WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent gun play

  1. Gun Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Biology and the particular gun culture of the United States come together to explain the persistent and powerful attraction of American boys to both real guns and toy guns. The 1990s saw adults begin to conflate "the gun problem" with "the boy problem," sparking attempts (largely failed) to banish toy guns from homes and…

  2. Teaching Skills to Second and Third Grade Children to Prevent Gun Play: A Comparison of Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Pamela D.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Waters, Marit A.; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Bagne, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    A posttest only control group design was used to investigate the effects of two programs to teach firearm injury prevention skills to second and third grade children. Children were taught the safety skills "Stop. Don't touch. Leave the area. Tell an adult." should they ever find a firearm. The effectiveness of the National Rifle Association's…

  3. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  4. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  5. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.

  6. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  7. Goods for Guns--the use of a gun buyback as an injury prevention/community education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Margaret; Manno, Mariann; Rook, Allison; Maranda, Louise; Renaud, Elizabeth; DeRoss, Anthony; Hirsh, Michael

    2011-11-01

    US children aged between 5 years and 14 years have a rate of gun-related homicide 17 times higher and a rate of gun-related suicide and unintentional firearm injury 10 times higher than other developed countries. Gun buyback programs have been criticized as ineffective interventions in decreasing violence. The Injury Free Coalition for Kids-Worcester (IFCK-W) Goods for Guns buyback is a multipronged approach to address these concerns and to reduce the number of firearms in the community. The IFCK-W buyback program is funded by corporate sponsors, grants, and individual donations. Citizens are instructed to transport guns, ammunition, and weapons safely to police headquarters on two Saturdays in December. Participants are guaranteed anonymity by the District Attorney's office and receive gift certificates for operable guns. Trained volunteers administer an anonymous survey to willing participants. Individuals who disclose having unsafely stored guns remaining at home receive educational counseling and trigger locks. Guns and ammunition are destroyed at a later time in a gun crushing ceremony. Since 2002, 1,861 guns (444 rifle/shotgun, 738 pistol/revolver, and 679 automatic/semiautomatic) have been collected at a cost of $99,250 (average, $53/gun). Seven hundred ten people have surrendered firearms, 534 surveys have been administered, and ≈ 75 trigger locks have been distributed per year. IFCK-W Goods for Guns is a relatively inexpensive injury prevention model program that removes unwanted firearms from homes, raises community awareness about gun safety, and provides high-risk individuals with trigger locks and educational counseling.

  8. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a... public health perspective is imperative. Significant strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun...

  9. Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  10. Gun retailers as storage partners for suicide prevention: what barriers need to be overcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpoint, Lauren A; Tung, Gregory J; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Brandspigel, Sara; Betz, Marian; Runyan, Carol W

    2018-02-07

    Safe storage of guns outside the household while someone is at risk for suicide is important for suicide prevention. Some gun retailers offer temporary firearm storage as a community resource. Others may be willing if perceived barriers can be addressed. We invited all gun retailers in eight Mountain West states to respond to a questionnaire about the barriers they perceive in offering temporary, voluntary gun storage for community members. Ninety-five retailers responded (25% response rate). Fifty-eight percent believed federal laws make it harder to store guns and 25% perceived state laws to be obstacles. Over 60% cited legal liability in storing and returning guns as barriers. Other important barriers included cost, space and logistical issues of drop off and pick up. Strategies to reduce legal and other barriers will need to be addressed to better engage gun retailers as a community resource for safe gun storage. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    he began to focus intently on his school work and became isolated from others. He was described as being “exceedingly conscientious and compulsive ...and Ammo in Champlain, Illinois.142 The psychiatrist observed “elements of social anxiety and obsessive/ compulsive disorder” and prescribed Prozac...1998, NICS is used by federally licensed gun dealers (Federal Firearms Licensees) to instantly determine whether a prospective buyer is eligible to

  12. Law Enforcement and Gun Retailers as Partners for Safely Storing Guns to Prevent Suicide: A Study in 8 Mountain West States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Carol W; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Brandspigel, Sara; Betz, Marian; Tung, Gregory; Novins, Douglas; Agans, Robert

    2017-11-01

    To examine the extent to which law enforcement agencies (LEAs) and gun retailers are willing to offer voluntary, temporary storage as a part of an overall suicide prevention effort. We invited all LEAs and gun retailers in 8 US states to respond to questionnaires asking about their willingness to offer temporary gun storage and their recommendations to gun owners about safe storage. We collected data in 2016 from 448 LEAs and 95 retailers (response rates of 53% and 25%, respectively). Three quarters of LEAs (74.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.1, 77.5) indicated they already provided temporary storage compared with 47.6% (95% CI = 39.2, 56.0) of retailers. LEAs were most willing to provide storage when a gun owner was concerned about the mental health of a family member. Retailers were more receptive than were LEAs to providing storage when visitors were coming or for people wanting storage while traveling. Both groups recommended locking devices within the home, but LEAs were slightly more favorable to storing guns away from the home. Law enforcement agencies and gun retailers are important resources for families concerned about suicide.

  13. Epidemiologic Evidence to Guide the Understanding and Prevention of Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Cerdá, Magdalena; Wintemute, Garen J; Cook, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Gunfire from assaults, suicides, and unintentional shootings exacts an enormous burden on public health globally. The epidemiologic reviews in this special issue enhance our understanding of various forms of gun violence, inform interventions, and help chart directions for future research. The available science, however, is limited to answer many important questions necessary for mounting successful efforts to reduce gun violence. Certain data are lacking, and there are numerous analytical challenges to deriving unbiased estimates of policy impacts. Significant investments in research over the long term are warranted to answer questions central to successful prevention of gun violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  15. The Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994: Public Health and Child Safety. Hearing on S. 1882, A Bill To Amend Title 18, United States Code, To Promote the Safe Use of Guns and To Reduce Gun Violence before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session (March 23, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution.

    The first of several hearings on the Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994 introduced and discussed the Act as comprehensive legislation to address gun violence through six discrete initiatives: (1) handgun licensing; (2) prohibition of firearms possession by persons convicted of violent misdemeanors; (3) regulation of gun dealers; (4) limitation of…

  16. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Pamela; Redding, Colleen A; Raja, Sheela; Newton, Tamara; Beharie, Nisha; Printz, Destiny

    2018-02-21

    The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.

  17. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  18. Playful home training for falls prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    Falling is a big issue among elderly, and prevention of falling is of big importance both for the individual and for society at large. In this paper we present a pilot study with fun exergaming equipment in private homes. The initial findings in the small pilot study suggests that this kind of tr...

  19. Gun ownership and social gun culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a...

  20. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or adult feels suicidal and there is a gun readily available. A family argument gets out of control. A family member or friend is mistaken for an intruder. Remember: The best way to prevent gun injuries is to never keep guns at home ...

  2. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  3. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A Model Application of Local Public Health Authority in Preventing Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Nancy L.; Vernick, Jon S.; Beilenson, Peter L.; Mair, Julie S.; Lindamood, Melisa M.; Teret, Stephen P.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore’s problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city’s young people. The initiative included undercover “sting” investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts. PMID:15855448

  4. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  6. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  7. Gun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

  8. State Gun Law Environment and Youth Gun Carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Hemenway, David

    2015-11-01

    Gun violence and injuries pose a substantial threat to children and youth in the United States. Existing evidence points to the need for interventions and policies for keeping guns out of the hands of children and youth. (1) To examine the association between state gun law environment and youth gun carrying in the United States, and (2) to determine whether adult gun ownership mediates this association. This was a repeated cross-sectional observational study design with 3 years of data on youth gun carrying from US states. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey comprises data of representative samples of students in grades 9 to 12 from biennial years of 2007, 2009, and 2011. We hypothesized that states with more restrictive gun laws have lower rates of youth gun carrying, and this association is mediated by adult gun ownership. State gun law environment as measured by state gun law score. Youth gun carrying was defined as having carried a gun on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey. In the fully adjusted model, a 10-point increase in the state gun law score, which represented a more restrictive gun law environment, was associated with a 9% decrease in the odds of youth gun carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.96]). Adult gun ownership mediated the association between state gun law score and youth gun carrying (AOR, 0.94 [ 95% CI, 0.86-1.01], with 29% attenuation of the regression coefficient from -0.09 to -0.07 based on bootstrap resampling). More restrictive overall gun control policies are associated with a reduced likelihood of youth gun carrying. These findings are relevant to gun policy debates about the critical importance of strengthening overall gun law environment to prevent youth gun carrying.

  9. Adolescent gun violence prevention: what we know, and what we can do to keep young people safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Nancy A

    2016-08-01

    This review will focus on recent research, initiatives, and legislation regarding the issue of gun violence as it pertains to adolescents. Homicide and suicide continue to be major killers of adolescents in the United States. Gun homicide kills teens in the most urban areas of the United States at the same rate as suicide kills teens in the most rural areas of the United States. Research on assault-injured youth sheds light on risk factors for teen gun homicide, and has found high rates of illegal gun carrying and retaliatory attitudes among at-risk teens. Suicide research continues to show a strong correlation between gun ownership and accessibility, and risk of completed suicide. Stand Your Ground laws and campus carry laws present unique threats to different populations of American teens. Given the enormous toll that gun violence takes on adolescent lives, pediatricians should ask about guns in the home and become involved in efforts to strengthen laws that would decrease gun violence.

  10. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gun Safety KidsHealth / For Kids / Gun Safety What's in ... from guns outside the home. If You Have Guns in Your Home If your parents keep guns ...

  11. Sanoli Gun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Sanoli Gun. Articles written in Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Volume 119 Issue 3 June 2009 pp 275-281. Remarks on some Zero-Sum Theorems · S D Adhikari Sanoli Gun Purusottam Rath · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In the present paper, we give a ...

  12. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  13. Gun Violence and Gun Control

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

    2009-01-01

    This short essay was commissioned by the London Review of Books, but in the end we decided not to publish it, in part because we felt that there were empirical issues that we were not in a position to assess. A longer working paper that develops the argument further and contains supporting material is posted on SSRN under the title "Rethinking Gun Violence." We welcome comments on either paper. The essay takes Joyce Malcolm's Guns and Violence and Jim Jacobs's Can Gun Control Work? as jump...

  14. Reexamining the association between child access prevention gun laws and unintentional shooting deaths of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D W; Starnes, M

    2000-12-01

    A previous study estimated that child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold adults criminally liable for unsafe firearm storage in the environment of children, were associated with a 23% decline in unintentional firearm mortality rates among children. To reassess the effects of CAP laws and more fully examine the consistency of the estimated law effects across states. A pooled time-series study of unintentional firearm mortality among children from 1979 through 1997. Setting. The 50 states and the District of Columbia. All children laws enacted before 1998 were aggregated, the laws were associated with a 17% decline unintentional firearm death rates among children. The laws' effects were not equal across states. Florida's CAP law was associated with a 51% decline; however, there were no statistically significant aggregate or state-specific law effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws. Florida's CAP law-1 of only 3 such laws allowing felony prosecution of violators-appears to have significantly reduced unintentional firearm deaths to children. However, there is no evidence of effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws.

  15. Health and Gun Violence. Guns as a Public-Health Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Violence in all settings has reached epidemic proportions. Most shootings are committed by friends or relatives following an argument or when playing with guns. The public needs education about nonviolent ways of coping with anger and about the high cost of gun violence. Suggestions for avoiding gun violence and the PTA position on firearms are…

  16. Exercise plays a preventive role against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radak, Zsolt; Hart, Nikoletta; Sarga, Linda; Koltai, Erika; Atalay, Mustafa; Ohno, Hideki; Boldogh, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population. It is predicted that the incidence of AD will be increased in the future making this disease one of the greatest medical, social, and economic challenges for individuals, families, and the health care system worldwide. The etiology of AD is multifactorial. It features increased oxidative state and deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of protein tau in the central cortex and limbic system of the brain. Here we provide an overview of the positive impacts of exercise on this challenging disease. Regular physical activity increases the endurance of cells and tissues to oxidative stress, vascularization, energy metabolism, and neurotrophin synthesis, all important in neurogenesis, memory improvement, and brain plasticity. Although extensive studies are required to understand the mechanism, it is clear that physical exercise is beneficial in the prevention of AD and other age-associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Effects of Exposure to Gun Violence in Movies on Children's Interest in Real Guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kelly P; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-11-01

    More US children die by accidental gun use than children in other developed countries. One factor that can influence children's interest in guns is exposure to media containing guns. To test whether children who see a movie containing guns will handle a real gun longer and will pull the trigger more times than children who see the same movie not containing guns. One hundred four children aged 8 to 12 years recruited through advertisements were randomly assigned in pairs to watch a 20-minute PG-rated movie containing or not containing guns in a university laboratory. Children then played with toys and games in a room for 20 minutes while being video recorded. A cabinet in the room contained a real (disabled) gun with a sensor counting trigger pulls. Recordings were coded for the time spent holding the gun and in aggressive play. Data were collected from July 15, 2015, through January 1, 2016, and analyzed using generalized estimating equations (Tweedie log-link for time spent holding the gun; Poisson log-link for pulling the trigger). The 2 main outcomes were time spent holding the gun and the number of trigger pulls. Control variables included sex, age, trait aggressiveness, exposure to violent media, interest in guns, and number of guns at home. Among the 104 study participants (62 boys [59.6%] and 42 girls [40.4%]; mean (SD) age, 9.9 [1.5] years), the adjusted median number of trigger pulls among children who saw the movie containing guns was 2.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.2-2.8) compared with 0.01 (IQR, 0.01-0.2) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 22.3; 95% CI, 6.0-83.4; P gun among children who saw a movie containing guns was 53.1 (IQR, 35.5-53.1) compared with 11.1 (IQR, 10.7-16.7) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.9-9.9; P = .07). Qualitative analyses on 4 pairs from each condition found that children who saw the movie containing guns also played more

  18. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  19. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  20. Play for Peace as a Violence Prevention Model: Achieving "Voluntad y Convivencia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael; Gough, Sarah; Armas, Andres; Dolcino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Violence prevention is a key focus for many intervention programs, yet little is known about how or why certain programs are able to successfully produce effective prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to identify the essential elements of the Play for Peace (PFP) program, how it creates change in participants, and how it is…

  1. ION GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  2. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  3. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  4. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and…

  5. Online Series presents Cancer Prevention Through Immunomodulation. Does Diet Play a Role? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. Nutrition provides an opportunity for a generalized immune activation and reduction of cancer risk in certain populations. Research on several foods and bioactive food components as immunologic modulators is showing promising results. |

  6. Prevention of traumatic nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: use of population-based measures to monitor intervention effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M

    2008-10-01

    Nail guns are responsible for a significant injury burden in residential construction. Risk, based on hours of work, is particularly high among apprentice carpenters due in part to more frequent exposure to tool use. Nail gun injuries were evaluated over 3 years among carpenters enrolled in two apprenticeship programs in the Midwest (2.3 million residential work hours observed) following initiation of training and a voluntary ANSI standard change calling for safer sequential triggers on framing nailers. Injury rates, based on hours of tool use, were calculated yearly. Rates and adjusted rate ratios were calculated with Poisson regression. Attributable risk percent (AR%) and population attributable risk (PAR%) were calculated yearly for modifiable independent risk factors for injury including lack of training in tool use and type of trigger mechanism on tools being used. As apprentices received training and safer trigger mechanisms became more widespread, injury rates decreased significantly (31%). While school training and hands-on mentoring were both important, injury rates were lowest among apprentices who received both. Although injury rates changed over the observation period, the relative risk comparing trigger mechanisms did not; contact trip triggers consistently carried a twofold risk. Although training and safer trigger use both increased, because of the relative prevalence of training and trigger exposures in this population, the engineering solution consistently had the potential to make more difference in population risk. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observational methods including measures of population-based risk in monitoring intervention effectiveness and making recommendations that lead to injury reduction. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Keeping Naval Guns Ready

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    and stay aboard until the gun is up. Whatever the case, the goal is to get the gun up fast. Guns With Fast “Pit Crews” Winning in stock- car racing...after firing in a corrosive maritime environment. The original maintenance philosophy was to remove a gun from the ship and send it back to the

  8. The Gun Dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

  9. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  10. More Guns, More Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual gun ownership rates at both the state and the county level during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven entirely by the impact of gun ownership on murders ...

  11. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Easter, Michele M.; Robertson, Allison G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:27269024

  13. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  14. Gun suicide by young people in California: descriptive epidemiology and gun ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J; Claire, Barbara E

    2008-12-01

    We studied the 336 firearm suicides occurring in California in 1997-1999 to persons under age 21. The gun used was most often owned by the victim or a family member living in the victim's household. Prevention efforts should focus on gun ownership and accessibility.

  15. Play it forward! A community-based participatory research approach to childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hanson, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J

    2016-03-01

    To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in cocreating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the citizen action group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n = 12) to create and implement the Play It Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took 2 years. During Year 1 (2011-2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During Year 2 (2012-2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6-12 years participated in Play It Forward! Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play It Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  17. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  18. ORELA electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, O.W.; Lewis, T.A.

    1981-09-01

    The most recent information concerning the production and performance of ORELA electron guns is presented. Included are descriptions of procedures for gun fabrication, cathode conditioning and high voltage processing. Highlights of the performance characteristics are also included

  19. Is Gun Violence Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Loeffler, Charles; Flaxman, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Existing theories of gun violence predict stable spatial concentrations and contagious diffusion of gun violence into surrounding areas. Recent empirical studies have reported confirmatory evidence of such spatiotemporal diffusion of gun violence. However, existing tests cannot readily distinguish spatiotemporal clustering from spatiotemporal diffusion. This leaves as an open question whether gun violence actually is contagious or merely clusters in space and time. Compounding this problem, g...

  20. Lasers for RF guns: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, laser driven RF guns have matured from a device under development to a proven source for high brightness and low emittance electron beams. The reliability of the electron beam from these sources is dictated by the laser system that drives it. In addition, capabilities of the laser systems play a vital role in the design of the electron source for future machines such as the TESLA and NLC. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for discussing the design criteria for the laser systems so that the reliability of the existing sources could be improved and the future machines could be serviced. The Workshop brought together experts in RF Guns, accelerators, and lasers, from both the commercial and academic community. Most of the presentations, discussions and conclusions at the workshop are included in these proceedings. The contents are divided into three sections, Section I contains the invited talks that outline the requirements of the RF Guns and the capabilities of the laser systems to meet these requirements. Section II includes most of the papers presented in the poster session. These papers describe various laser systems used with electron guns, schemes to modify the laser beam profile to optimize the electron bunch, and computer simulations of electron trajectories. Section III contains the summaries of the working groups. As the summary section indicates, with sufficient feed back systems, the electron gun could be made to operate reliably with minimum downtime, using commercial lasers currently available. The design of laser systems for future colliders depend critically on the choice of the cathode m the gun and its efficiency. Tentative designs of laser systems for the TESLA test facility and LCLS had been drawn assuming a copper cathode. Using a more efficient cathode will ease the energy requirement of the laser and simplify the design. The individual papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  1. The Transmission of Gun and Other Weapon-Involved Violence Within Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, Melissa; Braga, Anthony A.; Papachristos, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries resulting from gun violence remain a persistent problem in the United States. The available research suggests that gun violence diffuses among people and across places through social relationships. Understanding the relationship between gun violence within social networks and individual gun violence risk is critical in preventing the spread of gun violence within populations. This systematic review examines the existing scientific evidence on the transmission of gu...

  2. Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link; a multi- level analysis of victimisation survey data.

    OpenAIRE

    van Kesteren, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The link between gun ownership victimisation by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and aggregate data on gun ownership and victimisation from the ICVS. Analysis at country level shows that the level of hand gun ownership is positively related to serious violence but not for lesser ser...

  3. Guns and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Gun deaths are a problem in America. Irrespective of one’s position on gun control, the statistics do not lie. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, there were 11,208 deaths caused by firearms in 2013 (1. The recent high profile cases in Cincinnati, OH, Lafayette, LA and Memphis, TN further highlight the issue. Obviously, each case of death by a firearm had its own set of underlying factors that contributed to the final fatal outcome, but one wonders whether sleep deprivation can be implicated in some of them. Sleep duration in adults over the past approximately 30 years has been declining in the United States (2. A variety of reasons can be cited as underlying causes such as greater use of artificial lighting, an expanding 24 hour non-stop society, promotion of a work ethic that values “burning the midnight oil”, and use of electronic devices before bedtime ...

  4. Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility impact gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility (AFETF) impact gun is a unique tool for impact testing 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat sources of up to 178-mm dia at velocities to 300 m/s. An environmentally-sealed vacuum chamber at the muzzle of the gun allows preheating of the projectile to 1,000 0 C. Immediately prior to impact, the heat source projectile is completely sealed in a vacuum-tight catching container to prevent escape of its radioactive contents should rupture occur. The impact velocity delivered by this gas-powered gun can be regulated to within +-2%

  5. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  6. Survey of SRF guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  7. Patterns of gun deaths across US counties 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Galea, Sandro

    2017-05-01

    We examined the socio-demographic distribution of gun deaths across 3143 counties in 50 United States' states to understand the spatial patterns and correlates of high and low gun deaths. We used aggregate counts of gun deaths and population in all counties from 1999 to 2013 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER). We characterized four levels of gun violence, as distinct levels of gun death rates of relatively safe, unsafe, violent, and extremely violent counties, based on quartiles of 15-year county-specific gun death rates per 100,000 and used negative binomial regression models allowing clustering by state to calculate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Most states had at least one violent or extremely violent county. Extremely violent gun counties were mostly rural, poor, predominantly minority, had high unemployment rate and homicide rate. Overall, homicide rate was significantly associated with gun deaths (incidence rate ratios = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06-1.09). In relatively safe counties, this risk was 1.09 (95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and in extremely violent gun counties was 1.03 (95% CI = 1.03-1.04). There are broad differences in gun death rates across the United States representing different levels of gun death rates in each state with distinct socio-demographic profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association Between Substance Use and Gun-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-01-01

    Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  11. Do "inhibitors of crystallisation" play any role in the prevention of kidney stones? A critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William G

    2017-02-01

    A critical examination of data in the literature and in as yet unpublished laboratory records on the possible role of so-called inhibitors of crystallisation in preventing the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones leads to the following conclusions. So-called inhibitors of spontaneous "self-nucleation" are unlikely to play any role in the initiation of the crystallisation of CaOx or CaP in urine because excessive urinary supersaturation of urine with respect to these salts dominates the onset of "self-nucleation" within the normal time frame of the transit of tubular fluid through the nephron (3-4 min). Inhibitors of the crystal growth of CaOx crystals may or may not play a significant role in the prevention of CaOx stone-formation since once again excessive supersaturation of urine can overwhelm any potential effect of the inhibitors on the growth process. However, they may play a role as inhibitors of crystal growth at lower levels of metastable supersaturation when the balance between supersaturation and inhibitors is more equal. Inhibitors of CaOx crystal aggregation may play a significant role in the prevention of stones, since they do not appear to be strongly affected by excessive supersaturation, either in vitro or in vivo. Inhibitors of CaOx crystal binding to renal tubular epithelium may exist but further studies are necessary to elucidate their importance in reducing the risk of initiating stones in the renal tubules. Inhibitors of CaOx crystal binding to Randall's Plaques and Randall's Plugs may exist but further studies are necessary to elucidate their importance in reducing the risk of initiating stones on renal papillae. There may be an alternative explanation other than a deficiency in the excretion of inhibitors for the observations that there is a difference between CaOx crystal size and degree of aggregation in the fresh, warm urines of normal subjects compared those in urine from patients with recurrent CaOx stones. This difference may

  12. The gun-slave hypothesis and the 18th century British slave trade

    OpenAIRE

    Whatley, Warren

    2017-01-01

    The Gun-Slave Hypothesis is the long-standing idea that European gunpowder technology played a key role in growing the transatlantic slave trade. I combine annual data from the Transatlantic Slave Trade Database and the Anglo-African Trade Statistics to estimate a Vector Error Correction Model of the 18th century British slave trade that captures four versions of the Gun-Slave Hypothesis: guns-for-slaves-in-exchange, guns-for-slaves-in-production, slaves-for-guns-derived and the gun-slave cyc...

