7. Thyroglobulin is a more sensitive indicator of iodine deficiency than thyrotropin: development and evaluation of dry blood spot assays for thyrotropin and thyroglobulin in iodine-deficient geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missler, U; Gutekunst, R; Wood, W G

    1994-03-01

    Immunometric assays were developed for thyrotropin and thyroglobulin using time-resolved fluorescence as the measurement signal. The assays were suitable for measurements in serum/plasma or in dry blood spots (3 mm diameter). Both assays have acceptable coefficients of variation for dry blood spots (intra-assay median CV dry blood spot samples could be transported without special precautions for up to 5-6 weeks without significant loss in immunoreactivity. This agrees with other findings. The results showed that serum thyroglobulin levels are a more sensitive indicator of iodine deficiency than thyrotropin; elevated thyroglobulin levels were found in 182/304 children in Zimbabwe compared with elevated thyrotropin level in 28/304 cases. 213/304 children had enlarged thyroid glands. The cut-off levels used here were 4.5 mU/l thyrotropin and 20 micrograms/l for thyroglobulin, both in whole blood. The assays proved useful for assessing the efficacy of iodine therapy, either by oral dosage or intramuscularly (iodised oil).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  9. The prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media are relatively common and potentially life threatening. Opinion is divided as to the utility of medications for preventing these reactions. We performed a systematic review to assess regimes for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media. Methods Searches for studies were conducted in the Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases. Bibliographies of included studies and review articles were examined and experts were contacted. Randomised clinical trials that examined agents given prior to iodinated contrast material for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions were included in the review. The validity of the included studies was examined using a component approach. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria, but only one of these fulfilled all of the validity criteria. There were four studies that examined the use of H1 antihistamines, each was used to prevent anaphylactoid reactions to ionic contrast. The random effects pooled relative risk demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall rate of anaphylactoid reactions (RR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.18-0.9, p = 0.027. There were insufficient studies to produce a pooled statistic for the use of corticosteroids, however regimes of steroids (methylprednisolone 32 mg given at least six hours and again two hours prior to the administration of contrast suggested a reduction in the incidence of anaphylactoid reactions. Conclusion In conclusion, there are few high quality randomised clinical trials that have addressed the question of the optimal methods to prevent allergic type reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media. Allowing for these limitations, the results suggest that H1 antihistamines given immediately prior to the administration of ionic contrast may be useful in preventing reactions to ionic contrast and are suggestive of a protective effect of corticosteroids when given in two doses

  10. Effect of a mandatory iodization program on thyroid gland volume based on individuals' age, gender, and preceding severity of dietary iodine deficiency: A prospective, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans

    2007-01-01

    = 3570) the iodization in year 2000 in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Women aged 18-22, 25-30, 40-45, and 60-65 yr and men aged 60-65 yr were examined. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Results: A lower median thyroid volume was seen in all age groups after iodization...

  11. Prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y yodo, y parasitosis en niños de Arandas, Jalisco, México Prevalence of iron and iodine deficiency and parasitosis in children from Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Manuel Vásquez-Garibay

    2002-06-01

    security policy holding were associated to parasitosis. Conclusions. The high prevalence rates of iron deficiency, iodine deficiency, and parasitosis, should be addressed by state health services with effective interventions to restrain these preventable diseases.

  12. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  13. Preventive distribution of steady iodine in France: assessment of the 2009 campaign around nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godino, O.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the strategy adopted for the preventive distribution in 2009 and 2010 of steady iodine tablets to people living or working within 10 kilometres around the French nuclear power plants. It first recalls the results obtained by the previous campaign in 2005-2006. It describes how the campaign has been prepared (address files, tablet purchase and delivery), which distribution method has been adopted (mailing, retrieval in chemist's shops, direct distribution during a second phase, tablets at permanent disposal during a third phase). It indicates the missions of chemists and of the power plan operator (EDF). It briefly comments the main figures associated with and obtained by this campaign

  14. Data analysis of surveillance results of iodine deficiency disorders in Guangdong Province in 2011%2011年广东省碘缺乏病监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文; 刘礼平; 杨通; 林立丰; 池海珊; 张姗花

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of prevention program on iodine deficiency disorders and iodine nutritional status of residents in Guangdong Province.Methods Probability proportionate to size sampling(PPS) was employed in surveillance of iodine deficiency disorders.Thirty counties(cities,districts) were selected in Guangdong Province.In each county(city,district) one township(street) was selected; in each township (street) one primary school was selected and in each primary school 40 children aged 8-10 were chosen to examine their thyroid and to collect salt samples at their home for determination of salt iodine.Out of the 40 children,12 children were chosen to collect urine samples for determination of urinary iodine.From the primary schools chosen,40 grade 5 students were selected for intelligence quotient(IQ) test.In the nearby of the primary schools,3 townships(towns,street) were selected and in each township(town,street) 5 pregnant and 5 lactating women were selected to collect their urine samples for determination of urinary iodine.Type-B ultrasonic was used in measuring the thyroid volume.The iodine content of urine samples was measured by the method of arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometry.The iodine content of salt was determined quantitatively with the titration method.IQ was tested by Chinese combined Raven's test.According to geographical location and the implementation of iodized salt,the effects of iodized salt on iodine deficiency disorders were analyzed in the plains and the Pearl River Delta Coastal region with mild iodine deficiency(iodized salt implementation region,referred to as the plains and the PRD),historical iodine deficiency areas (iodized implementation region) and the eastern and the western coastal areas of Guangdong(areas with non-iodized salt problem,referred to as the eastern and the western Guangdong).Results A total of 1200 children aged 8 to 10 were examined by type-B ultrasonic test,and goiter rate was 3.5% (42

  15. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  16. Fortification of bread with iodized salt corrected iodine deficiency in school-aged children, but not in their mothers: a national cross-sectional survey in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Avni, Freddy; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-10-01

    In the years 1985-1998, it was noted that mild iodine deficiency (MID) was a public health problem in Belgium. Therefore, an agreement was signed in 2009 between the bakery sector and the Ministry of Health, to fortify bread with iodized salt. We tested the hypothesis that the iodine status of Belgian children improved after the introduction of bread fortified with iodized salt. Since the dietary habits of children and adults may differ, we also investigated whether the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the children in this study reflected the iodine status of their mothers. The study was cross-sectional. In a van, equipped with an ultrasound device, the thyroid volumes (Tvol) of children were measured and household salt samples and urine samples were collected from the children and their mothers. From across Belgium, 60 schools were selected and 1541 children participated in the study. The median UIC in children was 113.1 and 84.4 μg/L among their mothers. The median UIC among children was substantially greater compared to more than 10 years ago (80 μg/L; pmothers. To provide these women with an adequate iodine intake, the use of both iodized salt in bread and iodized instead of noniodized household salt needs to increase. Our findings suggest that the median UIC in children may not be an adequate surrogate of adults' iodine status. Therefore, monitoring iodine status should not be limited to children, but should be extended to women of child-bearing age.

  17. [A longitudinal study regarding the gestational changes in iodine nutrition and thyroid function among pregnant women in the iodine deficient areas of Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zheng, Heming; Li, Xiaofeng; Ying, Huili

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the gestational changes of iodine nutrition and thyroid function and to explore the factors associated with the thyroid function in pregnant women. A longitudinal survey was conducted in 130 pregnant women in Luohe city of Henan province from October 2012 to May 2013. Samples of fasting blood and urine were collected in each trimester to test on thyroid function and urinary iodine. Data regarding social demography and lifestyle behavior were collected through questionnaire in the first trimester. The medians of urinary iodine (MUI) for pregnant women were 238.9, 150.8 and 306.4 µg/L in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively (P 0.05) but the level of free thyroxine (FT4) decreased (P iodine nutrition and thyroid function. With the increase of iodine level, the level of TSH first increased and then decreased while the levels of FT3 and FT4 showed the opposite trend. The level of TSH was influenced by factors as education level, history of chronic diseases, history of CT and X-ray examination, and intake of pickled food etc. The level of FT4 was associated with residence (urban or rural), stressful events in the previous year, daily means of transportation, and the hours of sedentariness, working and sleeping. Significant differences were noticed in iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during the three trimesters. It was essential to establish specific reference ranges for different trimesters. Thyroid functions of pregnant women seemed to be associated with iodine level and lifestyle.

  18. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  19. Optimizing individual iron deficiency prevention strategies in physiological pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramarskiy V.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sideropenia by the end of pregnancy takes place in all mothers without exception. Moreover, the selective administration of iron preparations, in contrast to the routine, makes it possible to avoid hemochromatosis, frequency of which in the general population makes from 0.5 to 13 %. The aim of the study was to optimize the individual strategy for the prevention of iron deficiency in physiological pregnancy. A prospective pre-experimental study was conducted, the criterion of inclusion in which was the mother’s extragenital and obstetrical pathology during the first half of pregnancy, a burdened obstetric and gynecological anamnesis. The study group of 98 women with a physiological pregnancy in the period of 20 to 24 weeks was recruited by simple ran- dom selection. Serum ferritin, hemoglobin, and serum iron were used to estimate iron deficiency. In the latent stage of iron deficiency against a background of monthly correction with Fenules ® in a dose of 90 mg of elemental iron per day, there was a significant increase in ferritin and iron in the blood rotor. In healthy mothers, during the gestational period of 20–24 weeks, a regularity arises in the replenishment of iron status, especially in the case of repeated pregnancy, which is successfully satisfied during the month of Fenules ® intake in doses of 45 mg or 90 mg per day with a serum ferritin level of, respectively, 30 up to 70 μg/l or less than 30 μg/l.

  20. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  1. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  2. Prevention of Vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihatsch, W. A.; Braegger, C P; Bronsky, J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence......, discuss current prophylaxis practices and outcomes, and to provide recommendations for the prevention of VKDB in healthy term newborns and infants. All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis and the date, dose, and mode of administration should be documented. Parental refusal of vitamin K...... prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K 1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3×2 mg vitamin K 1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K...

  3. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gemma; Torres, Maria Teresa; Francés, Lidia; Falguera, Gemma; Vila, Lluis; Manresa, Josep María; Casamitjana, Roser; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Acera, Amèlia; Guix, Dolors; Torrent, Anna; Grau, Josep; Torán, Pere

    2011-03-08

    It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768.

  4. Epidemiological evaluation of iodine deficiencyand thyroid disorders in the megalopolis of western Siberia in 1995–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O D Rymar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze iodine sufficiency and to evaluate thyroid structural and functional status in Novosibirsk citizens for the 1995–2010 periods.Methods and materials. Thyroid structural and functional status, as well as iodine deficiency, were evaluated in Novosibirsk population of adults and adolescents within the international projects MONIСA (1994–1995 and HAPIEE (2004–2005 and cross-sectional populational screening of random representative sample of school students. Results. In 1994–1995 iodine deficiency (mainly minor or moderate was revealed at 83% of adult Novosibirsk citizens at age 25–34. Median urinary iodine concentration was 47 μg/l. In adolescent population subclinical hypothyreosis was initially revealed in 1,5%. Another 1,5% of adolescents had initially diagnosed subclinical hyperthyreosis. In 2005 median urinary iodine concentration in adult (45–69 years old was 107 μg/l. Among all urine samples median urinary iodine concentration of more than 100 μg/l (100–360 μg/l was revealed in 54%, 13% had median urinary iodine concentration less than 50 μg/l. During the period 2009–2010 median urinary iodine concentration in adolescents (14–17 years old was 93 μg/l. Among all urine samples median urinary iodine concentration of more than 100 μg/l (100–360 μg/l was revealed in 39%, 7% had median urinary iodine concentration less than 50 μg/l. According to the above mentioned results mass iodine deficiency preventive actions lead to the increase of urinary iodine concentration in Siberian. However to the moment iodine deficiency in Novosibirsk is still exists. Persistent community oriented measures are necessary for the prevention of iodine deficiency.

  5. Marginal Iodine Deficiency Affects Dendritic Spine Development by Disturbing the Function of Rac1 Signaling Pathway on Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hui; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Ye; Shan, Zhongyan; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID)-induced thyroid hormone (TH) insufficient during development leads to impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. Marginal ID has been defined as subtle insufficiency of TH, characterized as low thyroxine (T 4 ) levels, whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation. The effects of marginal ID on long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated in the hippocampal CA1 region. To study the development of dendritic spines in pyramidal cells, Golgi-Cox staining was conducted on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, PN21, and PN28. The activation of Rac1 signaling pathway, which is essential for dendritic spine development by regulating actin cytoskeleton, was also investigated. Our results showed that marginal ID slightly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Besides, the density of dendritic spines during the critical period of rat postnatal development was mildly decreased, and we found no significant change of spine morphology in marginal ID group. We also observed decreased activation of the Rac1 signaling pathway in pups subjected to maternal marginal ID. Our study may support the hypothesis that decreased T 4 induced by marginal ID results in slight impairments of LTP and leads to mild damage of dendritic spine development, which may be due to abnormal regulation of Rac1 signaling pathway on cytoskeleton.

  6. Causes of referral to the first endocrine visit of patients with thyroid carcinoma in a mildly iodine-deficient area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Michela; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Ceresini, Graziano

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the causes of the first referral to an endocrine visit of patients with thyroid cancer in a mildly iodine-deficient area and to correlate them with prognostic features. We studied 298 consecutive patients (64 M and 234 F) with thyroid cancer. Of these, 281 had differentiated thyroid cancer. The causes of referral were categorized as follows: (Group A) clinical evidence of a neck lump; (Group B) incidental imaging in subjects without known thyroid diseases; (Group C) incidental imaging during a workup of thyroid disorders. Also, in differentiated thyroid cancer cases, clinical, histomorphologic, and prognostic parameters were compared among the three different groups of referral causes. In both total thyroid cancer and differentiated thyroid cancer cohorts, Group A, B, and C accounted for about 25, 35, and 40 % of causes, respectively. Considering the differentiated thyroid cancer, in Group B, ultrasound accounted for 94 % of cases, with 73 % resulting from screening or serendipitous study. Within a median follow-up of 5.6 [IQR: 2.7-9.5] years, disease-free survival was significantly lower in patients of Group A (Log-Rank test p = 0.030 vs. the other groups of causes). However, at the Cox multivariate analysis only male sex (p = 0.002) and stage (p = 0.005), but not referral cause, resulted independent predictors of events. In patients without known thyroid disease, unjustified thyroid ultrasound represents the main cause of referral of thyroid cancer patients to the first endocrine visit. The fact that this is not related to the disease-free survival strengthens the concept of the uselessness of thyroid cancer screening.

  7. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  8. Iodine-infused aeration for hull fouling prevention: a vessel-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Natasha C; Krumholz, Jason S; Hunsucker, Kelli Z; Radicone, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Biofouling is a significant economic and ecological problem, causing reduced vessel performance and increases in fuel consumption and emissions. Previous research has shown iodine vapor (I 2 )-infused aeration to be an environmentally friendly method for deterring the settlement of fouling organisms. An aeration system was deployed on a vessel with hull sections coated with two types of antifoulant coatings, Intersleek ® 1100 (fouling-release) and Interspeed ® BRA-640 (ablative copper biocide), as well as an inert epoxy barrier coating, to assess the effectiveness of aeration in conjunction with common marine coatings. I 2 -infused aeration resulted in consistent reductions of 80-90% in hard fouling across all three coatings. Additionally, aeration reduced the soft fouling rate by 45-70% when used in conjunction with both Intersleek ® and Interspeed ® BRA versus those coatings alone. The results of this study highlight the contribution of I 2 -infused aeration as a standalone mechanism for fouling prevention or as a complement to traditional antifouling coatings.

  9. False-positive radioactive iodine uptake mimicking miliary lung metastases in a patient affected by papillary thyroid cancer and IgA deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidowich, Andrew Paul; Reynolds, James C. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States); Kundu, Amartya [Dept. of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States); Celi, Francesco S. [Div. of Endocrinology and MetabolismVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A 42-year-old female with immunoglobulin A deficiency and recurrent sinopulmonary infections underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Follow-up {sup 123}I scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake, suggesting metastatic disease. However, subsequent pathologic, biochemical and radiographic testing proved that she was in fact disease free, and the initial {sup 123}I pulmonary uptake was identified as a false positive. Inflammatory conditions may rarely cause iodine uptake in non-thyroidal tissues due to local retention, organification, and/or immunologic utilization. To avoid exposing patients to unnecessary treatments, it is critical for clinicians to recognize that comorbid pulmonary conditions may mimic metastatic PTC on radioiodine scintigraphy.

  10. 2011年三亚市碘缺乏病调查结果分析%Iodine deficiency disorders in Sanya in 2011: an analysis of a survey results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梅香

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解三亚市碘缺乏病防治现状,为防治碘缺乏病提供科学依据.方法 按《海南省2011年碘缺乏病监测方案》要求,在三亚市按东、南、西、北、中5个方位各抽取1个镇(区),在每个镇(区)再按东、南、西、北4个方位各抽取1个行政村,每个行政村抽取盐样15份、育龄妇女尿样8份,生活饮用水样1份.在每个镇(区)抽取1所小学,每所小学抽取8~ 10岁儿童40名,进行甲状腺检查,智商测定,取尿样测定尿碘.在每所小学抽取5年级学生33名进行健康教育问卷调查和家庭食用盐检测(半定量检测).盐碘测定采用直接滴定法;尿碘、水碘测定采用砷铈催化分光光度测定法;儿童智商测定采用联合型瑞文测验农村版.结果 共检测居民盐样300份,盐碘中位数为31.0 mg/kg,碘盐覆盖率为96.67%(290/300),合格碘盐食用率为96.00%(288/300).共测定200名儿童尿样,尿碘中位数为194.60 μg/L,尿碘范围18.50 ~ 655.10 μg/L,<50 μg/L和50~<100 μg/L的比例分别为4.00%(8/200)和13.50%(27/200);共调查200名儿童甲状腺,触诊法甲状腺肿大率为1.00%(2/200);儿童智商均值为97.66,智商≤69的有8名,在70 ~ 79的有20名.对165名学生进行了健康教育问卷调查,平均得分为3.24,其中有43人不及格,不及格率为26.06%;家中盐样测定,碘盐覆盖率为96.36%(159/165).160名育龄妇女尿碘中位数为162.95 μg,/L,尿碘范围在9.50 ~ 908.80 μg/L,<100 μg/L的占19.38%(31/160);家中盐样测定,合格碘盐食用率为96.90%(155/160).5个乡镇(区)20份水样测定,水碘全部< 10.0 μg/L.结论 三亚市仍属于外环境缺碘地区,虽然总体上已达到消除碘缺乏病目标,但仍有部分儿童和育龄妇女存在碘营养不足.%Objective In order to understand the Sanya of iodine deficiency disorders(IDD) prevention and cure,and to provide a scientific basis for formulating corresponding control measures

  11. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-04-05

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population.

  12. Investigation on and analysis of iodine nutritional of targeted population in the high-risk areas of iodine deficiency disorders in Chongqing%重庆市碘缺乏病高危地区重点人群碘营养状况调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心术; 廖文芳; 谢军; 罗飞; 陈静; 周倩如

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解重庆市碘缺乏病高危地区重点人群碘营养状况,有针对性地提出防治对策.方法 2007年4-5月,在重庆市城口、巫溪县的6个乡(镇),搜索所有的1997年1月1日以后出生的疑似地方性克汀病(地克病)儿童;在每个乡分别抽取8~10岁儿童200人,进行甲状腺检查、智商测定和采集尿样测定尿碘;在每乡抽取妇女(孕妇和哺乳期)40人,进行家庭食用盐碘测定和调查居民碘盐覆盖率及采集尿样测定尿碘.儿童甲状腺检查采用诊法和B超法,智商测定采用(CRT-RC2)农村版,尿碘测定采用酸消化砷铈分光光度法,盐碘测定采用直接滴定法.结果 城口、巫溪县乡镇医院报告疑似地克病6例,排除5例,另外1例为外地出生;8~10岁儿童甲状腺触诊法肿大率为9.58%(92/960),B超法肿大率为8.89%(65/731);儿童平均智商(IQ)为103.32,尿碘中位数为319.15 μg/L;妇女尿碘中位数为248.42 μg/L,居民碘盐覆盖率为98.82%(336/340).结论 重庆市城口、巫溪县儿童碘营养状况良好,未发现当地出生的新发地克病患儿;8~10岁儿童甲状腺肿大率和尿碘,妇女尿碘和居民碘盐覆盖率达到基本消除碘缺乏病标准.%Objective To investigate the iodine nutritional status of targeted population in the high-risk areas of iodine deficiency disorders in Chongqing, so as to provide scientific evidence for establishing prevention and remedial measures. Methods Six towns were selected in Chengkou and Wuxi Counties to found suspected dementia patients born after first Jan, 1997. Two hundred children aged 8-10 years were investigated in every town. The thyroid volume, intelligence quotient(IQ) and urinary iodine of the children were examined. Forty women (pregnant and nursing women) were investigated in every town. The iodine content of salt from their home was measured. The thyroid volume was examined by palpation and B-uhrasound. IQ was measured by combined Raven Test in China

  13. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  14. Large differences in incidences of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism associated with a small difference in iodine intake: A prospective comparative register-based population survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Around 3-4 billion people in the world are covered by iodine supplementation programs to prevent developmental brain damage and other iodine deficiency (ID) disorders. Mild ID is associated with more hyperthyroidism and less hypothyroidism in the population than a high iodine intake. Knowledge...... that iodine supplementation of a population may increase the incidence of overt hypothyroidism, even if the population is moderately iodine-deficient. In such a population, the increase in risk of hypothyroidism should be weighed against the risk of ID disorders such as hyperthyroidism due to multinodular...... of the iodine intake levels where the shifts in incidences occur is important for planning of iodine supplementation programs. A computer-based register linked to thyroid diagnostic laboratories was used to continuously identify all new cases of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism in two population cohorts...

  15. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  16. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  17. Microdoses uses of iodine in the contamination prevention of mechanical ventilators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.D.; Trivellato, S.V.; Quintas, M.L.; Birolini, D.

    1986-01-01

    Nosocomial respiratory tract infections due to contamination of mechanical ventilators is a major problem complicating the management of intensive care unit patients. A significant source of such infection seems to be water contained in the nebulizers. Its decontamination by various means has been unsatisfactory up to date. In order to control this source of infection, the authors suggest the utilization of a small dose of a 2% iodine alcoholic solution added to the water of the nebulizers in the proportion of 0.125ml of iodine solution to 500ml of water. The results show that the procedure is safe, efficient and unexpensive. (author) [pt

  18. Prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in an iodine-deficient area: non-selected patient population admitted for CT studies with iodine-containing contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saam, T.; Hess, T.; Kasperk, C.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Duex, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected group of patients admitted for contrast enhanced CT studies blood samples were tested for the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Material and methods: TSH blood levels were obtained in 548 consecutive patients who were scheduled for contrast-enhanced (Iopromide; 300 mg iodine/ml) CT scanning. In case of TSH levels registered (sodium perchlorate) was commenced before scanning. In case of TSH levels < 0.1 mU/l, CT scanning was not performed but further evaluation of the thyroid function was initiated. Results: TSH blood levels ranged from 0.4 to 7.5 mU/l in 512 patients, and 36 patients (6.6%) had TSH blood levels < 0.4 mU/l and 9 patients blood levels < 0.1 mU/l, with 32 of those patients (5.8%) having regular T3 and T4 blood levels consistent with latent hyperthyroidism. In 4 patients (0.8%), T3 or T4 blood levels were increased consistent with manifest hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: in South Germany, the prevalence of latent or manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected patient group is high. Therefore TSH blood levels should be obtained prior to contrast-enhanced CT studies. (orig.)

  19. Prevention of autoimmune hypothyroidism by modifying iodine intake and the use of tobacco and alcohol is manoeuvring between Scylla and Charybdis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig; Pedersen, Inge Bülow

    2012-01-01

    iodine intake, smoking cessation and alcohol intake are all strong modifiers of risk that, combined, may influence risk by a factor of up to 30. Unfortunately, promotion of an environment leading to substantial lowering of the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (i.e. improvement of dietary iodine...... deficiency, decrease or cessation of smoking, and moderate alcohol intake) is not incorporated within current public health promoting programs. Nevertheless, it is increasingly becoming evident that knowledge of the importance of these factors for disease development is likely to assist in the planning...

  20. Iodine Replete among Populations in Nigeria: Is the Population Tending Towards the Development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeaghala A. Augustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient which is required for normal thyroid function. The recommended daily intake for iodine is 150 µg, however in pregnant women; higher levels up to 250 µg could be required. Deficiency of iodine in any given population results in iodine deficiency disorder (IDD. Researchers in Nigeria as far back as 1967 had reported the existence of IDD. To combat this public health problem with its associated medical consequences, a policy to ensure salt iodization was enacted. The Nation’s consistent approach to combat IDD was globally recognized and it was adjudged as the only country in Africa that had achieved the goals of sustained elimination of IDD. Although the health benefits derivable from salt iodization seem to outweigh its risk, yet recent epidemiological data are pointing that populations within the country could be tending toward the development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH, a common disorder associated with salt iodization following chronic iodine deficiency. The need therefore to use evidence based approach to re-examine the County’s iodization policy as well as investigate the impact of salt iodization on thyroid hormone formation, metabolism and associated pathologies becomes very imperative. This could be very helpful in order to prevent the burden of non- communicable disease in a nation already battling with epidemics of various infectious diseases.

  1. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  2. A comparison of the effect of alcohol and povidone-iodine mixture with alcohol after povidon-iodine in prevention of vascular access inflammation in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The quality of hemodialysis can be promoted through reducing vascular access complications in these patients. One of the crucial roles of nurses in hemodialysis wards is reducing inflammation and infection of the vascular access. This study was conducted to compare the incidence of inflammation around the vascular access area in patients undergoing hemodialysis between two antiseptic methods of alcohol after povidone-iodine and the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was performed under the supervision of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, after gaining ethical committee approval in 2014. In the present study, 100 participants were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into three groups of combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine (n = 37, alcohol after using povidone-iodine (n = 32, and control group (n = 31. In the intervention groups 1 and 2, vascular access was disinfected using a combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine and alcohol after povidone-iodine, respectively. In the control group, vascular access was disinfected using the method of the related ward. Patients were fully observed for phlebitis occurrence for 12 hemodialysis sessions (1 month. Vascular access was controlled using the Iranian Nurses Association's phlebitis criteria. Data were analyzed using chi-square, ANOVA test, and Fisher's exact test in SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence rate of inflammation in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine, alcohol after povidone-iodine, and control groups, respectively, were 46%, 87.9%, and 100%. The incidence rate of inflammation was significantly lower in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine compared to the alcohol after povidone-iodine group (P < 0.001. However, no significant differences existed between the alcohol after povidone-iodine and control group. Conclusion: The combination of alcohol and

  3. Iodine Support of Population in Vinnytsa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Vlasenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 9 localities in Vinnitsa region the study of iodine support of population was conducted. 810 persons were examined including 540 children aged 7–12 years old living under the conditions of combined influence of geochemical and anthropogenic ecological factors. Vinnitsa region was found to be the territory with the mild iodine deficiency. Schoolboys with endemic increase of thyroid gland appeared to have typically higher prevalence of chronic somatic pathology. The peculiarities of goitrous endemia confirm complex pathogenesis of thyromegaly in children under conditions of combined influence of anthropogenic and geochemical factors, caused not only by the absolute iodine insufficiency but also by influence of additional goiterous factors. These peculiarities determine the necessity of complex approach to perform preventive antithyroid measures.