  13. Does the Declining Lethality of Gunshot Injuries Mask a Rising Epidemic of Gun Violence in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, Anupam B.; Sun, Eric C.; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot ...

  14. The Origins of Gun Culture in the United States, 1760-1865.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that, counter to popular opinion, guns played no significant role in U.S. frontier life until the Civil War era. Evidence from probate and militia records reveal a consistent lack of gun ownership while magazine articles painted unflattering portraits of gun ownership and hunting. Discusses reasons for the change. (MJP)

  15. Guns, Suicide, COPD and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Within the past year two tragic events, the shootings in Las Vegas and Florida have renewed the debate about guns. The politics and the money that fuels the political debate have sharply divided politicians. As tragic as these mass shootings are, deaths by suicide far outnumber the loss of live in these shootings. In 2014 suicide was the tenth most common cause of death with 42,826 lives lost (1. Half of the suicides were by firearm (21,386. The medical profession has traditionally been reluctant to speak about politically sensitive issues such as abortion, sexuality, and guns. However, beginning early in this millennium some medical societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics, the US Preventative Services Task Force and even the Department of Veterans Affairs were suggesting physicians ask patients about gun behavior, but a few patients complained (2-5. There were some anecdotal reports of patients feeling “pressured” to answer …

  16. Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

  17. Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link; a multi- level analysis of victimisation survey data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The link between gun ownership victimisation by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and

  18. Forum: The Future of Instructional Communication. Guns on Campus: Creating Research to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Sean M.; Bryant, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    This essay encourages research on the presence of guns in college classrooms. Readers are asked to consider that around 11 million individuals have concealed carry permits (Crime Prevention Research Center, 2014), and roughly 20% of states allow concealed guns on campus (e.g., Anderson, 2016). Given the centrality of guns in our culture, and…

  19. Rethinking Gun Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This working paper develops the argument of "Gun Violence and Gun Control" (also posted on SSRN), a short piece commissioned by the London Review of Books. We decided not to publish either paper, in part because we felt there were empirical issues that we were not in a position to assess. We welcome comments on either paper. In this Article, we propose a new way of approaching the problem of gun violence, synthesizing features of a number of successful initiatives. We begin, in Pa...

  20. CNG7 Consolidated Nail Gun

    OpenAIRE

    DeSantis, Christopher Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of my study is to create a compact, portable nail gun. The nail gun is to be used in tight spaces where hammers, pneumatic nail guns, and portable nail guns will not fit. The intended market is for homeowners renovating their houses. The short length and lightweight, compact frame make the CNG7 ideal for this market. The CNG7 is designed with minimum material waste and fewer parts than other nail guns. MARCH

  1. Serbian society and gun culture

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    This paper questions whether one characteristic of Serbian society is a gun culture. The first part of the paper deals with some theoretical concerns and closer explanation of what is understood by the term gun culture. Few different approaches to the issue are analyzed. The concept used has three main components of the gun culture: system of positive beliefs; social symbols embodied by the gun; agent "bearers" of gun culture. The second part of the paper presents results from Small Arms and ...

  2. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Children's indoor and outdoor play patterns in Ahwaz City: implications for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, H

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Ahwaz city, Islamic Republic of Iran, described children's indoor and outdoor play patterns. A total of 952 pupils aged 7 and 9 years and 942 parents completed questionnaires. Children's favourite activities were: playing football (22.3%), cycling (13.2%) and watching television (12.3%). This differed from those perceived by the parents who reported watching television (20.3%), playing football (13.3%) and playing in street (11.4%). Children reported their favourite places to play were: street (27.4%), park/playground (18.3%) and home (17.8%). There were significant differences in play patterns by age and sex. The play patterns of older children and boys exposed them to more hazardous situations than younger children and girls.

  4. Gun policy and serious mental illness: priorities for future research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-01-01

    In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.

  5. Nerf Guns Strike a Nerve on Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Killing zombies on campus just isn't as much fun as it used to be. Students at Bowling Green State University once carried Nerf guns for a week each semester, shooting the zombies before the creatures could tag them. Participants were seen by most bystanders as nerdy but harmless kids who liked role-playing. These days, bright plastic Nerf guns…

  6. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  7. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  8. Teen Suicide and Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of ...

  9. Gun control saves lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-05-19

    Reducing firearm mortality by means of stricter gun control is one of the most important short- to medium-term measures to address the burden of violence in South Africa, while longer-term interventions and policy measures take effect.

  10. Calculating effective gun policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wodarz, D; Komarova, NL

    2017-01-01

    Following recent shootings in the USA, a debate has erupted, one side favoring stricter gun control, the other promoting protection through more weapons. We provide a scientific foundation to inform this debate, based on mathematical, epidemiological models that quantify the dependence of firearm-related death rates of people on gun policies. We assume a shooter attacking a single individual or a crowd. Two strategies can minimize deaths in the model, depending on parameters...

  11. Gun Control Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    under the Constitution? Does gun control help reduce violent crime? Would household, street corner, and schoolyard disputes be less lethal if firearms...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information...household, street corner, and schoolyard disputes be less lethal if firearms were more difficult and expensive to acquire? Would more restrictive gun

  12. Alcoholism and gun control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, N; Lee, M

    1977-08-01

    The recurring dilemma of having to deal with an intoxicated person in possession of a gun uttering homicidal or suicidal threats along with the current debate on gun control prompted this controlled survey of the characteristics of individuals with problems arising from the joint abuse of alcohol and possession of a gun. A comparison of the data point to violence as being the most significant differentiating variable involved. This violent potential was reflected by the presence among the alcoholics involved of more past and present antisocial traits, a higher rating on the Nicol's scale of violence, more offences committed against the person and homicidal behaviour. The availability of a gun was a significant factor. No correlation was found between the severity of the drinking problem and the risk of dangerous handling of a gun. The need for more stringent gun controls is supported but their implications to the physician and especially the psychiatrist as a potential guarantor for a licence application ought to be further explored by the professional bodies involved.

  13. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  14. An economic model of gun control

    OpenAIRE

    O' Sullivan, Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Guns stolen from law-abiding households provide the principal source of guns for criminals. The lethality of crime instruments increases with the availability of guns, so the gun market is subject to externalities that generate excessive ownership and inadequate spending on protective measures to deter gun theft. One motive for gun ownership is self defense, and the gun market is subject to coordination failure: the more guns purchased lawfully, the more will be stolen by crimi...

  15. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  16. Electromagnetic Guns versus Conventional Guns - a performance comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, N.M. de; Weijden, J. van der

    1993-01-01

    Performance improvement is one of the key issues of Electromagnetic gun systems compared to conventional gun systems. Due to higher muzzle velocities, the gun's fire control computer will be able to predict the target's future position more accurately because prediction time will be smaller. In this

  17. Fueling by coaxial plasma guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1978-01-01

    The operating principles of pulsed coaxial guns are reviewed. Some problems involved with the injection of plasma beams from these guns into containment fields are described. The injection during reactor operating conditions is then discussed

  18. Accidental Bolt Gun Injury to Femur - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattimani, Ravi Prasad; Shetty, Sanath; Mirza, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Bolt gun or slaughterer's guns are used in meat industry for "humane killing" of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth over anterior aspect of lower one third of thigh at lower and sustained Grade II compound fracture of right femur shaft at distal one third. The wound was treated with multiple debridements, negative pressure wound therapy and intravenous antibiotics based on culture and sensitivity. Bolt gun or slaughterer's guns are weapons used in meat industry for slaughtering animals. Wounds inflicted by bolt guns have specific morphological feature, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Most of the time wound will be infected at presentation. Lesions caused by these weapons are likely to have a more serious character than is to be expected from the size of the entrance wound. The mainstay of treatment is liberal wound exploration, multiple debridement's and intra venous antibiotics based on culture reports to treat infection and prevent morbidity.

  19. Gun Access and Safety Practices among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary D. Lum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given high rates of gun ownership among older adults, geriatric providers can assess firearm safety practices using a “5 Ls” approach: Locked; Loaded; Little children; feeling Low; and Learned owner. This study describes gun access and the “5 Ls” among US older adults. Methods. Data on the “5 Ls” from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2, a national telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were analyzed. Weighted variables were used to generate national estimates regarding prevalence of gun ownership and associated gun safety among older adults (≥55 years. Results. Of 2939 older adults, 39% (95% CI 37%–42% reported ≥1 gun stored at home. Among those with guns at home, 21% (95% CI 18–24% stored guns loaded and unlocked; 9.2% (95% CI 6.6–12% had ≥1 child in household; 5.1% (95% CI 3.5–6.8% reported past-year suicidal ideation and 3.6% (95% CI 2.1–5.2% reported history of a suicide attempt; and 55% (95% CI 51–59% stated that ≥1 adult had attended firearm safety workshop. Conclusion. Some older adults may be at elevated risk of firearm injury because of storage practices, suicidal thoughts, or limited safety training. Future work should assess effective approaches to reduce the risk of gun-related injuries among older adults.

  20. Where the guns come from: the gun industry and gun commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2002-01-01

    Under federal law, it is illegal for youth under age 18 to purchase rifles or shotguns, and for those under age 21 to purchase handguns. However, fatality and injury statistics clearly show that guns are finding their way into young people's hands. Many of these youth obtain guns through illegal gun markets. This article focuses on how guns in the United States are manufactured, marketed, and sold. The article shows how the legal and illegal gun markets are intimately connected and make guns easily accessible to youth. Although the domestic gun manufacturing industry is relatively small and has experienced declining sales in recent years, it has significant political clout and a large market for its products, and has engaged in aggressive marketing to youth. Lax oversight of licensed firearms dealers, combined with little or no regulation of private sales between gun owners, mean that guns can quickly moved from the legal gun market into the illegal market, where they can be acquired by young people. Certain guns, especially inexpensive, poorly made small handguns, are particularly attractive to criminals and youth. The author observes that several policy innovations--including increased regulation of licensed firearms dealers, intensified screening of prospective buyers, regulation of private sales, gun licensing and registration, and bans on some types of weapons--hold promise for decreasing the flow of guns into the hands of youth.

  1. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  2. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a great many articles have been writ- ten on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun') most of the writ- ers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort. Record Book and the existance of more than one. Cape Town time-gun has only recently been re- corded. By 1807 a noon gun ...

  3. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  4. Supporting Children and Families: Communities, Schools, Employers Play Key Roles. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthauer, Linda; Halfon, Neal

    This report, eighth and last in a series, discusses the important role community groups and leaders, schools, and employers play in providing children and parents support and encouragement. It reports the opinions of California adults, expressed in a survey conducted by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI), about a variety of issues…

  5. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen…

  6. Sources of guns to dangerous people: what we learn by asking them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Parker, Susan T; Pollack, Harold A

    2015-10-01

    Gun violence exacts a lethal toll on public health. This paper focuses on reducing access to firearms by dangerous offenders, contributing original empirical data on the gun transactions that arm offenders in Chicago. Conducted in the fall of 2013, analysis of an open-ended survey of 99 inmates of Cook County Jail focuses on a subset of violence-prone individuals with the goal of improving law enforcement actions. Among our principal findings: *Our respondents (adult offenders living in Chicago or nearby) obtain most of their guns from their social network of personal connections. Rarely is the proximate source either direct purchase from a gun store, or theft. *Only about 60% of guns in the possession of respondents were obtained by purchase or trade. Other common arrangements include sharing guns and holding guns for others. *About one in seven respondents report selling guns, but in only a few cases as a regular source of income. *Gangs continue to play some role in Chicago in organizing gun buys and in distributing guns to members as needed. *The Chicago Police Department has a considerable effect on the workings of the underground gun market through deterrence. Transactions with strangers and less-trusted associates are limited by concerns over arrest risk (if the buyer should happen to be an undercover officer or a snitch), and about being caught with a "dirty" gun (one that has been fired in a crime). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  8. Design studies on high current and grid control electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinnan; Lu Kun; Chi Yunlong; Zhou Zusheng

    2011-01-01

    Electron gun, the source of electrons, is a kind of ultrahigh vacuum device and plays an important role in different kind of accelerators. With the irradiation accelerator demands, describes the design studies on beam optics optimization. The simulation result shows that the beam current is above 5 A with cathode voltage of 80 kV and beam emittance, gun electric field and beam waist radius meet the accelerator needs. The electron gun manufactured and installed in the test stand, the conditioning and test will be done in the near future. (authors)

  9. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 ... Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0084-0088 ...

  10. 120 Hz Gun Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E.

    2005-01-31

    The review was held at SLAC on September 11 and 12, 2001. Presentations concerning the thermal analysis, mechanical design, integration with the laser and accelerator, general beam dynamics considerations, a load lock mechanism, and symmetric power feed options comprised the review. Slides from these presentations are available elsewhere. The review committee was charged with evaluating the 120 Hz gun design including proposed load lock and power feed options and recommending improvements. Broader evaluation of the injector as a whole (including focusing and diagnostic systems that do no impact the envelope of the gun itself) is expected to be covered in a future review and will not be commented on here. In general, the long operational experience with four generations of s-band RF guns at numerous labs worldwide has led to considerable experience in design, fabrication, and operation aspects, and provides an excellent base on which to design the higher duty factor LCLS injector. While open questions remain on obtaining the design performance from these injectors, the microwave design of the gun has reached a state of relative maturity.

  11. Gun Internal Ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approximate method of analysis is formulated for gun internal ballistics. The method is incorporated in a digital computer program which is...described. The validity of the method of analysis and computational procedure is substantiated by comparison of theoretical results with experimental

  12. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation of laws encompassing multiple firearm restrictions in certain countries. The authors cited, alongside examples from the. USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Brazil, SA's FCA, which banned certain types of firearm, required training tests for licences, additional licences for each gun owned, increased ...

  13. Gun Dealers, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie; And Others

    In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

  14. Radar gun hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  15. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 84-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Peer tutoring to prevent firearm play acquisition, generalization, and long-term maintenance of safety skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children.

  18. Peer Tutoring to Prevent Firearm Play: Acquisition, Generalization, and Long-term Maintenance of Safety Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children. PMID:18468285

  19. "Pause-2-Play": a pilot schoolbased obesity prevention program "Pause-2-Play": um programa piloto escolar de prevenção de obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Killough

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: "Pause-2-Play" is an obesity prevention program targeting screen-related sedentary behaviours and increasing physical activity among elementary school students. The program consisted of a Behavioural Modification Curriculum and a Health Promoting Afterschool Program. This pilot study reports program feasibility, practicability, and impact. METHODS: the 12-week pilot program was implemented with 32 grade five and six students. Program feasibility and practicability were assessed using a qualitative approach. Intervention effects were assessed by comparing pre-post changes in BMI, body composition, fitness scores, screen time, and cognitive variables related to screening viewing behaviours. RESULTS: "Pause-2-Play" was perceived as a useful, fun program with numerous benefits including: children trying new snacks, feeling fitter and better about one's own body shape, and becoming more aware of a healthy lifestyle. The intervention resulted in a statistically significant reduction in percent body fat and an increase in fat-free mass index in overweight children; a decrease in waist circumference and an increase in fat-free mass index were observed in normal weight children. The intervention also statistically improved fitness scores in both normal weight and overweight children. CONCLUSIONS: "Pause-2-Play" was feasible, practical, and favourably changed body composition and fitness level.OBJETIVOS: "Pause-2-Play" é um programa de prevenção da obesidade direcionado aos comportamentos sedentários relacionados ao uso de monitores de computador e televisores, visando promover a atividade física entre estudantes de escolas de educação básica. O programa trata-se de um currículo de modificação comportamental e um programa extracurricular de promoção de saúde. Este estudo-piloto relata sobre a viabilidade, praticidade e impacto do programa. MÉTODOS: o programa de doze semanas foi implementado com 32 alunos escolares do quinto e

  20. Baby Think It Over: using role-play to prevent teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out, J W; Lafreniere, K D

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Baby Think It Over (BTIO; Jurmaine, 1994), an infant simulation program that seeks to modify attitudes toward teen pregnancy and teen parenting. As in the study by Saltz, Perry, and Cabral (1994), the premise was that teens engage in unprotected sex because of a personal fable concerning pregnancy: "It can't happen to me." It was expected that participation in BTIO, a form of role-play, would encourage teens to acknowledge their own personal vulnerability to an unplanned pregnancy, and provide them with some insight into the experience of adolescent parenting. One hundred fourteen eleventh-grade students participated. After two to three days' experience with BTIO, teens in the intervention group were more likely to accurately assess their personal risk for an unplanned pregnancy than were teens in the comparison group. Qualitative analyses revealed that teens in the intervention group were significantly more likely to produce concrete examples of activities and consequences related to child-rearing than were teens in the comparison group. Findings of this study are discussed from the perspective of the health belief model (Rosenstock, 1974), and suggestions for further research with BTIO are made.

  1. Gun violence in Americans' social network during their lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Weinberg, Janice; Galea, Sandro

    2016-12-01

    The overall burden of gun violence death and injury in the US is now well understood. However, no study has shown the extent to which gun violence is associated with the individual lives of Americans. We used fatal and non-fatal gun injury rates in 2013 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) and generally accepted estimates about the size of an American's social network to determine the likelihood that any given person will know someone in their personal social network who is a victim of gun violence during their lifetime. We derived estimates in the overall population and among racial/ethnic groups and by gun-injury intent. The likelihood of knowing a gun violence victim within any given personal network over a lifetime is 99.85% (99.8% to 99.9%). The likelihood among non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic and other race Americans were 97.1%, 99.9%, 99.5% and 88.9% respectively. Nearly all Americans of all racial/ethnic groups are likely to know a victim of gun violence in their social network during their lifetime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicians Asking Patients About Guns: Promoting Patient Safety, Respecting Patient Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Brendan

    2016-10-01

    Recent debate on whether physicians should discuss gun ownership with their patients has centered on determining whether gun injuries are an issue of health or safety, and on protecting patient privacy. Yet, physicians' duties span personal health, public health, and safety spheres, and they often must address private patient matters. To prioritize gun safety and reduce gun injuries, the primary policy-driving question should be: will physician counseling on gun ownership effectively reduce gun-related injuries without interfering with the physician's other treatment obligations or compromising the physician-patient relationship? Existing data on physician-initiated conversations with patients about guns support a positive prevention effect. However, it is critical that physician-initiated discussions of safe gun practices are not motivated by, nor convey, disapproval of gun ownership. To be ethical, respectful, and efficient, the conversation should be standard between primary care providers and all of their patients (not limited to patient subsets); questions and education should be limited to topics of gun-ownership risks and storage practices; and the conversation must be framed without bias against gun ownership.

  3. Brief use of a specific gun in a violent game does not affect attitudes towards that gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2016-11-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the question of whether violent video games increase aggressive behaviour, little attention has been paid to how such games might encourage antecedents of gun violence. In this study, we examined how product placement, the attractive in-game presentation of certain real-world firearm brands, might encourage gun ownership, a necessary antecedent of gun violence. We sought to study how the virtual portrayal of a real-world firearm (the Bushmaster AR-15) could influence players' attitudes towards the AR-15 specifically and gun ownership in general. College undergraduates ( N  = 176) played one of four modified video games in a 2 (gun: AR-15 or science-fiction control) × 2 (gun power: strong or weak) between-subjects design. Despite collecting many outcomes and examining many potential covariates and moderators, experimental assignment did little to influence outcomes of product evaluations or purchasing intentions with regard to the AR-15. Attitudes towards public policy and estimation of gun safety were also not influenced by experimental condition, although these might have been better tested by comparison against a no-violence control condition. By contrast, gender and political party had dramatic associations with all outcomes. We conclude that, if product placement shapes attitudes towards firearms, such effects will need to be studied with stronger manipulations or more sensitive measures.

  4. Brief use of a specific gun in a violent game does not affect attitudes towards that gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the question of whether violent video games increase aggressive behaviour, little attention has been paid to how such games might encourage antecedents of gun violence. In this study, we examined how product placement, the attractive in-game presentation of certain real-world firearm brands, might encourage gun ownership, a necessary antecedent of gun violence. We sought to study how the virtual portrayal of a real-world firearm (the Bushmaster AR-15) could influence players' attitudes towards the AR-15 specifically and gun ownership in general. College undergraduates (N = 176) played one of four modified video games in a 2 (gun: AR-15 or science-fiction control) × 2 (gun power: strong or weak) between-subjects design. Despite collecting many outcomes and examining many potential covariates and moderators, experimental assignment did little to influence outcomes of product evaluations or purchasing intentions with regard to the AR-15. Attitudes towards public policy and estimation of gun safety were also not influenced by experimental condition, although these might have been better tested by comparison against a no-violence control condition. By contrast, gender and political party had dramatic associations with all outcomes. We conclude that, if product placement shapes attitudes towards firearms, such effects will need to be studied with stronger manipulations or more sensitive measures. PMID:28018611

  5. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. What Should Be the Scope of Physicians' Roles in Responding to Gun Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nora; Nguyen, Jenny; Strand, Nicolle K; Reeves, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    What role, if any, physicians should have in the response to gun violence is a question not only of professionalism but also of law, culture, and ethics. We argue that physicians do have important roles to play in the larger landscape of advocacy, public opinion, and reduction of gun violence, but that it is not ethically or legally appropriate for them to serve as gatekeepers of gun privileges by assessing competency. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S.

  8. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  9. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  10. Ten self-inflicted intracranial penetrating nail gun injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Sung-Joo; Alaqeel, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating craniocerebral injuries from nail gun use are rare. We describe a case of 10 self-inflicted nail gun injuries with intracranial penetrations. We also review the literature and discuss management strategies of such craniocerebral trauma. A 33-year-old male with a long-standing history of severe depression took a nail gun and sustained 10 penetrating intracranial injuries. Initial neuroimaging revealed 10 penetrating nails, all sparing the major cerebral vasculature. Immediate surgical removal was undertaken in the surgical suite using a combination of craniotomies, craniectomies, and blind removal. Intracranial injuries from self-inflicted nail gun misuse is becoming increasingly more frequent. Initial appropriate clinical decision-making are critical in preventing further cortical or vascular damage. PMID:26166596

  11. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1993-05-01

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  12. Understanding and Predicting Gun Barrel Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force will soon have to contend with gun barrel erosion issues arising from the use of new low-vulnerability gun propellants, the acquisition of new ammunition and gun systems...

  13. Patterns and correlates of gun ownership among nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, P B; Henggeler, S W; Limber, S P; Melton, G B; Nation, M A

    2000-09-01

    Examined prevalence of gun ownership and the links among gun ownership, reasons for gun ownership, and antisocial behavior in a sample of nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students. Participants completed the Questionnaire for Students (Olweus, 1995) and included 6,263 students from 36 elementary and middle schools, of whom most were African American (range = 46%-95% per school). Reasons for gun ownership were strongly associated with rates of antisocial behavior. Youths who owned guns for sporting reasons reported rates of antisocial behavior that were only slightly higher than those reported by youths who did not own guns. Youths who owned guns to gain respect or to frighten others reported extremely high rates of antisocial behavior. These high-risk adolescent gun owners were likely to come from families of high-risk gun owners, associate with friends who were high-risk gun owners, and engage in high rates of bullying behavior. Findings suggest that effective violence prevention programs must target high-risk youths, address risk factors that go beyond individual settings, and address a comprehensive array of risk factors.

  14. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  15. Gun violence trends in movies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Jamieson, P.E.; Weitz, I.; Romer, D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many scientific studies have shown that the mere presence of guns can increase aggression, an effect dubbed the "weapons effect." The current research examines a potential source of the weapons effect: guns depicted in top-selling films. METHODS: Trained coders identified the presence of

  16. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly V Ruggles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  17. Guns and gender-based violence in South Africa | Abrahams | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We drew on several South African studies including national homicide studies, intimate partner studies, studies with male participants and studies from the justice sector, to discuss the role of gun ownership in gender-based violence. Conclusion. Guns play a significant role in violence against women in South Africa, most ...

  18. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  19. Unusual Case of Suicide With a Modified Trap Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadysinghe, Amal; Dassanayake, Prasanna; Wickramasinghe, Medhani

    2017-06-01

    Trap gun is an illegal, locally manufactured gun with a basic trip system used to hunt wild animals. The body of a 28-year-old man was found in the jungle in supine position with both legs apart. A trap gun was between the legs pointing toward the cranial side of the body. It had 2 free wires that were not connected together. There was no evidence of foul play.The body had a single-entry wound (2.5-cm diameter) in the anterior chest, with blackening, burning, and tattooing. Six metal particles and nylon clothing material were embedded into soft tissue. No exit wound was found. Toxicology analysis reported an alcohol level of 72 mg/dL. The cause of death was multiple shrapnel injury to the chest at close to intermediate range by a single discharge from a trap gun. Circumstance was concluded as suicide.Ballistic and firearm experts opined that an illegal, manually operated, battery-powered ignition device was used to ignite the gun powder. We report the first case of suicide by a modified trap gun in literature.

  20. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  1. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study's objective was to explore national news media's reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles.

  2. Electric arc welding gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  3. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, R R; Kamale, P J; Shaikh, M A R; Shelar, S D; Kumar, K Sunil; Singh, Amarjit

    2007-05-08

    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 degrees C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 microm HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  4. Altitude, gun ownership, rural areas, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug; Mickelson, Jennie B; Brenner, Barry E; Haws, Charlotte A; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    The authors recently observed a correlation between state altitude and suicide rate in the United States, which could be explained by higher rates of gun ownership and lower population density in the intermountain West. The present study evaluated the relationship between mean county and state altitude in the United States and total age-adjusted suicide rates, firearm-related suicide rates, and non-firearm-related suicide rates. The authors hypothesized that altitude would be significantly associated with suicide rate. Elevation data were calculated with an approximate spatial resolution of 0.5 km, using zonal statistics on data sets compiled from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Suicide and population density data were obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database. Gun ownership data were obtained through the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. A significant positive correlation was observed between age-adjusted suicide rate and county elevation (r=0.51). Firearm (r=0.41) and non-firearm suicide rates (r=0.32) were also positively correlated with mean county elevation. When altitude, gun ownership, and population density are considered as predictor variables for suicide rates on a state basis, altitude appears to be a significant independent risk factor. This association may be related to the effects of metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders.

  5. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  6. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  7. The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gius

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have higher gun ownership rates have higher gun-related suicide rates. Regarding non-gun suicides, results suggest that stricter gun c...

  8. Gun violence trends in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Jamieson, Patrick E; Weitz, Ilana; Romer, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Many scientific studies have shown that the mere presence of guns can increase aggression, an effect dubbed the "weapons effect." The current research examines a potential source of the weapons effect: guns depicted in top-selling films. Trained coders identified the presence of violence in each 5-minute film segment for one-half of the top 30 films since 1950 and the presence of guns in violent segments since 1985, the first full year the PG-13 rating (age 13+) was used. PG-13-rated films are among the top-selling films and are especially attractive to youth. Results found that violence in films has more than doubled since 1950, and gun violence in PG-13-rated films has more than tripled since 1985. When the PG-13 rating was introduced, these films contained about as much gun violence as G (general audiences) and PG (parental guidance suggested for young children) films. Since 2009, PG-13-rated films have contained as much or more violence as R-rated films (age 17+) films. Even if youth do not use guns, these findings suggest that they are exposed to increasing gun violence in top-selling films. By including guns in violent scenes, film producers may be strengthening the weapons effect and providing youth with scripts for using guns. These findings are concerning because many scientific studies have shown that violent films can increase aggression. Violent films are also now easily accessible to youth (e.g., on the Internet and cable). This research suggests that the presence of weapons in films might amplify the effects of violent films on aggression.

  9. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

  10. Plural beam electron gun assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The invention relates to a cathode ray tube plural-beam-in-line bi-potential electron gun assembly, having applied beam currents of differing levels, manifests structurally modified gun structures to effect focused beam landings at the screen that are evidenced as substantially equi-sized spots thereby providing improved resolution and brightness of the screen imagery. The structural changes embody modifications of the related focusing and accelerator electrodes of the respective guns to provide a partial telescoping arrangement for effecting the discrete placement, forming and shielding of the final focusing lenses. The three lenses so formed are in different planes in partial overlapping axial relationship

  11. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  12. Gun barrel erosion - Comparison of conventional and LOVA gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Leurs, O.

    2006-01-01

    The research department Energetic Materials within TNO Defence, Security and Safety is involved in the development and (safety and insensitive munitions) testing of conventional (nitro cellulose based) and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based gun propellants. Recently our testing capabilities have

  13. Gun buyback programs: a venue to eliminate unwanted guns in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violano, Pina; Driscoll, Cassandra; Chaudhary, Neil K; Schuster, Kevin M; Davis, Kimberly A; Borer, Esther; Winters, Jane K; Hirsh, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    The United States has a high rate of death due to firearms, and gun buyback programs may mitigate these high death rates. Understanding the demographics, motivation, and geographic region of participants may improve program efficacy. Three Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback programs, in collaboration with the local police, were studied: Phoenix, Arizona; Worcester, Massachusetts; and New Haven, Connecticut. Participants were defined as those who relinquished a firearm. A self-administered, anonymous, paper survey elicited information from participants regarding demographic data, formal training on the use of the firearm, how the firearm was acquired, potential child access, knowledge of others injured by a firearm, whether the firearm was stored unlocked, factors motivating the surrender of the firearm, and other factors. Survey results were entered into a composite database and analyzed for differences in location, race, sex, and other factors. Participants (n = 301) were predominantly male (73.5%), white (80.9%), and older than 55 years (59.0%). They lived an average of 19.0 miles from the event by zip codes and had an average median household income of $65,731. More than half (54.5%) did not purchase the firearm, acquiring it through inheritance, gift, or random find. Most (74.8%) had previous firearms training and were relinquishing for safety reasons (68.3%). Those relinquishing firearms for safety reasons were less likely to have purchased the firearm (odds ratio [OR], 2.46, p gun lock (OR, 0.15; p gun-wielding criminal acts were burglarized from the home of legal gun owners that had failed to secure them properly. The gun buyback program is solely one prong of a multipronged approach in reducing firearm-based interpersonal violence. Additional research is necessary to determine effective methods to target individuals who would have the greatest impact on gun violence if they relinquished their weapons. Through the forging of relationships and

  14. The Transmission of Gun and Other Weapon-Involved Violence Within Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Melissa; Braga, Anthony A; Papachristos, Andrew V

    2016-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries resulting from gun violence remain a persistent problem in the United States. The available research suggests that gun violence diffuses among people and across places through social relationships. Understanding the relationship between gun violence within social networks and individual gun violence risk is critical in preventing the spread of gun violence within populations. This systematic review examines the existing scientific evidence on the transmission of gun and other weapon-related violence in household, intimate partner, peer, and co-offending networks. Our review identified 16 studies published between 1996 and 2015 that suggest that exposure to a victim or perpetrator of violence in one's interpersonal relationships and social networks increases the risk of individual victimization and perpetration. Formal network analyses find high concentrations of gun violence in small networks and that exposure to gun violence in one's networks is highly correlated with one's own probability of being a gunshot victim. Physical violence by parents and weapon use by intimate partners also increase risk for victimization and perpetration. Additional work is needed to better characterize the mechanisms through which network exposures increase individual risk for violence and to evaluate interventions aimed at disrupting the spread of gun and other weapon violence in high-risk social networks. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Temporal association between federal gun laws and the diversion of guns to criminals in Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vittes, Katherine A

    2012-02-01

    The practices of licensed gun dealers can threaten the safety of urban residents by facilitating the diversion of guns to criminals. In 2003, changes to federal law shielded gun dealers from the release of gun trace data and provided other protections to gun dealers. The 14-month period during which the dealer did not sell junk guns was associated with a 68% reduction in the diversion of guns to criminals within a year of sale by the dealer and a 43% increase in guns diverted to criminals following sales by other dealers. The laws were associated with a 203% increase in the number of guns diverted to criminals within a year of sale by the gun store, which was the focus of this study. Policies which affect gun dealer accountability appeared to influence the diversion of guns to criminals.

  16. Proposed Federal Gun-Control Amendment. Student Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Gayle; Mertz, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents an outline for a student-run forum on a proposed federal gun control amendment. Procedures include mandatory reading assignments and researching the issue. Students role-play fictional representative characters and later facilitate discussions. Concludes with a vote on the amendment. (MJP)

  17. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  18. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  19. State Gun Policy and Cross-State Externalities: Evidence from Crime Gun Tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Knight

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of cross-state externalities associated with gun regulations in the context of the gun trafficking market. Using gun tracing data, which identify the source state for crime guns recovered in destination states, we find that firearms in this market tend to flow from states with weak gun laws to states with strict gun laws, satisfying a necessary condition for the existence of cross-state externalities in the theoretical model. We also fi...

  20. Does gun accessibility lead to violence-related injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, La Vonne A; Zun, Leslie S; Burke, Trena; Jefferson, Tangula

    2013-02-01

    Because of high rates of violent gun-related injuries seen in emergency department (EDs), the ED has become involved in prevention violence intervention. The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between access to guns and the risk of violence-related injuries in youth and young adults. This study was a convenience sample in an inner-city level I trauma center. A 28-item validated questionnaire consisting of a short questionnaire about guns, the New York City Youth Violence Survey, and the SAGE Baseline Survey was given to 201 subjects. Half of the subjects were victims of violence and half were seen for nonviolence-related problems. Subjects with violence-related injuries did not have a higher rate of accessibility to guns. They did, however, show a difference in their attitudes toward guns. The subjects who came into the ED with violence-related injuries believed that having a weapon was a way to avoid a fight (F = 4.68, P = 0.032). They were more likely to have grabbed or shoved someone in the last 6 months (F = 5.18, P = 0.025), punched someone in the last 6 months (F = 11.9, P = 0.011), and have been seen in the ED within the last 6 months for a injury related to being punched, attacked, or shot (F = 117, P = 0.00), as compared to those with nonviolence-related injuries. There was no difference between the two subject groups in terms of their being victims of violence and the rate of gun accessibility. There was, however, a difference in their attitudes toward guns.

  1. Temporal Association between Federal Gun Laws and the Diversion of Guns to Criminals in Milwaukee

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Daniel W.; Vernick, Jon S.; Bulzacchelli, Maria T.; Vittes, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The practices of licensed gun dealers can threaten the safety of urban residents by facilitating the diversion of guns to criminals. In 2003, changes to federal law shielded gun dealers from the release of gun trace data and provided other protections to gun dealers. The 14-month period during which the dealer did not sell junk guns was associated with a 68% reduction in the diversion of guns to criminals within a year of sale by the dealer and a 43% increase in guns diverted to criminals fol...

  2. The case for moderate gun control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrazia, David

    2014-03-01

    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call "moderate gun control." The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this general approach to gun policy. The section that follows presents a positive case for moderate gun control that emphasizes safety in the home and society as well as rights whose enforcement entails some limits or qualifications on the right to bear arms. A final section shows how the recommended gun regulations address legitimate purposes, rather than imposing arbitrary restrictions on gun rights, and offers concluding reflections.

  3. Results of the AFWL deflagration gun experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, K.E.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The snowplow and deflagration modes of coaxial plasma gun operation have been experimentally investigated and computationally simulated at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. The snowplow mode occurs when the gun is prefilled to a uniform gas density. The initial breakdown forms near the insulator at the gun breech. It heats the gas and creates a shock wave that travels down the gun, ionizing gas and producing a thin current sheath that travels just behind the shock front. The shock front piles up the gas in front of itself as it moves down the gun - hence the name ''snowplow''. Deflagration occurs when gas is injected into an evacuated gun so that the initial breakdown forms as the gas fills the gun. The ionized gas is accelerated into the vacuum region carrying current and magnetic field with it. A quasi-stationary diffuse discharge develops. Gas still entering the gun is processed through the deflagrating discharge and accelerated out the gun muzzle

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, SHARPE MANUFACTURING TITANIUM T1-CG SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, the pollution prevention capabilities of a high transfer efficiency liquid spray gun was tested. This ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ANEST IWATA CORPORATION W400-LV SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, the pollution prevention capabilities of a high transfer efficiency liquid spray gun was tested. This ...

  6. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  7. Gun control and suicide: The impact of state firearm regulations, 1995 - 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Hempstead, Katherine; Rodríguez Andrés, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of preventable death. Restricting access to lethal means has been identified as an effective approach to suicide prevention, and firearms regulations are one way to reduce gun availability. This study examines the relationship between state firearms regulations and suicide among males, using negative binomial regression and state panel data for the years 1995–2004. Results suggest that firearms regulations which function to reduce overall gun availability have a signi...

  8. Strong gun laws are not enough: the need for improved enforcement of secondhand gun transfer laws in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Hureau, David M

    2015-10-01

    Research suggests that an overwhelming majority of crime guns were transferred by private sellers before recovery by law enforcement. Unfortunately, most states do not regulate these transactions. This study examines whether analyses of state-level private transfer data could be used to develop interventions to reduce the supply of handguns to violent criminals. Traced Boston crime handguns first sold at Massachusetts license dealers were matched to state secondhand gun transfer data. Logistic regression and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the characteristics of recovered crime guns and in-state primary and secondary market transaction patterns. For crime handguns with records of secondary market transactions in Massachusetts, many rapidly move from private transfer to recovery by the police. Unfortunately, important transaction data on the in-state sources of nearly 63% of recovered handguns were not readily available to law enforcement agencies. Data on private transfers of guns could be used to prevent violent injuries by reducing criminal access. However, the passage of strong private transfer gun laws needs to be accompanied by investments in the vigorous enforcement of reporting requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Creativity under the gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M; Hadley, Constance N; Kramer, Steven J

    2002-08-01

    If you're like most managers, you've worked with people who swear they do their most creative work under tight deadlines. You may use pressure as a management technique, believing it will spur people on to great leaps of insight. You may even manage yourself this way. If so, are you right? Not necessarily, these researchers say. There are instances where ingenuity flourishes under extreme time pressure--for instance, a NASA team within hours comes up with a primitive but effective fix for the failing air filtration system aboard Apollo 13. But when creativity is under the gun, it usually ends up getting killed, the authors say. They recently took a close look at how people experience time pressure, collecting and analyzing more than 9,000 daily diary entries from individuals who were working on projects that required high levels of creativity and measuring their ability to innovate under varying levels of time pressure. The authors describe common characteristics of time pressure and outline four working environments under which creativity may or may not flourish. High-pressure days that still yield creativity are full of focus and meaningful urgency--people feel like they are on a mission. High-pressure days that yield no creativity lack such focus--people feel like they are on a treadmill, forced to switch gears often. On low-pressure days that yield creativity, people feel like they are on an expedition--exploring ideas rather than just identifying problems. And on low-pressure days that yield no creative thinking, people work on autopilot--doing their jobs without engaging too deeply. Managers should avoid extreme time pressure when possible; after all, complex cognitive processing takes time. For when they can't, the authors suggest ways to mollify its effects.

  10. ATA injector-gun calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached

  11. Handmade guns in Trabzon, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Uner, H Bulent; Erkol, Zerrin; Butun, Celal; Acikgoz, Dinc; Bulut, Erkut R

    2009-07-01

    A wide variety of handmade firearms have been involved in criminal cases in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Although they are often very similar to commercially manufactured firearms in terms of design, loading and locking mechanisms, and cocking and firing arrangements, these guns are constructed from cheap materials and are not safe for firing. Handmade firearms manufactured in the Black Sea region of Turkey, particularly in the city of Trabzon, are similar to pistols manufactured by Browning, Luger, Star, Smith and Wesson, Berretta, and MAB. A total of 201 handmade guns referred to the Criminal Police Laboratories for examination from 2003 to 2005 were evaluated with respect to type, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, operability, legality, and similarity to commercial models. We found that most of these handmade guns resembled commercial models in several aspects.

  12. Suicide by shooting is correlated to rate of gun licenses in Austrian counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Kapusta, Nestor D; Sonneck, Gernot

    2006-08-01

    Shooting as method of suicide has increased considerably in Austria over recent decades and represented 23.5% of all suicides among men during the period 1990-2000. It is thought that the availability of guns could lead to their use in acts of suicide, and therefore we investigated the numbers of gun licenses (which constitutes ownership of guns and permission to carry a gun) in the nine Austrian counties and their correlation with suicides by shooting and other methods. We studied registered suicides, including the method used, between 1990 and 2000 in Austria and the numbers of gun licenses held in the nine counties of Austria in the same period. We found a strong correlation between the average gun license rate for the period 1990-2000 and suicides by shooting (r = 0.967), and only very weak correlation, and for some of the years under investigation a negative correlation, with other methods of committing suicide (r = 0.117) and the suicide rate in general (r = 0.383). As shooting as a method of suicide has increased in Austria in recent decades, and is a highly lethal method, the finding that the shooting suicide rate is related to the extent of gun ownership deserves attention, especially as there is evidence that restriction of gun ownership is an important factor in suicide prevention.

  13. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  14. Unintentional Gun Deaths among Children. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Children are at risk of being killed or injured by a gun if their parents own a gun because many guns obtained for self-defense are kept loaded and within reach of children. This brief fact sheet presents statistical information relating to accidental deaths involving young people and firearms. Safety measures are suggested for preventing…

  15. Using forum play to prevent abuse in health care organizations: A qualitative study exploring potentials and limitations for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, A Jelmer; Persson, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Abuse in health care organizations is a pressing issue for caregivers. Forum play, a participatory theater model, has been used among health care staff to learn about and work against abuse. This small-scale qualitative study aims to explore how forum play participants experience the potentials and limitations of forum play as an educational model for continued professional learning at a hospital clinic. Fifteen of 41 members of staff of a Swedish nephrology clinic, primarily nurses, voluntarily participated in either one or two forum play workshops, where they shared experiences and together practiced working against abuse in everyday health care situations. Interviews were conducted after the workshops with 14 of the participants, where they were asked to reflect on their own and others' participation or nonparticipation, and changes in their individual and collective understanding of abuse in health care. Before the workshops, the informants were either hesitant or very enthusiastic toward the drama-oriented form of learning. Afterward, they all agreed that forum play was a very effective way of individual as well as collective learning about abuse in health care. However, they saw little effect on their work at the clinic, primarily understood as a consequence of the fact that many of their colleagues did not take part in the workshops. This study, based on the analysis of forum play efforts at a single hospital clinic, suggests that forum play can be an innovative educational model that creates a space for reflection and learning in health care practices. It might be especially fruitful when a sensitive topic, such as abuse in health care, is the target of change. However, for the effects to reach beyond individual insights and a shared understanding among a small group of participants, strategies to include all members of staff need to be explored.

  16. Youth, guns, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people.

  17. Flit-gun sprayer characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Brown

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Six flit-gun sprayers were tested for possible use in mosquito adulticide programs where inexpensive nonmotorized application technology may be required. An analysis of variance for differences in droplets or = 48 µ, droplets/cm², volume median diameters, and mosquito mortality is provided. As shown by these data, good results can be achieved with this equipment.