  4. Major Deficiencies Preventing Favorable Audit Opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1998-01-01

    The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented favorable audit opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements, and to identify the actions taken or under way...

  5. Major Deficiencies Preventing Auditors From Rendering Audit Opinions on DOD General Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rauu, Russell

    1995-01-01

    .... We plan to issue a similar report each year. The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented auditors from rendering audit opinions, other than disclaimers, on Army and Air Force general fund financial...

  6. [Vitamin D deficiency in childhood: an opportunity for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Desirée; Méndez-Sánchez, Lucía; Guagnelli, Miguel Ángel; Clark, Patricia

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric population has increased in recent years and continues to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. According to data from the "ENSANUT 2006" (National Health and Nutrition Survey), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Mexico was 16% in children aged 2-12 years. Vitamin D plays a critical role in the formation and bone homeostasis and consequently on growth. Its deficiency is clearly associated with diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia, and it has been linked to other diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, respiratory infections and immune system disease. Specific risk groups have been described in the medical literature for vitamin D deficiency in which supplementation may offer a benefit. Currently, there is still controversy in defining the serum levels of proficiency and dose supplementation. In Mexico, the daily suggested intake of vitamin D is 5.6μg (224 IU), which is significantly lower than the recommendations in the U.S. and Europe (i.e., between 400 and 1000 IU/day). An increase in vitamin D deficiency has been reported in recent years. There is no consensus regarding the sufficiency levels of vitamin D. Cut-off values vary from 20 to 30ng/ml. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide an overview of the problem in the pediatric population and to describe the groups at risk, as well as to analyze the current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was considered rare in Mexico according to the National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán. Lack of evidence did not help to establish the international recommended daily intake. Currently, vitamin D deficiency must be recognized as a health problem, worthy of attention and action. We suggest that prospective studies are carried out in our country where the relationship between serum vitamin D deficiency and poor bone mineralization will be established. Copyright

  7. Accuracy and reliability of thyroid volumetry using spiral CT and thyroid volume in a healthy, non-iodine-deficient Chinese adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Jian, E-mail: shujiannc@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhao Jiannong, E-mail: zhaojiannong@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Guo Dajing, E-mail: guodaj@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Luo Yindeng, E-mail: yindengluo_1019@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhong Weijia, E-mail: zhongweijia2003@eyou.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Xie Weibo, E-mail: radiologycq@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of thyroid volumetry using spiral CT and to investigate thyroid volumes for a healthy, non-iodine-deficient adult population in southwestern region of China. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was performed in phantoms and adult subjects with normal thyroid, and the volumes were measured by observers with 5 years or more of CT experience. The phantom volumes and the thyroid volumes of all subjects were noted. Results: For the thyroid phantoms, there was no significant difference between the true and CT calculated volumes (t = 0.862, P = 0.399), and the correlation was excellent (ICC = 0.9995, P = 0.000). In the subjects for reliability analysis, the intraobserver or interobserver differences for CT volumetric measurement of thyroid were not significant (P > 0.05). The intraobserver or interobserver correlations were very high (ICC > 0.99, P < 0.001). In the subjects for population analysis, the median of the thyroid volumes was 11.45 cm{sup 3}. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test showed no significant difference for the thyroid volume between sexes (U = 4388.00, Z = -1.118, P = 0.264). The nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis test showed no significant difference in all age groups ({chi}{sup 2} = 13.466, P = 0.062). There was a slight negative correlation between the thyroid volume and age (r{sub s} = -0.166, P = 0.019). Conclusion: The accuracy and reliability of multi-slice spiral CT in measuring thyroid volume are very high. The thyroid volumes are not significantly difference between genders or among decades for the healthy, non-iodine-deficient adult population in southwestern region of China.

  8. ASC deficiency suppresses proliferation and prevents medulloblastoma incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, E R W; Patel, E Y; Flowers, C A; Crowther, A J; Ting, J P; Miller, C R; Gershon, T R; Deshmukh, M

    2015-01-15

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is silenced by promoter methylation in many types of tumors, yet ASC's role in most cancers remains unknown. Here, we show that ASC is highly expressed in a model of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain cancer; ASC is also expressed in human medulloblastomas. Importantly, while ASC deficiency did not affect normal cerebellar development, ASC knockout mice on the Smoothened (ND2:SmoA1) transgenic model of medulloblastoma exhibited a profound reduction in medulloblastoma incidence and a delayed tumor onset. A similar decrease in tumorigenesis with ASC deficiency was also seen in the hGFAP-Cre:SmoM2 mouse model of medulloblastoma. Interestingly, hyperproliferation of the external granule layer (EGL) was comparable at P20 in both wild-type and ASC-deficient SmoA1 mice. However, while the apoptosis and differentiation markers remained unchanged at this age, proliferation makers were decreased, and the EGL was reduced in thickness and area by P60. This reduction in proliferation with ASC deficiency was also seen in isolated SmoA1 cerebellar granule precursor cells in vitro, indicating that the effect of ASC deletion on proliferation was cell autonomous. Interestingly, ASC-deficient SmoA1 cerebella exhibited disrupted expression of genes in the transforming growth factor-β pathway and increased level of nuclear Smad3. Taken together, these results demonstrate an unexpected role for ASC in Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, thus identifying ASC as a promising novel target for antitumor therapy.

  9. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease, DanThyr: status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Knudsen, Nils; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Rasmussen, Lone B; Carlé, Allan; Vejbjerg, Pernille

    2006-08-01

    Denmark was an area of iodine deficiency, and mandatory iodine fortification of table salt and salt in bread (13 p.p.m. iodine) was initiated in 2000/2001. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease (DanThyr) is the monitoring of the iodine fortification program. DanThyr consists of three main parts: a study of population cohorts initialized before (n=4649) and after (n=3570) iodization of salt, a prospective identification of incident cases of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism in a population of around 550,000 people since 1997, and compilation of data from the national registers on the use of thyroid medication, thyroid surgery, and radioiodine therapy. Studies were carried-out in parallel in subcohorts living in areas with differences in iodine content of ground water. The study showed profound effects of even small differences in iodine intake level on the prevalence of goiter, nodules, and thyroid dysfunction. Mild and moderate iodine deficiency was associated with a decrease in serum TSH with age. Other environmental factors were also important for goiter development (increase in risk, smoking and pregnancy; decrease in risk, oral contraception and alcohol consumption), and the individual risk depended on the genetic background. Environmental factors had only a minor influence on the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in the population. There were more cases of overt hypothyroidism in mild than in moderate iodine deficiency caused by a 53% higher incidence of spontaneous (presumably autoimmune) hypothyroidism. On the other hand, there were 49% more cases of overt hyperthyroidism in the area with moderate iodine deficiency. The cautious iodine fortification program, aiming at an average increase in iodine intake of 50 mug/day has been associated with a 50% increase in incidence of hyperthyroidism in the area with the most severe iodine deficiency. The incidence is expected to decrease in the future, but there may be more cases of Graves

  10. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    include iodine compatible control valves with internal heaters and temperature sensors to coincide with the iodine-compatible thruster. A key advantage to using iodine as a propellant is that it may be stored in the tank as an unpressurized solid on the ground and before flight operations. During operations, the tank is heated to vaporize the propellant. Iodine vapor is then routed through custom flow control valves to control mass flow to the thruster and cathode assembly. The thruster then ionizes the vapor and accelerates it via magnetic and electrostatic fields, resulting in high specific impulse, characteristic of a highly efficient propulsion system. The iSat spacecraft is a 12-unit (12U) CubeSat with dimensions of about 8 inches x 8 inches x 12 inches (20 centimeters x 20 centimeters x 30 centimeters). The spacecraft frame will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSat spacecraft includes full three-axis control and will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system. After the CubeSat has successfully detached from its launch vehicle, it will deploy its solar panels, correct for tip-off and maintain attitude control before ground contact. An initial check-out period of two weeks is planned for testing all subsystems. The spacecraft will charge the power system while in sunlight, using momentum wheels and magnetic torque rods to rotate the vehicle to the required attitude.

  11. Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Soo Moon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to control children’s daily sedentary life style and their intakes of high caloric foods in order to prevent obesity. Recent assessment of breastfeeding in Korea has shown that the rate is between 63% and 89%; thus, up-to-dated evidence-based nutritional management of breastfeeding infants to prevent common nutrient deficiencies or excesses should be taught to all clinicians and health care providers.

  12. Guidelines on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nuti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Bone Diseases (SIOMMMS has elaborated the following guidelines about the definition, prevention and treatment of inadequate vitamin D status. The highlights are presented here.

  13. Why Need for National Expert Group Technical Consultation on Prevention and Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Aggarwal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in India. It impacts the lives of millions of mothers and children in our country through impaired health, development, quality of life and productivity. The Government of India initiated National Iron-plus Initiative Programme (NIPI for Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in 2013 with an aim to prevent and treat anaemia amongst different age groups, namely i 6-59 months; ii 6-10 years; iii 11-19 years, iv Pregnant and lactating Mothers, and v Women in Reproductive age group.

  14. Food Fortification to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency | Chen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is essential to prevent the fortification iron from reacting with the absorption inhibitors. To ensure adequate absorption therefore, various factors must be considered before initiating a fortification programme. These include cost effectiveness of fortification in increasing absorbable iron, palatability of the fortified food and the ...

  15. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  16. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  17. Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has highlighted the role of histamine in inflammation. Since this monoamine has also been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes, we assessed its effect in the nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse model. To this end, we used mice (inactivated knocked out for the gene encoding histidine decarboxylase, the unique histamine-forming enzyme, backcrossed on a NOD genetic background. We found that the lack of endogenous histamine in NOD HDC−/− mice decreased the incidence of diabetes in relation to their wild-type counterpart. Whereas the proportion of regulatory T and myeloid-derived suppressive cells was similar in both strains, histamine deficiency was associated with increased levels of immature macrophages, as compared with wild-type NOD mice. Concerning the cytokine pattern, we found a decrease in circulating IL-12 and IFN-γ in HDC−/− mice, while IL-6 or leptin remained unchanged, suggesting that histamine primarily modulates the inflammatory environment. Paradoxically, exogenous histamine given to NOD HDC−/− mice provided also protection against T1D. Our study supports the notion that histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, thus providing additional evidence for its role in the regulation of the immune response.

  18. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  19. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  20. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy and its effest on child cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Gowachirapant, S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Winichagoon, P.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxenemia due to iodine deficiency have been shown to affect development of the newborn negatively. Maternal iodine supplementation may therefore improve cognitive performance of the offspring, even in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). Several

  1. Iron deficiency anemia in sports and preventive dietetic and nutrition interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia in athletes is a very common condition that leads to reduced physical performance. Athletes are susceptible of falling iron deposits, mainly by an increase in its use, by its loss, or by insufficient intake. The present review aims to establish the basis of current knowledge environment: sports-athletes who have increased risk of anemia, etiology of iron deficiency anemia in the sporting group, providing dietary and nutritional guidelines for its prevention. The databases searched were Pubmed, Scirus and Scielo, as well as the official pages of prestigious organizations, recovering items by keywords: “iron-deficiency anemia”, “sports”, “athletic performance”, “iron intake “or Spanish counterparts. Iron deficiency anemia affects mainly endurance athletes (especially women and marathon and the members of team sports with high impact (volleyball and handball. Usually secondary anemias from hemolysis and oxidative stress resulting from the practice of sport, but it cases have also been documented by increased iron losses associated with exercise. Dietary and nutritional practices to prevent iron deficiency anemia in athletes should aim to ensure: carbohydrate intake between 60-65% of total energy daily minimum intake of 1.4 g of protein per day and a consumption of 20-40 mg iron daily, separating the intake of the main absorption inhibitors (phytate, tanetos and calcium. You need assessed by analytical iron status of the athlete every 2-3 months.

  2. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY: CURRENT LOOK AT THE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Lashkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current data on the metabolism of vitamin D and its role in the development of bone tissue in children and the further condition thereof. Natural vitamin D sources, as well as the current routine practice of preventing deficiency of this organic substance are unable to fully satisfy a child's demand for this vitamin, which is why recommendations on vitamin D intake ought to be revised. The article details schedules for prescription of vitamin D for preventing and treating the body deficiency thereof based on results of the studies completed in the recent years. The role of the main marker enabling assessing vitamin D concentration in the body — 25(OHD — the reference values whereof are yet to be commonly established has been analyzed. The article lists recommendations on rickets prevention and treatment in children. The article presents data on the possible mechanisms of development of toxic effects in the setting of vitamin D intake.

  3. Epidemiology Survey on Effect of Iodine Deficiency on Children’s Intelligence in Rural Areas of Shanxi Province%低碘对山西农村儿童智力影响的流行病学调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建琴; 高斌战

    2011-01-01

    碘缺乏病对脑组织和甲状腺功能有重要影响。为了有针对性地制定预防措施并提供流行性病学调查资料,用砷铈分光光度法对宁武县大寨村、头马营村、牛心会村和太谷县桃园堡村的儿童的尿样和该地区的水、饲料中碘含量进行测定,并采用国际瑞文智力测试题对当地8~13岁儿童的智力进行测试。发现宁武县大寨村、头马营村和牛心会村为缺碘地区。在这些缺碘地区,大寨村水碘、食碘以及儿童的尿碘的测定和儿童智力测定都属于最低水平,属于严重缺碘地区。可确定宁武县大寨村为低碘饲料的采集点。%Iodine deficiency has an important influence on brain tissue and thyroid function.In order to formulate prevention measures and provide epidemiology survey data,iodine contents in Children's urine,water and feed were analyzed with arsenic cerium spectrophotometry and children’s intelligence within 8-13 years old was tested with International Raven intelligence test in four villages(Dazhaicun,Toumayingcun,Niuxinhuicun,and Taobaocun)of Ningwu County and Taigu County.It is found that there was iodine deficiency in three villages(Dazhaicun,Toumayingcun and Niuxinhuicun)in Ningwu and children’s intelligence level was low,indicating that these three villages belonged to severe iodine deficiency areas.

  4. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  5. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  6. Iodine Deficiency in a Study Population of Norwegian Pregnant Women-Results from the Little in Norway Study (LiN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Lisbeth; Wik Markhus, Maria; Sanchez, Perla Vanessa Roldan; Moe, Vibeke; Smith, Lars; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-04-20

    Iodine sufficiency is particularly important in pregnancy, where median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in the range of 150⁻250 µg/L indicates adequate iodine status. The aims of this study were to determine UIC and assess if dietary and maternal characteristics influence the iodine status in pregnant Norwegian women. The study comprises a cross-sectional population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women (Little in Norway (LiN)). Median UIC in 954 urine samples was 85 µg/L and 78.4% of the samples ( n = 748) were ≤150 µg/L. 23.2% ( n = 221) of the samples were ≤50 µg/L and 5.2% ( n = 50) were above the requirements of iodine intake (>250 µg/L). Frequent iodine-supplement users ( n = 144) had significantly higher UIC (120 µg/L) than non-frequent users (75 µg/L). Frequent milk and dairy product consumers (4⁻9 portions/day) had significantly higher UIC (99 µg/L) than women consuming 0⁻1 portion/day (57 µg/L) or 2⁻3 portions/day (83 µg/L). Women living in mid-Norway ( n = 255) had lowest UIC (72 µg/L). In conclusion, this study shows that the diet of the pregnant women did not necessarily secure a sufficient iodine intake. There is an urgent need for public health strategies to secure adequate iodine nutrition among pregnant women in Norway.

  7. Antecedentes, diagnóstico, repercusión y prevención del déficit de yodo en la salud humana Backgrounds, diagnosis, repercussion and prevention of iodine deficits in human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Silvio Noa Cordero

    2011-12-01

    leading cause of brain damage in children, hypothyroidism and goitre in the adult, all are preventable and in dependence of the together will of national and international organisms and institutions it is possible to eradicate it with a simple practice, e.g. iodized salt. The diagnostic methods used to assess its deficiency are very useful in the clinical practice. Nowadays, the use of echography as an assisting method to carry out the mensuration of the thyroid gland and to define the goitre in zones of iodine sufficiency like ours, will be very useful due its high level of specificity and sensitivity. The aim of present paper is to offer a general panorama of the significance of iodine functions in the organism and its relation to the thyroid gland, its diagnostic methods, the impact, the repercussion and the prevention of disorders due to iodine deficit in human health, as well as the implementation of our national program of salt iodization.

  8. Prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berti C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Berti,1 Mieke Faber,2 Cornelius M Smuts11Centre for Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South AfricaAbstract: Despite strategies employed to tackle micronutrient malnutrition, limited progress has been achieved in the developing countries. Of global concern are deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, zinc, folate, and iodine. This review aims to explore up-to-date scientific evidence on the effect of different micronutrient strategies on biomarkers and health outcomes, and for each strategy, to highlight strengths, limitations, and factors contributing to success or failure. PubMed/MEDLINE and EBSCO databases and Google-indexed scientific literature were searched for relevant articles and documents, limited to human studies reported since 2003. Evidence shows that the most cost-effective approaches to address symptoms of micronutrient malnutrition are targeted supplementation and/or fortification with iron, iodine, zinc, folic acid, vitamin A, and multimicronutrients, provided that households have access to primary health care and that there is consistent long-term coverage, monitoring, adequate marketing, and commercial commitment. Dietary diversification/modification interventions are probably the most sustainable strategies to address causes of deficiency, but permanent solutions are still required in controlling micronutrient malnutrition at both research and public health levels. Furthermore, many scientific gaps remain, hindering the development of robust public health guidance. These gaps are due to the paucity of well-designed community-based studies, lack of information on biological mechanisms behind relationships between micronutrients and outcomes, and inconsistent results. Further adequately powered long-term trials are needed to fill these gaps. Lessons learned from large-scale nutritional

  9. Maternal supplementation for prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Linda L

    2011-06-01

    Current research links newborn and infant vitamin D deficiency with various clinical outcomes, including rickets, failure to thrive, type 1 diabetes, and other immune-related diseases. Breastfed infants are often at a greater risk of developing deficiency due to their mothers' low vitamin D status. Human milk reflects the vitamin D status of the mother and often contains inadequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for infant nutrition. In 2008 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation of all infants. However, research has indicated low levels of compliance of vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants and a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that the AAP's recommendations undermine breastfeeding, implying that human milk is inadequate for infant nutrition. Lactating mothers are also reluctant to add any supplements to their breastmilk. The literature review will examine the effectiveness and safety of maternal vitamin D supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. This method of prevention and intervention provides pediatric providers and certified lactation consultants with an alternative approach for education, counseling, promotion of breastfeeding, and treatment to improve maternal and infant health.

  10. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  11. Thyrocyte-specific Gq/G11 deficiency impairs thyroid function and prevents goiter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Jukka; Ahmed, Kashan; Wettschureck, Nina; Tunaru, Sorin; Wintermantel, Tim; Greiner, Erich; Schütz, Günther; Offermanns, Stefan

    2007-09-01

    The function of the adult thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts through a G protein-coupled receptor. Overactivation of the TSH receptor results in hyperthyroidism and goiter. The Gs-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase-dependent cAMP formation has been regarded as the principal intracellular signaling mechanism mediating the action of TSH. Here we show that the Gq/G11-mediated signaling pathway plays an unexpected and essential role in the regulation of thyroid function. Mice lacking the alpha subunits of Gq and G11 specifically in thyroid epithelial cells showed severely reduced iodine organification and thyroid hormone secretion in response to TSH, and many developed hypothyroidism within months after birth. In addition, thyrocyte-specific Galphaq/Galpha11-deficient mice lacked the normal proliferative thyroid response to TSH or goitrogenic diet, indicating an essential role of this pathway in the adaptive growth of the thyroid gland. Our data suggest that Gq/G11 and their downstream effectors are promising targets to interfere with increased thyroid function and growth.

  12. [Knowledge and prevention management of vitamin D deficiency in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan Sanz, M R; Gilaberte Calzada, Y; Olona Tabueña, N; Magallón Botaya, R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the knowledge and management of vitamin D (Vit D) in primary care (PC). Observational study. A total of 69 primary care centres, with 57 in Barcelona and 12 in Huesca. All medical and nursing graduates of these centres. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to collect knowledge on the actions of Vit D (on bone metabolism, cardiovascular and immune systems), its deficiency and prevention measures. Of the total of 2100 professionals, 785 completed the survey (37.78%), of whom 79.9% were women. Their mean age was 47 years (SD: 9.7). Only 4.8% knew the overall actions of Vitamin D, although the majority (66%) knew only its effects on bone metabolism. Almost two-thirds (62.4%) were unaware that its deficiency was a common problem, and 54.9% believed that photoprotection was contraindicated. Almost three-quarters of those surveyed (73.6%) never or almost never determined Vit D levels in their patients. A minority (23%) offered advice to maintain an adequate level of Vit D, with the most frequent being sun exposure (16.8%). Pediatricians were more knowledgeable (p<.001) and offered more advice for maintaining adequate levels of Vit D in blood (p<.001). Most of the professionals were unaware of the overall actions of Vit D, or that its deficiency was common, or the factors contributing to this. The advice that was more often offered to avoid its deficiency was not the safest. Paediatricians are more aware of how to prevent Vit D deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic Review and Cost Analysis Comparing Use of Chlorhexidine with Use of Iodine for Preoperative Skin Antisepsis to Prevent Surgical Site Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ingi; Agarwal, Rajender K.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Fishman, Neil O.; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare use of chlorhexidine with use of iodine for preoperative skin antisepsis with respect to effectiveness in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) and cost. Methods We searched the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and EMBASE up to January 2010 for eligible studies. Included studies were systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing preoperative skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine and with iodine and assessing for the outcomes of SSI or positive skin culture result after application. One reviewer extracted data and assessed individual study quality, quality of evidence for each outcome, and publication bias. Meta-analyses were performed using a fixed-effects model. Using results from the meta-analysis and cost data from the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, we developed a decision analytic cost-benefit model to compare the economic value, from the hospital perspective, of antisepsis with iodine versus antisepsis with 2 preparations of chlorhexidine (ie, 4% chlorhexidine bottle and single-use applicators of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate [CHG] and 70% isopropyl alcohol [IPA] solution), and also performed sensitivity analyses. Results Nine RCTs with a total of 3,614 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that chlorhexidine antisepsis was associated with significantly fewer SSIs (adjusted risk ratio, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, [0.51–0.80]) and positive skin culture results (adjusted risk ratio, 0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.35–0.56]) than was iodine antisepsis. In the cost-benefit model baseline scenario, switching from iodine to chlorhexidine resulted in a net cost savings of $16–$26 per surgical case and $349,904–$568,594 per year for the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Sensitivity analyses showed that net cost savings persisted under most circumstances. Conclusions Preoperative skin antisepsis

  14. Effect of 131-iodine therapy on Grave ophthalmopathy: How to prevent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duron, F.

    2009-01-01

    The propositions to prepare the patients to ira-therapy are as follow: to try to get the smokers to stop tobacco; to get euthyroidism before the treatment; to avoid ira-therapy for the patients bearers of high title of antibodies ( but often, they are in failure of medical treatment and these ones to who it is proposed a radical treatment; to avoid hypothyroidism by quick establishment (possible choice of two weeks) of a treatment by thyroxine; to counter to ira-therapy for patients reached by severe Basedow orbitopathy; to treat preventively the patients bearers of moderated basedow orbitopathy by corticoids, according to the scheme proposed by Bartalena and al. (0.5 mg/kg of prednisone 48 hours before the treatment and the first following month, then at graduated dose on two months) or an other one; however, these propositions must be validated by prospective studies made on a large scale and including reproducible and homogeneous criteria of evaluation like these ones proposed by the European group 'European group on graves orbitopathy' (E.U.G.O.G.O). (N.C.)

  15. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  16. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants : Lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Koning, Tom J.; Kvist, Nina; de Vries, Elsemieke; Lundin, Christina Rydahl; Berger, Ruud; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.; Jorgensen, Marianne Horby; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    OBJECTIVE. Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different propylactic regimens in

  17. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  18. Gene Transfer of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Prevents Neurodegeneration Triggered by FXN Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsu-Jiménez, Yurika; Loría, Frida; Corona, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Nido, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is a predominantly neurodegenerative disease caused by recessive mutations that produce a deficiency of frataxin (FXN). Here, we have used a herpesviral amplicon vector carrying a gene encoding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to drive its overexpression in neuronal cells and test for its effect on FXN-deficient neurons both in culture and in the mouse cerebellum in vivo. Gene transfer of BDNF to primary cultures of mouse neurons prevents the apoptosis which is triggered by the knockdown of FXN gene expression. This neuroprotective effect of BDNF is also observed in vivo in a viral vector-based knockdown mouse cerebellar model. The injection of a lentiviral vector carrying a minigene encoding for a FXN-specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) into the mouse cerebellar cortex triggers a FXN deficit which is accompanied by significant apoptosis of granule neurons as well as loss of calbindin in Purkinje cells. These pathological changes are accompanied by a loss of motor coordination of mice as assayed by the rota-rod test. Coinjection of a herpesviral vector encoding for BDNF efficiently prevents both the development of cerebellar neuropathology and the ataxic phenotype. These data demonstrate the potential therapeutic usefulness of neurotrophins like BDNF to protect FXN-deficient neurons from degeneration.

  19. Preventive Treatments of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnancy: A Review of Their Effectiveness and Implications for Health System Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode O. Osungbade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We conducted a review of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries and highlighted their constraints as well as interventions required to strengthen the health services. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE, AJOL, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database was reviewed. Results. Evidence-based preventive treatment options for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy include prophylaxis iron supplements and food fortification with iron. Evidence abounds on their effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. However, these prospects are threatened by side effects of iron supplements, low utilization of maternal health service in developing countries, partial implementation of preventive treatments, and weak infrastructure and political commitment to implement mass fortification of local staple foods by national governments. Conclusion. Sustainability of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy could be achieved if the identified threats are adequately addressed.

  20. SOCS-1 deficiency does not prevent diet-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emanuelli, Brice; Macotela, Yazmin; Boucher, Jérémie

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, which inhibit cytokine and insulin signaling. Thus, reducing SOCS expression could prevent the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Using SOCS-1 knockout mice, we...... investigated the contribution of SOCS-1 in the development of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). SOCS-1 knockout mice on HFD gained 70% more weight, displayed a 2.3-fold increase in epididymal fat pads mass and increased hepatic lipid content. This was accompanied by increased mRNA expression...... of leptin and the macrophage marker CD68 in white adipose tissue and of SREBP1c and FAS in liver. HFD also induced hyperglycemia in SOCS-1 deficient mice with impairment of glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Thus, despite the role of SOCS proteins in obesity-related insulin resistance, SOCS-1 deficiency...