  18. Electric rail gun application to space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility of using the DC electric gun principles as a space vehicle propulsion system, capable of producing intermediate thrust levels. The application of an electromagnetic launch technique, called the DC electric rail gun, to the space propulsion concept of O'Neill, is examined. It is determined that the DC electric rail gun offers very high projectile accelerations and a very significant potential for reducing the size and mass of a reaction motor for space application. A detailed description of rail gun principles is given and some simple expressions for the accelerating force, gun impedance, power supply requirements, and system performance are discussed

  19. Early Childhood Education and Health Working in Partnership: The Critical Role Early Childhood Educators Can Play in Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Morris, Heather; Cox, Rachael; Baur, Louise; Wolfenden, Luke; Huang, Terry T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's interest in popular culture is linked to many determinants of obesity development including branded energy-dense foods and sedentary play using digital technologies. In addition, highly packaged foods and throwaway toys reinforce unsustainable environmental habits encouraged by immersive marketing systems. Interrupting the…

  20. Keeping youth in play : The effects of sports-based interventions in the prevention of juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread implementation of sports-based crime prevention programs, there is little known about the effectiveness of these interventions and the validity of underlying theoretical assumptions. This dissertation consists of four studies. First, a meta-analysis on the relation between

  1. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  2. Under fire: gun violence is not just an urban problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Chet; Gross, Brian; Horst, Michael; Bupp, Katherine; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Harnish, Carissa; Vellucci, Ashley; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-11-01

    Gun violence continues to be a source of trauma patient morbidity and mortality annually in the United States. We sought to characterize gun violence in the combined suburban and rural county of Lancaster, PA, and compare it with gun violence results obtained in urban areas. All gunshot wound (GSW) admissions from January 2000-December 2013 were queried from trauma registry. Patients sustaining ball bearing/ball bullet (BB) or pellet gun injury were excluded. Data collected included mortality, injury severity score (ISS), number of GSW per patient, and cost data. Linear trend tests assessed the change in mortality, patients with three or more GSWs, and patients with an ISS ≥15 and ISS ≥25 over the study period. Statistical significance was defined as P violence and subsequent mortality that has not changed over time. This continuing pattern of gunshot violence speaks to the need for development of innovative preventative measures, as well as continuing efforts against gunshot violence by health care and law-enforcement personnel in suburban and urban centers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Granny, (don't) get your gun: competency issues in gun ownership by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Edith; Bornstein, Brian H; Dietrich, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible risks associated with gun ownership by older adults. We summarize existing regulations on who may own firearms, especially with respect to age. We then present data on older gun owners and violence committed by older adults in general, followed by a discussion of gun violence perpetrated by gun owners whose functional and cognitive abilities have declined, perhaps as a result of dementia. For comparison purposes, we review regulations on driving among older adults, drawing parallels to gun ownership. The paper concludes with recommendations for ensuring the safety of older gun owners and others, balanced against citizens' right to bear arms, and with some directions for research.

  4. Developing of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esparza, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5-inches or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  5. Do ED staffs have a role to play in the prevention of repeat falls in elderly patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Frédéric; Jegou, David; Dhainaut, Jean-François; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Coste, Joël; Lundy, Jean-Eric; Claessens, Yann-Erick

    2009-03-01

    Fall-related morbidity is a serious public health issue in older adults referred to emergency departments (EDs). Emergency physicians mostly focus on immediate injuries, whereas the specific assessment of functional consequences and opportunities for prevention remain scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing 6-month independence. We used a prospective observational study at the ED of a tertiary teaching hospital over a 6-month period. Uni- and multivariate assessments of factors related to loss of independence were examined. A total of 367 patients survived to 6 months, mean age was 86 years, and 79% were women. The population was initially healthy and independent. Because this independence reassured the medical staff, more than 42% percent were directly discharged home without any improvement of home facilities; only 63% had recovered their independence at the end of the follow-up. There were 111 patients were hospitalized for 30 days or more. Older patients, initial Katz score, and absence of immediate trauma consequences were associated with an increased risk for loss of independence. Because prevention is an emerging role of ED, a multidisciplinary team should evaluate fallers and propose medical and environmental changes as required for those discharged after their ED visit.

  6. X-Band RF Gun Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlieks, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In support of the MEGa-ray program at LLNL and the High Gradient research program at SLAC, a new X-band multi-cell RF gun is being developed. This gun, similar to earlier guns developed at SLAC for Compton X-ray source program, will be a standing wave structure made of 5.5 cells operating in the pi mode with copper cathode. This gun was designed following criteria used to build SLAC X-band high gradient accelerating structures. It is anticipated that this gun will operate with surface electric fields on the cathode of 200 MeV/m with low breakdown rate. RF will be coupled into the structure through a final cell with symmetric duel feeds and with a shape optimized to minimize quadrupole field components. In addition, geometry changes to the original gun, operated with Compton X-ray source, will include a wider RF mode separation, reduced surface electric and magnetic fields.

  7. Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: An epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Laura; Clinton, Heather; Berntsson, Rob; Williams, Susan S; Rovella, James C; Shapiro, David; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2017-12-01

    Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides. Detailed firearm and case data were obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (small, ≤ 0.32 caliber; medium, 0.357 caliber to 9 mm; large, ≥ 0.40 caliber). χ analyses were used for comparisons between groups. In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime, and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback, 63 ± 11; suicide, 52 ± 18; homicide, 34 ± 12 years), sex (buyback, 81%; suicide, 91%; homicide, 84% men), and race (buyback, 80%; suicide, 97%; homicide, 47% white). Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide. Epidemiologic/therapeutic study, level IV.

  8. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...

  9. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry O'Brien

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  10. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    O?Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US wh...

  11. Guns, Crime, and Academics: Some Reflections on the Gun Control Debate.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Jeffrey S

    2001-01-01

    This comment on Thomas Marvell's "The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession" analyzes Marvell's empirical findings and their policy implications for gun control legislation. While Marvell's article stresses the absence of any finding favorable to juvenile gun bans, this comment points out that the statistical results actually support the stronger finding that some of the juvenile gun bans are associated with a statistically significant increase in homicides nationwide. Under either findin...

  12. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867

  13. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  14. Rate control for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellingerhout, A.J.G.; Janocko, M.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for obtaining high-quality rate control for electron gun evaporation are discussed. The design criteria for rate controllers are derived from this analysis. Results are presented which have been obtained with e-guns whose evaporation rate is controlled by a Wehnelt electrode or by sweeping of the electron beam. Further improvements of rate stability can be obtained by improved design of e-guns and power supplies

  15. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  16. RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Otake, Y.; Naito, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshioka, M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode has many advantages as an injector of the linear colliders since it can generate a low emittance and high current pulsed beam. The experimental facility for the RF gun, such as an RF system, a laser system and a photocathode have been fabricated to study the fundamental characteristics. The dynamics of the RF gun has also studied by the 1D sheet beam model. (author)

  17. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  18. Gun Violence Restraining Orders: Alternative or Adjunct to Mental Health-Based Restrictions on Firearms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McGinty, Emma E; Barnhorst, Amy; Greenberg, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    The gun violence restraining order (GVRO) is a new tool for preventing gun violence. Unlike traditional approaches to prohibiting gun purchase and possession, which rely on a high threshold (adjudication by criminal justice or mental health systems) before intervening, the GVRO allows family members and intimate partners who observe a relative's dangerous behavior and believe it may be a precursor to violence to request a GVRO through the civil justice system. Once issued by the court, a GVRO authorizes law enforcement to remove any guns in the respondent's possession and prohibits the respondent from purchasing new guns. In September 2014, California's governor signed AB1014 into law, making California the first U.S. state to enact a GVRO law. This article describes the GVRO and the rationale behind the concept, considers case examples to assess the potential impact of the GVRO as a strategy for preventing gun violence, and reviews the content of the California law. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Conceptual Design for CLIC Gun Pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Tao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposed future electron-positron collider, designed to perform collisions at energies from 0.5 to 5 TeV, with a nominal design optimized for 3 TeV (Dannheim, 2012). The Drive Beam Accelerator consists of a thermionic DC gun, bunching section and an accelerating section. The thermionic gun needs deliver a long (~143us) pulse of current into the buncher. A pulser is needed to drive grid of the gun to generate a stable current output. This report explores the requirements of the gun pulser and potential solutions to regulate grid current.

  20. Ion tracking in photocathode rf guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lewellen

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Projected next-generation linac-based light sources, such as PERL or the TESLA free-electron laser, generally assume, as essential components of their injector complexes, long-pulse photocathode rf electron guns. These guns, due to their design rf pulse durations of many milliseconds to continuous wave, may be more susceptible to ion bombardment damage of their cathodes than conventional rf guns, which typically use rf pulses of microsecond duration. This paper explores this possibility in terms of ion propagation within the gun, and presents a basis for future study of the subject.

  1. Operation of the APS rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has a thermionic-cathode rf gun system capable of providing beam to the APS linac. The gun system consists of a 1.6-cell thermionic-cathode rf gun, a fast kicker for beam current control, and an alpha magnet for bunch compression and injection into the APS linac line. This system is intended for use both as an injector for positron creation, and as a first beam source for the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) project [1]. The first measured performance characteristics of the gun are presented.

  2. Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

  3. Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2007-06-01

    To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Cross-sectional, observational. Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida-all leading sources of California's crime guns--where these restrictions do not exist. Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate ("straw") gun purchases. Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9-10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5-2.2%), p = 0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p = 0.06). California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed.

  4. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  5. Experimental studies of coaxial plasma gun current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 μF, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated from the dielectric/vacuum interface in the AFWL system. Two gas values deliver gas in the system. The first delivers gas from the gun breech and the second optional valve delivers gas to the gun muzzle. Currents and voltages are measured by Rogowski coils, B probes and capacitive voltage probes. A O-D slug model is used to predict the current, inductance, gun voltage and plasma sheath velocity. The slug model assumes the sheath transits the gun with all mass in the sheath. In the snowplow mode, the plasma sheath is thin with a sharp current rise and drop. Our system operated in a transition mode between the snowplow and deflagration modes with early snowplow behavior and late deflagration behavior. Neutrons are produced in a plasma pinch at the gun muzzle, indicating snowplow behavior. The slug theory models overall gun behavior to experimental accuracy. Experimental results are compared to four theories for plasma sheath velocities: the Alfven collisionally limited model, the Rosenbluth model, the Fishbine saturated model and a single particle drift model. Experimental velocities vary from 10 5 to 10 6 m/s. Only the single particle drift and the slug model calculations are of the right magnitude (8 x 10 5 m/s). The Fishbine and the Rosenbluth models predict slower velocities (2 x 10 5 m/s). The Alfven model is not applicable to this system

  6. Aquaporin 0 plays a pivotal role in refractive index gradient development in mammalian eye lens to prevent spherical aberration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, S. Sindhu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Intact AQP0 functions as fiber cell-to-fiber cell adhesion protein. • AQP0 facilitates reduction in extracellular space and lens water content. • AQP0 adhesion function aids in lens refractive index gradient (RING) formation. • AQP0 prevents lens spherical aberration by establishing RING. • AQP0 is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis. - Abstract: Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) is a transmembrane channel that constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane protein of the fiber cells in mammalian lens. It is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis as mutations and knockout cause autosomal dominant lens cataract. AQP0 functions as a water channel and as a cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) molecule in the lens. Our recent in vitro studies showed that the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial to establish lens refractive index gradient (RING). However, there is a lack of in vivo data to corroborate the role of AQP0 as a fiber CTCA molecule which is critical for creating lens RING. The present investigation is undertaken to gather in vivo evidence for the involvement of AQP0 in developing lens RING. Lenses of wild type (WT) mouse, AQP0 knockout (heterozygous, AQP0{sup +/−}) and AQP0 knockout lens transgenically expressing AQP1 (heterozygous AQP0{sup +/−}/AQP1{sup +/−}) mouse models were used for the study. Data on AQP0 protein profile of intact and N- and/or C-terminal cleaved AQP0 in the lens by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and SDS–PAGE revealed that outer cortex fiber cells have only intact AQP0 of ∼28 kDa, inner cortical and outer nuclear fiber cells have both intact and cleaved forms, and inner nuclear fiber cells have only cleaved forms (∼26–24 kDa). Knocking out of 50% of AQP0 protein caused light scattering, spherical aberration (SA) and cataract. Restoring the lost fiber cell membrane water permeability (P{sub f}) by transgene AQP1 did not reinstate complete lens transparency and the mouse lenses showed light scattering and SA

  7. From gun politics to self-defense politics: a feminist critique of the great gun debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jennifer D

    2014-03-01

    This article calls attention to a problematic binary produced by public debates surrounding gun rights and gun control-namely, that women must choose armed self-protection or no self-protection at all. I argue that both anti- and pro-gun discourses, drawing on and reproducing race and class privileges, use assumptions about women's physical inferiority to further their agendas. I highlight how both sides have used guns as the proxy for self-defense and conclude by calling for a shift in public discourse to focus on the broader question of the right to self-defense rather than the narrower question of gun rights.

  8. Clinging to their Guns? The New Politics of Gun Carry in Everyday Life

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Alongside a series of high-profile massacres over the past decade, Americans continue to turn to guns as the solution to, rather than the cause of, violent crime. Since the 1970s, most US states have significantly loosened restrictions on gun carrying for self-defense, and today, over 8 million Americans hold permits to carry guns concealed. Contrary to popular images of gun culture, this is not a white-only affair: in Michigan, whites and African Americans are licensed to carry guns at rough...

  9. The Xygra gun simulation tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Lamppa, Derek C.; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Shirley, David Noyes; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Russo, Thomas V.

    2008-12-01

    Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as a point-mass lumped circuit element simulation tool for modeling coilgun behavior for design and verification purposes. This code has shortcomings in terms of accurately modeling gun performance under stressful electromagnetic propulsion environments. To correct for these limitations, it was decided to attempt to closely couple two Sandia simulation codes, Xyce and ALEGRA, to develop a more rigorous simulation capability for demanding launch applications. This report summarizes the modifications made to each respective code and the path forward to completing interfacing between them.

  10. The Effects of Cueing and Framing on Youth Attitudes towards Gun Control and Gun Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available I analyze attitudes towards gun control from a recent survey of American high school students. For students who most closely identify as Republicans, cueing them to think about prior school shootings increases their agreement that armed staff in schools will improve safety and arming citizens will reduce risk of mass shootings. For those identifying as Democrats and Independents, providing them with selective information that certain states have loose gun control laws and low rates of gun violence makes them more supportive of gun rights. For Republicans, providing selective information that certain states have loose gun control laws and high rates of gun violence makes them less supportive of gun rights. These results suggest that emotional cues may exacerbate a priori biases, while informational cues may be more likely to change people’s minds about firearm policies.

  11. Action alters object identification: wielding a gun increases the bias to see guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K; Brockmole, James R

    2012-10-01

    Stereotypes, expectations, and emotions influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action-perception interactions, however, there is another unexplored factor that may be critical: The action choices available to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another person was holding a gun or a neutral object. Critically, the participant did this while holding and responding with either a gun or a neutral object. Responding with a gun biased observers to report "gun present" more than did responding with a ball. Thus, by virtue of affording a perceiver the opportunity to use a gun, he or she was more likely to classify objects in a scene as a gun and, as a result, to engage in threat-induced behavior (raising a firearm to shoot). In addition to theoretical implications for event perception and object identification, these findings have practical implications for law enforcement and public safety.

  12. Plasma-gun fueling for tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1980-11-01

    In light of the uncertain extrapolation of gas puffing for reactor fueling and certain limitations to pellet injection, the snowplow plasma gun has been studied as a fueling device. Based on current understanding of gun and plasma behavior a design is proposed, and its performance is predicted in a tokamak reactor environment

  13. Where have all the gun deaths gone?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gun violence denialists recently dismissed the findings of two studies presented at a seminar co-hosted by Gun Free South Africa, the. Institute for Security Studies and the African. Policing Civilian Oversight Forum. Abrahams et al.[1] compared the profile of female homicides from two representative national samples.

  14. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  15. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self....... The forensic examination showed lesions of intracranial surgery and minor bruises on the arms. No sign of defense injuries was found. There were no signs of malfunction of the nail gun-wielding robot. On the side of the machine, there were a handheld nail gun and the police investigated the case as a possible...... criminal act. They found bloodstains on the back of the machine. When awake, the man explained, that by accident, he had hit his head against a nail gun and as a result of this, the nail gun delivered a nail into his skull. Conclusion Sometimes, the circumstances of a case are not clear...

  16. New Electron Gun System for BEPCII

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bo; Long Chi, Yun; Zhang, Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The new electron gun system for BEPCII has been put into operation since Nov. 2004. The article describes the design, experiment and operation of this new system. The design current of the gun is 10 A for the pulse lengths of 1 ns, 2.5 ns and 1 μs with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun is operated with a pulsed high voltage power supply which can provide up to 200 kV high voltage. Computer simulations have been carried out in the design stage, including simulation of the gun geometry and beam transportation. Some important relation curves are obtained during the experiment. Two-bunch operation is available and some elementary tests have been performed. New scheme of the gun control system based on EPICS is also presented. The real operation shows that the design and manufacturing is basically successful.

  17. Development of a novel thermionic RF electron gun applied on a compact THz-FEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T. N.; Pei, Y. J.; Qin, B.; Liu, K. F.; Feng, G. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The current requirements from civil and commercial applications lead to the development of compact free-electron laser (FEL)-based terahertz (THz) radiation sources. A picosecond electron gun plays an important role in an FEL-THz facility and attracts significant attention, as machine performance is very sensitive to initial conditions. A novel thermionic gun with an external cathode (EC) and two independently tunable cavities (ITCs) has been found to be a promising alternative to conventional electron sources due to its remarkable characteristics, and correspondingly an FEL injector can achieve a balance between a compact layout and high brightness benefitting from the velocity bunching properties and RF focusing effects in the EC-ITC gun. Nevertheless, the EC-ITC gun has not been extensively examined as part of the FEL injector in the past years. In this regard, to fill this gap, a development focusing on the experimental setup of an FEL injector based on an EC-ITC gun is described in detail. Before assembly, dynamic beam simulations were performed to investigate the optimal mounting position for the Linac associated with the focusing coils, and a suitable radio-frequency (RF) system was established based on a power coupling design and allocation. The testing bench proved to be fully functional through basic experiments using typical diagnostic approaches for estimating primary parameters. Associated with dynamic beam calculations, a performance evaluation for an EC-ITC gun was established while providing indirect testing results for an FEL injector.

  18. Deadly Experience: The Association Between Firing a Gun and Various Aspects of Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Capron, Daniel W

    2017-09-04

    Firearms account for half of all U.S. suicide deaths, but research on mechanisms through which firearms confer risk is limited. Although research has indicated firearm ownership and the unsafe storage of firearms are associated with an elevated risk of suicide, such research cannot provide insight into the extent to which a history of using a gun plays a role. We recruited a community sample (N = 100; 76% female; 44% Black) oversampled for prior suicidal behavior in a high gun ownership state (Mississippi). Consistent with hypotheses, a greater number of lifetime experiences of firing a gun were associated with elements of the capability for suicide (fearlessness about death, pain tolerance, pain persistence) and lifetime suicide attempts, but not with suicide ideation or simple pain detection. These findings indicate that guns may confer risk of suicide in part through increased comfort and aptitude with the weapon, a notion consistent with the construct of practical capability. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with research indicating that guns do not cause healthy individuals to become suicidal, but rather increase risk among already suicidal individuals. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of considering practical experience with guns as well as simple ownership and storage methods. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  19. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways.

  20. Access to a Loaded Gun Without Adult Permission and School-Based Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simckes, Maayan S; Simonetti, Joseph A; Moreno, Megan A; Rivara, Frederick P; Oudekerk, Barbara A; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race. Of 10,704 participants, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.6%) reported gun access. Compared with nonbullied students, those who reported traditional bullying (PR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4), cyberbullying (PR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-4.9), and both (PR = 5.9; 95% CI: 4.6-7.7) were more likely to also report gun access. Adolescents who experience bullying, particularly those who report both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, are more likely to report access to a loaded gun without adult permission. These findings highlight the importance of developing interventions focused on these modifiable risk factors for preventing self-directed or interpersonal violence among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Guns, anger, and mental disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally-representative estimates of the co-occurrence of pathological anger traits and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States have anger traits and also possess firearms at home (10.4%) or carry guns outside the home (1.6%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of anger traits with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental-health-related legal restrictions on firearms due to involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population. PMID:25850688

  2. Broadening the Perspective on Gun Violence: An Examination of the Firearms Industry, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria M; Siegel, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Ross, Craig S; Galea, Sandro; Kalesan, Bindu; Fleegler, Eric; Goss, Kristin A

    2017-11-01

    Firearm violence injures or kills 100,000 Americans each year. This paper applies the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment model to this issue. Research on firearm violence tends to focus on two elements-the host (i.e., victims of firearm violence) and the environment (i.e., gun policies)-but little attention has been paid to the agent (the gun and ammunition) or the vector (firearm manufacturers, dealers, and the industry lobby). Using Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives data, trends in firearm manufacturing were investigated from 1990 to 2015. Outcome measures included: (1) trends in domestic gun manufacturing by weapon type; (2) trends in production by firearm caliber; and (3) 2015 market share by type of firearm and company. Data were collected and analyzed in 2016. Overall domestic firearms production decreased slightly from 1996 through 2004, and then steadily increased from 1.7% in 2005 to 13.8% in 2013, when >10 million firearms were produced for the domestic market. The increase in total firearm production was driven by the increased production of pistols and rifles. Within the pistol category, increased production was attributable to an increase in higher caliber weapons. Similar trends were observed in gun purchases and recovered and traced crime guns. Trends in firearm manufacturing reveal a shift toward more-lethal weapons, and this trend is also observed in gun purchases and crime gun traces. This may reflect a societal shift in cultural practices and norms related to guns and could inform strategies to reduce firearm violence. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Modern Korean Nation, Tan’gun, and Historical Memory in Late Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-ja Kim

    2014-01-01

    Tan’gun was the symbol of a community connected by blood that accompanied the image of unity and purity in Korean history. It played a major role in the development and settlement of a homogenous nationalism, defining Koreans as descendants of Tan’gun and therefore members of a “single” ethnic group. “Tan’gun” was also at the center of the process of creating a modern nation. Historically in each period, the “symbolic” Tan’gun moved with its own life force and performed various functions apar...

  4. Gun Violence Following Inpatient Psychiatric Treatment: Offense Characteristics, Sources of Guns, and Number of Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J

    2017-10-01

    This study presents data on the relative contribution to gun violence by people with a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment and on federal efforts to deter presumptively dangerous persons from obtaining firearms, information useful for analyzing the potential public health benefits of gun policies targeting people with serious mental illness. The study also estimates the reduction in gun violence victims that would be expected if individuals with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were prohibited from purchasing firearms. Data from 838 violent gun offenders from a nationally representative sample of state prison inmates were analyzed. Those with and without a history of psychiatric hospitalization were compared on a range of offense characteristics, including relationship to the victim, number of victims, location of the offense, and source of firearms. Inmates with a history of hospitalization constituted 12% of all violent gun offenders and accounted for 13% of the sample's victims. They were less likely than those without a previous hospitalization to victimize strangers (odds ratio=.52) and were no more likely to commit gun violence in public or to have multiple victims. Among those with previous hospitalizations, 78% obtained guns from sources not subject to federal background checks. Of the total 1,041 victims of gun violence, only 3% were victimized by participants with a history of hospitalization who obtained guns from currently regulated sources. Prohibiting all individuals with a history of psychiatric hospitalization from purchasing firearms, absent expanded background checks, was estimated to reduce the number of gun violence victims by only 3%.