  1. Deficiency of Nox2 prevents angiotensin II-induced inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Lung eChan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II is an important determinant of inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles. Many of the vascular effects of angiotensin II are mediated by reactive oxygen species generated from homologues of NADPH oxidase with Nox2 predominating in small arteries and arterioles. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that superoxide generated by Nox2 plays a role in angiotensin II-induced cerebral arteriolar remodeling. We examined Nox2-deficient and wild-type mice in which a pressor or a non-pressor dose of angiotensin II (1000 or 200 ng/kg/day or saline was infused for 4 weeks via osmotic minipumps. Systolic arterial pressure was measured by a tail-cuff method. Pressure and diameter of cerebral arterioles were measured through an open cranial window in anesthetized mice. Cross-sectional area (by histology and superoxide level (by hydroethidine staining of cerebral arterioles were determined ex vivo. The pressor, but not the non-pressor, dose of angiotensin II significantly increased systolic arterial pressure in both wild-type and Nox2-deficient mice. Both doses of angiotensin II increased superoxide levels and significantly reduced external diameter in maximally dilated cerebral arterioles in wild-type mice. Increased superoxide and inward remodeling were prevented in Nox2-deficient mice. Moreover, only the pressor dose of AngII increased cross-sectional area of arteriolar wall in wild-type mice and was prevented in Nox2-deficient mice. In conclusion, superoxide derived from Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase plays an important role in angiotensin II-mediated inward remodeling in cerebral arterioles. This effect appears to be independent of pressure and different from that of hypertrophy.

  2. Melatonin Therapy Prevents Programmed Hypertension and Nitric Oxide Deficiency in Offspring Exposed to Maternal Caloric Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO deficiency is involved in the development of hypertension, a condition that can originate early in life. We examined whether NO deficiency contributed to programmed hypertension in offspring from mothers with calorie-restricted diets and whether melatonin therapy prevented this process. We examined 3-month-old male rat offspring from four maternal groups: untreated controls, 50% calorie-restricted (CR rats, controls treated with melatonin (0.01% in drinking water, and CR rats treated with melatonin (CR + M. The effect of melatonin on nephrogenesis was analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The CR group developed hypertension associated with elevated plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, decreased L-arginine, decreased L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio (AAR, and decreased renal NO production. Maternal melatonin treatment prevented these effects. Melatonin prevented CR-induced renin and prorenin receptor expression. Renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein levels in the M and CR + M groups were also significantly increased by melatonin therapy. Maternal melatonin therapy had long-term epigenetic effects on global gene expression in the kidneys of offspring. Conclusively, we attributed these protective effects of melatonin on CR-induced programmed hypertension to the reduction of plasma ADMA, restoration of plasma AAR, increase of renal NO level, alteration of renin-angiotensin system, and epigenetic changes in numerous genes.

  3. INFLUENCE OF IODINATED OIL AND MARGARINE ON THE THYROID SYSTEM OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica A. Sturza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world today. Food fortification is an important compliment to food-based approaches, and iodine fortification of foods as one of the strategies for the control of iodine deficiency. Manufacturing and consumption of sunflower oil fortified with iodine as well as derivative products on it basis is a perspective direction for elimination of alimentary dependent iodine deficiency disorders. The present work examines morphological changes in the thyroid system of rats at the experimental mercatholile-induced hypothyroidism. As well it determines the influence of iodinated oil and margarine on the thyroid system of rats. It specifies the safe value of iodinated oil and margarine for rats. In-vivo study demonstrated the efficacy of fortification of lipid products with iodine under iodine deficiency status.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  5. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  6. Iodinated bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunghi, F.; Riva, P.; Assone, F.; Villa, M.; Plassic, G.

    1978-01-01

    Bleomycin was labelled with iodine-131 by the iodine monochloride method. Iodination did not alter the chemical and chromatographic features and ''in vitro'' stability studies on freeze-dried 131 I-Bleomycin having a specific activity of 1 mCi/mg, stored at different temperatures, showed no appreciable variation of the free-iodine content. Tissue distribution of 131 I-Bleomycin has been evaluated in tumor bearing rats. Patients have been injected with 0.5-1.0 mCi of 131 I-Bleomycin corresponding to a maximum of 1.5 mg. No adverse reactions have been observed. Total body scans have been performed at 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The iodinated Bleomycin was rapidly distributed and cleared from the body and showed an early uptake in the neoplastic tissue. A diagnostic accuracy of 90% has been observed in malignant deseases, while no false positive results have been, at the moment, recorded. (author)

  7. The importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinoer, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    To examine the importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy. Review of existing literature of iodine in pregnancy. Population surveys and metabolic studies. Pregnant women. The main changes in thyroid function associated with pregnancy are due to an increase in hormone requirements that begin in the first trimester of gestation. This increase can only be met by a proportional increase in hormone production, something that depends directly upon the availability of iodine. When dietary iodine is lacking, an adequate physiological adaptation is difficult to achieve and is progressively replaced by pathological alterations that occur in parallel with the degree and duration of iodine deprivation. Iodine prophylaxis should be given systematically to women during pregnancy. In most public health programmes dealing with the correction of iodine deficiency disorders, iodised salt has been used as the preferred means to deliver iodine to households. Iodised salt, however, is not the ideal means of delivering iodine in the specific instances of pregnancy, breast-feeding and complementary feeding because of the need to limit salt intake during these periods. In European countries, presently it is proposed that iodine is given to pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers by systematically administering multivitamin tablets containing iodine in order to reach the recommended dietary allowance of 250 microg iodine day-1.

  8. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  9. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  10. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  11. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zava, Theodore T.; Kapur, Sonia; Zava, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R 2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R 2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  12. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Steenweg- de Graaff, J.; Peeters, R.P.; Ross, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; White, T.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that

  13. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT. However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding iodine among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: hyperthyroidism; iodine; iodised salt; knowledge-attitude-practice study; South Africa ... While iodine deficiency has been reported to facilitate the development ... the health of children if they did not get enough iodine, almost all of the .... in South Africa. The use of local mass media could be considered during the.

  15. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  16. Analysis of field survey results for iodine deficiency disorders in high-risk areas of China%我国碘缺乏病高危地区重点调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全乐; 苏晓辉; 于钧; 张树彬; 刘鹏; 纪晓红; 刘守军; 孙殿军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of new cretinism cases and the prevalence of endemic goiter, and the reason of lower coverage rate of iodized salt in the iodine deficiency disorders(IDD) high-risk areas of China, so as to put forward target prevention measures for these areas. Methods A hundred and one counties from 11 provinces(autonomous regions, municipality), such as Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, Sichuan, Hainan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, were chosen into the survey by simple random sampling. In the counties of high risk, typical sampling principle was used. In the selected townships, searching for new cretinism cases were carried out in the children under 10 years old, the thyroid volume of children aged 8-10 years old were determined by B-ultrasonography methods and their urinary iodine (UI) were determined by As3-Ce catalytic spectrophotometry, the intelligence quotient(IQ) values of children aged 8-10 years old were measured by the combined Raven Test in China. In the household survey, the housewives were asked to fill in the questionnaire, the iodized salt coverage rates and the UI levels of child-bearing age women were investigated, the salt iodine content was determined using self-quantitative kit. Epi Info software was used to analyze the determination results. Results In the 101 high-risk counties, 249 were diagnosed as new cretinism cases from 4122 suspected cases searched. The goiter rate of children aged 8-10 years old by B-ultrasound was 8.28% (4434/53 541), 44 counties had goiter rates in the range of 5%-20%, 5 counties had goiter rates in the range of 20%-30%, and 3 counties had goiter rates of 30%. The mean IQ of children was 85.44, and the percentage of IQ value less than 70 was 16.52%(8713/52 745). The median urinary iodine(MUI) of children was 154.69 μg/L, the percentage of UI less than 50 μg/L was 17.26% (9069/52 558). Twenty-five counties had a MUI of children less than 100 μg/L. The MUI of

  17. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidi, Ahmed; Zahidi, Meriem; Taoufik, Jamal

    2016-05-20

    Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI) as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15-40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7). The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15-40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of program is put in place.

  18. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iodine is also used during the production of methamphetamine. Note: This list may not be all inclusive. ... breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a ...

  19. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  20. 青海省囊谦县8~10岁寄宿学生和走读学生碘缺乏病现况调查%Investigation of iodine deficiency disorders among boarding students and commuting students aged 8-10 in Nangqian County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘培春; 杨佩珍; 胡兰盛; 蔡生花; 陈勋; 余慧珍; 李亚楠; 张秀丽; 孟献亚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To master epidemiological condition of iodine nutrition among 8-10 years old school children in Nangqian County,and to provide evidence for making prevention and control strategy.Methods In 2012,students aged 8-10 from the center school in 10 towns of Nangqian County were selected,and instant urinary samples were collected and the urinary iodine was detected with As-Ce catalytic spectrophotometry method,the thyroid volume was measured with B ultrasonic method and IQ test with Combined Raven Test-C2 (CRT-C2).Results Urinary iodine of 553 children were detected,the urinary iodine median of 203 boarding students was 133.2 μg/L,among these,under 100 μg/L was 32.0% (65/203); while the urinary iodine median of 350 commuting students was 70.4 μg/L,under 100 μg/L was 71.1% (249/350),and the difference of the urinary iodine median between boarding students and commuting students was statistically significant (Z =-6.947,P < 0.05); among 499 school children,thyroid rate of the commuting students and the boarding students was 2.2% and 2.3%,respectively;220 school children were taken IQ test with Combined Raven Test-C2 (CRT-C2),average points of IQ tests in boarding students was 82.29,and 15.5% (17/110) less than 69 points; average points of IQ tests in commuting students was 82.07,and 12.7% (14/110) less than 69 points.Conclusions The difference of the iodine nutrition level between boarding students and commuting students was statistically significant.Coverage rate of iodized salt,urinary iodine levels and thyroid rate are low in Nangqian County,which highlights the epidemiological features of iodine deficiency disorders in this region.Although,iodine deficiency does not cause obvious goiter,intelligence harm should not be ignored.%目的 了解囊谦县8~ 10岁寄宿学生和走读学生碘缺乏病流行情况,为制定预防控制策略提供依据.方法 2012年抽取青海省囊谦县10个乡镇中心学校的8~ 10岁儿童,采集即时

  1. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  2. Moving from efficacy to effectiveness: red palm oil's role in preventing vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amy L; Burns, Jennifer B

    2010-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Hundreds of millions of children and tens of millions of women living in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia are at particularly high risk of the adverse health consequences associated with this largely preventable condition. Red palm oil comes from oil palms that are traditionally grown in tropical regions of West Africa and are now cultivated on a large-scale commercial basis in Southeast Asia. Red palm oil is the richest naturally occurring source of beta-carotene, a carotenoid that the human body can convert into usable vitamin A (retinol). This paper reviews a series of key intervention studies designed to investigate the impact of using red palm oil-based interventions to improve vitamin A status. These included studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America in which red palm oil was used (or proposed for use) (1) as a dietary supplement, (2) as an in-home fortificant, (3) to fortify foods used for distribution in targeted supplementary feeding programs, and (4) to fortify staple food products. Overall, the results suggest that red palm oil is highly efficacious in improving vitamin A status among populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. The time has come to move beyond trials of biological efficacy and focus on conducting operational research projects, effectiveness trials, and cost-benefit analyses that will help expand the use of red palm oil in areas where it is likely to be well accepted but remains underutilized as a dietary source of provitamin A.

  3. Iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers residing in countries with mandatory and voluntary iodine fortification programs: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin; Shiva, Niloofar; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Mojarrad, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to assess data available on iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers residing in countries with mandatory and voluntary iodine fortification programs and/or iodine supplementation. A systematic review was conducted by searching articles published between 1964 and 2013 in Pub Med, ISI Web, and Cochrane Library using iodine nutrition, lactation, iodine supplementation, and iodine fortification as keywords for titles and/or abstracts. Relevant articles were included if they reported urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in lactating mothers and, if determined, the type of iodine fortification program and/or iodine supplementation. Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 21 studies assessed lactating mothers in countries with a mandatory iodine fortification program, 17 studies were from countries with voluntary and/or without iodine fortification programs, and four studies assessed iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers undergoing iodine supplementation. Among countries with mandatory iodine fortification programs, the range of salt iodization level in lactating mothers with a UIC 100 μg/L, it was between 15 and 60 ppm. Levels of UIC Chile, Iran, Mongolia, New Guinea, and Nigeria, the median or mean of UIC was >100 μg/L. There was a median or mean UIC program was voluntary, including Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and Germany. However, in some countries with voluntary iodine fortification programs, such as the United States, Spain, and Japan, a mean or median UIC of >100 μg/L has been reported. Although universal salt iodization is still the most feasible and cost-effective approach for iodine deficiency control in pregnant and lactating mothers, UIC in lactating mothers of most countries with voluntary programs and in areas with mandatory iodine fortification is still within the iodine deficiency range, indicating that iodine supplementation in daily prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements in

  4. Instrumental determination of iodine in milk by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac Olive, K.; Chatt, A.

    2006-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element. It is related to thyroid functions and its deficiency or excess can be harmful. Deficiency of iodine leads to brain damage including cretinism, excess of iodine blocks the thyroid gland ultimately producing iodine deficiency as well. World Health Organization has set a daily iodine intake dose of 150 μg d -1 . Currently there are 740 million people in the world at risk of iodine deficiency disorders; therefore the monitoring of iodine intake is necessary. Although the iodized salt policy has been adopted in many countries, milk is also one of the major natural sources of iodine and it is also the principal food in children. Therefore, the determination of iodine in milk is needed. This work deals with the determination of iodine in milk by neutron activation analysis. Different methods of irradiation-counting are compared in terms of sensitivity and detection limits. The quantification of iodine was calculated using also two methods, the classic relative one and the standardization of k 0 parameter. A brief analysis of the uncertainty sources in the analytical method is also discussed.(Full text)

  5. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  6. Breast-Milk Iodine Concentrations and Iodine Levels of Infants According to the Iodine Status of the Country of Residence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Pantea; Kabir, Ali; Dalili, Hosein; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2018-01-01

    Iodine, an essential micronutrient, plays a critical role in normal growth and development, especially during the first two years of life. This systematic review and meta-analysis is among the first to evaluate breast-milk iodine concentrations and infant iodine status in countries characterized by iodine sufficiency or deficiency. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and other relevant databases, as well as reference lists of previous reviews, were searched for relevant studies published between 1986 and 2016. Mean or median breast-milk and infant urinary iodine concentrations, along with other relevant data, were extracted from eligible studies. Each study was assessed for quality and risk of bias. Of the 496 identified studies, 57 met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The mean (confidence interval [CI]) iodine concentrations in maternal colostrum were 152.0 μg/L [CI 106.2-198.7 μg/L] and 57.8 μg/L [CI 41.4-74.1 μg/L] in iodine-sufficient and -deficient countries, respectively, indicating a significant difference between the two iodine statuses. By contrast, the corresponding values in mature milk did not differ significantly between mothers in iodine-sufficient and -deficient countries (71.5 μg/L [CI 51.0-92.0 μg/L] and 28.0 μg/L [CI -13.8 to 69.9 μg/L], respectively]. The weighted urinary iodine levels [CIs] of breast-fed infants in iodine-sufficient countries were significantly higher than those in iodine-deficient countries (164.5 μg/L [CI 116.4-212.7 μg/L] vs. 70.4 μg/L [CI 46.2-94.6 μg/L]). Similarly, a significant difference was observed in the pooled estimates of urinary iodine levels [CIs] among formula-fed infants in iodine-sufficient versus iodine-deficient countries (310.3 μg/L [CI 287.4-342.1 μg/L] vs. 38.3 μg/L [CI 23.4-53.2 μg/L]). The meta-analysis reveals that in iodine-sufficient countries, the mean iodine concentrations in colostrum and mature breast milk

  7. Application of radiopharmaceuticals in iodine disorder studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element and is of much interest in nutritional research. It is essential for the production of the hormones in the thyroid gland. However, deficiency or excess of iodine can cause disorders, commonly known as iodine disorders. Total quantity of iodine present in the body is 15-20 mg, mostly in thyroid gland and the safe and adequate intake of iodine is in the range of 50-200 μg.d -1 . Most of the iodine taken from food is accumulated in thyroid glands which plays a vital role in the well being as it controls growth and metabolism. In some people gland becomes over active (hyper thyroiditis) and in some people gland becomes sluggish (hypo thyroiditis). However, both the conditions are unhealthy and lead to serious consequences. The condition can be detected and treated with the help of radioiodine

  8. Clinical and Biochemical Uses of Stable Iodine Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutras, D. A. [Thyroid Section, Alexandra Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    1970-07-01

    Iodine and thyroid function are closely linked, since the only known role of iodine is its participation in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine metabolism may be represented as a metabolic cycle consisting of three main pools: the Plasma Inorganic Iodine (PIl) pool into which dietary iodine goes and from where it is either taken up by the thyroid or excreted by the kidneys, the intrathyroidal iodine pool, where. thyroid hormone synthesis occurs, and finally the peripheral pool of thyroid hormones, of which about 80% are deiodinated and 20% excreted with the faeces. Endemic goitre is usually due to iodine deficiency. There is no renal homeostatic mechanism to keep the PII level constant, and so adaptation to iodine deficiency occurs by increasing the thyroidal iodide clearance rate. Stable iodine measurements are necessary for a complete study of iodine metabolism. Estimates of the serum Protein-Bound Iodine (PBl) are the best index of thyroid function, estimates of the PII and of the urinary iodine are the best indices of iodine nutrition. (author)

  9. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  10. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants: lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselt, P.M. van; Koning, T.J. de; Vries, E. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different prophylactic regimens...... in infants with biliary atresia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From Dutch and Danish national biliary atresia registries, we retrieved infants who were either breastfed and received 1 mg of oral vitamin K at birth followed by 25 microg of daily oral vitamin K prophylaxis (Netherlands, 1991-2003), 2 mg of oral...... vitamin K at birth followed by 1 mg of weekly oral prophylaxis (Denmark, 1994 to May 2000), or 2 mg of intramuscular prophylaxis at birth (Denmark, June 2000-2005) or were fed by formula. We determined the absolute and relative risk of severe vitamin K deficiency and vitamin K deficiency bleeding...

  11. Prophylactic iodine treatment in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1980-01-01

    Prophylactic iodine treatment is to prevent accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid. This is done by administering a large amount of stable iodine before uptake of radioactive iodine so that further accummulation of iodine in the thyroid will be impossible. This blocking effect should be as complete as possible. This is achieved by administering an initial dose of 200 mg potassium iodide. As the release of radioactive iodine may last several hours or even days; for this reason, maintenance doses of 100 mg potassium iodide should be administered in 8-hour intervals. The risk of prophylactiv iodine treatment is rather low; however, provocation of latent hyperthyreoses must be expected in, at the most, 0.2% of the exposed population. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  13. Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihatsch, Walter A.; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša F.; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mlgaard, Christian; Embleton, Nicholas; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence,

  14. Effectiveness of FeEDDHA, FeEDDHMA, and FeHBED in Preventing Iron-Deficiency Chlorosis in Soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin, Levi M.; Weng, Liping; Bugter, Marcel H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of FeHBED in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in comparison to FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA was studied, as well as the importance of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para/rest isomers in defining the performance. To this end, chlorophyll production (SPAD),

  15. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism...

  16. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  17. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  18. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...... women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until...

  19. Improved iodine status is associated with improved mental performance of schoolchildren in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Briel, T; West, C E; Bleichrodt, N; van de Vijver, F J; Ategbo, E A; Hautvast, J G

    2000-11-01

    An adequate iodine supply in utero and shortly after birth is known to be crucial to an individual's physical and mental development. The question of whether iodine supplementation later in life can exert a favorable influence on the mental performance of iodine-deficient populations was addressed in various studies, but with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an improvement in iodine status on mental and psychomotor performance of schoolchildren (7-11 y) who were moderately to severely iodine deficient. The study, which was originally planned as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention, was carried out in an iodine-deficient population of schoolchildren (n = 196) in northern Benin. As the population began to have access to iodized salt during the 1-y intervention period, the study population was split post hoc-on the basis of urinary iodine concentrations-into a group with improved iodine status and a group with unchanged iodine status. Changes in mental and psychomotor performance over the intervention period were compared. Children with increased urinary iodine concentrations had a significantly greater increase in performance on the combination of mental tests than did the group with no change in urinary iodine concentrations. An improvement in iodine status, rather than iodine status itself, determined mental performance in this population, which was initially iodine deficient. These findings suggest a "catch-up" effect in terms of mental performance.

  20. Immunotherapy holds the key to cancer treatment and prevention in constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westdorp, Harm; Kolders, Sigrid; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Jongmans, Marjolijn C J; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2017-09-10

    Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in MMR genes. This syndrome is characterized by the development of childhood cancer. Patients with CMMRD are at extremely high risk of developing multiple cancers including hematological, brain and intestinal tumors. Mutations in MMR genes impair DNA repair and therefore most tumors of patients with CMMRD are hypermutated. These mutations lead to changes in the translational reading frame, which consequently result in neoantigen formation. Neoantigens are recognized as foreign by the immune system and can induce specific immune responses. The growing evidence on the clinical efficacy of immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, offers the prospect for treatment of patients with CMMRD. Combining neoantigen-based vaccination strategies and immune checkpoint inhibitors could be an effective way to conquer CMMRD-related tumors. Neoantigen-based vaccines might also be a preventive treatment option in healthy biallelic MMR mutation carriers. Future studies need to reveal the safety and efficacy of immunotherapies for patients with CMMRD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  2. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  3. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  4. Lecithin-Bound Iodine Prevents Disruption of Tight Junctions of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Hypoxic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sugimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We investigated whether lecithin-bound iodine (LBI can protect the integrity of tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelial cells from hypoxia. Method. Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with LBI. To mimic hypoxic conditions, cells were incubated with CoCl2. We compared the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs of control to cells with either LBI alone, CoCl2 alone, or LBI + CoCl2. The levels of cytokines in the conditioned media were also determined. Results. Significant decrease in the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 intensity in the CoCl2 group compared to the control (5787.7 ± 4126.4 in CoCl2 group versus 29244.6 ± 2981.2 in control; average ± standard deviation. But the decrease was not significant in the LBI + CoCl2 (27189.0 ± 11231.1. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and Chemokine (C-C Motif Ligand 11 (CCL-11 were significantly higher in the CoCl2 than in the control (340.8 ± 43.3 versus 279.7 ± 68.3 pg/mL for MCP-1, and 15.2 ± 12.9 versus 12.5 ± 6.1 pg/mL for CCL-11. With LBI pretreatment, the levels of both cytokines were decreased to 182.6 ± 23.8 (MCP-1 and 5.46 ± 1.9 pg/mL for CCL-11. Blockade of MCP-1 or CCL-11 also shows similar result representing TJ protection from hypoxic stress. Conclusions. LBI results in a protective action from hypoxia.

  5. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food...... some measures of iodine intake were significantly related to the prevalence of thyroid nodules. Conclusions: Even in a geographic area where mild iodine deficiency is common, a significant relation between iodine intake and thyroid volume was found. All measures of iodine intake, except iodine......Background: Iodine intake can be measured in various ways, and each method may have advantages and disadvantages. Objective: We sought to investigate the potential associations of various measures of iodine intake with thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid nodules, and serum thyroglobulin. We also...

  6. The comparison of exit-site care with normal saline and povidone-iodine in preventing exit-site infection and peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Yavascan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and catheter exit- site infections (ESI are important causes of hospitalization and catheter loss in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD. The frequency of infection can be reduced by scrupulous exit- site care with or without topical antiseptics. There are no studies showing any benefit in the use of povidone-iodine or normal saline for care of exit- sites in long- term CPD patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential effectiveness of the application of povidone-iodine or normal saline at the catheter exit- site in preventing ESI and peritonitis in children on CPD. A total of 98 patients treated with either povidone-iodine or normal saline were included in this study. Group I (34 patients used povidone-iodine and group II (64 patients simply cleansed the exit- site with normal saline (0.9% NaCl. Dressings were changed 2 to 3 times in a week. The total cumulative follow- up time was 3233 patient- months. ESIs occurred in 10 (29.4% of 34 patients using povidone-iodine and in 10 (15.6% of 64 patients using normal saline. The frequency of ESI was significantly high in group I (povidone-iodine patients. The mean rate of ESI was 1 episode/60.8 patient- months for group I versus 1 episode/144 patient- months for group II (P 0.05. In conclusion, exit- site care with normal saline is an effective strategy in reducing the incidence of ESI in children on CPD. It can thus significantly reduce morbidity, catheter loss, and the need to transfer patients on peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis.

  7. Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Single Operator Technique with Use of Povidone-Iodine, Double Gloving, Meticulous Aseptic/Antiseptic Measures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Melita, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is complicated by infection still at a worrisome rate of 2-5%. Since early on during device implantation procedures, we have adopted an infection-preventive technique which has hitherto resulted in effective prevention of infections. Herein we present our results of applying this technique by a single operator in a prospective series of 762 consecutive patients undergoing device implantation. A meticulous search for and treatment of active, occult, or smoldering infection was undertaken preoperatively. An aseptic/antiseptic technique was used for implantation of each device. Skin preparation is thorough with initial cleansing performed with alcohol followed by povidone-iodine 10% solution, which is also used in the wound and inside the pocket. In addition, we routinely use double gloving, and IV antibiotic prophylaxis 1 hour before and for 48 hours afterwards followed by oral antibiotic for 2-3 days after discharge. The skin is closed with absorbable sutures. The study includes 382 patients having a new pacemaker (n = 333) or battery change, system upgrade or lead revision (n = 49), and 380 patients having a new implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (n = 296) or device replacement/upgrade/lead revision (n = 84). The pacemaker group, aged 70.2 ± 16.5 years, includes 18% VVI, 49% DDD, 29% VDD, and 4% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The ICD group, aged 61.3 ± 13.0 years, with a mean ejection fraction of 36 ± 13%, includes 325 ICD and 55 CRT implants. Over 26.6 ± 33.4 months for the pacemaker group and 36.6 ± 38.3 months for the ICD group, infection occurred in one patient in each group (0.26%) having a device replacement. A consistent and strict approach of aseptic/antiseptic technique with the use of double gloving and povidone-iodine solution within the pocket plus a 4-day regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis minimizes infections in CIED implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MODERN POSSIBILITIES OF THE DIET THERAPY FOR THE PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF THE CALCIUM DEFICIENCY AMONG INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Sannikova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the efficiency of the specialized milk formula inclusion into the diet to prevent and correct the calcium deficiency among infants (aged between 1 and 3 years old. The authors discovered the positive impact of the milk formula on the values of the phosphoric and calcic exchange: the level of the ionized calcium, daily excretion of calcium with urine, osteocalcin. They identified the significant effect of the diet therapy for the prevention of the pathologic symptoms on the part of the musculoskeletal system (bearing disorder, reduction of the muscular tonus and etc..Key words: children, milk formula, calcium, exchange, diet therapy.

  9. Practical use of povidone-iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagalingam, J; Feliciano, R; Hah, J H; Labib, H; Le, T A; Lin, J-C

    2015-11-01

    To better inform medical practitioners on the role of antiseptics in oropharyngeal health and disease, this article focuses on povidone-iodine (PVP-I), an established and widely-available antiseptic agent. Review of the anti-infective profile, efficacy and safety of PVP-I in managing common upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, influenza and tonsillo-pharyngitis, as well as oral complications resulting from cancer treatment (oral mucositis), and dental conditions (periodontitis, caries). Antiseptics with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity and low resistance potential offer an attractive option in both infection control and prevention. While there is some evidence of benefit of antiseptics in a variety of clinical settings that include dental and oral hygiene, dermatology, oncology, and pulmonology, there appears to be discordance between the evidence-base and practice. This is especially apparent in the management and prevention of oropharyngeal infections, for which the use of antiseptics varies considerably between clinical practices, and is in marked contrast to their dermal application, where they are extensively used as both a prophylaxis and a treatment of skin and wound infections, thus minimising the use of antibiotics. The link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large-scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importance of an increasing armamentarium for infection prevention and control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy prevents vitamin D deficiency in the newborn: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, C P; Benson, J E; Vincent, A J; Whitehead, C L; Polykov, A; Vollenhoven, B

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin D supplementation, in the vitamin D deficient mother, prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. Open-label randomized controlled trial. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, tertiary hospital routine antenatal outpatient clinic. Seventy-eight women with singleton pregnancies with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (serum 25-OH Vit D l) at their first antenatal appointment at 12-16-week gestation were recruited. Participants were randomized to vitamin D supplementation (2000-4000 IU cholecalciferol) orally daily until delivery or no supplementation. The primary outcome was neonatal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. The secondary outcome was maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. Baseline mean maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentrations were similar (P = 0·9) between treatment (32 nmol/l, 95% confidence interval 26-39 nmol/l) and control groups (33 nmol/l, 95% CI 26-39 nmol/l). Umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P l, 95% CI; 70-91 nmol/l) compared with neonates of control group mothers (42 nmol/l, 95% CI; 34-50 nmol/l) with a strongly positive correlation between maternal serum 25-OH Vit D and umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0·88; P l, 95% CI; 62-81 nmol/l) compared with the control group (36 nmol/l, 95% CI; 29-42 nmol/l). Vitamin D supplementation of vitamin D deficient pregnant women prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  13. Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Borthne, Sandra; Pajalic, Zada; Blix, Ellen; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2018-02-28

    Norway has been considered iodine replete for decades; however, recent studies indicate reemergence of inadequate iodine status in different population groups. We assessed iodine status in pregnant women based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine intake from food and supplements. In 804 pregnant women, 24-h iodine intakes from iodine-rich foods and iodine-containing supplements were calculated. In 777 women, iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, 49 of the women collected a 24-h urine sample for assessment of UIE and iodine intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Median UIC was 92 µg/L. Fifty-five percent had a calculated iodine intake below estimated average requirement (EAR) (160 µg/day). Iodine intake from food alone did not provide the amount of iodine required to meet maternal and fetal needs during pregnancy. In multiple regression models, hypothyroidism, supplemental iodine and maternal age were positively associated with UIC, while gestational age and smoking were negatively associated, explaining 11% of the variance. This study clearly shows that pregnant women in the Oslo area are mild to moderate iodine deficient and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  15. Prophylactic vitamin K for the prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Stephanie; Offringa, Martin; Ovelman, Colleen; Soll, Roger

    2018-02-05

    Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of coagulation factors. Term infants, especially those who are exclusively breast fed, are deficient in vitamin K and consequently may have vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). Preterm infants are potentially at greater risk for VKDB because of delayed feeding and subsequent delay in the colonization of their gastrointestinal system with vitamin K producing microflora, as well as immature hepatic and hemostatic function.  OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis in the prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in preterm infants. We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 5 December 2016), Embase (1980 to 5 December 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 5 December 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of any preparation of vitamin K given to preterm infants. We evaluated potential studies and extracted data in accordance with the recommendations of Cochrane Neonatal. We did not identify any eligible studies that compared vitamin K to no treatment.One study compared intravenous (IV) to intramuscular (IM) administration of vitamin K and compared various dosages of vitamin K. Three different prophylactic regimes of vitamin K (0.5 mg IM, 0.2 mg vitamin K 1 , or 0.2 mg IV) were given to infants less than 32 weeks' gestation. Given that only one small study met the inclusion criteria, we assessed the quality of the evidence for the outcomes evaluated as low.Intramuscular versus intravenousThere was no statistically significant difference in vitamin K levels in the 0.2 mg IV group when compared to the infants that received either 0.2 or 0.5 mg vitamin K IM (control) on day 5. By day 25, vitamin K 1 levels had declined in all of the groups, but infants

  16. Parenteral safflower oil emulsion (Liposyn 10%): safety and effectiveness in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivins, B A; Rapp, R P; Record, K; Meng, H C; Griffen, W O

    1980-01-01

    The safety and effectiveness of a 10% safflower oil emulsion in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency was tested in a prospective study of 15 surgical patients requiring total parenteral nutrition for two to four weeks. Three dosage regimens were evaluated including: Group I: 4% of calories as linoleate daily (five patients), Group II: 4% of calories as linoleate every other day (two patients), and Group III: 8% of calories every other day (eight patients). Patients were monitored for laboratory changes from baseline specifically in those areas where previous fat emulsions have caused serious deviations. No significant changes were noted in hematologic parameters, coagulation studies, cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels. Although there were sporadic mild deviations in liver function changes in several patients, no clinically significant adverse effects could be directly attributed to infusion of the fat emulsion. Three patients had baseline triene/tetraene ratios of 0.4 or greater, indicative of essential fatty/acid deficiency, and these ratios dropped to less than 0.4 within eight days of beginning therapy with the parenteral fat emulsion. The remaining 12 patients maintained a normal triene/tetraene ratio of less than 0.4 throughout the 28 day study period. All three dosage regimens were considered effective for treatment and prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6767452

  17. Imaging colon cancer development in mice: IL-6 deficiency prevents adenoma in azoxymethane-treated Smad3 knockouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Kaitlin; Leung, Sarah; Faith Rice, Photini; Jones, Mykella; Barton, Jennifer K.; Bommireddy, Ramireddy

    2016-02-01

    The development of colorectal cancer in the azoxymethane-induced mouse model can be observed by using a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. This system is uniquely capable of tracking disease development over time, allowing for the monitoring of morphological changes in the distal colon due to tumor development and the presence of lymphoid aggregates. By using genetically engineered mouse models deficient in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Smad family member 3 (Smad3), the role of inflammation on tumor development and the immune system can be elucidated. Smad3 knockout mice develop inflammatory response, wasting, and colitis associated cancer while deficiency of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 confers resistance to tumorigenesis. We present pilot data showing that the Smad3 knockout group had the highest tumor burden, highest spleen weight, and lowest thymus weight. The IL-6 deficiency in Smad3 knockout mice prevented tumor development, splenomegaly, and thymic atrophy. This finding suggests that agents that inhibit IL-6 (e.g. anti-IL-6 antibody, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], etc.) could be used as novel therapeutic agents to prevent disease progression and increase the efficacy of anti-cancer agents. OCT can also be useful for initiating early therapy and assessing the benefit of combination therapy targeting inflammation.

  18. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  19. Photochemistry of DNA containing iodinated cytosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, R O; Stafford, R S [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-10-01

    Irradiation at 313 nm of compounds containing iodinated cytosine moieties results in the photolysis of iodine. Photolysis occurs with a quantum yield of 0.022-0.024 for 5-iododeoxycytidine and 5-iododeoxycytidine monophosphate, and 0.004-0.008 for iodinated DNA as well as for iodinated polycytidylate. Photodegradation of the cytosine moiety occurs when air is present during irradiation, presumably due to the reaction of oxygen with the cytosyl radical formed when iodine is lost. This oxygen promoted photodegradation destroys the cytosine chromophore and is complete in the monomers but occurs to only a limited extent in the polymers. In the absence of oxygen or in the presence of ethanol, photodegradation is prevented and the loss of iodine leads exclusively to the formation of the cytosine chromophore. In DNA, the loss of iodine is accompanied by the formation of sugar damage and/or chain breaks. As measured by sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients, approximately one break is made for every six iodines lost in denatured DNA. The frequency of chain breakage per iodine photolyzed is reduced 2-fold in renatured DNA. Analysis in neutral gradients suggests that half of the breaks observed in alkali are alkali-labile bonds. Both ethanol and cysteamine reduce the number of chain breaks in alkali by approximately 3-fold.

  20. 海南省碘缺乏病高危地区重点人群调查结果%Iodine deficiency disorders in high-risk areas of Hainan province from 2007 to 2009: an analysis of survey results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红美; 苏英迪; 黄曼; 江苏娟; 吴柳坚; 王善青

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解海南省缺碘高危地区碘缺乏病防治现状和防治措施落实效果.方法 2007-2009年,采用典型抽样方法,在海南省碘盐覆盖率低的8个市(县),以乡为单位搜索10岁以下新发地方性克汀病(地克病)患儿;在乡小学校,抽取8~10岁儿童,采用触诊、B超法检查儿童甲状腺;收集儿童尿样;测定儿童智商(IQ);对五年级学生进行健康教育问卷调查.入户采集育龄妇女尿样和家中食用盐样,同时对妇女进行健康教育问卷调查.尿碘测定采用砷铈催化分光光度法,盐碘测定采用半定量法,IQ测定采用中国联合型瑞文测验(CRT-C2).结果 共调查72个乡(镇),其中8~10儿童7937名、育龄妇女1797名、5年级学生4128名,线索调查发现疑似新发地克病患儿1例.居民碘盐覆盖率由2007年的44.6%(629/1411)提高到2009年的92.1%(1688/1832).儿童甲状腺肿大(甲肿)率触诊法、B超法由2007年的5.9%(269/4548)、6.0%(274/4548)下降到2009年的1.6%(24/1461)、0.1%(2/1461);尿碘中位数由2007年的97.4μg/L上升2009年165.0μg/L;尿碘<50.0μg/L和<100.0μg/L的比例由2007年的21.4%(973/4548)、51.2%(2329/4548)下降到2009年的75%(110/1461)、23.4%(342/1461);育龄妇女尿碘中位数由2007年的73.7μg/L上升到2009年的126.1μg/L,其中孕妇的尿碘中位数由2007年的55.7μg/L上升到2008年117.9μg/L、2009年的121.5 μg/L,但仍<150.0μg/L.五年级学生、育龄妇女碘缺乏病的健康教育问卷调查及格率分别由2007年29.8%(446/1495)、24.1%(179/742)提高到2009年65.8%(732/1112)、72.1%(264/366).儿童IQ值为90.4±16.0,IQ低下(≤69)的比例为12.6%(1000/7937).结论 海南省高危地区碘缺乏病病情逐年改善,但孕妇碘营养水平仍较低,今后应加强对孕妇的补碘.%Objective To know the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders(IDD) and the implementation of control measures against the disorders in high-risk areas of Hainan province. Methods Typical

  1. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D and Calcium Deficiency in Children and Adolescents: Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chinnappa, Jagdish; Rathi, Narendra; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Balasubramanian, S; Parekh, Bakul; Jog, Pramod

    2017-07-15

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is being increasingly reported from India from all age-groups. Reports suggest that VDD affects all age groups, from neonates to adolescents. Further, habitually low calcium intakes are also reported in Indian children. Given the multiple guidelines, peculiarities of Indian circumstances, changing lifestyles, and lack of fortification, the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) felt the need for a Practice Guideline for Pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D and calcium deficiency in children and adolescents. The 'Guideline for Vitamin D and Calcium in Children' committee was formed by the IAP in September 2016. A consultative committee meeting was held in November 2016 in Mumbai. Evidence from Indian and international studies and other previous published recommendations, which were pertinent to the Indian circumstances, were collated for the preparation of these guidelines. To present a practice guideline for pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of deficiency of vitamin D and calcium in the Indian context. For the prevention of rickets in premature infants, 400 IU of vitamin D and 150-220 mg/kg of calcium, and in neonates, 400 IU of vitamin D and 200 mg of calcium are recommended daily. For prevention of rickets and hypocalcemia in infants (after neonatal period) upto 1 year of age, and from 1-18 years, 400 IU and 600 IU vitamin D/day and 250-500 mg/day and 600-800 mg/day of calcium, respectively, are recommended. For treatment of rickets in premature neonates, infants upto 1 year and from 1-18 years, 1000 IU, 2000 IU and 3000-6000 IU of vitamin D daily, respectively, and elemental calcium of 70-80 mg/kg/day in premature neonates and 500-800 mg daily for all children over that age are recommended. Larger doses of vitamin D may be given from 3 months to 18 years of age as 60,000 IU/week for 6 weeks.

  3. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding

  4. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  5. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves' disease in the young in a high iodine intake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Pedersen, K M; Vestergaard, H

    1991-01-01

    that even mild iodine deficiency has a significant effect on population health, since it leads to a high incidence of autonomous thyroid nodules with hyperthyroidism in the elderly population. However, population iodine intake probably should not exceed a level much higher than that necessary to avoid...... iodine deficiency, otherwise Graves' disease may be induced in the young population.......Little is known about the optimum level of iodine intake for iodine supplementation programmes, or about the effects of the high levels of iodine intake that are found in some countries. We compared the incidence of different types of hyperthyroidism in East-Jutland Denmark with a low average...

  6. Vitamin K1 versus vitamin K3 for prevention of subclinical vitamin deficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, D; Deorari, A K; Saxena, R; Paul, V K; Agarwal, R; Biswas, A; Meena, A

    2007-11-01

    To compare efficacy of intramuscular phytomenadione (fat soluble vitamin K or vitamin K1) with menadione (water soluble vitamin K or vitamin K3) in prevention of subclinical vitamin K deficiency. A doubleblind randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital. Healthy term neonates were randomized to receive 1 mg of either phytomenadione (Group I, n = 85) or menadione (Group II, n = 85) intramuscularly within 2 hours of birth. PIVKA-II, a sensitive and specific marker of vitamin K deficiency was measured by ELISA method (Diagnostica Stago, France). Plasma level > 2 ng/mL was labeled as detectable PIVKA-II. Birth weight (2914 +/- 318 vs 2958 +/- 312 g), gestation (38.4 +/- 1.2 vs 38.4 +/- 1.0 wk) and other baseline variables were comparable between the two groups. 48.2% (41/85) neonates in Group I and 44.7%(38/85) neonates in Group II had detectable PIVKAII levels ([Relative Risk (95% confidence interval): 1.1 (0.8-1.5); P = 0.76]). Median PIVKA-II levels in Group I and Group II were 1.99 ng/mL and 1.97 ng/mL respectively (P = 0.26). At 72 +/- 12 h of age, mean packed cell volume and mean serum bilirubin levels were comparable in the two groups. Comparable PIVKAII detection rate and PIVKAII levels in neonates receiving phytomenadione or menadione indicate their similar efficacy in prevention of vitamin K deficiency. However, high PIVKAII detection rate observed with both preparations indicates recent vitamin K deficiency and may be due to either inadequate dose of vitamin K or persistence of PIVKAII of fetal origin.

  7. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  9. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. The results of this work are expected to identify where additional data

  10. The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ming; Wang, Dong; Watkins, William E; Gebski, Val; Yan, Yu Qin; Li, Mu; Chen, Zu Pei

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of iodine on the intellectual development of children using a systematic manual literature search of Chinese publications related to iodine deficiency disorders. The Chinese Medical Reference Database, Medline, and Cochrane library were searched electronically in Chinese and English. Inclusion criteria included: studies conducted in China, comparing children (Intelligent Quotient (IQ) was measured using Binet or Raven Scales. The iodine sufficient control groups were comparable socially, economically, and educationally with the study groups. Random effects models were used in the meta-analysis. Effect size was the standard deviation IQ point (SIQP), which is equivalent to 15 IQ. Thirty-seven reported studies, total 12,291 children, were analysed. The effect size was an increase of 0.83, 0.82, and 0.32 SIQP respectively, for the children living in IS communities compared with those living in ID areas with no iodine supplementation, with inadequate iodine supplementation, or children who had received iodine during their mothers' pregnancy and after birth. These equal to 12.45, 12.3, 4.8 IQ points. Compared with that of children whose mothers were persistently exposed to ID, the total effect size of the 21 entries was an increase of 0.58 SIQP (8.7 IQ points) in the group receiving iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Furthermore, there was an increase on 1.15 SIQP of Binet or 0.8 SIQP on Raven Scale (17.25 or 12 IQ points) for children born more than 3.5 years after iodine supplementation program was introduced. The level of iodine nutrition plays a crucial role in the intellectual development of children. The intelligence damage of children exposed to severe ID was profound, demonstrated by 12.45 IQ points loss and they recovered 8.7 IQ points with iodine supplementation or IS before and during pregnancy. Iodine supplementation before and during pregnancy to women living in severe ID areas could prevent their children from

  11. Immunotherapy holds the key to cancer treatment and prevention in constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westdorp, Harm; Kolders, Sigrid; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.J.; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2017-01-01

    Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations

  12. Control of iron deficiency in the first 1000 days in life: prevention of impaired child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the first 1000 days of life (the period from the woman’s pregnancy continuing into the child’s second year) is the most critical period. This is where nutritional deficiencies have a significant and often irreversible adverse impact on child survival and growth affecting

  13. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect...... (P iodine intake in both mothers and neonates. The results suggest that the fetal thyroid, at least in areas of mild iodine deficiency, is more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of iodine...... of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during...

  14. Low iodine content in the diets of hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Preterm formula provided 16.4-28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0-17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.

  15. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  16. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  17. Iodine status in the Nordic countries - past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries' iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries' strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50-75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  18. [Study on prevention and treatment of middle and aged women diabetes with kidney deficiency and bone metabolic disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Li, H; Liu, Y

    1999-04-01

    To Study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for supplementing Qi, activating blood circulation and tonifying Kidney on prevention and treatment of middle and aged women diabetes with Kidney Deficiency and bone metabolic disturbance. Clinical observation was taken in 52 patients, who were divided into two groups, the control group (treated with hypoglycemic agent alone) and the treated group (treated with hypoglycemic agent and CHM). Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood alkaline phosphatase, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) level, urinary beta 2-MG, calcium and phosphorus level, but lower serum estradiol level than those in normal subjects. After 3 months' treatment, no apparent change on serum estradiol level was observed, but other parameters were all lowered obviously in the two groups, the changes revealed more obvious in the treated group. The symptoms of Kidney Deficiency, such as lumbodorsal pain, general fatigue, palpitation and vertigo, were improved after treatment, and the improvement was also more obvious in the treated group. CHM for supplementing Qi, activating blood circulation and tonifying Kidney was effective in improving Kidney Deficiency and mineral substance loss of bone in middle and aged women diabetes patients. The CHM and western drugs may acted synergistically.

  19. The bisphosphonate zoledronate prevents vertebral bone loss in mature estrogen-deficient rats as assessed by micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatt M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term treatment with the bisphosphonate zoledronate on vertebral bone architecture was investigated in estrogen-deficient mature rats. 4-month-old rats were ovariectomized and development of cancellous osteopenia was assessed after 1 year. The change of bone architectural parameters was determined with a microtomographic instrument of high resolution. After 1 year of estrogen-deficiency, animals lost 55% of vertebral trabecular bone in comparison to sham operated control animals. Trabecular number (Tb.N and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th were significantly reduced in ovariectomized animals, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, bone surface to volume fraction (BS/BV and trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf were significantly increased, indicating a loss of architectural integrity throughout the vertebral body. 3 groups of animals were treated subcutaneously with zoledronate for 1 year with 0.3, 1.5 and 7.5 microgram/kg/week to inhibit osteoclastic bone degradation. Administration started immediately after ovariectomy and treatment dose-dependently prevented the architectural bone deterioration and completely suppressed the effects of estrogen deficiency at the higher doses. The results show that microtomographic determination of static morphometric parameters can be used to quantitate the effects of drugs on vertebral bone architecture in small laboratory animals and that zoledronate is highly effective in this rat model.

  20. Lack of association between autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and germline polymorphisms of the thyrotropin receptor and Gαs genes in a mild to moderate iodine-deficient Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Teresa Manuela; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Certo, Rosaria; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Micali, Carmelo; Baldari, Sergio; Benvenga, Salvatore; Trimarchi, Francesco; Campennì, Alfredo; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena

    2014-07-01

    Mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and/or Gαs gene have been found in a number of, but not all, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). Recently, in a 15-year-old girl with a hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma, we found two somatic and germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): a SNP of the TSHR gene (exon 7, codon 187) and a SNP of Gαs gene (exon 8, codon 185). The same silent SNP of the TSHR gene had been reported in patients with AFTN or familial non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. No further data about the prevalence of the two SNPs in AFTNs as well as in the general population are available in the literature. To clarify the possible role of these SNPs in predisposing to AFTN. Germline DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes of 115 patients with AFTNs (43 males and 72 females, aged 31-85 years, mean ± SD = 64 ± 13) and 100 sex-matched healthy individuals from the same geographic area, which is marginally iodine deficient. The genotype distribution of the two SNPs was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of the two SNPs in our study population was low and not different to that found in healthy individuals: 8 % of patients vs. 9 % of controls were heterozygous for the TSHR SNP and 4 % patients vs. 6 % controls were heterozygous for the Gαs SNP. One patient harbored both SNPs. These results suggest that these two SNPs do not confer susceptibility for the development of AFTN.

  1. Iodine Status and Goiter Prevalence in Nizhegorodsky Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu I Tarasov

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The undertaken study was to evaluate the severity of iodine deficiency and to establish the prevalence of goiter in the city of Nizhny Novgorod and in 35 districts of Nizhegorodsky region. 1868 children aged 8—11 years were examined. The median of urinary iodine concentration was measured, and the size of the thyroid was determined by palpation and by ultrasound study. Among all the examinees, the detection rate of the goiter was 19.4% (as evidenced by palpation and the median of urinary iodine concentration was 45.05 μg/l. The findings indicate natural iodine deficiency on the whole territory studied with severity variations from mild to moderate, and the disparity in goiter rate and iodine excretion level in some districts of Nizhegorodsky region. Cluster analysis and automatic classification of the districts based on goiter prevalence and urinary iodine parameters may be useful for a comprehensive assessment of iodine status in the whole region. Analyzing the pattern of the spread of goiter has demonstrated the role of geochemical, social and medical factors existing in the region. Key words: iodine deficiency, goiter, population based stady, thyroid.

  2. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  3. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  4. Symptomatic acquired zinc deficiency in at-risk premature infants: high dose preventive supplementation is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarot, Sébastien; Chantier, Emilie; Kuster, Alice; Hello, Muriel; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Blouin, Eric; Stalder, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in many metabolisms. Zinc deficiency induces various disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, either inherited or acquired. We report three cases of premature infants (24-31 wks gestational age) with low birthweight (650 to 940 g) and enteropathy, two of whom presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. All infants were fed by total parenteral nutrition. At a chronological age ranging from 73 to 80 days, all infants developed a periorificial dermatitis. Before the onset of the first signs, they had received zinc supplementation ranging from 146% to 195% of the recommended dose (400 microg/kg/day). Increased zinc supplementation over a course of 6-18 days induced a complete resolution of symptoms in all cases. No abnormality in the neurologic examination and no recurrence were observed at the end of the zinc treatment. Low birthweight premature infants with enteropathy on total parenteral nutrition are at risk of developing zinc deficiency. The usual recommended zinc supplementation is probably insufficient for those infants. A delay in the diagnosis of zinc deficiency may lead to severe complications.

  5. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  6. The Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine exertion in school-aged children in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mozhgan Padyab

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency and its related disorder such as goiter are endemic in Lorestan province. Following initiation of iodine deficiency control program in 1989, production, distribution and consumption of iodinated salt were begun. This survey was conducted in the framework of national monitoring survey in 2001 to find out the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine level in order to evaluate the iodine status of school- aged children in Lorestan. Materials and Methods: 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Lorestan. The grade of goiter in 600 boys and 600 girls, was determined according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren. Findings: Total goiter rate was 7.8% 7.8% in girls and 7.7% in boys. Median urinary iodine was 17 μg/dl. Urinary iodine was above 10 μg/dl in 85.7% and less than 5 μg/dl in 1.7%. No one had urinary iodine below 2 μg/dl. Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of goiter in Lorestan has decreased significantly since 1996 and urinary iodine levels in schoolchildren are indicative of adequate iodine intake. Therefore Lorestan province can be considered as an 'iodine deficiency free' zone.

  7. Iodine and human health, the role of environmental geochemistry and diet, a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuge, Ron; Johnson, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is an essential element in the human diet and a deficiency can lead to a number of health outcomes collectively termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The geochemistry of iodine is dominated by its volatility with volatilisation of organo-iodine compounds and elemental iodine from biological and non-biological sources in the oceans being a major component of its global cycle. As a result of the dominant oceanic source, iodine is strongly enriched in near-coastal soils, however, the major zone of marine influence generally stretches to only 50–80 km inland and terrestrial sources of volatilised iodine, from wetlands, soils and plants are also an important aspect of its global geochemical cycle. Iodine in soils is strongly bound with transfer factors from soil to plants being generally small and as a consequence there is only limited uptake of iodine through the plant root system. It is likely that uptake of atmospheric iodine by the aerial parts of plants is an essential process and, along with iodine deposited on plant surfaces, is a major source for grazing animals. Human intake of iodine is mainly from food with some populations also obtaining appreciable quantities of iodine from drinking water. Plant-derived dietary iodine is generally insufficient as evidenced from the low dietary iodine of strict vegan diets. Seafood provides major iodine-rich dietary items but other inputs are mainly from adventitious sources, such as the use of iodised salt and from dairy produce, which is a rich source mainly due to cattle-feed being fortified with iodine, and to the use of iodine-containing sterilants in the dairy industry. While the distribution and geochemistry of iodine are reflected in the global distribution of IDD, the recent upsurge of IDD in developed countries would seem to reflect changes in diet. - Highlights: • Iodine is an ultra-trace element in the lithosphere. • Volatilisation from marine and terrestrial sources is vital in iodine's global

  8. Increase in incidence of hyperthyroidism predominantly occurs in young people after iodine fortification of salt in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2006-10-01

    To prevent goiter and nodular hyperthyroidism, iodine fortification (IF) of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998. We prospectively registered all new cases of overt hyperthyroidism in two areas of Denmark before and for the first 6 yr after iodine fortification. We used a computer-based register of all new cases of hyperthyroidism in two population subcohorts with moderate iodine deficiency (Aalborg, n = 310,124) and mild iodine deficiency (Copenhagen, n = 225,707), respectively. Data were obtained 1) before IF (1997-1998); 2) during voluntary IF (1999-2000); 3) during the early (2001-2002) period of mandatory IF; and 4) during the late (2003-2004) period with mandatory IF. The overall incidence rate of hyperthyroidism increased [baseline, 102.8/100,000/year; voluntary IF, 122.8; early mandatory IF, 140.7; late mandatory IF, 138.7 (P for trend Hyperthyroidism increased in both sexes (P hyperthyroidism. Contrary to current concepts, many of the new cases were observed in young subjects, and are presumably of autoimmune origin. Furthermore, monitoring is expected to show a decrease in the number of elderly subjects suffering from nodular hyperthyroidism.