  5. The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland's gun tracing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Deane; Dodge, Andrea Craig; Journel, Coraline S; Zahnd, Elaine

    2005-12-01

    In response to Oakland, California's high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition among urban youth. The advocacy project involved gathering, analyzing, and using police record and gun sale/registration data to inform policy and practice. Such data were collected for all gun crimes committed in Oakland, California between 1998 and 1999 in which a juvenile was either the suspect or the victim. The 213 cases involved 263 juveniles of which 170 were suspects/perpetrators and 93 were victims. Suspects as well as victims were predominantly male and African American. The 213 cases involved 132 recovered guns. Only 55% of the cases were traced to a federally licensed dealer. Three-quarters of the guns were purchased near Oakland, California. Successful traces, defined as the ability to identify federally licensed dealers and initial purchasers, were completed on only 52 of the 132 guns, demonstrating systemic tracing difficulties. Data gathered for the project was used to advocate for numerous policy changes. Recommended policy strategies include initiating a comprehensive gun tracing program so police can track all secondary sales, new laws requiring federal handgun registration which would track ownership changes, required reporting of stolen firearms, and providing effective intervention services to all juveniles the first time they enter the criminal justice system.

  6. Playing at Violence: Lock-down Drills, "Bad Guys" and the Construction of "Acceptable" Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Katherine K.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how acceptable play was framed for a class of pre-Kindergarten children by their teacher and classroom aide. Using comic subjectivity theory [Zupancic, A. (2008). "The odd one in: On comedy." Cambridge: MIT Press], the author explores how children's playing at pretend violence (bad guy and pretend gun play) is…

  7. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.

  8. One nanosecond pulsed electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1979-02-01

    At SLAC there has been a continuous need for the injection of very short bunches of electrons into the accelerator. Several time-of-flight experiments have used bursts of short pulses during a normal 1.6 micro-second rf acceleration period. Single bunch beam loading experiments made use of a short pulse injection system which included high power transverse beam chopping equipment. Until the equipment described in this paper came on line, the basic grid-controlled gun pulse was limited to a rise time of 7 nanoseconds and a pulse width of 10 nanoseconds. The system described here has a grid-controlled rise time of less than 500 pico-seconds, and a minimum pulse width of less than 1 nanosecond. Pulse burst repetition rate has been demonstrated above 20 MHz during a 1.6 microsecond rf accelerating period. The order-of-magnitude increase in gun grid switching speed comes from a new gun design which minimizes lead inductance and stray capacitance, and also increases gun grid transconductance. These gun improvements coupled with a newly designed fast pulser mounted directly within the gun envelope make possible subnanosecond pulsing of the gun

  9. Simple light gas guns for hypervelocity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Milora, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two-stage light guns are used extensively in hypervelocity research. The applications of this technology include impact studies and special materials development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two-stage guns that accelerate small projectiles (4-mm nominal diameter) to velocities of up to ∼5 km/s. These guns are relatively small and simple (thus, easy to operate), allowing a significant number of test shots to be carried out and data accumulated in a short time. Materials that have been used for projectiles include plastics, frozen isotopes of hydrogen, and lithium hydride. One gun has been used to demonstrate repetitive operation at a rate of 0.7 Hz; and, with a few design improvements, it appears capable of performing at firing frequencies of 1--2 Hz. A schematic of ORNL two-stage device is shown below. Unlike most such devices, no rupture disks are used. Instead, a fast valve (high-flow type) initiates the acceleration process in the first stage. Projectiles can be loaded into the gun breech via the slide mechanism; this action has been automated which allows repetitive firing. Alternatively, the device is equipped with ''pipe gun'' apparatus in which gas can be frozen in situ in the gun barrel to form the projectile. This equipment operates with high reliability and is well suited for small-scale testing at high velocity. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  11. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  12. Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

  13. DC photoemission electron guns as ERL sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Charles K.

    2006-01-01

    Very-high-voltage DC electron guns, delivering moderate duration bunches from photoemission cathodes, and followed by conventional drift bunching and acceleration, offer a practical solution for an ERL injector. In a variant of this scheme, a DC gun is placed in close proximity to a superconducting RF accelerator cavity, with few or no active elements between the gun and cavity. The principal technical challenge with such electron guns arises from field emission from the cathode electrode and its support structure. Field emission may result in voltage breakdown across the cathode-anode gap, or a punch-through failure of the insulator holding off the cathode potential, as well as lesser though still serious problems. Various means to mitigate these problems are described. The operational lifetime of high quantum efficiency photocathodes in these guns is determined by the vacuum conditions, through phenomena such as chemical poisoning and ion back-bombardment. Minimization of the field strength on electrode structures pushes high-voltage DC guns toward large dimensions and, correspondingly, large outgassing loads, but it is also true that these guns offer many opportunities for achieving excellent vacuum conditions. Good solutions to vacuum problems that had previously limited cathode lifetime have been demonstrated in recent years. Designs for DC guns presently in use and planned for the near future will be described. The parameters necessary for a 100 mA average current, very-high-voltage DC gun with a photocathode operational lifetime greater than 100 h appear to be within reach, but have yet to be demonstrated. A 1 A average current source with good cathode operational lifetime will require developments beyond the present state-of-the-art

  14. Gun ownership and firearm-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Messerli, Franz H

    2013-10-01

    A variety of claims about possible associations between gun ownership rates, mental illness burden, and the risk of firearm-related deaths have been put forward. However, systematic data on this issue among various countries remain scant. Our objective was to assess whether the popular notion "guns make a nation safer" has any merits. Data on gun ownership were obtained from the Small Arms Survey, and for firearm-related deaths from a European detailed mortality database (World Health Organization), the National Center for Health Statistics, and others. Crime rate was used as an indicator of safety of the nation and was obtained from the United Nations Surveys of Crime Trends. Age-standardized disability-adjusted life-year rates due to major depressive disorder per 100,000 inhabitants with data obtained from the World Health Organization database were used as a putative indicator for mental illness burden in a given country. Among the 27 developed countries, there was a significant positive correlation between guns per capita per country and the rate of firearm-related deaths (r = 0.80; P guns per capita per country and crime rate (r = .33), or between mental illness and crime rate (r = 0.32; P = .11). In a linear regression model with firearm-related deaths as the dependent variable with gun ownership and mental illness as independent covariates, gun ownership was a significant predictor (P guns per capita per country was a strong and independent predictor of firearm-related death in a given country, whereas the predictive power of the mental illness burden was of borderline significance in a multivariable model. Regardless of exact cause and effect, however, the current study debunks the widely quoted hypothesis that guns make a nation safer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and development of a pierce electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, D.; Tiwari, R.; Nayak, B.; Tillu, A.R.; Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R.L.; Mittal, K.C.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    An electron gun is designed and developed using the Pierce configuration for the focusing electrode. Simulations were carried out using CST Particle Studio. The Gun is a thermionic type electron gun with indirect heating of the LaB6 cathode. The gun is capable of delivering a beam current of 500 mA at 50 kV with a beam size of less than 3.5 mm. It was tested on the gun test bench. This paper presents the gun design, particle simulations study, testing of the gun on test bench and integration with the ECIL 9 MeV linac. (author)

  16. Performance of the Brookhaven photocathode rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.G.; Leung, K.P.; Malone, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Tsang, T.; Sheehan, J.; Ulc, S.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Zhang, R.S.; Lin, L.Y.; McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P.; Hung, C.M.; Wang, X.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) uses a photocathode rf gun to provide a high-brightness electron beam intended for FEL and laser-acceleration experiments. The rf gun consists of 1 1/2 cells driven at 2856 MHz in π-mode with a maximum cathode field of 100 MV/m. To achieve long lifetimes, the photocathode development concentrates on robust metals such as copper, yttrium and samarium. We illuminate these cathodes with a 10-ps, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. We describe the initial operation of the gun, including measurements of transverse and longitudinal emittance, quantum efficiencies, and peak current. The results are compared to models

  17. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  18. Advances in DC photocathode electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B. M.; Hartmann, P.; Kazimi, R.; Liu, H.; Poelker, B. M.; Price, J. S.; Rutt, P. M.; Schneider, W. J.; Sinclair, C. K.

    1999-01-01

    At Jefferson Lab, a DC photoemission gun using GaAs and GaAs-like cathodes provides a source of polarized electrons for the main accelerator. The gun is required to produce high average current with long operational lifetimes and high system throughput. Recent work has shown that careful control of the parameters affecting cathode lifetime lead to dramatic improvements in source operation. These conditions include vacuum and the related effect of ion backbombardment, and precise control of all of the electrons emitted from the cathode. In this paper, we will review recent results and discuss implications for future photocathode guns

  19. Advances in DC photocathode electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B.M.; Hartmann, P.; Kazimi, R.; Liu, H.; Poelker, B.M.; Price, J.S.; Rutt, P.M.; Schneider, W.J.; Sinclair, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    At Jefferson Lab, a DC photoemission gun using GaAs and GaAs-like cathodes provides a source of polarized electrons for the main accelerator. The gun is required to produce high average current with long operational lifetimes and high system throughput. Recent work has shown that careful control of the parameters affecting cathode lifetime lead to dramatic improvements in source operation. These conditions include vacuum and the related effect of ion backbombardment, and precise control of all of the electrons emitted from the cathode. In this paper, we will review recent results and discuss implications for future photocathode guns. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Advances in DC photocathode electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham M, Bruce; Heartmann, P.; Reza Kazimi; Hongxiu Liu; Poelker, B.M.; Price, J.S.; Rutt, P.M.; Schneider, W.J.; Sinclair K, Charles

    1998-01-01

    At Jefferson Lab, a DC photoemission gun using GaAs and GaAs-like cathodes provides a source of polarized electrons for the main accelerator. The gun is required to produce high average current with long operational lifetimes and high system throughout. Recent work has shown that careful control of the parameters affecting cathode lifetime lead to dramatic improvements in source operation. These conditions include vacuum and the related effect of ion back-bombardment, and precise control of all of the electrons emitted from the cathode. In this paper, the authors will review recent results and discuss implications for future photocathode guns

  1. "Is there a gun in the home?" Assessing the risks of gun ownership in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinholt, Ellen M; Mitchell, Joshua D; Butler, Jane H; Kumar, Harjinder

    2014-06-01

    An important ethical and safety concern that geriatricians, primary care providers, and home health professionals need to address is gun ownership by elderly adults. Those aged 65 and older now have the highest rate of gun ownership in America, and they also have a high prevalence of depression and suicide. Dementia can add additional layers of risk. Even older gun owners who are otherwise intellectually intact may benefit from information about gun safety with the increasing numbers of children being cared for by grandparents. Health professionals should ask patients, "Is there a gun in the home?" in the clinic and during home visits. Healthcare professionals must have knowledge and skills to address safe gun ownership in elderly adults. The 5 L's (Locked, Loaded, Little children, feeling Low, Learned owner) will assist professionals in addressing all aspects of safe ownership. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Camouflaged Collectives: Managing Stigma and Identity at Gun Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Blithe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gun violence persists in the United States, claiming lives and escalating healthcare costs. This article seeks to contribute to social justice work on the “gun problem” by studying gun collectives. To understand gun culture and to identify gun violence reduction strategies, we study places where gun owners organize – legal (and sometimes illegal settings that facilitate dialogue about gun issues. Based on participant observation and collaborative event ethnography at gun shows and a private shooting party, this analysis presents findings about the practices gun collective members use to manage stigma. We conclude that when participants in gun events attempt to subvert core stigma through everyday stigma management practices, they effectively facilitate the unfettered exchange of potentially dangerous goods, promote the invisibility of oppressive structures, and normalize violence.

  3. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  4. Geophysical investigation of the pressure field produced by water guns at a pond site in La Crosse, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan F.; Morrow, William S.

    2015-09-03

    Three different geophysical sensor types were used to characterize the underwater pressure waves generated by the underwater firing of a seismic water gun and their suitability for establishing a pressure barrier to potentially direct or prevent the movement of the Asian carps. The sensors used to collect the seismic information were blast rated hydrophones and underwater blast sensors. Specific location information for the water guns and the sensors was obtained using either laser rangefinders or differentially corrected global positioning systems (GPS).

  5. Women and gun violence: Key Findings from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), San Salvador (El Salvador) and Maputo (Mozambique)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rita; Roque, Sílvia; Araújo, Sara; Moura, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Since men constitute the majority of those who use and are victimised by guns worldwide, prevention and combat policies and programmes have been aimed almost exclusively at men and boys, paying scant attention to the roles and impacts of gun violence on women and girls. However, the continuum of violence experienced by women and girls in these contexts is a synthesis of the main social ingredients of violence and its cultural basis. Thus, alongside sound knowledge of men’s and boys’ involveme...

  6. Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun.

  7. Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun

  8. Gun- and Non-Gun-Related Violence Exposure and Risk for Subsequent Gun Carrying Among Male Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Jordan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Allison, Paul; Infante, Arynn; Pardini, Dustin

    2018-04-01

    Although studies have found that youth exposed to violence are more likely to carry guns than non-exposed youth, this association could be due to common causal factors or other pre-existing differences between individuals. In this study, within-individual change models were used to determine whether juvenile offenders exhibit an increased propensity to carry a firearm after being exposed to gun violence and/or non-gun violence. The advantage of this approach is all time-invariant factors are eliminated as potential confounders. A sample of 1,170 racially/ethnically diverse male juvenile offenders was recruited in Arizona and Pennsylvania (14-19 years old at recruitment). Participants were interviewed every 6 months for 3 years followed by 4 annual assessments. The outcome was gun carrying and the primary predictors were exposure to gun violence and non-gun violence. Time-varying covariates included exposure to peers who carried guns, exposure to peers who engaged in other (non-gun) criminal acts, developmental changes in gun carrying, and changes in gun carrying from incarceration or institutionalization. Adolescent offenders were significantly more likely to carry a gun in recall periods after exposure to gun violence, but not after exposure to non-gun violence. Effect of gun violence on carrying was significant throughout adolescence and young adulthood and could not be accounted for by time-varying and time-invariant confounders. Interventions to decrease illegal gun carrying should target young men in medical and mental health settings who experience or witness gun violence and those living in communities with high rates of gun violence. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Uudised : Guns N' Roses Soomes. Valmis ulmeraadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika hard-rock-bändi Guns N' Roses kontserdist 5. juulil Hartwall Areenal Soomes. Kord kuus on Ulmeplaatide kodulehekülel www. ulmeplaadid.ee võimalus kuulata ulmeraadiot, kus esitusel eesti kergemuusika

  10. Mass Shootings, Mental Illness, and Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  11. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  12. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathe, E

    2002-01-01

    .... The sonic RArefaction waVE low recoil guN (RAVEN) is a novel invention to dramatically reduce the gas momentum contribution to recoil with absolutely no reduction in me ballistic efficiency of launch...

  13. Prestressed Carbon Fiber Composite Overwrapped Gun Tube

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littlefield, Andrew; Hyland, Edward

    2006-01-01

    .... Using composite materials not only directly removes weight from the gun tube but, by better balancing the tube, allows the use of smaller drive systems, thus further enhancing the system weight loss...

  14. Cost Estimate for Gun Liner Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    the gun tube. (The Rowan cost estimate includes the extra thermal soak for the explosive bonding process.) The cost for the extra stress relief... nuts for optimum performance. GUIDANCE SYSTEM:  Cylinder guidance is provide by the rod bushing

  15. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  16. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  17. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  18. Electrothermal plasma gun as a pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, R.W.; Bourham, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The NCSU electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS has been used to accelerate plastic (Lexan polycarbonate) pellets, to determine the feasibility of the use of electrothermal guns as pellet injectors. The use of an electrothermal gun to inject frozen hydrogenic pellets requires a mechanism to provide protective shells (sabots) for shielding the pellet from ablation during acceleration into and through the barrel of the gun. The gun has been modified to accommodate acceleration of the plastic pellets using special acceleration barrels equipped with diagnostics for velocity and position of the pellet, and targets to absorb the pellet's energy on impact. The length of the acceleration path could be varied between 15 and 45 cm. The discharge energy of the electrothermal gun ranged from 2 to 6 kJ. The pellet velocities have been measured via a set of break wires. Pellet masses were varied between 0.5 and 1.0 grams. Preliminary results on 0.5 and 1.0 g pellets show that the exit velocity reaches 0.9 km/s at 6 kJ input energy to the source. Higher velocities of 1.5 and 2.7 km/s have been achieved using 0.5 and 1.0 gm pellets in 30 cm long barrel, without cleaning the barrel between the shots

  19. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  20. Are "goods for guns" good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan; Damle, Rachelle N; Kasper, Rebecca E; Violano, Pina; Manno, Mariann; Nazarey, Pradeep P; Aidlen, Jeremy T; Hirsh, Michael P

    2017-08-01

    Gun violence remains a leading cause of death in the United States. Community gun buyback programs provide an opportunity to dispose of extraneous firearms. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographics, motivation, child access to firearms, and household mental illness of buyback participants in hopes of improving the program's effectiveness. A 2015 Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback program which collaborated with local police departments was studied. We administered a 23-item questionnaire survey to gun buyback participants assessing demographic characteristics, motivation for relinquishing firearms, child firearm accessibility, and mental illness/domestic violence history. A total of 186 individuals from Central/Western Massachusetts turned in 339 weapons. Participants received between US $25 and US $75 in gift cards dependent on what type of gun was turned in, with an average cost of $41/gun. A total of 109 (59%) participants completed the survey. Respondents were mostly white (99%), men (90%) and first-time participants in the program (85.2%). Among survey respondents, 54% turned in firearms "for safety reasons." Respondents reported no longer needing/wanting their weapons (47%) and approximately one in eight participants were concerned the firearm(s) were accessible to children. Most respondents (87%) felt the program encouraged neighborhood awareness of firearm safety. Three of every five participants reported that guns still remained in their homes; additionally, 21% where children could potentially access them and 14% with a history of mental illness/suicide/domestic violence in the home. Gun buybacks can provide a low-cost means of removing unwanted firearms from the community. Most participants felt their homes were safer after turning in the firearm(s). In homes still possessing guns, emphasis on secure gun storage should continue, increasing the safety of children and families. The results of this survey also provided new

  1. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  3. Relationship between licensing, registration, and other gun sales laws and the source state of crime guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D W; Vernick, J S; Hepburn, L M

    2001-09-01

    To determine the association between licensing and registration of firearm sales and an indicator of gun availability to criminals. Tracing data on all crime guns recovered in 25 cities in the United States were used to estimate the relationship between state gun law categories and the proportion of crime guns first sold by in-state gun dealers. In cities located in states with both mandatory registration and licensing systems (five cities), a mean of 33.7% of crime guns were first sold by in-state gun dealers, compared with 72.7% in cities that had either registration or licensing but not both (seven cities), and 84.2% in cities without registration or licensing (13 cites). Little of the difference between cities with both licensing and registration and cities with neither licensing nor registration was explained by potential confounders. The share of the population near a city that resides in a neighboring state without licensing or registration laws was negatively associated with the outcome. States with registration and licensing systems appear to do a better job than other states of keeping guns initially sold within the state from being recovered in crimes. Proximity to states without these laws, however, may limit their impact.

  4. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  5. The hired gun expert witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M

    1994-04-01

    This article briefly discusses the role of the expert physician witness at trial and describes what is emerging as the physician professional witness (AKA hired gun). The trial court's powers to evaluate the professionalism and objectivity of an expert witness are examined in light of a recent Western District Missouri Court of Appeals case. This case, while limited to its peculiar set of facts, permitted both a hearing and production of documents of a physician who had been hired to testify. This article reviews the role of the expert physician witness in Missouri litigation in light of recent caselaw outlining discovery procedures to monitor use of professional witnesses. The term "professional witness" does not refer to witnesses who are professionals, but rather to persons who make their entire living witnessing. The Missouri Court of Appeals ruling in State ex rel. Lichtor v. Clark, 845 S.W.2d (Mo.App. W.D. 1992) elucidates the Missouri Courts' authority in sorting out unprofessional physicians who would offer unobjective expert testimony. While this particular article is intended for medical readership and discusses expert physician witnesses, expert witnesses can come from any profession including engineering, accounting, nursing, etc. It might thus be assumed that the Lichtor Court's procedure may be applied to any expert whose objectivity has been put into question.

  6. Large-area cold-cathode grid-controlled electron gun for Antares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlett, W.R.; Andrews, K.; Jansen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The CO 2 laser amplifiers used in the Antares inertial confinement fusion project require large-area radial beams of high-energy electrons to ionize the laser medium before the main discharge pulse is applied. We have designed a grid-controlled, cold-cathode electron gun with a cylindrical anode having a window area of 9.3 m 2 . A full diameter, 1/4 length prototype of the Antares gun has been built and tested. The design details of the Antares electron gun will be presented as well as test results from the prototype. Techniques used for the prevention and control of emission and breakdown from the grid will also be discussed

  7. Guns, Culture or Mental Health? Framing Mass Shootings as a Public Health Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFoster, Ruth; Swalve, Natashia

    2017-08-25

    In recent years, public health scholars and policymakers have been calling for increased research on the public health implications of gun violence. However, scientific research on this issue has been stifled by a 1996 budget rider that eliminated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) funding for gun research. In this study, we examined newspaper coverage of three mass shootings that took place over a 20-year period before and after the passage of this budget rider. We found that sources and frames provided by news media to contextualize gun violence shifted markedly over time, progressing from episodic and individual-level frames to broader thematic societal-level concerns, with increased discussion of mental health but limited discourse explicitly related to public health.

  8. The relationship between gun ownership and firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2013-11-01

    We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy-the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm-and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides.

  9. News Media Framing of Serious Mental Illness and Gun Violence in the United States, 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W.; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and “dangerous people” with SMI were more likely than “dangerous weapons” to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  10. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence.

  11. A mixed-method evaluation of the New York State Eat Well Play Hard Community Projects: Building local capacity for sustainable childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kaydian S; Sekhobo, Jackson P; Gantner, Leigh A; Holbrook, MaryEllen K; Allsopp, Marie; Whalen, Linda B; Koren-Roth, Amy

    2018-04-01

    This study used a mixed-method, comparative case study approach to assess the level of capacity built for childhood obesity prevention among seven New York State Eat Well Play Hard-Community Projects (EWPH-CP). Data were collected through a self-reported survey in 2007, semi-structured interviews in 2009, and EWPH-CP program documentation throughout the 2006-2010 funding cycle. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used along with an integrative framework for assessing local capacity building to characterize the capacity built by the study coalitions. Four coalitions rated membership characteristics as a challenge at the beginning of the funding cycle. Towards the end of the funding cycle, all seven coalitions reported activities that were initially focused on building their membership (i.e., member capacity) or positive working relationships (i.e. relational capacity), before eventually pursuing support and resources (i.e., organizational capacity) for implementing their chosen community-oriented programmatic goals (i.e., programmatic capacity). Five coalitions reported environmental changes aimed at increasing physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake. Technical assistance provided to coalitions was credited with contributing to the achievement of programmatic goals. These results suggest that the coalitions succeeded in building local capacity for increasing age-appropriate physical activity or fruit and vegetables intake in the target communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  13. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  14. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  15. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  16. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  17. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision and u...