  9. Multidisciplinary management of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in pregnancy: essential to prevent hyperammonemic complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Stephanie; Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Murphy, Elaine; Mackillop, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common inborn error in the metabolism of the urea cycle with an incidence of 1 in 14 000 live births. Pregnancy can trigger potentially fatal hyperammonemic crises. We report a successful pregnancy in a 29-year-old primiparous patient with a known diagnosis of OTC deficiency since infancy. Hyperammonemic complications were avoided due to careful multidisciplinary management which included a detailed antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal plan. Management principles include avoidance of triggers, a low-protein diet and medications which promote the removal of nitrogen by alternative pathways. Triggers include metabolic stress such as febrile illness, particularly gastroenteritis, fasting and any protein loading. In our case the patient, in addition to a restricted protein intake, was prescribed sodium benzoate 4 g four times a day, sodium phenylbutyrate 2 g four times a day and arginine 500 mg four times a day to aid excretion of ammonia and reduce flux through the urea cycle. PMID:23283608

  10. Multifactorial skin barrier deficiency and atopic dermatitis: Essential topics to prevent the atopic march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the industrialized world and has multiple causes. Over the past decade, data from both experimental models and patients have highlighted the primary pathogenic role of skin barrier deficiency in patients with AD. Increased access of environmental agents into the skin results in chronic inflammation and contributes to the systemic "atopic (allergic) march." In addition, persistent skin inflammation further attenuates skin barrier function, resulting in a positive feedback loop between the skin epithelium and the immune system that drives pathology. Understanding the mechanisms of skin barrier maintenance is essential for improving management of AD and limiting downstream atopic manifestations. In this article we review the latest developments in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of skin barrier deficiency, with a particular focus on the formation of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, which contributes significantly to skin barrier function. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mandatory iodine fortification of bread and salt increases iodine excretion in adults in Denmark - A 11-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    intake (diet plus supplements) had increased by 16 (-18-48) μg/day. Iodine excretion had increased significantly in all age and gender groups, but was still below the recommended amount at follow-up. The increase in iodine excretion was positively associated with changes in milk intake, with changes...... in the use of iodine supplements, and with bread intake at follow-up. Salt intake, education, self-rated health, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were not associated with the increase in iodine excretion. Conclusions: The strategy to combat iodine deficiency in Denmark seems to be working...

  12. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  13. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Iodine Prophylaxis and Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine is a highly volatile element therefore being very mobile in the environment. It enters the metabolism of living organisms and is selectively taken up and concentrated in the thyroid gland. The plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive material that might be released in the environment in the case of a serious nuclear accident, primarily consists of the radioactive isotopes of iodine. Among those, due to its decay properties, is the most important 131 I. The effective means of protecting the thyroid gland against exposure to radioactive iodine is an intake of stable iodine. Therefore, one of the central issues in the emergency planning is to determine whether and at which projected thyroid radiation dose stable iodine should be given to the population. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set the generic optimized intervention value for iodine prophylaxis to 100 mGy of avertable committed dose to a thyroid.The prophylaxis is implemented by utilizing the pills of pills of potassium iodine (KI). The efficacy of KI in protecting the thyroid gland depends upon the time of intake relative to the start of exposure to radioactive iodine. The best results are obtained if KI is taken 1-2 hours before or immediately after the start of exposure. The recommended dosage, based upon the study performed by Il'in et.al. is 130 mg/day. KI should be taken at least three days after the acute exposure to radioiodine, to prevent accumulation in a thyroid gland of radioiodine excreted from the other compartments of the body. The largest epidemiological study on the effects of KI prophylaxis ever performed was the one in Poland after the Chernobyl accident. Stable iodine was given as single dose of KI solution to 10.5 million of children and 7 millions of adults. Among children no serious side effects were seen while only two adults (with previously recorded iodine sensitivity) had severe respiratory distresses. Polish experiences showed that rapid response to such

  15. Transcutaneous application of oil and prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E J; Gibson, R A; Simmer, K

    1993-01-01

    The topical application of vegetable oil was assessed as an alternative means of providing essential fatty acids (EFA) to parentally fed preterm infants who were not receiving lipid. Three infant pairs ranging in gestational age from 26-32 weeks were studied. Safflower oil or safflower oil esters (1 g linoleic acid/kg/day) were applied to available areas daily. All infants rapidly developed biochemical EFA deficiency. The plasma fatty acid profiles were similar in infants with or without topical oil, and all returned to normal once parenteral lipid was introduced. We found no evidence to suggest that the transdermal route is of use in the nutritional management of preterm infants. PMID:8439192

  16. OPA1 deficiency promotes secretion of FGF21 from muscle that prevents obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renata Oliveira; Tadinada, Satya M; Zasadny, Frederick M; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Olvera, Angela; Jeffers, Jennifer; Souvenir, Rhonda; Mcglauflin, Rose; Seei, Alec; Funari, Trevor; Sesaki, Hiromi; Potthoff, Matthew J; Adams, Christopher M; Anderson, Ethan J; Abel, E Dale

    2017-07-14

    Mitochondrial dynamics is a conserved process by which mitochondria undergo repeated cycles of fusion and fission, leading to exchange of mitochondrial genetic content, ions, metabolites, and proteins. Here, we examine the role of the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in differentiated skeletal muscle by reducing OPA1 gene expression in an inducible manner. OPA1 deficiency in young mice results in non-lethal progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of muscle mass. Mutant mice are resistant to age- and diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. OPA1-elicited mitochondrial dysfunction activates an integrated stress response that locally induces muscle atrophy, but via secretion of FGF21 acts distally to modulate whole-body metabolism. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2013-09-01

    As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 μg iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm.

  18. Examination of Urinary Iodine Status from a Sample of Malian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pregnant women, this deficiency can lead to congenital hypothyroidism in newborn infants. Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder associated with a low IQ, deaf mutism, and neurological problems. Many studies have revealed that iodine deficiency is common throughout West Africa. While several of these studies have ...

  19. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  20. Fairly elevated incidence of goiter with marginally low urinary iodine in adolescents living in the north-western part of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, M.V.; Bourdoux, P.; Ben Slimane, F.; Ben Abdallah, M.; Mtimet, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the etiology of endemic goiter in the north-western part of Tunisia, we examined 93 adolescents of this region. We measured urinary iodine concentrations, serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, thyroglobulin and antithyrogobulin antibody concentrations. The adolescents were questioned about their alimentary habits, the origin of their drinking water and the presence of known goiter(s) in their family. Among these adolescents, 49.5% of them had a goiter. Urinary iodine concentrations showed mild iodine deficiency. The serum determinations gave results within the reference ranges, without any significative differences between adolescents, with or without goiter. We found two risk factors: the age of adolescents, and the presence of a known goiter in the family. These results suggest that the actual prevention may not be adequate, or most likely that goitrogenic factors are to be looked for, especially in drinking water, since the majority of these adolescents drink no controlled water

  1. Iodination of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Feldthus, A.; Carlsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol is iodinated in aqueous solution at pH 5 (acetate buffer) by elemental iodine or, if the iodine is present as iodide, enzymatically controlled by peroxidases. Generally mono-, di- and triiodophenols are obtained, the overall product composition being virtually identical for the two iodination modes. However, there is a tendency to a higher para to ortho ratio for the enzymatically controlled reaction. The mutual ratios of the single iodophenols depends on the initial concentration ratio between phenol and the iodinating species. The first step in the iodination leads preferentially to substitution in the ortho position rather than in the para position in contract to e.g. the corresponding bromination. The relative rates of the competive reactions in the combined iodination scheme has been derived. (author) 2 tabs., 3 ills., 15 refs

  2. Estudo prospectivo dos efeitos da amiodarona na função tiroidiana de pacientes chagásicos em área de deficiência de iodo Prospective study of amiodarone effects on thyroid function of chagasic patients in an iodine deficient area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Enes de Barros

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a junção tiroidiana após uso crônico da amiodarona, em área de deficiência de iodo e endemia chagásica, 24 pacientes foram analisados antes e após três e nove meses de uso da droga. A avaliação constou de exame clínico, dosagem sérica de T4, T3, rT3, TSH, anticorpo antitiroglobulina e TSH 30 minutos após infusão venosa de uma ampola de 200µg de TRH. A captação do iodo radioativo 131 e a cintilografia datiróide foram realizadas antes e aos 9 meses após tratamento. Disfunção tiroidiana ocorreu em 20,8% dos pacientes sendo 12,5% de hipertiroidismo e 8,3% de hipotiroidismo, com anticorpos antitiroglobulina negativos. Captação do iodo radioativo 131 foi positiva em um paciente hipertiroideo com bócio. O diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo foi melhor evidenciado pela resposta reduzida ou bloqueada do TSH ao TRH e não pela concentração do T3 no soro e o de hipotiroidismo pela concentração elevada do TSH. O TSH elevado desde o início do tratamento pode predispor ao aparecimento de bócio. Concluímos que o uso da amiodarona em nossa região deve serjudiciosamente analisado, sendo a função tiroidiana cuidadosamente monitorizada antes e durante o tratamento.In order to evaluate the development of thyroid dysfunction during chronic amiodarone treatment in an area deficient in iodine and endemic for Chagas 'disease, a group of 24patients wasprospectively studied. Clinical examination and measurement of serum T4, T3, rT3, TSH and antithyroglobulin antibodies were performed before and at 3 and 9 months of use of amiodarone. A TSH response 30 minutes after IV injection of 200µg of TRH was also compared to TSH basal levels before and during amiodarone treatment. Thyroid radioative uptake and scan were obtained before and nine months after amiodarone was started. Elevated rT3 concentrations were unexpectedly found in two thirds of the patients before treatment. Thyroid dysfunction developed during

  3. Membrane omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for comorbid coronary heart disease in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  4. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Prevention of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD in Choline Deficient Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopasso Fabio P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Vitamin C and vitamin E are known to react with reactive oxygen species (ROS blocking the propagation of radical reactions in a wide range of oxidative stress situations. The potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in NAFLD is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant drugs (vitamin C or vitamin E in its prevention. Methods Fatty liver disease was induced in Wistar rats by choline-deficient diet for four weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (n = 6 – (200 mg/day, vitamin C (n = 6 (30 mg/Kg/day or vehicle orally. Results In the vehicle and vitamin E-treated rats, there were moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area without inflammatory infiltrate or fibrosis. Scharlach stain that used for a more precise identification of fatty change was strong positive. With vitamin C, there was marked decrease in histological alterations. Essentially, there was no liver steatosis, only hepatocellular ballooning. Scharlach stain was negative. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was reduced with vitamin C (1080 ± 330 cpm/mg/minx103 as compared to those Vitamin E and control (2247 ± 790; 2020 ± 407 cpm/mg/minx103, respectively (p Conclusions 1 Vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited the development of experimental liver steatosis induced by choline-deficient diet ; 2Vitamin E neither prevented the development of fatty liver nor reduced the oxidative stress in this model.

  5. Variation in the iodine concentrations of foods: considerations for dietary assessment1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, Alicia L; Spungen, Judith H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Dwyer, Johanna T; Juan, WenYen; Wirtz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-composition tables typically give measured nutrient concentrations in foods as a single summary value, often the mean, without providing information as to the shape of the distribution. Objective: Our objective was to explore how the statistical approach chosen to describe the iodine concentrations of foods affects the proportion of the population identified as having either insufficient or excessive iodine intakes. Design: We used food intake data reported by the 2009−2010 NHANES and measured iodine concentrations of Total Diet Study (TDS) foods from 4 US regions sampled in 2004–2011. We created 4 data sets, each by using a different summary statistic (median, mean, and 10th and 90th percentiles), to represent the iodine concentration distribution of each TDS food. We estimated the iodine concentration distribution of each food consumed by NHANES participants as the 4 iodine concentration summary statistics of a similar TDS food and used these, along with NHANES food intake data, to develop 4 estimates of each participant’s iodine intake on each survey day. Using the 4 estimates in turn, we calculated 4 usual iodine intakes for each sex- and age-specific subgroup. We then compared these to guideline values and developed 4 estimates of the proportions of each subgroup with deficient and excessive usual iodine intakes. Results: In general, the distribution of iodine intakes was poorly characterized when food iodine concentrations were expressed as mean values. In addition, mean values predicted lower prevalences of iodine deficiency than did median values. For example, in women aged 19–50 y, the estimated prevalence of iodine deficiency was 25% when based on median food iodine concentrations but only 5.8% when based on mean values. Conclusion: For nutrients such as iodine with highly variable concentrations in important food sources, we recommend that food-composition tables provide useful variability information, including the mean, SD, and

  6. National Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Iron Deficiency Anemia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Bellad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a serious public health challenge in India with more than 50% prevalence across vulnerable groups such as pregnant women, infants, young children and adolescents. It has adverse effects on health, physical and mental productivity affecting quality of life. Guideline is any document containing recommendations about health interventions, whether these are clinical, public health or policy recommendations. The National Anemia Prevention and control guidelines have been developed taking cognizance of the current scientific evidence. The National Iron+ Initiative guidelines have been developed by the Adolescent Division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW, Government of India.  Prevention and control of anaemia is one of the key strategies of the Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Programmes for reducing maternal, neonatal and childhood mortality and improving maternal, adolescent and childhood health status. It is estimated that anaemia causes 20 per cent of maternal deaths in India.

  7. A point on the 2016 iodine pill distribution campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsi, S.; Catelinois, J.M.; Bouet, P.; Ferlet, O.; Riviere, E.

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Iodine distribution campaign involves various actors: state representatives (regional prefect) whose dedication creates a climate of trust for the population, local elected officials (in particular the mayors of the municipalities concerned who can play an important role to motivate the population), health professionals like doctors and nurses who can bring information on radiation hazards and explain the preventive role of iodine and local pharmacists who are in charge of delivering iodine pills. (A.C.)

  8. VITAMIN DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN: MAIN CAUSES, FORMS, AND MEANS OF PREVENTION IN INFANTS AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yu. Volkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture deals with the main causes of development of hypo vitaminoses in infants and preschool children, with the emphasis made on the lack of pathognomonic signs of vitamin in sufficiency, showing the demands for the essential vitamins, and describing the natural sources of their entering the human body. The authors compare the composition of various multivitamin preparations registered in Russian the liquid dosage form convenient for use in 1ctoc7cyearcold children.Key words: avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, prevention, infants, children.

  9. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  10. Efficacy of a high free iodine barrier teat disinfectant for the prevention of naturally occurring new intramammary infections and clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C M M R; Pinheiro, E S C; Gentilini, M; Benavides, M Lopez; Santos, M V

    2017-05-01

    Using a natural exposure trial design, the goal of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an iodine teat disinfectant with barrier properties and a high level of free iodine relative to a conventional iodine teat disinfectant with no barrier properties and low levels of free iodine. During the 18 wk of the trial, quarter milk samples were collected every 2 wk from 385 dairy cows from 2 herds. Cows on both farms were assigned in a balanced way according to milk yield, number of lactation, days in milk, somatic cell count (SCC) and microbiology culture pretrial into one of following groups: nonbarrier post milking teat disinfectant (NBAR; n = 195 cows; 747 quarters) or barrier postmilking teat disinfectant (BAR; n = 190 cows; 728 quarters). Afterward, at each scoring date every 2 wk, milk SCC was quantified in samples from all mammary quarters and microbiologic culture was only performed on milk samples with SCC >200,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows and SCC >100,000 cells/mL for primiparous cows. A new intramammary infection (NIMI) was defined when a quarter had milk SCC 200,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows and >100,000 cells/mL for primiparous cows, and positive microorganism isolation. A quarter could have several NIMI, but only 1 case per specific pathogen was considered. The most frequently isolated microorganism group on both farms was Streptococcus spp. (6.25% of total mammary quarters), followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (3.6%) and Corynebacterium spp. (1.5%). In the present study, an interaction occurred between treatment and week of trial on the incidence risk of NIMI. Quarters disinfected with BAR had 54 and 37% lower odds of NIMI than quarters disinfected with NBAR at 8 and 16 wk of the trial, respectively; whereas at other weeks of the study both products had similar incidence risks of NIMI. Overall, teats disinfected with BAR had 46% lower odds of acquiring a clinical mastitis than those disinfected with NBAR. We concluded that

  11. Radiation protection in nuclear emergencies, including thyroid blockage with iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niklas, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has set emergency reference levels of radiation doses at which countermeasures such as sheltering, evacuation, iodine prophylaxis and resettlement should be considered in case of severe accidents in nuclear installations. Emergency facilities are to be set up for a range of meausres to protect the public, such as assessment of contamination and subsequent decontamination. Recommendations as to further therapeutic measures will be made by medical personnel. The administration of stable iodine can block or reduce the accumulation of radioiodine in the thyroid gland. Stable potassium iodine tablets (100 mg each) will be distributed by the local authorities. Since iodine deficiency is still prevalent in large parts of the Federal Republic of Germany, iodine prophylaxis will be recommended only when relatively high radiation doses to the thyroid gland are to be expected. Resettlement of the population must be considered if an excessive dose is expected in the affected area over a long period. (orig.) [de

  12. Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Henjum, Sigrun

    2017-05-13

    Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. A cross-sectional study was performed on 804 pregnant women and 175 lactating women from 18 to 44 years of age in 2016 in the Oslo area, Norway. Knowledge about iodine was collected through a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in urine and breast milk were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). 74% of the pregnant women and 55% of the lactating women achieved none to low iodine knowledge scores. Higher educated pregnant women and those who had received information about iodine had significantly higher knowledge scores. In lactating women, increased age was associated with higher knowledge scores. Knowledge scores were not associated with participants' iodine status. This study revealed a lack of knowledge about the importance of iodine in pregnant and lactating women, as well as about the most important dietary sources. Public education initiatives are required to increase the awareness about iodine in these population groups.

  13. Sources of dietary iodine: bread, cows' milk, and infant formula in the Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Pino, Sam; He, Xuemei; Bazrafshan, Hamid R; Lee, Stephanie L; Braverman, Lewis E

    2004-07-01

    Dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Although U.S. dietary iodine is generally adequate, some groups, especially women of childbearing age, are at risk for mild iodine deficiency. Children's average urinary iodine is higher than that of adults. U.S. dietary iodine sources have not been assessed recently. A survey of iodine content in 20 brands of bread, 18 brands of cows' milk, and eight infant formulae was performed between 2001 and 2002. Three bread varieties contained more than 300 microg iodine per slice. Iodine content in other brands was far lower (mean +/- sd, 10.1 +/- 13.2 microg iodine/slice). All cows' milk samples had at least 88 microg iodine/250 ml, ranging from 88-168 microg (116.0 +/- 22.1 microg/250 ml). Infant formulae values ranged from 16.2 to 56.8 microg iodine/5 oz (23.5 +/- 13.78 microg/5 oz). The public should be aware of the need for adequate dietary iodine intake and should be aware that ingredient lists do not reflect the iodine content of foods.

  14. Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medda, Emanuela [National Centre for Epidemiology Surveillance and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Santini, Ferruccio [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); De Angelis, Simona [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Franzellin, Fabrizio [Nuclear Medicine of Bolzano Hospital, Bolzano (Italy); Fiumalbi, Carla [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Perico, Andrea [Public Health Laboratory, ASL Firenze (Italy); Gilardi, Enzo [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Mechi, Maria Teresa [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Marsili, Alessandro [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); Citroni, Angela [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Leandri, Adaniele [Public Health Laboratory, ASL Firenze (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Vitti, Paolo [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); Olivieri, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.olivieri@iss.it [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Introduction: Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods: One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results: Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions: These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program. - Highlights: • Thyroid is vulnerable to endocrine disrupting effects due to environmental exposures. • Mancozeb is a fungicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. • Mancozeb is broken down into ethylenthiourea (ETU) which has anti-thyroid activity. • Iodine

  15. Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medda, Emanuela; Santini, Ferruccio; De Angelis, Simona; Franzellin, Fabrizio; Fiumalbi, Carla; Perico, Andrea; Gilardi, Enzo; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Marsili, Alessandro; Citroni, Angela; Leandri, Adaniele; Mantovani, Alberto; Vitti, Paolo; Olivieri, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods: One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results: Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions: These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program. - Highlights: • Thyroid is vulnerable to endocrine disrupting effects due to environmental exposures. • Mancozeb is a fungicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. • Mancozeb is broken down into ethylenthiourea (ETU) which has anti-thyroid activity. • Iodine

  16. Report of the World Health Organization Technical Consultation on Prevention and Control of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Young Children in Malaria-Endemic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to review the scientific evidence on scientific evidence on safety and efficacy of iron administration to prevent and control iron deficiency at population levels; to provide guidance on the most feasible, effective, and safe progammatic ways to administer additional iron; and to...

  17. Review of Iodine Nutrition in Iranian Population in the Past Quarter of Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is one of the most important health problems worldwide. The overall aim of this study was a narrative review of the past and present status of iodine nutrition in the Iranian population to gather and provide valuable background data in this field for future studies. For this narrative literature review study, published internal (SID, Iran doc, Iran medex) and international (Web of knowledge, Pubmed, SCOPUS) source studies were searched using the following medical subject heading terms: Iodine, IDD (iodine deficiency disorders), UIC (urinary iodine concentration), Goiter, IQ (intelligence quotient), thyroid hormone, Iodine and pregnancy, Iodine and breast feeding, as well as Iodized salt, reporting the prevalence of iodine deficiency and iodine nutrition status of different target populations in Iran over 25 years, between 1988 - 2014, were assessed. We found 185 abstracts by literature search, of which, 161 papers that were as case reports, animal study, with lack of regional or national data were excluded after full text evaluation. Finally 24 full papers covering regional or national data on iodine nutrition of the study population were eligible for our review. Iodine deficiency, as a nutritional problem, had been identified in Iran since 1968. In the years 1987 - 1989, a few studies were done to define the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the country. The first nation-wide survey was performed in 14 provinces. Based on this survey all provinces were suffering of endemic goiter. In 1989, iodine deficiency was recognized as a major problem for community health. In 1990, salt factories began to produce iodized salt and in 1996, the second national survey was performed in 26 provinces. This survey indicated that 40% of boys and 50% of girls have goiter, with a median urinary iodine excretion of 205 µg/L. The 3rd national survey in 2001 showed that the total goiter rate is 9.8% and median UIC of 165 μg/L. In 2007, the 3th national survey was

  18. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion. No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account.

  19. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  20. Effectiveness of FeEDDHA, FeEDDHMA, and FeHBED in Preventing Iron-Deficiency Chlorosis in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Levi M; Weng, Liping; Bugter, Marcel H J

    2016-11-09

    The performance of FeHBED in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in comparison to FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA was studied, as well as the importance of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para/rest isomers in defining the performance. To this end, chlorophyll production (SPAD), plant dry matter yield, and the mass fractions of important mineral elements in the plant were quantified in a greenhouse pot experiment. All three Fe chelates increased SPAD index and dry matter yield compared to the control. The effect of FeHBED on chlorophyll production was visible over a longer time span than that of FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA. Additionally, FeHBED did not suppress Mn uptake as much as the other Fe chelates. Compared to the other Fe chelates, total Fe content in the young leaves was lower in the FeHBED treatment; however, total Fe content was not directly related to chlorophyll production and biomass yield. For each chelate, the ortho-ortho isomer was found to be more effective than the other isomers evaluated.

  1. Pre-Operative Skin Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Povidone-Iodine to Prevent Port-Site Infection in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaziani, Erasmo; Di Filippo, Annalisa; Orelli, Simone; Fiorini, Flavia; Spaziani, Martina; Tintisona, Orlando; Torcasio, Angelo; De Cesare, Alessandro; Picchio, Marcello

    2018-04-01

    Skin preparation with antiseptic agents is commonly recommended for incisional site cleansing before surgery. We present the result of a prospective case series submitted to a scheduled pre-operative antiseptic procedure combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine before elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Consecutive patients underwent pre-operative standardized cleansing of the operation site combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine. Patients were reviewed one week and four weeks post-operatively. Post-operative infection was observed in seven patients (4.3%). All observed infections were port-site infections, always located at the level of the umbilical incision. In all cases infections involved skin and subcutaneous tissue. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in five patients (71.4%) and miscellaneous aerobic gram-positive bacteria in two subjects (28.6%). Post-operative hospital stay was the only factor significantly associated with the development of port-site infections. Port-site infections are a common complication after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The proposed pre-operative disinfection procedure is effective in reducing port-site infections. Reducing hospital stay may contribute to limiting the occurrence of this complication.

  2. Evaluation of the Performance of Iodine-Treated Biocide Filters Challenged with Bacterial Spores and Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    the iodine-treated media. D. METHODOLOGY: The iodine-treated filter media were challenged by Bacillus subtilis spores and MS2 bacteriophage...reentrainment into the air [8]. Even though HVAC prevents the contamination of indoor air from environmental bacteria and spores entering from outdoors...of iodine with Bacillus metiens spores showed that the decrease of germicidal activity is due to increased iodine decomposition [39]. Studies on the

  3. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  4. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  5. Excessive iodine intake does not increase the recurrence rate of graves' disease after withdrawal of the antithyroid drug in an iodine-replete area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Mi; Cho, Yoon Young; Joung, Ji Young; Sohn, Seo Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between iodine intake and effects of antithyroid drugs (ATD) for Graves' disease, especially in iodine-deficient areas, has been demonstrated in many studies. However, it was not clear how chronic high iodine intake influenced the effectiveness of ATD in an iodine-replete area. This study aimed to clarify the effect of iodine intake on clinical outcomes of Graves' disease after discontinuation of ATD in Korea, an iodine-replete area. A total of 142 patients with Graves' disease who visited the outpatient clinic regularly and stopped their ATD between October 2011 and April 2013 were enrolled in our study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured just before and after the discontinuation of ATD. Median UIC was not significantly different between the remission and relapse groups, as well as among the four treatment groups (group 1, remission after initial treatment; group 2, remission after repeated treatment; group 3, early relapse within a year; group 4, late relapse after a year). Remission rates did not show a significant difference between the excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥300 μg/l) and average iodine intake groups (UIC Graves' disease in an iodine-replete area, and therefore diet control with iodine restriction might not be necessary in the management of Graves' disease.

  6. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  7. Iodine leaflets in chapter D5 'Distribution of iodine pills'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Jodine leaflet A will be distributed together with iodine pills in a nuclear disaster. Iodine leaflet B is suitable for informing the public in advance. Iodine leaflet C informs physicians in a scientific way on the benefits and risk of iodine pills. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Thyroid volumes and urinary iodine in German school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendl, J; Juhran, N; Reiners, C

    2001-01-01

    Several recently published investigations showed a significant improvement in the iodine supply of the German population, but so far Germany is still considered an iodine deficient country. However most of the studies presented do not meet the epidemiological criteria established by WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD and may therefore suffer from a selection bias with respect to goiter prevalence estimates. School children, owing to their easy recruitment, representativeness of different socio-economic classes and high vulnerability of Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), are one of the best target groups for surveillance of IDD. In this field study a total of 591 children were investigated. The total sample included 268 females and 323 males aged 7-17 years. The following data were collected: thyroid size by ultrasound, urinary iodine concentration in a first-morning spot urine, weight, height, sex and age. The median urinary iodine concentration of the children was 183 microg/L. The proportion of samples with concentrations below 100 microg/L or below 50 microg/L was 15.4% and 4.3% respectively. Urine samples with high iodine concentrations were also found amounting to 17.3%. Almost all families (97%) declared to use iodized kitchen salt and 19.6% of all children are taking regularly iodine tablets. Application of the WHO/ICCIDD thyroid volume references to the German children resulted in a goiter prevalence of 0.2%, using either age/sex-specific or body surface area (BSA)/sex-specific cut-off values. Comparison with the P97 values of the original normative data of Gutekunst and Martin-Teichert however gives a goiter prevalence of 3% as expected. The thyroid volumes of the children in our study appear comparable with those reported recently for iodine sufficient children from Switzerland and for iodine replete Berlin children and for children with sufficient iodine supply in the region of Leipzig, so that Germany probably has no longer to be considered an iodine deficient

  9. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  10. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  12. Knowledge of the Importance of Iodine in Nutrition among Adults in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciekure Elīna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.

  13. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  14. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Braverman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1 pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2 prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3 utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4 distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5 education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6 continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7 support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD, the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental to consider these critical recommendations.

  15. Exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction of anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in androgen deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, Urszula; Pytlik, Maria; Folwarczna, Joanna; Miozga, Rafał; Piskorz, Szymon; Nowak, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used long-term in elderly patients, increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and decrease the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of physical exercise on the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a PPI, in male rats with androgen deficiency induced by orchidectomy. Male Wistar rats at 3 months of age were divided into: sham-operated control rats, orchidectomized (ORX) control rats, ORX rats receiving alendronate, ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole, ORX rats receiving alendronate and subjected to exercise, and ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole and subjected to exercise. The orchidectomy or sham-operation was performed 7-8 days before the start of drug administration. The rats were subjected to the exercise on the treadmill 1 hour/day for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Alendronate sodium (3 mg/kg p.o.) and lansoprazole (4 mg/kg p.o.) were administered once daily for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Mechanical properties of the tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed. Bone turnover markers, histomorphometric parameters, bone mass and mass of bone mineral were also studied. Lansoprazole weakened the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate. The exercise increased the alendronate effect. Similar changes were observed in the rats treated with lansoprazole and alendronate, subjected to exercise; no deleterious effects of lansoprazole were observed. In conclusion, the exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in orchidectomized rats.

  16. A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Mountjoy, Margo

    2018-05-03

    The syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability (LEA), which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences which can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. The term RED-S extends beyond the condition termed the "Female Athlete Triad". Formerly known as synchronized swimming, artistic swimming is an Olympic sport requiring a high level of fitness as well as technical skill and artistry. The risk of RED-S is high in artistic swimming as it is an aesthetic, judged sport with an emphasis on a lean physique. RED-S is of significant concern in the sport of artistic swimming because of the potential negative effects on physical and mental health as well as consequences on athletic performance. This paper reviews health and performance consequences associated with LEA resulting in RED-S in artistic swimming. Medical and nutritional considerations specific to artistic swimming are reviewed and methods to help detect and manage RED-S are discussed. Prevention and management of RED-S in this athlete population should be a priority for coaches and the sport medicine professionals working with artistic swimming athletes should utilize the RED-S CAT, a Clinical Assessment Tool for screening and managing RED-S.

  17. Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 µg day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 µg L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 µmol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 µg L(-1) (3.95 µmol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies.

  18. Recovery and storage method for radioactive iodine by vacuum freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ouchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Toru.

    1990-01-01

    After scrubbing off-gas formed in a re-processing process for spent nuclear fuels, scrubbing liquids after use are subjected, as they are or with addition of additives, to a precipitating treatment. Then, liquid wastes containing radioactive iodine was subjected to freeze-drying treatment by freeze-drying under vacuum to recover radioactive iodine as iodine compounds. Off-gas scrubbing is conducted by using a sodium hydroxide solution and copper or silver ions may be added as additives in the precipitating treatment. Recovered iodine compounds containing radioactive iodine are solidified, either directly or after formulating into a composition of naturally existing iodine-containing ores by means of high pressure pressing into ores. This can prevent radioactive iodine 1 29I of long half-decay time from diffusing into the circumference and store the radioactive iodine stably for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  3. Preventive distribution of steady iodine in France: presentation of the public information campaign; La distribution preventive d'iode stable en france: presentation de la campagne d'information des populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report briefly comments the lessons learned from the last iodine distribution campaign which started in June 2009, and concerned about 500.000 people living or working within 10 kilometres around the 19 French nuclear power stations. It briefly describes the adopted communication plan, how a willing behaviour of citizens was looked for. It briefly explains the different behaviours observed during this campaign: only one citizen out of two retrieved its pills in chemist's shops

  4. Iodine supply in diet in various european regions and risks of iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The main risk of low level irradiation of the thyroid is the induction of thyroid neoplasia. In the case of nuclear accidents this risk depends on the level of radioiodine uptake and half life in the thyroid, on the size of the gland and on the relative biological efficiency of the emitted radiation especially at low doses. The level of radioiodine uptake is inversely related to stable iodine supply in the diet. In this study it was proposed to: 1. systematically survey iodine supply in the diet, radioiodine uptake and thyroid kinetics in various European regions. Most of these data are readily available. Taken together with presently accepted estimates of relative biological efficiency, the radiation doses at various contamination levels and risks could be computed and tabulated as an easy-to-use basis for decision guidelines. 2. to obtain in vitro from human autopsy material, radioiodine kinetics data in fetal thyroid to complement data in vivo in a model animal close to man (the chimpanzee) at various dietary iodine levels. Urinary iodine excretions vary in Europe from one region to another from 16 to 250 ug/day. The full spectrum from severe iodine deficiency to normal dietary intake exists in Europe. It is therefore quite to be expected that 24h thyroid radioiodine uptakes vary from 19 to 83%. Therefore for a similar radioiodide contamination the thyroid exposure will vary from one region to another by a factor of 4

  5. Assessment of Iodine Status among Hostel Employees and Students of a University in Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, M.; Tufail, M.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Irfan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and related disorders are the major health hazard in the world, especially along the Himalayas. A study has been carried out to assess the status of iodine in students and employees living in the hilly area in the premises of a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. The study was carried out for 76 students living in university hostels and 32 employees serving in the hostels. Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) was used as the biochemical marker of iodine concentration in the donors. Catalytic kinetic method based on Sandell-Kolthoff reaction was employed for the measurement of iodine concentration in the samples of urine. Out of 76 students, 8% had UIE greater or equal to 100 mg/L, while 39% had between 50-99 mg/L, 49% had between 20-49 mg/L and 4% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Similarly, out of 32 employees, 22% had UIE greater or equal 100 mg/L while 28% had between 50-99 mg/L, 44% had between 20-49 mg/L and 6% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Target groups of the study area were iodine deficient, indicating mild to severe iodine deficiency. The iodine level in the employees was relatively better than that in the students. Improvement of iodine status is recommended among the students and employees by the mandatory use of iodized salt in all the cafeterias of the university. (author)

  6. Direct evaluation of thyroid 127I and iodine overload: in vivo study by X-ray fluorescence and in vitro by SIMS microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briancon, C.; Jeusset, J.; Halpern, S.; Fragu, P.

    1992-01-01

    This review describes the two methods which allow direct estimation of stable iodine ( 127 I) within thyroid gland either in vivo by X-ray fluorescence or in vitro by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) microscopy on tissue section. Although the measurement of thyroid iodine content (TIC) by X-ray fluorescence has little relevance for routine explorations of thyroid function, this is a valuable method for understanding complex pathophysiological conditions such as the thyroid adaptation to iodine overload. On the other hand, SIMS microscopy which is able to characterize the functional activity of thyroid tissue by measuring 127 I concentration within the thyroid follicles, can be used to determine the extent to which exogeneous iodine affects the regulation of iodine within the thyroid follicles. Both methods were used to evaluate the quantitative changes in thyroid 127 I induced by amiodarone iodine overload. TIC measurements shows that hyperthyroidism occured only in patients who increased their iodine stores, while the patients who developed hypothyroidism has low iodine stores. The SIMS microscopy data obtained in mice demonstrated that the thyroid response to amiodarone is related to dietary iodine intake leading to an increase in local iodine concentration in iodine deficient mice and to a decrease in iodine supplemented mice. This response is specific and different from that induced by an iodine overload. These results could explain that hyperthyroidism with high thyroid iodine content occured in areas with low thyroid iodine content in areas with a supplemented iodine diet

  7. Electrochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaraliev, Ya.A. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Neorganicheskoj i Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    1982-06-01

    The review is devoted to investigations into oxidation-reduction processes in different systems including iodine. The data on adsorption of iodine on metals are discussed; the connection between the nature of iodine adsorption and the mechanism of its electrode reactions is considered. The metals studied can be placed in the following series taking into account the degree of I sorption on them: Cd approximately Tl < Sn approximately Pb < Ga < Bi < Hg < Co approximately Ni < Fe < Ag approximately Rh approximately Pd approximately Ir < Pt. The data are given of standard and equilibrium potentials in iodine systems. Electric oxidation and electric reduction of iodide ions is investigated using the methods of Faraday impedance and rectification, methods of voltamperometry and oscillopolarography, rotating disc electrode, chronopotentiometry. Anode and cathode processes of oxidation-reduction reactions in I/sup -//IO/sub 3//sup -/, I/sub 2//IO/sub 3//sup -/ and I/sub 2//I/sup +/ systems are analyzed.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  9. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  10. Observation on the adverse reactions of different concentrations of povidone-iodine applied before cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Jun Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of 50g/L povidone-iodine solution in preventing postoperative endophthalmitis through comparing the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis and adverse reactions after conjunctival sac washing with povidone-iodine of different concentrations.METHODS: Totally 500 cataract patients were divided into 50g/L povidone-iodine group and 25g/L povidone-iodine group. All the operated eyes were observed during and after surgery.The patients' subjective discomfort was inquired and their signs of eyes were recorded. RESULTS: The eye irritation of 50g/L povidone-iodine group was more significant than 25g/L povidone-iodine group. No significant difference in the corneal epithelial loss and endophthalmitis was observed between two groups.CONCLUSION:Conjunctival sac washing with 50g/L povidone-iodine is an effective and safe measure to prevent endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

  11. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  12. Fixed drug eruption induced by an iodinated non-ionic X-ray contrast medium: a practical approach to identify the causative agent and to prevent its recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Medina, Jesus; Prieto, Pilar [JUSTESA IMAGEN SA, Biological R and D Department, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    We describe the case of a 61-year-old physician who developed a fixed drug eruption (FDE) after i.v. administration of a non-ionic monomeric iodinated X-ray contrast medium (CM) (iopromide). During CM injection, a sensation of heat occurred, which was most intense in the right inguinal region. Four hours later, the FDE arose with a red macule of approximately 2 cm in diameter covering a dermal infiltration in the right inguinal region, and enlarged up to a final size of 15 x 8 cm, accompanied by a burning sensation. The patient's history revealed a similar reaction in the same localization and of the same clinical appearance after CM injection 1 year before. Patch testing 4 months later revealed positive reactions to iomeprol and iohexol. Iopamidol injection for another CT examination 23 months later was well tolerated. Based on these results, we suggest patch testing after CM-induced FDE, which could help to select a CM for future CT examinations. Late onset of adverse CM reactions may manifest as FDE. Patch testing within the previous skin reaction area is the diagnostic tool that should be used to confirm the suspected agent, possible cross-reacting agents and well-tolerated agents. (orig.)

  13. Fixed drug eruption induced by an iodinated non-ionic X-ray contrast medium: a practical approach to identify the causative agent and to prevent its recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Ingrid; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H.; Medina, Jesus; Prieto, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    We describe the case of a 61-year-old physician who developed a fixed drug eruption (FDE) after i.v. administration of a non-ionic monomeric iodinated X-ray contrast medium (CM) (iopromide). During CM injection, a sensation of heat occurred, which was most intense in the right inguinal region. Four hours later, the FDE arose with a red macule of approximately 2 cm in diameter covering a dermal infiltration in the right inguinal region, and enlarged up to a final size of 15 x 8 cm, accompanied by a burning sensation. The patient's history revealed a similar reaction in the same localization and of the same clinical appearance after CM injection 1 year before. Patch testing 4 months later revealed positive reactions to iomeprol and iohexol. Iopamidol injection for another CT examination 23 months later was well tolerated. Based on these results, we suggest patch testing after CM-induced FDE, which could help to select a CM for future CT examinations. Late onset of adverse CM reactions may manifest as FDE. Patch testing within the previous skin reaction area is the diagnostic tool that should be used to confirm the suspected agent, possible cross-reacting agents and well-tolerated agents. (orig.)

  14. Storage Pool Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  15. [Use of copper oxide wire particles (Copinox) for the prevention of congenital copper deficiency in a herd of German Improved Fawn breed of goat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, P; Hochsteiner, W; Chizzola, R

    2004-10-01

    In a herd of German Improved Fawn breed of goat in the year 2000 neonatal kid losses due to congenital copper deficiencies were observed. To clarify the problems and to prevent losses in the next breeding season serum copper levels of 10 dams and four control Boer goats were investigated at four time points during one year. Additionally ten kids of the following year were sampled and the serum copper levels were studied. Immediatly after parturition and 8 weeks later the dams showed low serum copper levels (10.4 +/- 11.1 micromol/l, 5.7 +/- 2.9 micromol/l resp.). At the end of the pasture season an increase of serum copper could be measured (19.3 +/- 16.0 micromol/l). To prevent enzootic ataxia due to congenital copper deficiency, the dams were treated with copper oxide wire particles in the next late gestation. At this time point serum copper concentrations started to decrease (18.5 +/- 8.4 micromol/l). The re-examination 3 month later demonstrated an increase of the serum mean copper concentrations up to 23.4 micromol/l in the dams and to 16.2 micromol/l in the kids. The serum copper levels were significantly higher compared to the levels the year before. Big variation of the serum copper levels in the control Boer goats occurred during the year, but no clinical symptoms of copper deficiency could be observed. The copper levels in the grass and soil samples were 6.8 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg dry substance, respectively. A secondary copper deficiency based on cadmium could be excluded through the low levels of soil samples. The contents of sulphur and molybdenum were not determined. The results indicate that the German Improved Fawn breed of goats suffered from a primary copper deficiency due to the inefficient mineral supplementation. The administration of Copinox in the last third of the gestation leads to a continious raising of the copper concentrations in the serum and is suited to prevent ataxia due to congential copper deficiency in neonatal kids.

  16. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  17. Thyroglobulin as a marker of iodine nutrition status in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    of iodine status in the population. Methods: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (1997-1998, n=4649) and after (2004-2005, n=3570) the initiation of the Danish iodization programme in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Serum Tg was measured from blood samples....... Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. Results: Before iodization, the median serum Tg was considerably higher in moderate than in mild iodine deficiency. Iodization led to a lower serum Tg in all examined age groups. The marked pre-iodization difference in Tg level between the regions......Objective: The iodine status of a population is traditionally evaluated by either urinary iodine (UT) excretion or by some measure of thyroid volume and the prevalence of goitre. In this prospective study of a mandatory iodization programme, we aimed to evaluate serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as a marker...

  18. Assessment of iodine nutritional status in the general population in the province of Jaén.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Iodine prophylaxis around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site, Republic of Kazakstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aiko; Zakupbekova, Mairash; Sagandikova, Sagadat; Espenbetova, Maira; Ohashi, Toshinori; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the iodine deficiency status in the Semipalatinsk region that has been contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the period of the former USSR. Based on the Japan-Kazakstan joint project of adult cancer screening around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), from May to October 2002 spot urine specimens were collected at random in each village. Separately, children aged 5-15 years from around the SNTS were chosen at random and spot urine specimens were collected from them. Area contaminated by radioactive fallout around the SNTS, Republic of Kazakstan. A total of 2609 adults aged >40 years from 16 settlements in three regions and one city, and 298 children aged 5-15 years from two regions and one city. Median urinary iodine concentrations of adults and children in all regions were in the range of 116.0-381.7 and 127.7-183.0 microg l(-1), respectively. The highest prevalence of values 100 microg l(-1). In agreement with our previous studies, the urinary iodine concentration data showed no clear evidence of iodine deficiency around the SNTS. Kazakstan is geographically and nutritionally at moderate risk of iodine deficiency disorders without fortification or iodine replacement by iodised salt. The socio-medical prophylaxis against iodine deficiency has been successfully maintained in East Kazakstan.

  20. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  1. Marginal Iodide Deficiency and Thyroid Function: Dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe iodine deficiency is known to cause adverse health outcomes and remains a benchmark for understanding the effects of hypothyroidism. However, the implications of marginal iodine deficiency on function of the thyroid axis remain less well known. The current study examined t...

  2. Hypothyroidism among military infants born in countries of varied iodine nutrition status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Tyler C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is a global problem representing the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. Recently, the impact of subtle deficiencies in iodine intake on children and pregnant women has been questioned. This study was designed to compare hypothyroidism among infants born to US military families in countries of varied iodine nutrition status. Methods A cohort design was used to analyze data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry for infants born in 2000-04 (n = 447,691. Hypothyroidism was defined using ICD-9-CM codes from the first year of life (n = 698. The impact of birth location on hypothyroidism was assessed by comparing rates in Germany, Japan, and US territories with the United States, while controlling for infant gender, plurality, gestational age, maternal age, maternal military status, and military parent's race/ethnicity. Results Hypothyroidism did not vary by birth location with adjusted odds ratios (OR as follows: Germany (OR 0.82, [95% CI 0.50, 1.35], Japan (OR 0.67, [95% CI 0.37, 1.22], and US territories (OR 1.29, [95% CI 0.57, 2.89]. Hypothyroidism was strongly associated with preterm birth (OR 5.44, [95% CI 4.60, 6.42]. Hypothyroidism was also increased among infants with civilian mothers (OR 1.24, [95% CI 1.00, 1.54], and older mothers, especially ages 40 years and older (OR 2.09, [95% CI 1.33, 3.30]. Conclusions In this study, hypothyroidism in military-dependent infants did not vary by birth location, but was associated with other risk factors, including preterm birth, civilian maternal status, and advanced maternal age.

  3. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should......Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for delivery...... and their newborn infants. Cotinine in urine and serum was used to classify mothers as smokers (n = 50) or nonsmokers (n = 90). Smoking and nonsmoking mothers had identical urinary iodine on d 5 after delivery, but smoking was associated with reduced iodine content in breast milk (smokers 26.0 micro g/liter vs...

  4. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  5. Reduced prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8 activity eliminates HAI-1 and HAI-2 deficiency-associated developmental defects by preventing matriptase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Szabo

    Full Text Available Loss of either hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI-1 or -2 is associated with embryonic lethality in mice, which can be rescued by the simultaneous inactivation of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, thereby demonstrating that a matriptase-dependent proteolytic pathway is a critical developmental target for both protease inhibitors. Here, we performed a genetic epistasis analysis to identify additional components of this pathway by generating mice with combined deficiency in either HAI-1 or HAI-2, along with genes encoding developmentally co-expressed candidate matriptase targets, and screening for the rescue of embryonic development. Hypomorphic mutations in Prss8, encoding the GPI-anchored serine protease, prostasin (CAP1, PRSS8, restored placentation and normal development of HAI-1-deficient embryos and prevented early embryonic lethality, mid-gestation lethality due to placental labyrinth failure, and neural tube defects in HAI-2-deficient embryos. Inactivation of genes encoding c-Met, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2, or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC alpha subunit all failed to rescue embryonic lethality, suggesting that deregulated matriptase-prostasin activity causes developmental failure independent of aberrant c-Met and PAR-2 signaling or impaired epithelial sodium transport. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of PAR-1 and matriptase double-deficient embryos suggests that the protease may not be critical for focal proteolytic activation of PAR-2 during neural tube closure. Paradoxically, although matriptase auto-activates and is a well-established upstream epidermal activator of prostasin, biochemical analysis of matriptase- and prostasin-deficient placental tissues revealed a requirement of prostasin for conversion of the matriptase zymogen to active matriptase, whereas prostasin zymogen activation was matriptase-independent.

  6. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  7. [Changes of iodine nutrition status and thyroid function among pregnant women in iodine sufficient rural area of Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Xiaonan; Cao, Yongqin; Ge, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 215 pregnant women in Yongjing couty from May to June 2013. Samples of blood and random urine were collected, and serum thyrotrophin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin ( anti-TG)and urinary iodine were measured. The medians of urinary iodine from the three groups of pregnant women(first, second and third trimester) were 189.8 µg/L, 152.5 µg/L and 144.9 µg/L respectively. With the exception of pregnant women in the third trimester, the urinary iodine medians of pregnant women in the first and second trimesters were within the 150-249 µg/L range which was defined as optimal by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. With the increase of gestational age, the level of FT3 decreased (P iodine TSH levels and the gestational age. The medians of anti-TG and anti-TPO appeared the lowest in the first trimester, and remained at a high level in women at second and third trimesters. Significant difference was seen in anti-TG, anti-TPO levels of the three groups of pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) (P iodine levels were not obvious. With the increase of gestational age, the incidence of iodine deficiency also increased among pregnant women. Abnormal thyroid hormones, TSH, positive anti-TG and anti-TPO were mainly existed in the early pregnancy. Programs as monitoring urinary iodine as well as thyroid function targeting all the pregnant women should be carried out.

  8. ECONOMICAL BASIS TO ADDRESS MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN DEVELOPING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been called by economists at the World Bank as the “non-human face” of poverty,1 Adults who were malnourished as children earn at least 20% less on average than those who weren’t , 2.Malnutrition is often caused by underlying economics, i.e. the lack of money. Economics is very important in regards to malnutrition; it allows an individual to purchase nutrients. In many places around the world, a lack of money prevents the purchase of a variety of foods. The lack in variety usually leads to micronutrient malnutrition. Economics also decides the production of food in all countries around the world and the ability of a country to overcome difficult times. Thus economics affects ALL people at ALL levels of society, 3.Micronutrient deficiencies also known as ‘hidden hunger’ are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. It is estimated half of anaemia cases are due to iron deficiency , 4.  Almost half of children in low- and middle-income countries – 47% of under-fives are affected by anaemia, impairing cognitive and physical development,5. Iodine deficiency is the greatest single cause of mental retardation and brain damage. Coincidently,  the number of countries in which iodine-deficiency disorders were considered a public health concern reduced by 43% between 1993 and 2007,6.  Zinc deficiency affects children’s health and physical growth; it is also essential for mothers during pregnancy. It is estimated to cause 4% of deaths in pre-school aged children in lower-income countries. 7 . The Global Burden of Disease estimates showed that among the 26 major risk factors of the global burden of disease,8 iron deficiency ranks ninth overall, zinc deficiency is eleventh, and vitamin A deficiency, is thirteenth. Annually each developing country of the world are losing over millions or billions US $ in Gross Domestic Product (GDP to vitamins and minerals deficiencies. But scaling up

  9. ECONOMICAL BASIS TO ADDRESS MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN DEVELOPING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been called by economists at the World Bank as the “non-human face” of poverty,1 Adults who were malnourished as children earn at least 20% less on average than those who weren’t , 2.Malnutrition is often caused by underlying economics, i.e. the lack of money. Economics is very important in regards to malnutrition; it allows an individual to purchase nutrients. In many places around the world, a lack of money prevents the purchase of a variety of foods. The lack in variety usually leads to micronutrient malnutrition. Economics also decides the production of food in all countries around the world and the ability of a country to overcome difficult times. Thus economics affects ALL people at ALL levels of society, 3.Micronutrient deficiencies also known as ‘hidden hunger’ are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. It is estimated half of anaemia cases are due to iron deficiency , 4.  Almost half of children in low- and middle-income countries – 47% of under-fives are affected by anaemia, impairing cognitive and physical development,5. Iodine deficiency is the greatest single cause of mental retardation and brain damage. Coincidently,  the number of countries in which iodine-deficiency disorders were considered a public health concern reduced by 43% between 1993 and 2007,6.  Zinc deficiency affects children’s health and physical growth; it is also essential for mothers during pregnancy. It is estimated to cause 4% of deaths in pre-school aged children in lower-income countries. 7 . The Global Burden of Disease estimates showed that among the 26 major risk factors of the global burden of disease,8 iron deficiency ranks ninth overall, zinc deficiency is eleventh, and vitamin A deficiency, is thirteenth. Annually each developing country of the world are losing over millions or billions US $ in Gross Domestic Product (GDP to vitamins and minerals deficiencies. But scaling up core

  10. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  11. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  12. Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by methionine without lowering homocysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Although impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely believed to account for this association, how folate deficiency impairs cognition is uncertain. To better define the role of folate ...

  13. Long-term Metformin Use and Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aroda, Vanita R.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Knowler, William C.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Bray, George A.; Schade, David S.; Temprosa, Marinella G.; White, Neil H.; Crandall, Jill P.

    2016-01-01

    Participants from DPP/DPPOS were assigned to placebo (n=1082) or metformin (n=1073) for 3.2 years, followed by metformin in the metformin group for 9 years. Metformin use was associated with increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  14. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves' disease in the young in a high iodine intake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Pedersen, K M; Vestergaard, H

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the optimum level of iodine intake for iodine supplementation programmes, or about the effects of the high levels of iodine intake that are found in some countries. We compared the incidence of different types of hyperthyroidism in East-Jutland Denmark with a low average...... that even mild iodine deficiency has a significant effect on population health, since it leads to a high incidence of autonomous thyroid nodules with hyperthyroidism in the elderly population. However, population iodine intake probably should not exceed a level much higher than that necessary to avoid...... iodine intake but no endemic goitre, and the incidence in Iceland with a relatively high iodine intake. Hyperthyroidism was more common in East-Jutland than in Iceland, due to a much higher incidence of multinodular toxic goitre and also of single toxic adenoma. Most of the patients with these diseases...

  15. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as th...

  16. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  17. Pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid deseases treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Миколаївна Владимирова

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the increase of endocrine diseases is observed worldwide. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid gland pathologies are the most widespread. Endocrine diseases can be acute or chronic. In some cases, they are life threatening.There are different reasons of thyroid gland pathologies development. Both poor nutrition and poor quality water use, and unfavorable environmental conditions, including radiation, are among them. Iodine deficiency is determined to be one of the main reasons of these diseases.Aim. Determination of the pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid diseases treatment.Methods. Thyroid stimulating action determination (primary screening and model pathology has been carried out by the method of “goiter reaction” in rats at the Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of National University of Pharmacy. Determination of thyroid hormone blood level in rats has been carried out at the Laboratory of Radioactive Endocrinology of the State Institution “Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology NAMS of Ukraine”.Results. According to the research results generalization, correctness of developed algorithms was confirmed; peculiarities of the influence on pathological processes in thyroid, and prospects of implementation and use of herbs and herbal remedies for thyroid diseases prevention and treatment were determined.Conclusion. Obtained experimental data are actual for the modern medicine, and new scientific research, specifying their place in etiology, pathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical course of many diseases, will improve the efficiency of treatment and prevention of thyroid diseases

  18. Immobilization of fission iodine by reaction with insoluble natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.M.; Schmett, G.T.; Kimble, G.; Emerson, D.W.; Turner, M.F.; Rudin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a fission product and highly mobile in the environment. Along with other stable isotopes of iodine, 129 I is released during reprocessing of nuclear fuel and must be trapped to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. Past studies have provided evidence that iodine can become associated with natural organic matter (NOM). This research explores the use of NOM (sphagnum peat and humic acid) to sequester iodine from the vapor and aqueous phases. NOM-associated iodine may be stable for geological storage. NOM-sequestered iodine can be recovered by pyrolysis to prepare target materials for transmutation. The nature of the NOM-iodine association has been explored. (author)

  19. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Slovenia since improved iodine supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaletel, K.; Gaberscek, S.; Pirnat, E.; Hojker, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since the year 1953, when iodine prophylaxis was introduced in Slovenia, several epidemiological studies confirmed the existence of mild iodine deficiency on the whole territory of Slovenia. In January 1999 the implementation of higher iodine content (25 mg of KI or 32 mg of KIO 3 ) was recommended and since then the increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis was observed. Here we present 5-year follow-up data of the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease. We estimated incidence rates from 1997 to 2001 for hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease among 1000000 people, living in the area of Ljubljana. We assumed that most cases were seen and treated in the Outpatient Department for thyroid diseases of Department for Nuclear Medicine of University Medical Centre Ljubljana. Immediately after correction of iodine deficiency, the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy rose almost twice in 1999 (320 cases in 1999 compared to 173 cases in 1997), but afterwards the incidence slightly decreased (240 cases in 2000). Similarly, the incidence of Graves' disease rose in 1999 (267 cases in 1999 compared to 237 in 1997) and in contrast to thyroid autonomy the incidence further increased in the following years (337 in 2000 and 246 in the first half of 2001). The increased incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease after elevation of iodine prophylaxis in Slovenia is comparable with data in some other endemic areas. Those data indicate that stepwise supplementation is preferable to immediate corrections. However, we believe that iodine prophylaxis is reasonable and justified and to reassess the iodine nutrition status we plan a follow up evaluation in year 2002. (author)

  20. Kinetic cartography of radioisotopes of iodine in the thyroid follicles of the new-born rats under low or standard iodine diet: Analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS50): Contribution to the study of the consequences of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbast, M.