  18. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  19. Progress of the Rossendorf SRF Gun Project

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Büttig, H; Janssen, D; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Möller, K; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Xiang, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. The project aims at several issues: improvement of the beam quality for the ELBE superconducting electron linac, demonstration of feasibility of this gun type, investigation of critical components, and parameter studies for future application (BESSY-FEL, 4GLS). In 2005, a substantial progress has been made. The two 3.5-cell niobium cavities for the gun have been delivered from the company ACCEL. The main parts for gun cryostat like vacuum vessel, cryogenic and magnetic shields are ready. Test benches for the cathode cooling system and the cavity tuner are being assembled. The photo cathode preparation lab has been arranged, and the diagnostic beam line has been designed (see T. Kamps et al., this conference). After delivering the gun cavities, their rf properties are being measured at room temperature and the warm tuning is being carried out. The set-up for this treatment and measurement as well as...

  20. Association Between Gambling and Exposure to Guns Among Cocaine-Using Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddiparti, Krishna; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the association between gambling severity and exposure to guns among substance-using women recruited in the community. Data for these analyses come from the baseline phase of two community-based HIV prevention interventions conducted among alcohol and drug-using women in St. Louis, MO. Gun exposure was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), and DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule; The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-IV substance dependence, including cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence. Women in the study were predominantly African American (80%), mean age was 35.70 years ±8.8. Women exposed to guns were significantly more likely than women not exposed to guns to have gambled with all consequences: without meeting PG criteria (21% vs. 15%); to meet 1 to 4 PG criteria (22% vs. 12%), and to report 5 or more PG criteria (10% vs. 5%). These differences were significant at p  gambled without PG symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.10-2.85) were nearly twice more likely to have exposure to guns than women who did not gamble. The risk for gun exposure increased with severity of gambling. Women who gambled and reported one to four PG criteria were twice as likely to have had an exposure to guns (OR 2.04; 95% CI = 1.45-3.06) and this risk increased to nearly threefold among women who met five or more criteria of PG (OR 2.65; 95% CI = 1.32-5.32). In addition, endorsing five or more criteria for major depressive disorder (OR 1.44; 95% CI = 1.00-2.06) and three or more criteria for antisocial personality adult criteria (OR 3.78; 95% CI = 2.03-7.02) were strong predictors for gun exposure among these women. The findings indicate that substance-using women with gambling behavior are at an enhanced risk to have exposure to guns.

  1. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Gun safety strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transcript040918.html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Gun safety strategies : 04/09/2018 To use the ... on weekly topics. An evidence-based, public health gun safety strategy that is consistent with second amendment ...

  2. Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel (PP 1074)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusch, Lawrence F

    2003-01-01

    ...) PP 1074 Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel. The program's goal was to develop an environmentally friendly process for depositing wear and erosion resistant materials onto gun bores replacing the current hazardous aqueous electro-deposition...

  3. Simple gun for vapor deposition of organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A simple evaporation gun for preparing organic thin films was fabricated using commercially available parts of an electron gun for a TV Braun tube. The device permits sample heating to be easily controlled because of the small heat capacity

  4. Pulser for the Tevatron electron lens gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iouri Terechkine et al.

    2004-05-18

    To compensate for beam-beam interaction in Tevatron, an ''electron lens'' is considered to be an effective instrument. When a bunch of electrons with energy in the range (10-16) kV is overlapping with a bunch of antiprotons, the resulting focusing force for antiprotons can be adjusted by changing the electron beam current and by profiling its radial distribution. There exist several scenarios of how the system must function. According to one of them, an electron gun that supplies electrons must be fed by voltage pulses that follow with the frequency of antiproton bunches circulating in the Tevatron, which is about 2.5 MHz. To provide focusing tailored for each individual antiproton bunch, a modulator of the gun (pulser) must allow pulse-to-pulse voltage change. This report will cover main approaches to a design of a pulser for use with the gun of the Tevatron Electron Lens.

  5. Photocathode operation of a thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, S.; Cutic, N.; Lindau, F.; Werin, S.; Curbis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The thermionic RF gun using a BaO cathode at the MAX-lab linac injector has been successfully commissioned for additional operation as a photocathode gun. By retaining the BaO cathode, lowering the temperature below thermal emission and illuminating it with a UV (263 nm) 9 ps laser pulse a reduced emittance and enhanced emission control has been achieved. Measurements show a normalised emittance of 5.5 mm mrad at 200 pC charge and a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.1x10 -4 . The gun is now routinely switched between storage ring injections in thermionic mode and providing a beam for the MAX-lab test FEL in photocathode mode.

  6. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  7. Interpreting the Empirical Evidence on Illegal Gun Market Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Anthony A.; Wintemute, Garen J.; Pierce, Glenn L.; Cook, Philip J.; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in ad...

  8. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  9. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... the future of public libraries, especially in relation to children as a particular user group. This paper explores play culture, and takes a stance especially in the project ‘Families at play in the library’, but also in experiences from related projects. The focus is on families playing together...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  10. The design of gridded pierce guns for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is vital to employ ultra-laminar beams in electron linacs to maximize charge transport to the target. This paper presents numerical and experimental design techniques which have led to significant improvements in gridded Pierce guns used in microwave tubes and electron linacs. The paper concludes with two gun/injector concepts which have demonstrated enhanced performance over standard triode Pierce guns

  11. Youth, Guns, and the Juvenile Justice System. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey; Coggeshall, Mark; Gouvis, Caterina; Mears, Daniel; Travis, Jeremy; Waul, Michelle; White, Ruth

    This report documents trends in youth gun violence and the response within the justice system, noting the growing variety of data resources available to investigate the effect of new gun laws on youth, communities, and public safety. The first section reviews recent trends, examining the major wave of gun violence in the United States during the…

  12. Klystron - Space-charge limited flow, guns, Perveance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper treats Thermionic emission, Cathode as an e - emitter, Space-charge limited effect and 3/2 power law, Perveance, Beam spread due to space charge, Pierce guns, Magnetically immersed guns, Method of gun design including simulations, and Examples, mainly treating E3786, which attendees will operate above 1 MW-CW in a practical exercise course at KEK. (author). 74 refs

  13. Should Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools? Perspectives of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gun-related injuries and deaths among children occur at disproportionately high rates in the United States. Children who live in homes with guns are the most likely victims. This study describes teachers' views on whether gun safety should be taught to children in the preschool and elementary years. Methods: A total of 150 survey…

  14. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1615] Review of Gun Safety...'s Plan to reduce gun violence released on January 16, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office... emerging gun safety technologies and plans to issue a report on the availability and use of those...

  15. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  16. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  17. Study of Control Grid Thermionic Cathode RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Jin; Ming, Li; Xinfan, Yang; Xumin, Shen; Yanan, Chen; Zhou, Xu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the beam loading effect of RF Gun was analyzed. To minimize the energy spread, the grid control RF Gun was introduced. The result shows that the grid congrol RF Gun can increase electron beam within 1% energy spread.

  18. Guns, Impulsive Angry Behavior, and Mental Disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Sampson, Nancy A; Petukhova, Maria V; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Swartz, Marvin S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-06-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally representative estimates of the co-occurrence of impulsive angry behavior and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States self-report patterns of impulsive angry behavior and also possess firearms at home (8.9%) or carry guns outside the home (1.5%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of angry behavior with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been involuntarily hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental health-related legal restrictions on firearms resulting from a history of involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-12-15

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring. Copyright © 2011 Buchanan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  2. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  3. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our......t: This paper presents reflections on the role of teachers as facilitators, in a context of role-play targeting learning of design thinking skills. Our study was conducted according to the method of visual ethnography. We acted as facilitators for 50 students through the yearly six-day competitive...... event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...

  4. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  5. Green plasticizers for multibase gun propellants (Lecture)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, C.; Driel, C.A. van; Zebregs, M.

    2007-01-01

    TNO Defence, Security and Safety has a long history of research on gun propellants. Areas investigated are formulating (new ingredients, optimization), manufacturing, charge design and lifetime assessment [1,2,3,4,5]. In conventional propellants inert plasticizers are used to alter performance,

  6. Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. Ronny; Nanni, Emilio A.; Ravi, Koustuban; Hong, Kyung-Han; Fallahi, Arya; Wong, Liang Jie; Keathley, Phillip D.; Zapata, Luis E.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond electron bunches with keV energies and eV energy spread are needed by condensed matter physicists to resolve state transitions in carbon nanotubes, molecular structures, organic salts, and charge density wave materials. These semirelativistic electron sources are not only of interest for ultrafast electron diffraction, but also for electron energy-loss spectroscopy and as a seed for x-ray FELs. Thus far, the output energy spread (hence pulse duration) of ultrafast electron guns has been limited by the achievable electric field at the surface of the emitter, which is 10 MV/m for DC guns and 200 MV/m for RF guns. A single-cycle THz electron gun provides a unique opportunity to not only achieve GV/m surface electric fields but also with relatively low THz pulse energies, since a single-cycle transform-limited waveform is the most efficient way to achieve intense electric fields. Here, electron bunches of 50 fC from a flat copper photocathode are accelerated from rest to tens of eV by a microjoule THz pulse with peak electric field of 72 MV/m at 1 kHz repetition rate. We show that scaling to the readily-available GV/m THz field regime would translate to monoenergetic electron beams of ~100 keV. PMID:26486697

  7. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  8. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...

  9. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  10. College Students Opinions on Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rhonda K; LoCurto, Jamie; Brown, Kyrah; Stowell, David; Maryman, J'Vonnah; Dean, Amber; McNair, Thoi; Ojeda, Debbie; Siwierka, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence and control issues have become serious public health problems. This study gathered the opinions from 419 college students from a Midwestern University. Participants were asked about beliefs about purchasing assault weapons, beliefs about bringing handguns to college campuses and beliefs about contributing factors that lead to gun violence. Participants completed surveys online. The findings showed that overall 54 % of respondents believed that military assault weapons should be banned and 53 % agree that teachers should be allowed to carry a registered handgun on campus. There were statistically significant differences between males and females on these issues. For instance, females believed military assault weapons and high capacity magazines should be banned more than 1.9 times (p = .004) p gun violence were decline in parenting and family values (17 %), gang involvement (14 %), bullying (13.8 %) and guns being easy to obtain (13.8 %). Limitations and implications for policy work are discussed.

  11. Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

  12. Issue Management and the Australian Gun Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Examines the rise and fall of media coverage of the issues of gun control and political conflict in Australia after an incident of mass murder in April 1996. Aims to reveal the issue management process that occurred and the hidden agendas that motivated the political and media activity. Demonstrates the media's role in the creation of issue…

  13. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Chris Hedeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self-inflicted or a criminal act.

  14. Development of the Antares electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, R.; Leland, W.; Mansfield, C.; Rosocha, L.; Jansen, J.; Gibson, R.; Allen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Antares is the Los Alamos National Laboratory 40-kJ, 1-ns, CO 2 laser system that is now operational. This laser system was developed for the Intertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and is beginning target experiments. The distributed circuit modeling, design and operation of the large electron gun developed for the final laser power amplifier are reviewed. This gun is significant because of the large electron current area, 9 m 2 ; the number of emitter blades, 48; the dual cathode current return; and the coaxial geometry and grid control. The gun components and their development are discussed. These include the emitter blades, the coaxial grid (to maintain constant electron current during the 5-μs pulse), the bonded stacked-ring insulator (to electrically insulate the grid/cathode), the Kapton/aluminum electron transmission windows (to provide an interface between gun vacuum and laser gas) and the vacuum shell (operated at a vacuum of 10 -6 torr). A unique pressure diagnostic is also discussed

  15. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  16. Safety Plan for Schools: No Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    In a pre-emptive move against a school safety proposal from the National Rifle Association that is expected to include a call for more people trained and approved to carry guns at schools, a coalition of civil rights and education groups unveiled its own safety plan last week. It seeks the creation of positive school climates, thoughtful and…

  17. Accidental Bolt Gun Injury to Femur - A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kattimani, Ravi Prasad; Shetty, Sanath; Mirza, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bolt gun or slaughterer?s guns are used in meat industry for ?humane killing? of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. Case Report: A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm...

  18. Development of the electron gun control system of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dayong; Lin Guoqiang; Liu Dekang; Shen Liren

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun is the key part of a linac, the beam quality of which depends on beam quality of the electron gun, hence the need of a stable control system of the electron gun to ensure its safe operation.In this paper, we report our progresses in developing the linac's electron gun control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). It uses PLC as the device controllers, with the monitoring software developed on EPICS. The whole system is connected by Ethernet. The PLC and Ethernet technology ensures good reliability and easy maintenance of the electron gun control system. (authors)

  19. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  20. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  1. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  2. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  3. Beyond the Academic Journal: Unfreezing Misconceptions About Mental Illness and Gun Violence Through Knowledge Translation to Decision-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla

    2015-06-01

    In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Storage Practices of US Gun Owners in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crifasi, Cassandra K; Doucette, Mitchell L; McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2018-04-01

    To examine gun storage practices and factors influencing those practices among gun owners. We conducted a nationally representative online survey of US gun owners (n = 1444) in 2016 to assess gun storage practices and attitudes, factors influencing storage practices, and groups that might effectively communicate regarding safe storage. We generated descriptive statistics by using cross-tabulations and used logistic regression to estimate characteristics that influenced safe storage practices. Forty-six percent of gun owners reported safely storing all of their guns. Factors associated with higher odds of reporting safe storage were having a child in the home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.03), only owning handguns (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.24, 2.73), and reporting that storage decisions were influenced by a gun safety course (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54, 2.74) or discussions with family members (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.86). Gun owners ranked law enforcement, hunting or outdoors groups, active-duty military, and the National Rifle Association as most effective in communicating safe storage practices. Public health campaigns to promote safe gun storage should consider partnering with groups that garner respect among gun owners for their experience with safe use of guns.

  5. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities....... Those artefacts are recent examples of the history of mass-production, mass-distribution, and mass-consumption of music. Since children do get into touch with the mass-phenomenon of popular music and artists, concerns may be articulated that this can have problematic effects on children’s lives. By help...... of, among others, Marx Wartofsky’s artefact theory, the article tries to get beyond “black-or-white” prejudices concerning technologies and their limited insight; this is done by suggesting to focus on the children’s own perspectives and how music-play activities may be meaningful in relation...

  7. State gun safe storage laws and child mortality due to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, P; Grossman, D C; Rivara, F P; Koepsell, T D

    1997-10-01

    Since 1989, several states have passed laws that make gun owners criminally liable if someone is injured because a child gains unsupervised access to a gun. These laws are controversial, and their effect on firearm-related injuries is unknown. To determine if state laws that require safe storage of firearms are associated with a reduction in child mortality due to firearms. An ecological study of firearm mortality from 1979 through 1994. All 50 states and the District of Columbia. All children younger than 15 years. Unintentional deaths, suicides, and homicides due to firearms. Laws that make gun owners responsible for storing firearms in a manner that makes them inaccessible to children were in effect for at least 1 year in 12 states from 1990 through 1994. Among children younger than 15 years, unintentional shooting deaths were reduced by 23% (95% confidence interval, 6%-37%) during the years covered by these laws. This estimate was based on within-state comparisons adjusted for national trends in unintentional firearm-related mortality. Gun-related homicide and suicide showed modest declines, but these were not statistically significant. State safe storage laws intended to make firearms less accessible to children appear to prevent unintentional shooting deaths among children younger than 15 years.

  8. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Occupational ...

  9. Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers Impact Report: Advances in protecting children's health where they live, learn, and play

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1997, EPA and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) partnered to form the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers. This impact report summarizes the history of the program, scientific findings since the program's incept...

  10. The Dynamics of Projectiles Launched by a Two-Stage Light-Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    7 2.6 Pressure Blow-By ........................................................................ 7 2.7 Ballating ...The relatively snug fit of the projectile in the bore also prevents the model from ballating as it travels down the barrel. The friction between the...and allowing more freedom for the unwanted ballating motion. The design of the model/sabot and the gas gun attempts to satisfy dual and often

  11. Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A; Riedy, Christine; Dowd, M Denise; Villaveces, Andres; Prodzinski, Janice; Nakagawara, Jon; Howard, John; Thiersch, Norman; Harruff, Richard

    2005-02-09

    Household firearms are associated with an elevated risk of firearm death to occupants in the home. Many organizations and health authorities advocate locking firearms and ammunition to prevent access to guns by children and adolescents. The association of these firearm storage practices with the reduction of firearm injury risk is unclear. To measure the association of specific household firearm storage practices (locking guns, locking ammunition, keeping guns unloaded) and the risk of unintentional and self-inflicted firearm injuries. Case-control study of firearms in events identified by medical examiner and coroner offices from 37 counties in Washington, Oregon, and Missouri, and 5 trauma centers in Seattle, Spokane, and Tacoma, Wash, and Kansas City, Mo. CASES AND CONTROLS: Case firearms were identified by involvement in an incident in which a child or adolescent younger than 20 years gained access to a firearm and shot himself/herself intentionally or unintentionally or shot another individual unintentionally. Firearm assaults and homicides were excluded. We used records from hospitals and medical examiners to ascertain these incidents. Using random-digit dial telephone sampling, control firearms were identified by identification of eligible households with at least 1 firearm and children living or visiting in the home. Controls were frequency matched by age group and county. The key exposures of interest in this study were: (1) whether the subject firearm was stored in a locked location or with an extrinsic lock; (2) whether the firearm was stored unloaded; (3) whether the firearm was stored both unloaded in a locked location; (4) whether the ammunition for the firearm was stored separately; and (5) whether the ammunition was stored in a locked location. Data regarding the storage status of case and control guns were collected by interview with respondents from the households of case and control firearms. We interviewed 106 respondents with case firearms and

  12. Instantaneous current and field structure of a gun-driven spheromak for two gun polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, S.; Nagata, M.

    2002-12-01

    The instantaneous plasma structure of the SPHEX spheromak is determined here by numerically processing data from insertable Rogowski and magnetic field probes. Data is presented and compared for two modes of gun operation: with the central electrode biased positively and negatively. It is found that while the mean-, or even instantaneous-, field structure would give the impression of a roughly axisymmetric spheromak, the instantaneous current structure does not. Hundred per cent variations in J measured at the magnetic axis can be explained by the rotation of a current filament that has a width equal to half of the radius of the flux-conserving first wall. In positive gun operation, current leaves the filament in the confinement region leading to high wall current there. In negative gun operation, wall current remains low as all injected current returns to the gun through the plasma. The plasma, in either instance, is strongly asymmetric. We discuss evidence for the existence of the current filament in other gun-driven spheromaks and coaxial plasma thrusters.

  13. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  14. Electrical parameters of projectile stun guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Wayne C; Benwell, Andrew; Kovaleski, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Projectile stun guns have been developed as less-lethal devices that law enforcement officers can use to control potentially violent subjects, as an alternative to using firearms. These devices apply high voltage, low amperage, pulsatile electric shocks to the subject, which causes involuntary skeletal muscle contraction and renders the subject unable to further resist. In field use of these devices, the electric shock is often applied to the thorax, which raises the issue of cardiac safety of these devices. An important determinant of the cardiac safety of these devices is their electrical output. Here the outputs of three commercially available projectile stun guns were evaluated with a resistive load and in a human-sized animal model (a 72 kg pig).

  15. Area source electron gun uniformity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, YaFeng; Chang, BenKang; Sun, LianJun; Zhang, JunJu; Gao, YouTang; Fu, RongGuo

    2008-02-01

    Fluorescence screen of Image intensifier is the key part to imaging quality of micro light and ultraviolet Image intensifier. To research the performance testing and analysis of Fluorescence screen seems more important in China. The research will help to understand the performance of Fluorescence screen, know where improvement should be made and then a best performance entire tube will be achieved. This article will do the theory analysis to part of testing instrument, area source electron gun's uniformity. Electron gun consists of taper tantalum filament, vacuum environment and axial symmetry high pressure static field. The uniformity of hot electron emission of filament has been analyzed. Upon that, this article will specially analyze the uniformity of electron in the effective area after they go through the axial symmetry high pressure static field and get accelerated.

  16. Impact of Firearm Availability and Gun Regulation on State Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine; Hamilton, David; Wang, Katy

    2016-12-01

    Past studies on suicide have investigated the association of firearm ownership and suicide risk in the United States. The aim of the present study was to build on previous work by examining the impact of firearm storage practices and the strictness of firearm regulation on suicide rates at the state level. Data were compiled from primarily three sources. Suicide and firearm ownership information was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strictness of handgun regulation was derived from figures available at the Law Center to Prevent Violence, and controls were taken from the US Bureau of the Census. Mixed models were fitted to the data. Household firearm ownership was strongly associated with both suicide by all mechanisms, and firearm suicide. Storage practices had especially elevated consequences on suicide rates. Percent with loaded guns and gun readiness increased suicide rates, and strictness of gun regulation reduced suicide rates. Ready access to firearms can make a difference between life and death. Loaded and unlocked firearms within reach become risk factors for fatal outcomes from suicidal behavior. Future research might want to examine ways of obtaining more recent data on individual firearm ownership. This study proposes several policy recommendations for suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  18. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 9 (2012), s. 1715-1719 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : permanent magnet * cylindrical magnet * Earnshaw's theorem * magnet ic gun * magnet ostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885311008997

  19. Analysis of a Rail Gun Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    similar, at least superficially, to ball lightning . This observation prompted a review of ball lightning phenomena to determine if the mechanisms...responsible for the propagation of ball lightning might be relevant for rail gun arcs. Unfortunately, due to the rare and unpredictable occurrence...of ball lightning , there is little experimental data available. The "data" which does exist consists of descriptions, or photographs at best, of

  20. Gun Laws and Crime: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viren

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...