    2008-03-01

    The most significant impact of the Chernobylsk accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among children in contaminated areas. To estimate the radiation dose provided by radioiodine released after Chernobylsk (iodine 131 and short-lived isotopes, iodine 132, 133, 134, 135), we used new-born rats to mimic the situation of fallout contamination (young age and iodine deficiency). The pups, under low iodine diet and under standard diet, were contaminated with 129 I at ages varying between 2 to 15 days and sacrificed 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8 days after contamination. The variation in intra colloidal iodine distribution from 1 hour to 8 days was performed using a new ionic nano probe (NanoSIMS50). This method permits to discriminate between the newly incorporated iodine (129) and the initial pool of iodine (127). SIMS observations permit to heterogeneous intra and inter follicular distribution of 129 I. Iodine deficiency increases the absorbed amounts of iodine by a factor 10. Dosimetric estimations show an important contribution of short-lived radioiodine to the total thyrocyte dose. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the age and the iodine deficiency accelerate the absorption of iodine in follicles and that the contribution of short-lived iodine connate ne neglected. (author)

  1. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Deficiency Prevents Neointima Formation Through Chromatin Silencing of E2F1 Target Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endorf, Elizabeth B; Qing, Hua; Aono, Jun; Terami, Naoto; Doyon, Geneviève; Hyzny, Eric; Jones, Karrie L; Findeisen, Hannes M; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to injury induces pathological vascular remodeling during atherosclerosis and neointima formation. Telomerase is rate limiting for tissue renewal and cell replication; however, the physiological role of telomerase in vascular diseases remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to determine whether telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) affects proliferative vascular remodeling and to define the molecular mechanism by which TERT supports SMC proliferation. We first demonstrate high levels of TERT expression in replicating SMC of atherosclerotic and neointimal lesions. Using a model of guidewire-induced arterial injury, we demonstrate decreased neointima formation in TERT-deficient mice. Studies in SMC isolated from TERT-deficient and TERT overexpressing mice with normal telomere length established that TERT is necessary and sufficient for cell proliferation. TERT deficiency did not induce a senescent phenotype but resulted in G1 arrest albeit hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. This proliferative arrest was associated with stable silencing of the E2F1-dependent S-phase gene expression program and not reversed by ectopic overexpression of E2F1. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation and accessibility assays revealed that TERT is recruited to E2F1 target sites and promotes chromatin accessibility for E2F1 by facilitating the acquisition of permissive histone modifications. These data indicate a previously unrecognized role for TERT in neointima formation through epigenetic regulation of proliferative gene expression in SMC. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; Wesana, Joshua; Makokha, Anselimo; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC < 100 µg/L. No school canteen implemented the iodised salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  4. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  5. Iodine Supplementation for Pediatric Patients Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Nespor, Colleen; Poole, Robert L; Kerner, John A

    2016-04-01

    Patients dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) are among a group at risk of developing iodine deficiency. Supplementation with iodine in this population has been debated in a number of studies, resulting in variable clinical practices. The Committee on Clinical Practice Issues of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition recommends a dose of 1 mcg/kg/d of parenteral iodine for patients receiving PN. At our institution, PN trace elements do not include iodine, although this is not the case internationally. Our study sought to assess iodine levels and thyroid function in a cohort of PN-dependent pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis studied 32 pediatric patients with a variety of medical diagnoses who received PN as a primary means of nutrition for 6 months or longer. Patients received variable proportions of their total caloric intake as PN, which ranged from 14%-100%. Iodine and thyroid function levels were obtained by serum sampling. No patient in our cohort of 32 demonstrated thyroid dysfunction or developed iodine deficiency. The length of time on PN and the percentage of total nutrition intake as PN were not associated with iodine levels (P Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Iodine status in a Sherpa community in a village of the Khumbu region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydon, Emma E; Thomson, Christine D; Mann, Jim; Williams, Sheila M; Skeaff, Sheila A; Sherpa, Kami T; Heydon, John L

    2009-09-01

    To assess the iodine status of Sherpa residents living in Kunde village, Khumbu region, Nepal. Prevalence of goitre was determined by palpation. Urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were determined in casual morning samples, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in finger-prick blood samples on filter paper. Dietary and demographic data were obtained via questionnaire, and selected foods analysed for iodine. Khumbu region is an area of low soil iodine in Nepal, where the prevalence of goitre was greater than 90% in the 1960s prior to iodine intervention. Two hundred and fifteen of 219 permanent residents of Kunde were studied. Overall prevalence of goitre was 31% (Grade 1 goitre, 27.0%; Grade 2, 4.2%). When adjusted to a world population, goitre prevalence was 27% (95% CI 23, 32%); Grade 2 goitre prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI 1.0, 4.6%). Median UIC was 97 microg/l, but only 75 microg/l in women of childbearing age. Thirty per cent had UIC 300 microg/l. Ten per cent of participants had TSH concentrations >5 microU/ml. The prevalence of severe iodine deficiency has decreased since the 1960s, but mild iodine deficiency persists, particularly in women of childbearing age. The consumption of high-iodine uncooked instant noodles and flavour sachets by school-aged children contributed to their low prevalence of goitre and excessive UIC values. This finding may obscure a more severe iodine deficiency in the population, while increasing the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in children. Ongoing monitoring is essential.

  7. Epidemiological trends of iodine-related thyroid disorders: an example from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of thyroid disorders is significantly associated with iodine supply. In 1999, Slovenia increased iodine content in kitchen salt from 10 mg to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kg of salt. According to the WHO criteria, Slovenia shifted from a mildly iodine-deficient country to a country with adequate iodine intake. Ten years after the increase in iodine intake, the incidence of diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy decreased. Now patients with diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy reach older age than the patients before the increase in iodine intake. In addition, patients with thyroid autonomy are less frequently hyperthyroid than ten years ago and iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is less severe. The incidence of highly malignant thyroid carcinoma has also dropped. However, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased, most probably in genetically predisposed individuals. Over the last ten years, many animal and in vitro studies evaluated the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on various aspects of the thyroid function. They mostly studied the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated chemicals, and perchlorate. However, human studies on the effects of EDCs on the thyroid function are very scarce, especially the long-term ones. What they do suggest is that PCBs and dioxins interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones and adversely affect the thyroid function. Many authors agree that iodine deficiency predisposes the thyroid gland to harmful effects of EDCs. Therefore the effects of EDCs in iodine-deficient areas could be more severe than in areas with adequate iodine intake.

  8. Efficacy of a foodlet-based multiple micronutrient supplement for preventing growth faltering, anemia, and micronutrient deficiency of infants: the four country IRIS trial pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuts, Cornelius M; Lombard, Carl J; Benadé, A J Spinnler; Dhansay, Muhammad A; Berger, Jacques; Hop, Le Thi; López de Romaña, Guillermo; Untoro, Juliawati; Karyadi, Elvina; Erhardt, Jürgen; Gross, Rainer

    2005-03-01

    Diets of infants across the world are commonly deficient in multiple micronutrients during the period of growth faltering and dietary transition from milk to solid foods. A randomized placebo controlled trial was carried out in Indonesia, Peru, South Africa, and Vietnam, using a common protocol to investigate whether improving status for multiple micronutrients prevented growth faltering and anemia during infancy. The results of the pooled data analysis of the 4 countries for growth, anemia, and micronutrient status are reported. A total of 1134 infants were randomized to 4 treatment groups, with 283 receiving a daily placebo (P), 283 receiving a weekly multiple micronutrient supplement (WMM), 280 received a daily multiple micronutrient (DMM) supplement, and 288 received daily iron (DI) supplements. The DMM group had a significantly greater weight gain, growing at an average rate of 207 g/mo compared with 192 g/mo for the WMM group, and 186 g/mo for the DI and P groups. There were no differences in height gain. DMM was also the most effective treatment for controlling anemia and iron deficiency, besides improving zinc, retinol, tocopherol, and riboflavin status. DI supplementation alone increased zinc deficiency. The prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies at baseline was high, with anemia affecting the majority, and was not fully controlled even after 6 mo of supplementation. These positive results indicate the need for larger effectiveness trials to examine how to deliver supplements at the program scale and to estimate cost benefits. Consideration should also be given to increasing the dosages of micronutrients being delivered in the foodlets.

  9. Deficiency of NOX1 or NOX4 Prevents Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lan

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX play a key role in liver injury and fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that GKT137831, a dual NOX1/4 inhibitor, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice as well as pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs as well as hepatocyte apoptosis. The effect of NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency in liver fibrosis is unclear, and has never been directly compared. HSCs are the primary myofibroblasts in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of NOX1 and NOX4 in liver fibrosis, and investigated whether NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation. Mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 to induce liver fibrosis. Deficiency of either NOX1 or NOX4 attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after CCl4 compared to wild-type mice. NOX1 or NOX4 deficiency reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS production in mice with liver fibrosis. NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency are approximately equally effective in preventing liver injury in the mice. The NOX1/4 dual inhibitor GKT137831 suppressed ROS production as well as inflammatory and proliferative genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, or sonic hedgehog (Shh in primary mouse HSCs. Furthermore, the mRNAs of proliferative and pro-fibrotic genes were downregulated in NOX1 and NOX4 knock-out activated HSCs (cultured on plastic for 5 days. Finally, NOX1 and NOX4 protein levels were increased in human livers with cirrhosis compared with normal controls. Thus, NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, including the direct activation of HSC.

  10. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  11. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  12. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined

  13. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7-9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Mouzouni, Fatima-Zahra; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.

  14. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7–9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  18. Identification of Organic Iodine Compounds and Their Transformation Products in Edible Iodized Salt Using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lifen; Peng, Yue'e; Chang, Qing; Zhu, Qingxin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-07-05

    The consumption of edible iodized salt is a key strategy to control and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. We herein report the identification of the organic iodine compounds present in different edible iodized salt products using liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 38 organic iodine compounds and their transformation products (TPs) were identified in seaweed iodine salt from China. Our experiments confirmed that the TPs were generated by the replacement of I atoms from organic iodine compounds with Cl atoms. Furthermore, the organic iodine compound contents in 4 seaweed iodine salt samples obtained from different manufacturers were measured, with significant differences in content being observed. We expect that the identification of organic iodine compounds in salt will be important for estimating the validity and safety of edible iodized salt products.

  19. Thyroid gland protection against radioactive iodine. Fetus and preschool children are more sensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noteboom, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The intake of iodine tablets can prevent the irradiation and accumulation of iodine in the thyroid of humans. The summary of the author's thesis 'Protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine during fetal life and infancy. An experimental approach in chimpanzees' is presented in an edited form. The research was carried out on pregnant and very young chimpanzees. Based on the experimental results recommendations are made for radiation protection for pre-school children and pregnant women. 3 figs., 1 refs

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red blood cells, called hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the ... to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... duodenum, the first part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to learn more about iron-deficiency anemia, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, ... of Blood Diseases and Resources (DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ... heavy menstrual bleeding, your doctor will want to control these other conditions to prevent you from developing ...

  7. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace S. Marquis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011 was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1 randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2 non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3 prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4 prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies, 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies, 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status, and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status. This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt.

  8. The bioaccessibility of iodine in the biofortified vegetables throughout cooking and simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, De-Wang; Yan, Ai-Lan; Hong, Chun-Lai; Liu, Hui-Ping; Pan, Le-Hua; Song, Ming-Yi; Dai, Zhi-Xi; Ye, Ming-Li; Weng, Huan-Xin

    2018-01-01

    Biofortification of crops with exogenous iodine is a novel strategy to control iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The bioaccessibility of iodine (BI) in the biofortified vegetables in the course of soaking, cooking and digestion, were examined. Under hydroponics, the concentration of iodine in leafstalks of the celery and pakchoi increased with increasing exogenous iodine concentration, 54.8-63.9% of the iodine absorbed by pakchoi was stored in the soluble cellular substance. Being soaked in water within 8 h, the iodine loss rate of the biofortified celery was 3.5-10.4% only. More than 80% of the iodine in the biofortified celery was retained after cooking under high temperature. The highest BI of the biofortified vegetables after digestion in simulated gastric and intestinal juice amounted to 74.08 and 68.28%, respectively. Factors influencing BI included pH, digestion duration, and liquid-to-solid ratio. The high BI of the biofortified vegetables provided a sound reference for the promotion of iodine biofortification as a tool to eliminate the IDD.

  9. Immobilization of Dystrophin and Laminin α2-Chain Deficient Zebrafish Larvae In Vivo Prevents the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are often caused by genetic alterations in the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex or its extracellular ligands. These structures are associated with the cell membrane and provide mechanical links between the cytoskeleton and the matrix. Mechanical stress is considered a pathological mechanism and muscle immobilization has been shown to be beneficial in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy. The zebrafish enables novel and less complex models to examine the effects of extended immobilization or muscle relaxation in vivo in different dystrophy models. We have examined effects of immobilization in larvae from two zebrafish strains with muscular dystrophy, the Sapje dystrophin-deficient and the Candyfloss laminin α2-chain-deficient strains. Larvae (4 days post fertilization, dpf of both mutants have significantly lower active force in vitro, alterations in the muscle structure with gaps between muscle fibers and altered birefringence patterns compared to their normal siblings. Complete immobilization (18 hrs to 4 dpf was achieved using a small molecular inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction (BTS, 50 μM. This treatment resulted in a significantly weaker active contraction at 4 dpf in both mutated larvae and normal siblings, most likely reflecting a general effect of immobilization on myofibrillogenesis. The immobilization also significantly reduced the structural damage in the mutated strains, showing that muscle activity is an important pathological mechanism. Following one-day washout of BTS, muscle tension partly recovered in the Candyfloss siblings and caused structural damage in these mutants, indicating activity-induced muscle recovery and damage, respectively.

  10. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador.

  11. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Haemoglobin Drop after Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Use for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy in Ghana - A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Owusu

    Full Text Available Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP is still the only recommended antimalarial for use in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp in some malaria endemic countries including Ghana. SP has the potential to cause acute haemolysis in G6PD deficient people resulting in significant haemoglobin (Hb drop but there is limited data on post SP-IPTp Hb drop. This study determined the difference, if any in proportions of women with significant acute haemoglobin drop between G6PD normal, partial deficient and full deficient women after SP-IPTp.Prospectively, 1518 pregnant women who received SP for IPTp as part of their normal antenatal care were enrolled. Their G6PD status were determined at enrollment followed by assessments on days 3, 7,14 and 28 to document any adverse effects and changes in post-IPTp haemoglobin (Hb levels. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for their mean Hb (10.3 g/dL for G6PD normal, 10.8 g/dL for G6PD partial deficient and 10.8 g/dL for G6PD full defect women.The prevalence of G6PD full defect was 2.3% and 17.0% for G6PD partial defect. There was no difference in the proportions with fractional Hb drop ≥ 20% as compared to their baseline value post SP-IPTp among the 3 groups on days 3, 7, 14. The G6PD full defect group had the highest median fractional drop at day 7. There was a weak negative correlation between G6PD activity and fractional Hb drop. There was no statistical difference between the three groups in the proportions of those who started the study with Hb ≥ 8g/dl whose Hb level subsequently fell below 8g/dl post-SP IPTp. No study participant required transfusion or hospitalization for severe anaemia.There was no significant difference between G6PD normal and deficient women in proportions with significant acute haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp and lower G6PD enzyme activity was not strongly associated with significant acute drug-induced haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp but a larger

  12. 辽宁省碘缺乏病病区不同补碘时期出生儿童智力水平调查%An analysis of the intelligence level of children born in different time periods after iodized salt was supplied in regions with iodine deficiency in Liaoning province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕瑞涛; 刘万洋; 蒋恩耀; 徐军; 赵明亮; 王久春; 张恩仁; 肖长礼; 苏秋菊; 孙素莲; 王健辉; 赵伟光; 高嵘

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解和比较辽宁省碘缺乏病病区不同补碘时期出生儿童智力水平.方法 1900-2007年,在辽宁省的6个碘缺乏病病区县(市、区)各选出1个乡,其中轻中重病区乡各2个.在6个乡的10所学校中,以病区供应碘盐初期(1978-1980年)、非碘盐充销期(1981-1990年)、恢复普及碘盐期(1991-1995年)、全民食盐加碘期(1996-2000年)出生的7~14岁儿童为凋查对象,用中国联合型瑞文测验(CRT-C)和第二版农村儿童智商(intelligence quotient,IQ)常模测试(CRT-RC2)检查儿童IQ.结果 病区儿童IQ在非碘盐充销期(91.9±14.3)明显低于供应碘盐初期(95.8±14.6,q=8.60,P<0.01),恢复普及碘盐期(99.7 ±14.7)明显高于供应碘盐初期、非碘盐充销期(q值分别为9.53、18.13,P均<0.01),全民食盐加碘期(104.3±14.9)明显高于供应碘盐初期、非碘盐充销期、恢复普及碘盐期(q值分别为20.00、28.00、10.46,P均<0.01).儿童智力落后率(IQ≤69)在非碘盐充销期(6.7%,88/1314)高于供应碘盐初期(4.4%,21/471,χ2=3.85,P<0.05),恢复普及碘盐期(3.3%,48/1470)明显低于非碘盐充销期(χ2=15.37,P<0.01),全民食盐加碘期(2.7%,36/1344)低于供应碘盐初期(χ2=4.41,P<0.05)和非碘盐充销期(χ2=26.34,P<0.01).供应碘盐初期各年度出生儿童IQ及智力落后率未有明显变化;非碘盐充销期的10年间,出生儿童IQ呈"∪"形降升,智力落后率则呈"∩"形升降;恢复普及碘盐时期出生儿童IQ逐年提高,智力落后率逐年降低;全民食盐加碘期各年度儿童IQ继续上升,智力落后率降到历史最低程度.结论 碘缺乏病病区非碘盐充销时期出生儿童智力水平明显低于供应碘盐初期儿童,全民食盐加碘期病区出生儿童智力水平较供应碘盐初期和恢复普及碘盐时期出生儿童有明显提高.%objecfive To know and compare the intelligence level of children born in different time periods in regions with iodine deficiency disorders

  13. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    in elderly people, and the prevalence of thyroid enlargement and nodularity is high. The average serum TSH tends to decrease with age in such populations caused by the high frequency of autonomous thyroid hormone production. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have shown that hypothyroidism is more...... by high levels of iodine is especially common in people affected by thyroid autoimmunity (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). In populations with high iodine intake, the average serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) tends to increase with age. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in Caucasian populations...... with a genetically determined high tendency to thyroid autoimmunity. A small tendency to higher serum TSH may be observed already when iodine intake is brought from mildly deficient to adequate, but there is at present no evidence that slightly elevated serum TSH in elderly people leads to an increase in morbidity...

  14. Prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in an iodine-deficient area: non-selected patient population admitted for CT studies with iodine-containing contrast agents; Praevalenz der latenten und manifesten Hyperthyreose in einem Jodmangelgebiet: Erhebung an einem nichtselektionierten Patientenkollektiv vor Durchfuehrung einer Computertomographie mit jodhaltigem Kontrastmittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saam, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Univ. of Washington, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Seattle, WA (United States); Hess, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); St.-Vincenz-Krankenhaus, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Limburg (Germany); Kasperk, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Endokrinologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, G.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Duex, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Nordwest-Krankenhaus, Radiologisches Zentralinstitut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected group of patients admitted for contrast enhanced CT studies blood samples were tested for the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Material and methods: TSH blood levels were obtained in 548 consecutive patients who were scheduled for contrast-enhanced (Iopromide; 300 mg iodine/ml) CT scanning. In case of TSH levels < 0.4 mU/l, blood samples were also tested for triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) blood levels, and treatment with Irenat {sup registered} (sodium perchlorate) was commenced before scanning. In case of TSH levels < 0.1 mU/l, CT scanning was not performed but further evaluation of the thyroid function was initiated. Results: TSH blood levels ranged from 0.4 to 7.5 mU/l in 512 patients, and 36 patients (6.6%) had TSH blood levels < 0.4 mU/l and 9 patients blood levels < 0.1 mU/l, with 32 of those patients (5.8%) having regular T3 and T4 blood levels consistent with latent hyperthyroidism. In 4 patients (0.8%), T3 or T4 blood levels were increased consistent with manifest hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: in South Germany, the prevalence of latent or manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected patient group is high. Therefore TSH blood levels should be obtained prior to contrast-enhanced CT studies. (orig.)

  15. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  16. The Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Exertion in 7 – 10 year old School Children of Qom 2001 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sheikholeslam

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesIodine deficiency was a public health problem in Iran before the start of iodine supplementation program in 1989. This study has been conducted in the framework of the national monitoring survey in 2001 to find the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine levels in order to evaluate the effect of national supplementation program on the iodine status of school-aged children in the city of Qom. MethodsIn a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Qom, and the grade of goiter was determined in 600 boys and 600 girls according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren.ResultsGoiter was observed in 26% of children (24.3% of girls and 27.7% of boys. The average urinary iodine level was 15.2 µg/dl. Urinary iodine levels higher than 10 μg/dl was measured in 71.7% and less than 5 µg/dl in 8.1% of children. Urinary iodine levels less than 2 μg/dl has not been observed in any of the cases. No significant difference was observed in prevalence of goiter and the urinary iodine level between males and females, and students in living in urban or rural areas.ConclusionComparison of these results with those of the year 1996 shows that prevalence of goiter has significantly decreased in these students. Also, it shows that in the city of Qom, the urinary iodine levels of schoolchildren fall in the standard range determined by WHO. This indicates that the iodine intake is adequate in the province of Qom. Therefore, this province can be considered as an “iodine deficiency-free” zone.Keywords: Goiter; Goiter Endemic; Iodine.

  17. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  18. Atomic iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program

  19. Hyperthyroidism and radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The study details the results of treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism using a combination of fractionated low doses radioactive iodine and anthithyroid drug therapy. The patients studied were treated according to this regimen after August 1968 and all reached euthyroidism before March 1979. None of the patients had been treated with radioactive iodine prior to the start of the protocol. A subgroup of the patients had received an unsuccessfull course with antithyroid drug therapy and, or, surgical therapy before the start of the protocol. Patients who had never been treated for hyperthyroidism were given antithyroid drug therapy for at least 6 months in an attempt to reach euthryroidism without the use of 131 I therapy. Therefore, all patients had experienced a course of unsuccessfull therapy prior to the start of the treatment protocol using combined fractionated low doses of 131 I and antithyroid drug therapy. (Auth.)

  20. Effect of 131-iodine therapy on Grave ophthalmopathy: How to prevent?; Risque d'ophtalmopathie et iode 131: comment preparer les patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duron, F. [Service d' endocrinologie, hopital Saint-Antoine, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The propositions to prepare the patients to ira-therapy are as follow: to try to get the smokers to stop tobacco; to get euthyroidism before the treatment; to avoid ira-therapy for the patients bearers of high title of antibodies ( but often, they are in failure of medical treatment and these ones to who it is proposed a radical treatment; to avoid hypothyroidism by quick establishment (possible choice of two weeks) of a treatment by thyroxine; to counter to ira-therapy for patients reached by severe Basedow orbitopathy; to treat preventively the patients bearers of moderated basedow orbitopathy by corticoids, according to the scheme proposed by Bartalena and al. (0.5 mg/kg of prednisone 48 hours before the treatment and the first following month, then at graduated dose on two months) or an other one; however, these propositions must be validated by prospective studies made on a large scale and including reproducible and homogeneous criteria of evaluation like these ones proposed by the European group 'European group on graves orbitopathy' (E.U.G.O.G.O). (N.C.)

  1. [Factors associated with nutritional status of iodine in Mexican preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Galván, Marcos; Silva Maldonado, Isabela; Chávez Dossetti, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem in many developing countries where pregnant women and children are the more susceptible populations. To evaluate the association of iodine nutritional status with the weather, availability of iodine in salt, and degree of social exclusion in preschool children of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Cross-sectional study in 1,333 children marginalization in the localities where they lived was recorded. 24.5% of children evaluated had marginalization was less than with low marginalization (23.5 ± 1.2 and 32.9 ± 2.7 ppm, respectively; p marginalization of the locations were associated with lower iodine content of salt and urinary iodine in children evaluated.

  2. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Iodine Through Urinary Iodine Screening Among Local Children and Adolescents After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Watanobe, Hajime; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Chiaki; Ochi, Sae; Leppold, Claire; Kinoshita, Hirokatsu; Kato, Shigeaki; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation. However, little information is available on the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011. In order to assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and the prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima, were evaluated. A total of 4410 children and adolescents with a median age of 10 years at examination underwent UIC testing between October 2012 and October 2015. Calculated for all the participants, the median UIC level was 204 μg/L (range 25-21,100 μg/L). There were 133 (3.0%), 732 (16.6%), and 1472 (33.4%) participants with UIC levels of nutritional iodine status, no participants were severely iodine deficient (<20 μg/L), but 16.6% of the population were mildly (50-100 μg/L) or moderately (20-50 μg/L) iodine deficient. While no significant difference in UIC was noted between those who did and did not increase dietary iodine intake after the accident (p = 0.93), there were significant differences by year (p < 0.01), school level (p < 0.001), and residential area at the time of the accident (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the children and adolescents examined had a sufficient amount of iodine during the period 1.5-4.5 years after the nuclear accident. In addition to the differences in the scale and the countermeasures undertaken between the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, differences in dietary iodine intake might have played an additional role in resulting in the reportedly different radiation doses to the thyroid between the two nuclear accidents.