  1. Co-axial electrodes gun characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, M.M.; Soliman, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial electrodes gun is constructed with inner electrode diameter of 3.2 cm; outer electrode diameter of 6.6 cm and length of 25 cm it is connected to a condenser bank which delivers 4 K joule stored energy. The maximum power of the discharge is equal to 4.5x10 4 K watt; for 5 KV charging voltage. The inductance showed two main peak values of 0.257μH and 0.27μH. Theoretical calculations using one-dimension-single fluid model is μ sed, which shows that the maximum acceleration is at 0.5 sec, and the gas breakdown takes place at the gun breech; at the start of the discharge, will leave the gun after 1.625μ sec, also the drift velocity, the force and the magnetic field are given. The measured results show quite reasonable agreement with the calculations for most of the results, and the position of the plasma sheath inside the gun slightly deviated from the theoretical calculations due to viscosity and wall interaction, as well as other parameters which did not be take into consideration. The plasma current density of the sheath has its maximum value at Z=18 cm, the plasma will leave the coaxial source after 1.5μ sec, from the start of the discharge, which conferms with the theoretical model. Resistance of the gas between the electrodes, changes with time according to the particle injected from this source, and the maximum efficiency of the installation for charging voltage 5kV and pressure 80μ Hg is at approx.=10μ sec and 20.5μ sec

  2. Advanced Technology for Naval Gun Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    Principal Engineer, Materials Technology, TRW Eo.uipment Group, TRW, Inc., 23555 Euclid Avenue. Cleve- land. Ohio 44117, Mr, Karl H, Meyer , Ordnance...barrels by the Army during World War II. The centri- fugal casting technique requires special facilities that are useful for no other purpose. Many...laboratory tests as well as scale - model gun-ammunition systems to permit, at reasonable cost, a correlation of the factors as well as the

  3. THE IMPROVEMENT AND APPLICATION OF EI-GUN (ELECTRICAL INSEMINATION GUN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI USING GOAT FRESH SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsa Ita Dewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Insemination Gun (EI-GUN was a tool for Artificial Insemination (AI using fresh semen with an electric control system. The research objective was to produced EI-GUN for AI using fresh semen on small ruminants (goat. The research was conducted from March to June 2015. The process of EI-GUN creation implemented in Design and Prototype Laboratory and Aero Modeling Research Laboratory at Engineering Faculty, University of Brawijaya (UB. Testing tools EI-GUN on goat was conducted in the Sumber Sekar Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, UB.  The methods of research were literature study, tool specification determination, designing EI-GUN, running test, semen evaluation passed EI-GUN and application on Goat. EI-GUN has seven important parts, which supports each other in this operating system. Those parts consist of stylet, servo, system controlled, insemination pump, connecting rod, battery, and holder. EI-GUN work system sucked the semen into insemination pump as much as 5 ml, and release the semen 0.25 ml appropriate standard of AI. It was applicable for 20 times AI. The results showed that the cell motility of spermatozoa ≥ 70% were still in ranging of Indonesian National Standard (SNI.   Keywords: artificial insemination, EI-GUN, fresh semen.

  4. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D

    2008-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements of

  5. Beam-Based Procedures for RF Guns

    CERN Document Server

    Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Grabosch, H J; Hartrott, Michael; Hui Han, Jang; Miltchev, Velizar; Oppelt, Anne; Petrosyan, Bagrat; Staykov, Lazar; Stephan, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A wide range of rf photo injector parameters has to be optimized in order to achieve an electron source performance as required for linac based high gain FELs. Some of the machine parameters can not be precisely controlled by direct measurements, whereas the tolerance on them is extremely tight. Therefore, this should be met with beam-based techniques. Procedures for beam-based alignment (BBA) of the laser on the photo cathode as well as solenoid alignment have been developed. They were applied at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) and at the photo injector of the VUV-FEL at DESY Hamburg. A field balance of the accelerating mode in the 1 ½ cell gun cavity is one of the key beam dynamics issues of the rf gun. Since no direct field measurement in the half and full cell of the cavity is available for the PITZ gun, a beam-based technique to determine the field balance has been proposed. A beam-based rf phase monitoring procedure has been developed as well.

  6. Experimental Studies of Electrothermal Plasma Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diab, F.B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the capillary plasma discharge dynamics and characteristics. The capillary plasma device is a new technology for producing high density plasma after ablating the capillary wall using a pulsed electric power. An Electrothermal Plasma Gun (ETG) is composed of a capillary discharge tube made of Teflon operated with simple RLC circuit. The device called Electrothermal Gun (ETG) which is composed of 4 capacitors (70 μF, 10 kV, 1.28 μH) connected in parallel to a plasma source by means of one high power supply. The gun was operated in open air at discharge energies between 35 J - 3.5 kJ according to charging voltage. The work presented in this thesis covers the following items, 1- Measurements of the basic parameters and characterizations of the pretest results of the electrical circuits and capillary plasma discharge using Rogowski coil, voltage probe and Photomultiplier. 2- Material processing including (physics of the surface modifications, the morphology of the surface by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at different conditions, compositions of the materials by using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Micro hardness test and material particle deposition.

  7. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kamps, T; Goldammer, K; Krämer, Dietrich; Kuske, P; Kuszynski, J; Lipka, D; Marhauser, F; Quast, T; Richter, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration between BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of an CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 pi mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies be...

  8. Status and future prospects of SRF gun developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichert, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    While the concepts of DC and normal-conducting photo-injectors are well proofed, the SRF gun development still possesses a high risk. Challenges are the thermal and contaminant isolation needed between the cathode and superconducting cavity, the choice of the right photocathode and its life time, the difficulty of coupling high-average power into the gun, and beam excitation of higher order cavity modes. But in combination with SRF linacs, the SRF guns are the best solution for high current and CW operation. Thus, several R and D projects of SRF gun have been launched. The talk will give an overview of the history and progress of the SRF gun development. In more detail the technical concept, performance, and status of the Rossendorf superconducting RF gun project, a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, MBI and FZR, will be presented. (author)

  9. Spheromak experiment using separate guns for formation and sustainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Martin, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment is described that incorporates the use of separate magnetized plasma guns for formation and sustainment of a spheromak. It is shown that energy coupling efficiency approaches unity if the gun and spheromak are of comparable size. A large gun should be able to operate at lower current and therefore lower voltage. In addition, it is expected that a gun matched to the size of the spheromak will cause less perturbation to the equilibrium. It is proposed to use a smaller gun for spheromak formation and a large, efficient gun for sustainment. The theoretical basis for the experiment is developed, and the details of the experiment are described. A prediction of the equilibrium magnetic flux surfaces using the EFIT code is presented. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Childhood risk factors associated with adolescent gun carrying among Black and White males: An examination of self-protection, social influence, and antisocial propensity explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Jordan; Docherty, Meagan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Pardini, Dustin

    2018-04-01

    Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys. Analyses then examined whether racial differences in risk factors accounted for racial differences in gun carrying. Data came from a sample of 485 Black and White boys who were repeatedly assessed from 2nd grade until age 18. Multi-informant data collected across the first 3 years of the study were used to assess neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems. Illegal gun carrying was assessed annually from 5th grade through age 18. Growth curve analyses indicated that children with higher initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement, as well as those who increased in conduct problems across childhood, were more likely to carry a gun prior to age 18. Black boys were also more likely to carry guns than Whites. Racial differences were greatly reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement. Findings suggest that early prevention programs designed to reduce adolescent gun violence (including racial disparities in gun violence) should target boys with severe conduct problems and those who affiliate with delinquent peers during elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sar-El, H.Z.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepansis in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory. (orig.)

  12. Continuity and Change in the American Gun Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Zimring, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    My paper traces the debates about firearms control over the three decades since I became involved in gun research in the late 1960s. The circumstances of public discourse about guns in the late 1960s were rich in sentiment and almost completely lacking in empirical data. Questions of firearms control were only episodically important at the national level, and the administration of federal gun laws was of minuscule importance prior to 1968.

  13. A flow cryostat for cooling of eight independent pipe guns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Hansen, J.E.; Sass, B.

    1991-01-01

    A flow cryostat allowing independent cooling of eight pipe guns in a multishot deuterium pellet injector is described. The pipe guns are placed symmetrically around the flow cryostat and with a liquid helium consumption of 4-5 l/h the cooling is sufficient for simultaneous formation of eight...... pellets at 8-9 K with a diameter of 2.1 mm containing up to 8 x 10(20) atoms/pellet. The thermal interaction between the eight pipe guns is sufficiently low to allow successive firing of the guns with time intervals of up to 1 s....

  14. The use of a musical play in the transfer of knowledge on nutrition, a healthy lifestyle and the prevention of obesity / K. Kruger.

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Karlien

    2010-01-01

    Background: South Africa is experiencing a unique double burden of disease due to the nutrition transition, facing diseases related to both under and over nutrition. Childhood obesity is associated with a poor childhood diet, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Promoting healthy eating and physical activity is important. Promoting healthy eating patterns and regular activity are essential components of lifestyle modification of children. An obesity prevention programme with elements ...

  15. Brief use of a specific gun in a violent game does not affect attitudes towards that gun

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the question of whether violent video games increase aggressive behaviour, little attention has been paid to how such games might encourage antecedents of gun violence. In this study, we examined how product placement, the attractive in-game presentation of certain real-world firearm brands, might encourage gun ownership, a necessary antecedent of gun violence. We sought to study how the virtual portrayal of a real-world firearm (the Bushmaster AR-15) ...

  16. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  17. Prevention is Better than Cure: A Hands-On, Play-Based, Innovative, Health and Well-Being Program in Remote Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lis Mathiasen

    2014-01-01

    A key to improving the quality of life in remote communities is the empowerment of children who are at health and educational risk. Between 2002 and 2009, at a remote Aboriginal school, students and community members participated in an innovative, play-based health and well-being program aimed at helping children to become self-determining and responsible for their own health and well-being. Holistic in its approach, and broad in its scope, the multi-faceted program encompassed the fundamenta...

  18. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  19. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; McGinty, E Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M

    2015-05-01

    This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms-related fatalities. Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  1. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J. E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R. E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R. H.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, F.

    2007-01-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of ≥200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while ≥500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns

  2. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.; Zhou, F.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of (ge)200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while (ge)500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns

  3. Perancangan Sistem Kontrol PID Untuk Pengendali Sumbu Elevasi Gun Pada Turret-Gun Kaliber 20 Milimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Kunto Ariwibowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertahanan negara pada hakikatnya adalah segala upaya pertahanan yang bersifat semesta yang didasarkan pada kesadaran atas hak dan kewajiban warga negara serta keyakinan pada kekuatan sendiri dengan tujuan untuk menjaga dan melindungi kedaulatan negara, keutuhan wilayah NKRI dan keselamatan segenap bangsa. Salah satu alat pendukung pertahanan yaitu senjata laras panjang, Turret-Gun.  Adapun langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam merancang pengendali PID Turret-Gun kaliber 20mm ini diawali dengan studi literatur serta studi lapangan mengenai mekanisme dan parameter-parameter yang terdapat pada Turret-Gun pada sumbu elevasi. Setelah itu dilakukan perancangan transmisi dan sistem kontrol Turret-Gun untuk dievaluasi grafik responnya yang akan digunakan sebagai acuan untuk merancang pengendali PID yang sesuai. Selanjutnya pengendali PID yang telah dirancang lalu disimulasikan, sehingga menghasilkan grafik respon yang sesuai dengan kriteria yang dibutuhkan. Hasil yang telah didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah konstanta PID yang direkomendasikan untuk , , dan secara berturut-turut adalah sebesar 23061.024, 37820.07 dan 3515.4 yang menghasilkan transient response dengan nilai overshoot sebesar 19.9 % , steady state error sebesar 0 % serta settling time sebesar 0.935 detik. Hasil analisa kestabilan untuk sistem kontrol dengan konstanta PID tersebut menunjukkan bahwa sistem kontrol telah stabil, baik menggunakan metode Root Locus maupun metode Routh-Hurwitz.

  4. Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases the Bias to See Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.; Brockmole, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypes, expectations, and emotions influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action-perception interactions, however, there is another unexplored factor that may be critical: The action choices available to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another…

  5. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-01-01

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10 -12 Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to ∼10 -9 Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high accelerating

  6. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  7. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  8. Electron gun simulation with CST PARTICLE STUDIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachmann, Holger; Becker, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces CST PARTICLE STUDIO TM , a specialist tool for the fast and accurate design and analysis of 3D electron guns. The new software is based on the multi-purpose electromagnetic solvers of the CST STUDIO family and incorporates their powerful modelling capabilities as well as successful algorithms of the MAFIA-TS simulators. The underlying theory of the PBA based field solvers and the used tracking technique is presented and some examples of application demonstrate the current status of the software

  9. Guns and Crime: Protection versus Peril. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many Americans, terrified of violent crime, attempt to protect themselves by owning guns. However, statistics provided in this brief fact sheet reveal that people who choose to have a gun easily available are in fact putting their families and friends into greater danger since far more homicides occur during domestic arguments than during…

  10. Study and realization of an electron gun at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, P.

    1977-01-01

    This work presents the theoretical concepts and experimental design of an electron gun. This gun is working in the weak energy range and the focus position is independant of electron energy measurements and analysis methods of the electron beam are described [fr

  11. A 3 GHz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Dehler, M; Godot, J C

    1996-01-01

    For the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) at CERN a new rf gun with a laser driven photocathode is under construction. The new rf gun will replace the present 11/2 cell gun and will consist of 21/2 cells accelerating the beam to a momentum of 7.0 MeV/c with an electric field strength of 100 MV/m. The strong space-charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches are contained by radial and longitudinal rf focusing in the gun. The rf gun under construction has been optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating rf structure and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 21/2 cell gun. The beam loading of the rf gun, by a train of 48 bunches with 21 nC charge each, causes a strong energy decay accompanied by an increase of the flight time for the bunches with lower energy. These effects can be corrected by slightly shifting the acceleration frequency of the gun. The experimental results...

  12. Characterization of an Electron Gun for Hollow Electron Beam Collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Siqi [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Hollow electron beam collimation (HEBC) is a new technique developed to complement conventional beam collimation system to remove beam halo in a controlled fashion. We study the characteristics of the electron gun that produces the hollow electron beam. Cathode yield and beam profile measurements are used to extract information on gun performance. Results of characteristic measurements are presented.

  13. Guns and Fear: A One-Way Street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Will; Kleck, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Surveys show that more than one half of gun owners report owning their firearm for self-protection. Although research has examined the effect of fear of crime on gun ownership, the issue of reciprocity and temporal order has been largely ignored. Furthermore, the effect of firearm acquisition and relinquishment on fear has not been evaluated…

  14. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  15. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  16. Everyday Engineering: What Makes a Squirt Gun Squirt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    You may not think of engineering and squirt guns in the same sentence. However, like many examples of engineering design, the squirt gun pump mechanism is uncomplicated, yet elegant, and very inexpensive to manufacture. The design is widely used because of its simplicity and low cost. With only a few moving parts, it is able to deliver a stream of…

  17. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  18. Grip-pattern recognition: Applied to a smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.

    2008-01-01

    In our work the verification performance of a biometric recognition system based on grip patterns, as part of a smart gun for use by the police ocers, has been investigated. The biometric features are extracted from a two-dimensional pattern of the pressure, exerted on the grip of a gun by the hand

  19. The gun control system of the IFUSP microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malafronte, A.A.; Takahashi, J.; Bonini, A.L.; Martins, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    A thermionic gun control system has been developed for the IFUSP microtron. The control system, which is composed of a dedicated microcomputer, A/D converter, grid pulser, filament and grid power supplies, is kept at a high voltage potential. The gun parameters are handled through a PC computer at ground potential via fiber-optic link. (orig.)

  20. Modelling multi-ion plasma gun simulations of Tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    The effect of impurity ions in plasma gun ablation tests of various targets is considered. Inclusion of reasonable amounts of impurity (∼10%) is adequate to explain observed energy transmission and erosion measurements. The gun tests and the computer code calculations are relevant to the parameter range expected for major disruptions on large tokamaks

  1. Therminoic gun control system for the CEBAF injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Yunn

    2001-01-01

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  3. Particle transport and gas feed during gun injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T K.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that ion and neutral transport during gun injection tends to equalize the density in the spheromak to that in the open-line current channel. Since a gun operating at or near the ion saturation current requires a minimum density, because of transport these gun requirements also determine a minimum density in the spheromak that increases as the field increases. Hence attaining high fields by gun injection sets lower limits on the density, which in turn limits the temperature of the plasma and increases its ohmic resistance. Estimates of these effects are given using 0-D models calibrated to CTX, as guidance to 2-D UEDGE calculations in progress. For gun power levels in SSPX and the Pulsed Spheromak reactor, we find that buildup persists to the highest field levels of interest

  4. An rf modulated electron gun pulser for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, R.; Hartline, R.

    1991-01-01

    Present linac injector designs often make use of sub-harmonic prebuncher cavities to properly bunch the electron beam before injection into a buncher and subsequent accelerating cavities. This paper proposes an rf modulated thermionic gun which would allow the sub-harmonic buncher to be eliminated from the injector. The performance parameters for the proposed gun are 120 kV operating voltage, macropulse duration-single pulse mode 2 nsec, multiple pulse mode 100 nsec, rf modularing frequency 500 MHz, charge per micropulse 0.4 nC, macropulse repetition frequency 10 Hz (max). The gun pulser uses a grid modulated planar triode to drive the gun cathode. The grid driver takes advantage of recently developed modular CATV rf drivers, high performance solid state pulser devices, and high-frequency fiber optic transmitters for telecommunications. Design details are presented with associated SPICE runs simulating operation of the gun

  5. Prevention is Better than Cure: A Hands-On, Play-Based, Innovative, Health and Well-Being Program in Remote Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Mathiasen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A key to improving the quality of life in remote communities is the empowerment of children who are at health and educational risk. Between 2002 and 2009, at a remote Aboriginal school, students and community members participated in an innovative, play-based health and well-being program aimed at helping children to become self-determining and responsible for their own health and well-being. Holistic in its approach, and broad in its scope, the multi-faceted program encompassed the fundamentals of personal hygiene; understanding of body systems; the importance of nutrition, hydration, sleep and exercise; brain care; the biology of emotions, with particular emphasis on anger management and the critical interplay between emotions and behavior; the impact of substances of abuse on the brain; as well as the Hospital Familiarization Program (HFP which prepares children for planned and unplanned hospitalization. Program outcomes included improved school attendance and student engagement; increased community awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle; improved self-concept, self-esteem and self-confidence; as well as increased respect and caring for self and others. A reduction in children’s fear and anxiety when facing hospitalization and visits to the doctor was also evident. Each year, 12,500 children throughout Western Australia enjoy the benefits of the HFP.

  6. Prevention is Better than Cure: A Hands-On, Play-Based, Innovative, Health and Well-Being Program in Remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Lis

    2014-10-16

    A key to improving the quality of life in remote communities is the empowerment of children who are at health and educational risk. Between 2002 and 2009, at a remote Aboriginal school, students and community members participated in an innovative, play-based health and well-being program aimed at helping children to become self-determining and responsible for their own health and well-being. Holistic in its approach, and broad in its scope, the multi-faceted program encompassed the fundamentals of personal hygiene; understanding of body systems; the importance of nutrition, hydration, sleep and exercise; brain care; the biology of emotions, with particular emphasis on anger management and the critical interplay between emotions and behavior; the impact of substances of abuse on the brain; as well as the Hospital Familiarization Program (HFP) which prepares children for planned and unplanned hospitalization. Program outcomes included improved school attendance and student engagement; increased community awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle; improved self-concept, self-esteem and self-confidence; as well as increased respect and caring for self and others. A reduction in children's fear and anxiety when facing hospitalization and visits to the doctor was also evident. Each year, 12,500 children throughout Western Australia enjoy the benefits of the HFP.

  7. Correlates of gun-carrying among adolescents in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, S J; Farley, T A; Powell, K E; Rolka, H R; Horan, J M

    1996-01-01

    In the majority of episodes of fatal interpersonal violence, the weapon used is a firearm. Amid frequent reports of youths carrying weapons, including firearms, we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for being charged with gun-carrying and gun-carrying, per se, among adolescents in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. Cases were defined as incidents of gun-carrying among adolescents juvenile court from January 1, 1992, through April 15, 1993. For each case, we randomly drew three age-, gender-, and school-matched control subjects from the enrollment rosters of the Jefferson Parish public schools and administered a questionnaire. The data set comprised 38 case subjects and 103 matched control subjects. Thirty (29%) control subjects reported gun-carrying. Both case subjects and gun-carrying control subjects reported self-defense (40%) as the main reason for gun-carrying. Most case subjects (25 [66%]) were African Americans, but only 8 (27%) gun-carrying and 27 (37%) non-gun-carrying control subjects were African Americans. Case subjects were significantly more likely than gun-carrying control subjects to report being African American (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6, 17.5). In crude analyses, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, to foresee a likelihood to be shot in school, to have seen a shooting, to use marijuana, to watch television > 6 hours per day, and to be African American. After the effect estimates were adjusted in conditional logistic regression modeling, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, using marijuana, and watching television > 6 hours per day (OR = 8.6, 95% CI = 1.2, 61,2; OR = 11.7, 95% CI = 2, 70.2; and OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 51.9, respectively). Gun-carrying control subjects were significantly more likely than

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be ... play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure sores among ...

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigations of a 17 GHz RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, W J; Kreischer, K E; Pedrozzi, M; Shapiro, M A; Temkin, R J

    1999-01-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical investigations of a 17 GHz RF photocathode electron gun. This is the first photocathode electron gun to operate at a frequency above 2.856 GHz. The 1.5 cell, pi mode, copper cavity was tested with 50 ns pulses from a 17.150 GHz klystron amplifier built by Haimson Research Corp. A Bragg filter was used at the RF gun to reduce the reflection of parasitic modes back into the klystron. Coupling hole theory in conjunction with cold test measurements was used to determine the field profile in the RF gun. The particle in cell code MAGIC as well as coupled envelope equations were used to simulate the beam dynamics in the RF gun. With power levels of 4 MW, the on axis electric field at the cathode exceeds 300 MV/m, corresponding to an average accelerating gradient of 200 MV/m over the first half cell of the gun. Breakdown was observed at power levels above 5 MW. Electron bunches were produced by 20 mu J, 1 ps UV laser pulses impinging on the RF gun copper photocathode and were...

  10. The PLX- α Plasma Guns: Progress and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Cruz, E.; Luna, M.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; LANL PLX-α Team

    2017-10-01

    The ALPHA coaxial plasma guns are being developed to support a 60-gun scaling study of spherically imploding plasma liners as a standoff driver for plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF). Seven complete guns have been delivered to LANL with 6 guns currently undergoing simultaneous test firings on PLX. The guns are designed to operate over a range of parameters: 0.5-5.0 mg of Ar, Ne, N2, Kr, and Xe; 20-60 km/s; 2 × 1016 cm-3 muzzle density; and up to 7.5 kJ stored energy per gun. Each coaxial gun incorporates a fast dense gas injection and triggering system, a compact low-weight pfn with integral sparkgap switching, and a contoured coaxial gap to suppress the blow-by instability. Optimizing parameter scans performed at HyperV have achieved : 4 mg at >50 km/s and length of 10 cm. Peak axial density 30 cm from the muzzle is 2 ×1016 cm-3. We will provide an overview of the experimental results, along with plans for further improvements in reliability, maintainability, fabricability, and plasma jet performance, with the latter focused on further improvements in the fast gas valve and the ignitors. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program under contract DE-AR0000566 and Strong Atomics, LLC.

  11. Law enforcement officers' opinions about gun locks: anchors on life jackets?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne-Beasley, T; Johnson, R

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—One way law enforcement officers support firearm safety is by promoting the use of gun locks. This investigation examined law enforcement officers' willingness to use gun locks on their own guns, as well as their opinions regarding gun locks in general.