  3. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  4. Separation and retention of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    Caustic and mercuric nitrate scrubbers have been used for iodine recovery from process offgas, but they exhibit low decontamination factors for organic iodide removal and produce liquid wastes that are unsuitable for final storage. The Iodox process gives high decontamination factors for both organic iodides and elemental iodine. The liquid waste can be evaporated to a solid or concentrated and fixed in cement. Efficient separation and retention of gaseous iodine species can be obtained with silver-loaded adsorbents. The waste is a dry solid easily handled and stored. Adsorbents containing cheaper metals appear to have lower iodine-loading capacities and may be unsuitable for bulk iodine removal from process offgas because of the large amounts of solid waste that would be generated. A potential method for regenerationg and recycling silver-loaded adsorbents is being evaluated. In conjunction with the regeneration, lead-exchanged zeolite is used as a secondary adsorbent for the final fixation and storage of the iodine

  5. An Early Postnatal Oxytocin Treatment Prevents Social and Learning Deficits in Adult Mice Deficient for Magel2, a Gene Involved in Prader-Willi Syndrome and Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, Hamid; Schaller, Fabienne; Bauer, Sylvian; Villard, Claude; Matarazzo, Valery; Riet, Fabrice; Guillon, Gilles; Lafitte, Daniel; Desarmenien, Michel G; Tauber, Maithé; Muscatelli, Françoise

    2015-07-15

    Mutations of MAGEL2 have been reported in patients presenting with autism, and loss of MAGEL2 is also associated with Prader-Willi syndrome, a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder. This study aimed to determine the behavioral phenotype of Magel2-deficient adult mice, to characterize the central oxytocin (OT) system of these mutant mice, and to test the curative effect of a peripheral OT treatment just after birth. We assessed the social and cognitive behavior of Magel2-deficient mice, analyzed the OT system of mutant mice treated or not by a postnatal administration of OT, and determined the effect of this treatment on the brain. Magel2 inactivation induces a deficit in social recognition and social interaction and a reduced learning ability in adult male mice. In these mice, we reveal anatomical and functional modifications of the OT system and show that these defects change from birth to adulthood. Daily administration of OT in the first postnatal week was sufficient to prevent deficits in social behavior and learning abilities in adult mutant male mice. We show that this OT treatment partly restores a normal OT system. Thus, we report that an alteration of the OT system around birth has long-term consequences on behavior and on cognition. Importantly, an acute OT treatment of Magel2-deficient pups has a curative effect. Our study reveals that OT plays a crucial role in setting social behaviors during a period just after birth. An early OT treatment in this critical period could be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Prader-Willi syndrome and autism. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. RCR audit of compliance with UK guidelines for the prevention and detection of acute kidney injury in adult patients undergoing iodinated contrast media injections for CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, L H; Drinkwater, K J; Howlett, D C

    2017-12-01

    To determine radiology departmental compliance with current UK guidance on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and to provide data on the incidence of clinically significant post-contrast AKI (PC-AKI) in computed tomography (CT) practice. A questionnaire was sent to all UK acute National Health Service (NHS) providers (NHS boards in Scotland, local health boards in Wales, NHS trusts in England and health and social care trusts in Northern Ireland) to assess compliance of provider protocols with current UK guidelines for the prevention, recognition, and management of CI-AKI. Audit data were collected for 40 consecutive fit outpatients and 40 consecutive acutely unwell patients/inpatients from hospitals within each participating provider to assess clinical compliance. Eighty-nine of 172 (52%) health service providers responded, and data on 7,159 contrast-enhanced CT examinations were provided. Compliance with guidelines was poor with wide variation in clinical practice. The observed incidence of clinically significant (requiring treatment or resulting in death) PC-AKI was zero in 3,590 outpatients, although two patients developed AKI due to other causes (sepsis and progressive malignancy). Fourteen out of 3,569 (0.4%) patients in the inpatient group developed clinically significant PC-AKI, and a further 17 patients were identified who met the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition of AKI (Electronic Supplementary Material Appendix S1), but did not require active treatment, giving an overall incidence of AKI of 0.9%. In patients at high risk due to impaired renal function prior to the scan, there was no difference in the median serum creatinine (SCr) before and after contrast medium administration in either group. Health service provider protocols and clinical practice demonstrate poor compliance with current UK guidance on CI-AKI. A very low incidence of PC- AKI was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists

  7. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Shabbir, I.; Hussain, R.; Islam, M.U.; Aasim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  8. Neurotoxicity of iodinated radiological contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Pinheiro, R.S. de

    1988-01-01

    We studied during the last ten years the neurotoxicity of artificial iodinated contrast media, with prospective clinical and experimental protocols. The experimental investigation in animals aimed to understand the relationship between the intracarotid injection, the subarachnoid application and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier function. The electro physiologic disturbances and the morphologic observation of pial circulation support the evidence that iodinated artificial contrast media induces significant alterations in brain metabolism and in the autoregulation of the blood flow of the encephalon. Even if many of such phenomena may not be apparent at the clinical level, we supposed that they are always present and that their clinical exteriorization is prevented by the immediate and effective action of homeostatic mechanisms. (author)

  9. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuye, Chernet; Hailemariam, Bantiyrgu; Neka Tibeb, Hanna; Urga, Kelbesa; Woldegebriel, Zewidie

    1995-01-01

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  10. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  11. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  12. Can an Educational Intervention Improve Iodine Nutrition Status in Pregnant Women? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Parisa; Hamzavi Zarghani, Najmeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    Because of their increased need for iodine, pregnant women are among the high-risk groups for iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the iodine nutrition status of pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 pregnant women were randomly selected from five healthcare centers in the southern region of Tehran, the capital of Iran. In the intervention group, pregnant women received a four-month educational program, which included two face-to-face educational sessions, using a researcher-designed educational pamphlet in the second and third trimesters, and two follow-up telephone calls. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and four months after the intervention. At baseline, there were significant associations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.38, p = 0.03) between practice and UIC (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) and between UIC and iodine content of salt (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Although a significant difference was found in mean KAP scores between the two groups after the educational intervention, scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with controls (p educational intervention increasing KAP among women regarding the importance of iodine and iodized salt consumption during pregnancy, their iodine status did not improve. Considering the main socio-environmental determinants of iodine deficiency, in particular, the monitoring of salt fortification, prescribing iodine containing supplements as well as improving health literacy in pregnant women seem essential strategies.

  13. Chemical generation of iodine atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, Kevin B. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)]. E-mail: kevin.hewett@kirtland.af.mil; Hager, Gordon D. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Crowell, Peter G. [Northrup Grumman Information Technology, Science and Technology Operating Unit, Advanced Technology Division, P.O. Box 9377, Albuquerque, NM 87119-9377 (United States)

    2005-01-10

    The chemical generation of atomic iodine using a chemical combustor to generate the atomic fluorine intermediate, from the reaction of F{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, followed by the production of atomic iodine, from the reaction of F + HI, was investigated. The maximum conversion efficiency of HI into atomic iodine was observed to be approximately 75%, which is in good agreement with the theoretical model. The conversion efficiency is limited by the formation of iodine monofluoride at the walls of the combustor where the gas phase temperature is insufficient to dissociate the IF.

  14. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  15. Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Agronomic Iodine Biofortification: A SWOT-AHP Analysis in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olum, Solomon; Gellynck, Xavier; Okello, Collins; Webale, Dominic; Odongo, Walter; Ongeng, Duncan

    2018-01-01

    Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders’ appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings show that stakeholders (n = 56) are generally positive about agronomic iodine biofortification in Uganda, as its strengths and opportunities outweighed weaknesses and threats. Cultural acceptance and effectiveness are considered the most important strengths while the high IDD prevalence rate and the availability of iodine deficient soils are key opportunities for further developing agronomic iodine biofortification. Environmental concerns about synthetic fertilizers as well as the time needed to supply iodine were considered crucial weaknesses. The limited use of fertilizer in Uganda was the main threat. While this study provides insight into important issues and priorities for iodine biofortification technology in Uganda, including differences in stakeholder views, the application of the SWOT-AHP method will guide future researchers and health planners conducting stakeholder analysis in similar domains. PMID:29587370

  16. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Agronomic Iodine Biofortification: A SWOT-AHP Analysis in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olum, Solomon; Gellynck, Xavier; Okello, Collins; Webale, Dominic; Odongo, Walter; Ongeng, Duncan; De Steur, Hans

    2018-03-24

    Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders' appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings show that stakeholders ( n = 56) are generally positive about agronomic iodine biofortification in Uganda, as its strengths and opportunities outweighed weaknesses and threats. Cultural acceptance and effectiveness are considered the most important strengths while the high IDD prevalence rate and the availability of iodine deficient soils are key opportunities for further developing agronomic iodine biofortification. Environmental concerns about synthetic fertilizers as well as the time needed to supply iodine were considered crucial weaknesses. The limited use of fertilizer in Uganda was the main threat. While this study provides insight into important issues and priorities for iodine biofortification technology in Uganda, including differences in stakeholder views, the application of the SWOT-AHP method will guide future researchers and health planners conducting stakeholder analysis in similar domains.

  17. Survey of women's perceptions of information provided in the prevention or treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in an Australian tertiary obstetric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosnacos, Emma; Pinchon, Deborah J

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature to understand the perceptions of Australian women regarding the information provided by healthcare professionals relating to the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. To establish an insight into the key themes and trends within a tertiary obstetric hospital related to the provision of dietary advice and use of iron supplements in pregnancy. A prospective patient survey of pregnant women and women up to 4 weeks postnatal attending hospital. Of the 110 women who participated, 73.6% were provided with information on iron rich foods and 67% made dietary changes. Eighty percent of women were advised to take oral iron and 65.5% of women were taking it at the time of the survey. In women who had independently ceased oral iron, 41.7% failed to inform their healthcare professional. In the women who did inform their healthcare professional 89.5% received advice to help overcome the reason that led to cessation. The main causes included forgetfulness and side effects. Women were less likely to require intravenous iron if oral iron was commenced early. Compliance with recommended oral iron is variable within a population of pregnant women. Women are provided with information on a range of issues relating to the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia; yet there is a disparity between the information provided and the resulting action. Further research should focus on targeted measures to improve understanding and compliance with treatment from the both women's and health professionals perspective. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  19. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  20. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Native versus Migrant Mothers and Newborns in the North of Italy: A Call to Act with a Stronger Prevention Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cadario

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status during pregnancy is related to neonatal vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Aim of this study was to investigate 25OHD levels in maternal serum and in neonatal blood spots in native and migrant populations living in Novara (North Italy, 45°N latitude.We carried out a cross sectional study from April 1st 2012 to March 30th 2013, in a tertiary Care Center. Maternal blood samples after delivery and newborns' blood spots were analyzed for 25OHD levels in 533 pairs. Maternal country of origin, skin phototype, vitamin D dietary intake and supplementation during pregnancy were recorded. Multivariate regression analysis, showed a link between neonatal and maternal 25OHD levels (R-square:0.664. Severely deficient 25OHD values (<25 nmol/L were found in 38% of Italian and in 76.2% of migrant's newborns (p <0.0001, and in 18% of Italian and 48,4% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001 while 25OHD deficiency (≥25 and <50 nmol/L was shown in 40.1% of Italian and 21.7% of migrant's newborns (p <0.0001, and in 43.6% of Italian and 41.3% of migrant mothers (p <0.0001. Italian newborns and mothers had higher 25OHD levels (34.4±19.2 and 44.9±21.2 nmol/L than migrants (17.7±13.7 and 29.7±16.5 nmol/L; p<0.0001. A linear decrease of 25OHD levels was found with increasing skin pigmentation (phototype I 42.1 ±18.2 vs phototype VI 17.9±10.1 nmol/l; p<0.0001. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in higher 25OHD values both in mothers and in their newborns (p<0.0001.Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy and in newborns is frequent especially among migrants. A prevention program in Piedmont should urgently be considered and people identified as being at risk should be closely monitored. Vitamin D supplementation should be taken into account when considering a preventative health care policy.

  1. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  2. Regular moderate or intense exercise prevents depression-like behavior without change of hippocampal tryptophan content in chronically tryptophan-deficient and stressed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosung Lee

    Full Text Available Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity has not been clarified, in part because the therapeutic response to antidepressant drugs has a time lag in spite of the rapid increase of brain 5-HT upon administration of these drugs. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of brain 5-HT to the antidepressant effect of exercise. Mice were fed a tryptophan-deficient diet and stressed using chronic unpredictable stress (CUS for 4 weeks with or without the performance of either moderate or intense exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week. The findings demonstrated that the onset of depression-like behavior is attributable not to chronic reduction of 5-HT but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with an improvement of adult hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and without the recovery of 5-HT. Concomitantly, the mice that exercised showed increased hippocampal noradrenaline. Regular exercise prevents the impairment of not long-term memory but short-term memory in a 5-HT-reduced state. Together, these findings suggest that: (1 chronic reduction of brain 5-HT may not contribute to the onset of depression-like behavior; (2 regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents the onset of chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior independent of brain 5-HT and dependent on brain adrenaline; and (3 regular exercise prevents chronic tryptophan reduction-induced impairment of not long-term but short-term memory.

  3. Iodine status in schoolchildren living in northeast Italy: the importance of iodized-salt use and milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watutantrige Fernando, S; Barollo, S; Nacamulli, D; Pozza, D; Giachetti, M; Frigato, F; Redaelli, M; Zagotto, G; Girelli, M E; Mantero, F; Mian, C

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the study were: (i) to determine iodine status of schoolchildren living in northeast Italy; (ii) to assess dietary habits and iodine status and (iii) to investigate the level of knowledge concerning iodine sufficiency and ways to ameliorate iodine status. One thousand three hundred seventy-five consecutive 12-13 year-old completed questionnaires collecting demographic data and information about the use of iodized salt and food frequency habits. Iodine concentration in urine samples (UIC) and in commercially available milk samples has been measured. The median UIC was found to be 81 μg/l (95% confidence interval (CI) 74-87); 40% of the subjects had an UIC of ≥ 100 μg/l. Iodine deficiency was prevalent in subjects living in hilly areas. Median iodine concentration in milk was 264 μg/l. Only the combined use of iodized salt plus daily milk normalized UIC, resulting into a median value of 108 μg/l. A logistic regression model confirmed independent associations between low UIC and low intake of milk, use of non-iodized salt and geographical location (Pimportance of iodine. Northeast Italy is still characterized by mild iodine deficiency. An adequate iodine status was achieved only when iodized salt was combined with daily milk intake. The national iodine prophylaxis program has led to greater consumption of iodized salt and, it is now used in 60-70% of the Italian households. The low level of awareness highlights the need for public programs to promote knowledge and efforts to improve iodine status.

  4. Povidone-Iodine-Based Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyi; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Xinjie; Gao, Yangyang; Liu, Wenxin; Chen, Wanjun; Dong, Alideertu; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2017-08-09

    As microbial contamination is becoming more and more serious, antibacterial agents play an important role in preventing and removing bacterial pathogens from microbial pollution in our daily life. To solve the issues with water solubility and antibacterial stability of PVP-I 2 (povidone-iodine) as a strong antibacterial agent, we successfully obtain hydrophobic povidone-iodine nanoparticles (povidone-iodine NPs) by a two-step method related to the advantage of nanotechnology. First, the synthesis of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles, i.e., P(NVP-MMA) NPs, was controlled by tuning a feed ratio of NVP to MMA. Then, the products P(NVP-MMA) NPs were allowed to undergo a complexation reaction with iodine, resulting in the formation of a water-insoluble antibacterial material, povidone-iodine NPs. It is found that the feed ratio of NVP to MMA has an active effect on morphology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of the P(NVP-MMA) copolymer after some technologies, such as SEM, DLS, elemental analysis, 1 H NMR, GPC, and the contact angle test, were used in the characterizations. The antibacterial property of povidone-iodine NPs was investigated by using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as model bacteria with the colony count method. Interestingly, three products, such as glue, ink, and dye, after the incorporation of povidone-iodine NPs, show significant antibacterial properties. It is believed that, with the advantage of nanoscale morphology, the final povidone-iodine NPs should have great potential for utilization in various fields where antifouling and antibacterial properties are highly required.

  5. Deficiency in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and type I interferon signalling prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Tine D; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Nilsson, Julia; Fransén-Pettersson, Nina; Hansen, Lisbeth; Holmberg, Dan

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and is closely linked to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes, an increased fat intake results in adipose tissue expansion and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The innate immune system not only plays a crucial role in obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation but it is also proposed to play a role in modulating energy metabolism. However, little is known about how the modulation of metabolism by the immune system may promote increased adiposity in the early stages of increased dietary intake. Here we aimed to define the role of type I IFNs in DIO and insulin resistance. Mice lacking the receptor for IFN-α (IFNAR -/- ) and deficient in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) (B6.E2-2 fl/fl .Itgax-cre) were fed a diet with a high fat content or normal chow. The mice were analysed in vivo and in vitro using cellular, biochemical and molecular approaches. We found that the development of obesity was inhibited by an inability to respond to type I IFNs. Furthermore, the development of obesity and insulin resistance in this model was associated with pDC recruitment to the fatty tissues and liver of obese mice (a 4.3-fold and 2.7-fold increase, respectively). Finally, we demonstrated that the depletion of pDCs protects mice from DIO and from developing obesity-associated metabolic complications. Our results provide genetic evidence that pDCs, via type I IFNs, regulate energy metabolism and promote the development of obesity.

  6. Assessment of iodine nutrition in pregnant north Indian subjects in three trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Grewal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the iodine status of pregnant women, using median urinary iodine concentration (MUI as the measure of outcome, to document the impact of advancing gestation on the MUI in normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the MUI in casual urine samples from 50 pregnant subjects of each trimester and 50 age-matched non-pregnant controls. Results: The median (range of urinary iodine concentration (UIC in pregnant women was 304 (102-859 μg/L and only 2% of the subjects had prevalence of values under 150 μg/L (iodine insufficiency. With regard to the study cohort, median (range UIC in the first, second, and third trimesters was 285 (102-457, 318 (102-805, and 304 (172-859 μg/L, respectively. Differences between the first, second, and third trimesters were not statistically significant. The MUI in the controls (305 μg/L was not statistically different from the study cohort. Conclusion: The pregnant women had no iodine deficiency, rather had high median urinary iodine concentrations indicating more than adequate iodine intake. Larger community-based studies are required in iodine-sufficient populations, to establish gestation-appropriate reference ranges for UIC in pregnancy.

  7. Absorbing method of iodine in radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Yutaka; Mifuji, Hiroshi; Ito, Sakae.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain an iodine adsorbing efficiency at a high level by keeping the adsorbing atmosphere to more than a predetermined temperature to thereby suppress the degradation and the activity reduction in zeolite. Method: Adsorption and desorption-regeneration of gaseous wastes are performed in parallel by heating gaseous wastes in a heater and switchingly supplying the same to adsorption columns by way of valve operation. Processed gases are cooled in a cooler and desorbed gases are supplied to an after-treatment device to eliminate or recover iodine 131. In the adsorption column, iodine in gaseous wastes is adsorbed to remove by using zeolite, wherein the adsorbing atmosphere is kept at a temperature higher than 40 0 C. This can prevent the formation of an aqueous HNO 3 solution from NO 2 and H 2 O contained in the gaseous wastes and prevent the degradation of the zeolite adsorption layer. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiro, B D; Johnston, F L [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na {sup 125}I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author).

  9. Iodine metabolism and food needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine is an element that is necessary for the growth and mental development of a child and for the maintenance of the activity of all cells at all ages. In this article, the author recalls the iodine sources, its metabolism and the food needs and contributions

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  11. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  12. Iodine removing means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Masaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To employ exhaust gas from an incinerator to effect regeneration of an adsorbent such as active carbon which has adsorbed a radioactive gas such as iodine contained in the ventilating system exhaust gas of a boiling water reactor power plant. Structure: Radioactive exhaust gas such as iodine, xenon and krypton is led to an active carbon adsorbing means for removal through adsorption. When the adsorbing function of the active carbon adsorption means is reduced, the exhaust gas discharged from the incinerator is cooled down to 300 0 C and then caused to flow into the active carbon layer, and after depriving it of sulfur dioxide gas, oxides of nitrogen, daughter nuclides resulting from attenuation of radioactive gas and so forth, these being adsorbed by the carbon active layer, it is led again to the incinerator, whereby the radioactivity accompanying the regenerated gas is sealed as ash within the incinerator. Further, similarly accompanying fine active carbon particles and the like are utilized as a heat source for the incinerator. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake Necesidad de programas coordinados para mejorar la salud a escala mundial mediante la optimización de la ingesta de sal y yodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norm R. C. Campbell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs.El alto contenido de sal en la dieta es una causa principal de incremento de la presión arterial, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte a escala mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha recomendado que el consumo de sal sea inferior a 5 g/d, una meta que solo logran una pequeña proporción de personas. La falta de yodo puede causar deficiencia cognoscitiva y

  14. Astragaloside IV Prevents Cardiac Remodeling in the Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Regulating Cardiac Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-Zhi Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Astragaloside IV (AST-IV possesses cardiovascular protective properties. We hypothesize that AST-IV prevents cardiac remodeling with hypercholesterolemia via modulating tissue homeostasis and alleviating oxidative stress. Methods: The ApoE-/- mice were treated with AST-IV at 1 or 10 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The blood lipids tests, echocardiography, and TUNEL were performed. The mRNA expression profile was detected by real-time PCR. The myocytes size and number, and the expressions of proliferation (ki67, senescence (p16INK4a, oxidant (NADPH oxidase 4, NOX4 and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, SOD were observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results: Neither 1 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg AST-IV treatment could decrease blood lipids in ApoE-/- mice. However, the decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional shortening (FS in ApoE–/– mice were significantly improved after AST-IV treatment. The cardiac collagen volume fraction declined nearly in half after AST-IV treatment. The enlarged myocyte size was suppressed, and myocyte number was recovered, and the alterations of genes expressions linked to cell cycle, proliferation, senescence, p53-apoptosis pathway and oxidant-antioxidants in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were reversed after AST-IV treatment. The decreased ki67 and increased p16INK4a in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were recovered after AST-IV treatment. The percentages of apoptotic myocytes and NOX4-positive cells in AST-IV treated mice were decreased, which were consistent with the gene expressions. Conclusion: AST-IV treatment could prevent cardiac remodeling and recover the impaired ventricular function induced by hypercholesterolemia. The beneficial effect of AST-IV might partly be through regulating cardiac homeostasis and anti-oxidative stress.

  15. Association between ε2/3/4, Promoter Polymorphism (−491A/T, −427T/C, and −219T/G at the Apolipoprotein E Gene, and Mental Retardation in Children from an Iodine Deficiency Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at apolipoprotein E (ApoE have been linked with late onset sporadic Alzheimer’s disease and declining normative cognitive ability in elder people, but we are unclear about their relationship with cognition in children. Results. We studied -491A/T, -427T/C, and -219G/T promoter polymorphisms and ε2/ε3/ε4 at ApoE among children with mental retardation (MR, n=130, borderline MR (n=124, and controls (n=334 from an iodine deficiency area in China. The allelic and genotypic distribution of individual locus did not significantly differ among three groups with Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test (P>0.05. However, frequencies of haplotype of -491A/-427T/-219T/ε4 were distributed as MR > borderline MR > controls (P uncorrected = 0.004, indicating that the presence of this haplotype may increase the risk of disease. Conclusions. In this large population-based study in children, we did not find any significant association between single locus of the four common ApoE polymorphisms (-491A/T, -427T/C, -219T/G, and ε2/3/4 and MR or borderline MR. However, we found that the presence of ATTε4 haplotype was associated with an increased risk of MR and borderline MR. Our present work may help enlarge our knowledge of the cognitive role of ApoE across the lifespan and the mechanisms of human cognition.

  16. Dual fortification of salt with iodine and iron: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of micronized ferric pyrophosphate and encapsulated ferrous fumarate in southern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Thankachan, P.; Muthayya, S.; Goud, R.B.; Kurpad, A.V.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background:Dual fortification of salt with iodine and iron could be a sustainable approach to combating iodine and iron deficiencies. Objective:We compared the efficacy of dual-fortified salt (DFS) made by using 2 proposed contrasting formulas-one fortifying with iron as micronized ground ferric

  17. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  18. Standard for administration of stable iodine pilulae. Standard of the nuclear safety commission, action for accident in TEPCO Fukushima-1 and recent European trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Preventive taking of stable-iodine tablets is effective to avoid thyroid gland disorder due to internal exposure to the radioactive iodine if radioactive iodine is released outside by any nuclear accident. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission proposed the standard of the preventive taking in 2002, and, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the head of the local task force instructed to take on the recommendation from the Commission. Author described the action principle of stable-iodine tablets, present concept for the preventive taking, recent change of the concept in Europe for the preventive taking, and some precepts which have shown in past Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. (J.P.N.)

  19. Investigation on efficiency of stable iodine distribution around Golfech nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Simon, J.; Campana Briault, H.; Fenolland, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background. In order to prevent thyroid cancer radio induced during civil nuclear accident french regulations plan stable iodine distribution for populations living near nuclear power stations. We evaluate availability of stable iodine and understanding of such measure with investigation around Golfech nuclear power station. Methods. In 2001, 1148 families living in a 10 km perimeter around power station were questioned through their schooled child. Our anonymous questionnaire (22 questions, 91 items) was linked with stable iodine availability, organ protection, most exposed persons, dosage and time of stable iodine ingestion. Results. 72,1 % families replied. Among them, 60,8% could easily and quickly find stable iodine in case of emergency, 87,8% know that such measure is to protect thyroid, 80,5% know that children and pregnant women (62,7%) are the most exposed people, 82,3% know that such ingestion is allowed by Prefect order. Conclusion. Answer rate and stable iodine prophylaxis knowledge are satisfactory. On the other hand, in case of necessity about 40% of the concerned families don't have a rapid access to stable iodine, which will forced authorities to distribute as a matter of urgency supplementary stable iodine. Statistical analysis of the answers demonstrate that the most iodine prophylaxis ignorant people are the most refractory to this approach. (author)

  20. Iodine removal adsorbent histories, aging and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Rankovic, L.; Lubbers, R.; Kovach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The experience of efficiency changes with life under various test conditions is described. The adsorbents were periodically removed from both standby and continuously operating systems and tested under various test methods for residual iodine adsorption efficiency. Adsorbent from several conventional ''sampler'' cartridges versus the bulk adsorbent was also tested showing deficiency in the use of cartridge type sampling. Currently required test conditions were found inadequate to follow the aging of the adsorbent because pre-equilibration of the sample acts as a regenerant and the sample is not tested in the ''as is'' condition. The most stringent test was found to be the ambient temperature, high humidity test to follow the aging of the adsorbent. Several methods were evaluated to regenerate used adsorbents; of these high temperature steaming and partial reimpregnation were found to produce adsorbents with near identical properties of freshly prepared adsorbents

  1. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  2. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  3. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  4. Iodine isotopes and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, B.; Nedvekajte, T.; Filistovich, V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of concentration determination of stable and radioactive iodine isotopes in the Earth's different geospheres are described. Iodine isotopes concentration data, chemical forms and transformations as well as their exchange among separate geospheres of their global biochemical circulation (ocean, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere) are presented. Information on iodine isotopes as after-effects of nuclear installations accident (in particular, the Chernobyl accident) is generalized. The book is intended for scientists and practical workers in ecology and radioactivity protection and for a students of physics. 442 refs.; 82 figs.; 36 tabs

  5. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  6. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  7. Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Bechtner, G; Edwards, R; Trott, K R

    1999-08-01

    Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.

  8. Bilirubin Prevents Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice by Inhibiting Endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Megan E; Idelman, Gila; Konaniah, Eddy S; Zucker, Stephen D

    2017-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies support an inverse association between serum bilirubin levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanism(s) by which bilirubin may protect against atherosclerosis is undefined. The goals of the present investigations were to assess the ability of bilirubin to prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice and elucidate the molecular processes underlying this effect. Bilirubin, at physiological concentrations (≤20 μmol/L), dose-dependently inhibits THP-1 monocyte migration across tumor necrosis factor α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers without altering leukocyte binding or cytokine production. A potent antioxidant, bilirubin effectively blocks the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species induced by the cross-linking of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). These findings were validated by treating cells with blocking antibodies or with specific inhibitors of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 signaling. When administered to Ldlr -/- mice on a Western diet, bilirubin (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) prevents atherosclerotic plaque formation, but does not alter circulating cholesterol or chemokine levels. Aortic roots from bilirubin-treated animals exhibit reduced lipid and collagen deposition, decreased infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes, fewer smooth muscle cells, and diminished levels of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine, without changes in VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 expression. Bilirubin suppresses atherosclerotic plaque formation in Ldlr -/- mice by disrupting endothelial VCAM-1- and ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte migration through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species signaling intermediaries. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for the apparent cardioprotective effects of bilirubin.