  12. Comparison of two programs to teach firearm injury prevention skills to 6- and 7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatheridge, Brian J; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Huneke, Daniel F; Satterlund, Melisa J; Mattern, Amanda R; Johnson, Brigette M; Flessner, Christopher A

    2004-09-01

    Each year, hundreds of children unintentionally kill or injure other children while playing with firearms in the United States. Although the numbers of these deaths and injuries are distressing, few prevention programs have been developed to prevent gun play among children. This study compared the efficacy of 2 programs designed to prevent gun play among young children. A posttest-only, control group design with 2 treatment groups was used. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups or a control group. For all children who did not exhibit the skills after training, 1 in situ (ie, real-life situation) training session was conducted. Participant recruitment, training sessions, and assessments were all conducted in the children's after-school program facility. Forty-five children, 6 or 7 years of age, were recruited for participation. The efficacy of the Eddie Eagle GunSafe Program, developed by the National Rifle Association, and a behavioral skills training program that emphasized the use of instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback was evaluated. The criterion firearm safety behaviors included both motor and verbal responses, which were assessed in a naturalistic setting and then assigned a numerical value based on a scale of 0 to 3. Both programs were effective for teaching children to verbalize the safety skills message (don't touch the gun, get away, and tell an adult). However, children who received behavioral skills training were significantly more likely to demonstrate the desired safety skills in role-playing assessments and in situ assessments than were children who received Eddie Eagle program training. In addition, in situ training was found to be effective for teaching the desired safety skills for both groups of children. Injury prevention programs using education-based learning materials are less effective for teaching children the desired safety skills, compared with programs incorporating active learning approaches (eg, modeling

  13. Rail gun of thermonuclear pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Ryuichi; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Oda, Yasutsugu.

    1993-01-01

    A rail gun of a thermonuclear pellet injection device using Lorentz force comprises rails constituted with materials of high melting point/low work function and a gas supply system for supplying low ionization/voltage gases into the rails to convert the gases into plasma armature. The low ionization voltage gases are converted into the plasma armature to decrease the resistance of the plasmas and suppress temperature elevation as Joule's heat and lower plasma temperature. Further, on the surface of the rails on the side of the cathode, since the rails are damaged by collision of positive ions due to voltage lowering, the rails on the side of the cathode are constituted with materials of low work function, as the countermeasure therefore, which facilitates emission of heat electrons from the surface of the cathode. With such procedures, thermal damages to the rail can be reduced. (N.H.)

  14. Analysis of gun barrel rifling twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Chen, Guangsong; Qian, Linfang; Liu, Taisu

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of gun barrel rifling twist, the constraint relation between rifling and projectile is investigated. The constraint model of rifling and projectile is established and the geometric relation between the twist and the motion of projectile is analyzed. Based on the constraint model, according to the rotating band that is fired, the stress and the motion law of the rotating band in bore are analyzed. The effects to rotating band (double rotating band or wide driving band) caused by different rifling (rib rifling, increasing rifling and combined rifling) are also investigated. The model is demonstrated by several examples. The results of numerical examples and the constraint mode show that the uncertainty factors will be brought in the increasing rifling and combined rifling during the projectile move in the bore. According to the amplitude and the strength of the twist acting on rotating band, the steady property of rotational motion of the projectile, the rib rifling is a better choose.

  15. Smart Gun Technology project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    The goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user form firing a law officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing (or {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes}) surety technologies. This project was funded by the National Institute of Justice. This report lists the findings and results of the project`s three primary objectives. First, to find and document the requirements for a smart firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. Second, to investigate, evaluate, and prioritize technologies that meet the requirements for a law enforcement officer`s smart firearm. Third, to demonstrate and document the most promising technology`s usefulness in models of a smart firearm.

  16. Laser photo-cathode RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2006-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advanced research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (author)

  17. Projectile Balloting Attributable to Gun Tube Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse motion of a projectile during launch is detrimental to firing accuracy, structural integrity, and/or on-board electronics performance of the projectile. One manifest contributing factor to the undesired motion is imperfect bore centerline straightness. This paper starts with the presentation of a deterministic barrel model that possesses both vertical and lateral deviations from centerline in accordance with measurement data, followed by a novel approach to simulating comprehensive barrel centerline variations for the investigation of projectile balloting^1 motions. A modern projectile was adopted for this study. In-bore projectile responses at various locations of the projectile while traveling through the simulated gun tubes were obtained. The balloting was evaluated in both time and frequency domains. Some statistical quantities and the significance were outlined.

  18. Summary, Working Group 1: Electron guns and injector designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Bazarov, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the proceedings of Working Group 1 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Workshop. The subject of this working group, the electron gun and injector design, is arguably the most critical part of the ERL as it determines the ultimate performance of this type of accelerators. Working Group 1 dealt with a variety of subjects: The technology of DC, normal-conducting RF and superconducting RF guns; beam dynamics in the gun and injector; the cathode and laser package; modeling and computational issues; magnetized beams and polarization. A short overview of these issues covered in the Working Group is presented in this paper

  19. Function of bunching segment in multi-cell RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xingfan; Xu Zhou Liu Xisan

    2001-01-01

    With a bunching segment and a shortened first cell, the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun produced in CAEP has been proved experimentally to be effective in reducing electron back bombardment. The analysis of the electric field distribution and electron motion in bunching segment of multi-cell RF gun is presented. The electron capture efficiency and electron trajectory with different initial phase are calculated using Runge-Kutta method. The function of the bunching segment is discussed. The calculated parameters of the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun agree well with the experimental results

  20. The properties of on-axis coupled structure RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Koike, H; Tanabe, E

    2000-01-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI) has developed the compact IR FEL device, which adopts a combination of a newly designed RF gun with a thermionic cathode and an alpha-magnet as an injector. The accelerating mode of the S-band RF gun is a pi/2 standing wave mode. The coupling cell is located on the beam axis, the so-called on-axis coupled structure (OCS). The cavity shape was designed by using electromagnetic field analytical codes. The OCS RF gun was manufactured and the electromagnetic properties were measured. The results show good agreement with the simulations.

  1. Note: Characteristic beam parameter for the line electron gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Islam, G U; Zhou, Z; Chi, Y

    2013-11-01

    We have optimized the beam parameters of line source electron gun using Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre electron beam trajectory program (EGUN), utilizing electrostatic focusing only. We measured minimum beam diameter as 0.5 mm that corresponds to power density of 68.9 kW/cm(2) at 13.5 mm in the post-anode region which is more than two-fold (33 kW/cm(2)), of the previously reported results. The gun was operated for the validation of the theoretical results and found in good agreement. The gun is now without any magnetic and electrostatic focusing thus much simpler and more powerful.

  2. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  3. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  4. The design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a risk reduction and human immunodeficiency virus prevention videogame intervention in minority adolescents: PlayForward: Elm City Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiellin, Lynn E; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Duncan, Lindsay R; Dziura, James D; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Fiellin, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background To address the need for risk behavior reduction and HIV prevention interventions that capture adolescents “where they live,” we created a tablet-based videogame to teach skills and knowledge and influence psychosocial antecedents for decreasing risk and preventing HIV infection in minority youth in schools, after-school programs, and summer camps. Methods We developed PlayForward: Elm City Stories over a 2-year period, working with researchers, commercial game designers, and staff and teens from community programs. The videogame PlayForward provides an interactive world where players, using an avatar, “travel” through time, facing challenges such as peer pressure to drink alcohol or engage in risky sexual behaviors. Players experience how their choices affect their future and then are able to go back in time and change their choices, creating different outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of PlayForward. Participants were randomly assigned to play PlayForward or a set of attention/time control games on a tablet at their community-based program. Assessment data were collected during face-to-face study visits and entered into a web-based platform and unique real-time “in-game” PlayForward data were collected as players engaged in the game. The innovative methods of this randomized controlled trial are described. We highlight the logistical issues of conducting a large-scale trial using mobile technology such as the iPad®, and collecting, transferring, and storing large amounts of in-game data. We outline the methods used to analyze the in-game data alone and in conjunction with standardized assessment data to establish correlations between behaviors during gameplay and those reported in real life. We also describe the use of the in-game data as a measure of fidelity to the intervention. Results In total, 333 boys and girls, aged 11–14 years, were randomized over a 14-month period: 166 were assigned to

  5. Gun culture and symbolism among U.K. and U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, C A; Puddifoot, J E

    2000-08-01

    The authors explored attitudes of young women in the United Kingdom (n = 108) and the United States (n = 91) toward (a) the possession and use of guns through the Attitude to Guns Scale (N. R. Branscombe, J. A. Weir, & P. Crosby, 1992) and (b) guns' perceived functional and symbolic significance through the Symbolic Nature of Guns Scale (C. A. Cooke & J. E. Puddifoot, 1997). There were significant differences in beliefs concerning the right to own a gun and the protective effect of guns but not in the perceived contribution of guns to crime. Although neither group strongly equated guns symbolically with power or control, the U.S. women were more likely to perceive guns as expressions of freedom or independence, and the U.K. women were more likely to view guns as expressions of danger and violence. The findings were contextualized by comparison with samples of male control participants of similar ages.

  6. The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J

    2015-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of self-defense gun use (SDGU) and the relative effectiveness of SDGU in preventing injury and property loss. Data come from the National Crime Victimization Survey for 2007-2011, focusing on personal contact crimes. For property loss, we examined incidents where the intent was to steal property. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, gender of offender and victim, if offender had a gun, urbanicity, and thirteen types of self-protective action. Of over 14,000 incidents in which the victim was present, 127 (0.9%) involved a SDGU. SDGU was more common among males, in rural areas, away from home, against male offenders and against offenders with a gun. After any protective action, 4.2% of victims were injured; after SDGU, 4.1% of victims were injured. In property crimes, 55.9% of victims who took protective action lost property, 38.5 of SDGU victims lost property, and 34.9% of victims who used a weapon other than a gun lost property. Compared to other protective actions, the National Crime Victimization Surveys provide little evidence that SDGU is uniquely beneficial in reducing the likelihood of injury or property loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gun control and suicide: the impact of state firearm regulations in the United States, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Andrés, Antonio; Hempstead, Katherine

    2011-06-01

    To empirically assess the impact of firearm regulation on male suicides. A negative binomial regression model was applied by using a panel of state level data for the years 1995-2004. The model was used to identify the association between several firearm regulations and male suicide rates. Our empirical analysis suggest that firearms regulations which function to reduce overall gun availability have a significant deterrent effect on male suicide, while regulations that seek to prohibit high risk individuals from owning firearms have a lesser effect. Restricting access to lethal means has been identified as an effective approach to suicide prevention, and firearms regulations are one way to reduce gun availability. The analysis suggests that gun control measures such as permit and licensing requirements have a negative effect on suicide rates among males. Since there is considerable heterogeneity among states with regard to gun control, these results suggest that there are opportunities for many states to reduce suicide by expanding their firearms regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A NEW THERMIONIC RF ELECTRON GUN FOR SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Hartzell, J; Murokh, A.; Nassiri, A.; Savin, E.; Smirnov, A.V.; Smirnov, A. Yu; Sun, Y.; Verma, A; Waldschmidt, Geoff; Zholents, A.

    2017-06-02

    A thermionic RF gun is a compact and efficient source of electrons used in many practical applications. RadiaBeam Systems and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory collaborate in developing of a reliable and robust thermionic RF gun for synchrotron light sources which would offer substantial improvements over existing thermionic RF guns and allow stable operation with up to 1A of beam peak current at a 100 Hz pulse repetition rate and a 1.5 μs RF pulse length. In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic and engineering design of the cavity and report the progress towards high power tests of the cathode assembly of the new gun.

  9. Finite element analyses for RF photoinjector gun cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhauser, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details electromagnetical, thermal and structural 3D Finite Element Analyses (FEA) for normal conducting RF photoinjector gun cavities. The simulation methods are described extensively. Achieved results are presented. (orig.)

  10. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  11. Design and fabrication of a pulsed diode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Gandhi, M.L.; Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed diode electron gun has been designed, fabricated and tested and this will be used for the initial hot testing of the Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) linac. The gun is required to deliver 1 A at 70 kV which works out to a current of 500 mA at 40 kV. The gun geometry is optimized using the Electron Trajectory Program EGUN at a mesh size of 0.2 mm. The beam divergence close to cathode caused by an annular gap of 2 mm between cathode and focusing electrode (FE) is compensated by using a suitable focusing electrode. Important features of the pulsed power supply (40 kV, 500 mA, 2 μsec) developed for testing this gun are presented. The current measured at the Faraday cup is in agreement with the designed perveance. Suitable positioning of cathode with respect to the FE helps in further improving the beam quality

  12. More fun and curiosity with magnetic guns in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittasirinuwat, O.; Kruatong, T.; Paosawatyanyong, B.

    2011-05-01

    The magnetic gun was chosen as a hands-on activity for our high school students. When conducting this activity in the classroom, we found some interesting points were raised following difficulties encountered by the students. Some students proposed that during the collision, the magnet changed its pole then it pushed the last ball out of the apparatus, but some suggested that all the balls were attracted by magnetic forces, therefore the last ball could not shoot out. With a question to raise their curiosity, 'How do magnetic guns work?', our students explored notions of magnetic force, work, and conservation of energy and momentum through their own design of magnetic guns. This article describes a method for measuring the changes of kinetic energy and describes factors that students should consider for making magnetic guns more powerful and for having fun with the activity of building them.

  13. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  14. High voltage processing of the SLC polarized electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, P.; Clendenin, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Prescott, C.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC polarized electron gun operates at 120 kV with very low dark current to maintain the ultra high vacuum (UHV). This strict requirement protects the extremely sensitive photocathode from contaminants caused by high voltage (HV) activity. Thorough HV processing is thus required x-ray sensitive photographic film, a nanoammeter in series with gun power supply, a radiation meter, a sensitive residual gas analyzer and surface x-ray spectrometry were used to study areas in the gun where HV activity occurred. By reducing the electric field gradients, carefully preparing the HV surfaces and adhering to very strict clean assembly procedures, we found it possible to process the gun so as to reduce both the dark current at operating voltage and the probability of HV discharge. These HV preparation and processing techniques are described

  15. A high current electron gun for the IEAv linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraro, A. Jr.; Stopa, C.R.S.; Romao, B.M.V.; Jorge, A.M.; Takahashi, J.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and characterization of a new electron gun for the linear electron accelerator (linac) which is under construction at the Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv)

  16. A numerical study of emittance growths in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, K; Sobajima, M; Kitagaki, J; Ohnishi, M; Toku, H; Yoshikawa, K

    1999-01-01

    A beam with greatly reduced emittance is required for further improvements of FELs, in particular, for FELs of shorter wavelengths, and of narrower bandwidths. From this viewpoint, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6-cell S-band photocathode RF gun performance characteristics were calculated, first in order to evaluate what may contribute to the emittance growths in photocathode RF guns. We developed an RF gun to produce an electron beam with an extremely low emittance, by using a 2-D simulation code. It is found that, by optimizing the laser injection phase, the drive laser spot radius and the cavity shape around the laser spot, the beam emittance by the 1.6-cell RF gun can be greatly reduced to 2.1 pi mm mrad, from the previous 4.4 pi mm mrad of the original shape.

  17. Study of an electron gun for metal evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R. da.

    1983-01-01

    In order to design a eletron gun with a long strip beam, an analysis was done using electrostatic lenses. Due the effects of space charge, it was indicated a beam with low current and high energy. (Author) [pt

  18. Research on area source electron gun in vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yafeng; Chang, Benkang; Shi, Feng; Qian, Yunsheng; Fu, Rongguo

    High-energy area source electron gun is a key component in image intensifier screen testing instrument. On the basis of the analysis of relationship between thermal emission characteristics, the shape of filament and the density of thermal electron emission, high-energy area source electron gun is designed. The distribution of electric field and electronic tracks are theoretically analyzed and calculated to make it has features of dispersing, uniform, converging and submerging. By testing a standard screen, correct the structure of high-energy area source electron gun to meet the requirements of test indexes and obtain reasonable high-energy area source electron gun. Its successful development provides effective technical support to the luminous screen test for uniformity, brightness, luminescence efficiency and afterglow and to the examination of other components (such as MCP parameters)of Low-light Image Intensifier.

  19. Resistance Spot Welding with Middelfrequency-Inverter Weling Gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun......The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun...

  20. Cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This is a summer internship presentation by the Hydro Working Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and goes into detail about their cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison. Specifically, the gas gun experiment is detailed along with applications, the cylinder expansion test is detailed along with applications, there is a comparison of the methods with pros and cons and limitations listed, the summer project is detailed, and future work is talked about.

  1. The politics of gun control: comparing Canadian and American patterns

    OpenAIRE

    G A Mauser; M Margolis

    1992-01-01

    In this paper two questions are asked: to what extent do the Canadian and US publics differ in their beliefs about firearms-control legislation, and to what extent do these differences help to account for the stricter firearms legislation found in Canada? Surveys indicate that Canadians and Americans have remarkably similar attitudes towards firearms and gun control. Linear regression is used to analyze the factors that underlie the popular support for (or opposition to) stricter gun-control ...

  2. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  3. Plasma gun with coaxial powder feed and adjustable cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved plasma gun coaxially injects particles of ceramic materials having high melting temperatures into the central portion of a plasma jet. This results in a more uniform and higher temperature and velocity distribution of the sprayed particles. The position of the cathode is adjustable to facilitate optimization of the performance of the gun wherein grains of the ceramic material are melted at lower power input levels.

  4. Development of laser heated high current DC electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Bhattacharjee, Dhruva; Kandaswamy, E.; Ghodke, S.R.; Tiwari, Rajnish; Bakhtsingh, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a Laser heated cathode for Electron Accelerator. The electron gun is meant for Megawatt-class DC Accelerator for Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment applications. Conventionally, LaB 6 cathode is indirectly heated by tungsten filaments whereas in the newly proposed gun, Laser is utilized for heating. A Nd:YAG Laser is used to heat the LaB 6 cathode to emission temperatures. The characterization of cathode heating at various Laser powers has been carried out. In initial trials, it has been observed that with 125 W of Laser power, the LaB 6 pellet was heated to 1315 ° C. Based on these experimental results, an electron gun rated for 30 kV, 350 mA CW has been designed. The optimization of gun electrode geometry has been done using CST Particle Studio in order to tune the various electron gun parameters. The beam diameter obtained in simulation is 8 mm at 100 mm from the LaB 6 cathode. The perveance obtained is 7.1 x 10 -8 A/V 3/2 . The Laser heated cathode has the advantages of eliminating the magnetic field effects of filament on the electron beam, electrical isolation needed for gun filament power supplies and better electron beam emittances. (author)

  5. Engineering design of the PLX- α coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Luna, M.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; PLX-α Team

    2017-10-01

    We describe the engineering and technical improvements, as well as provide a detailed overview of the design choices, of the latest PLX- α coaxial gun designed for the 60-gun scaling study of spherically imploding plasma liners as a standoff driver for plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion. Each coaxial gun incorporates a fast, dense gas injection and triggering system, a compact low-weight pfn with integral sparkgap switching, and a contoured gap designed to suppress the blow-by instability. The evolution of the latest Alpha gun is presented with emphasis on its upgraded performance. Changes include a faster more robust gas valve, better-quality ceramic insulator material and enhancements to overall design layout. These changes result in a gun with increased repeatability, reduced potential failure modes, improved fault tolerance and better than expected efficiency. A custom 600- μF, 5-kV pfn and a set of six inline sparkgap switches operated in parallel are mounted directly to the back of the gun, and are designed to reduce inductance, cost, and complexity, maximize efficiency and system reliability, and ensure symmetric current flow. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program under contract DE-AR0000566 and Strong Atomics, LLC.

  6. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. C.; Wang, J.

    2012-10-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment.

  7. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z C; Wang, J

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment. (paper)

  8. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  9. Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, mass shootings by persons with serious mental illness have received extensive news media coverage. The authors test the effects of news stories about mass shootings on public attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and support for gun control policies. They also examine whether news coverage of proposals to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns exacerbates the public's negative attitudes toward this group. The authors conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=1,797) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to groups instructed to read one of three news stories or to a no-exposure control group. The news stories described, respectively, a mass shooting by a person with serious mental illness, the same mass shooting and a proposal for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness, and the same mass shooting and a proposal to ban large-capacity magazines. Outcome measures included attitudes toward working with or living near a person with serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness of persons with serious mental illness, and support for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Compared with the control group, the story about a mass shooting heightened respondents' negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and raised support for gun restrictions for this group and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Including information about the gun restriction policy in a story about a mass shooting did not heighten negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness or raise support for the restrictions. The aftermath of mass shootings is often viewed as a window of opportunity to garner support for gun control policies, but it also exacerbates negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness.

  10. Simulation of electron beam from two strip electron guns and control of power density by rotation of gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, G K; Baruah, S; Thakur, K B

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam is preferably used for large scale evaporation of refractory materials. Material evaporation from a long and narrow source providing a well collimated wedge shaped atomic beam has applications in isotopic purification of metals relevant to nuclear industry. The electron beam from an electron gun with strip type filament provides a linear heating source. However, the high power density of the electron beam can lead to turbulence of the melt pool and undesirable splashing of molten metal. For obtaining quiet surface evaporation, the linear electron beam is generally scanned along its length. To further reduce the power density to maintain quiet evaporation the width of the vapour source can be controlled by rotating the electron gun on its plane, thereby scanning an inclined beam over the molten pool. The rotation of gun has further advantages. When multiple strip type electron guns are used for scaling up evaporation length, a dark zone appears between two beams due to physical separation of adjacent guns. This dark zone can be reduced by rotating the gun and thereby bringing two adjacent beams closer. The paper presented here provides the simulation results of the electron beam trajectory and incident power density originating from two strip electron guns by using in-house developed code. The effect of electron gun rotation on the electron beam trajectory and power density is studied. The simulation result is experimentally verified with the image of molten pool and heat affected zone taken after experiment. This technique can be gainfully utilized in controlling the time averaged power density of the electron beam and obtaining quiet evaporation from the metal molten pool.

  11. Nail-gun injury of the cervical spine: simple technique for removal of a barbed nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathoo, Narendra; Sarkar, Atom; Varma, Gandhi; Mendel, Ehud

    2011-07-01

    Although nail-gun injuries are a common form of penetrating low-velocity injury, impalement with barbed nails has been underreported to date. Barbed nails are designed to resist dislodgment once embedded, and any attempt at removal may splay open the barbs along the path of entry, with the potential for significant soft-tissue and neurovascular injury. A 25-year-old man sustained a nail impalement of the cervical spine from accidental discharge of a nail gun. The patient was noted to be fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Cervical Zone 2 impalement was noted, with only the head of the nail visible. Angiography revealed the nail lying just anterior to the right vertebral artery (VA), with compression of the vessel. Preoperatively, analysis of a similar nail revealed that orientation of the head determined position of the barbs. A deep neck dissection was then performed to the lateral aspect of the C-3 body, using the nail as a guide. Prior to removal, the nail was turned 180° to change the position of the barbs, to prevent injury to the VA. Nail removal was uneventful. The authors present a simple technique for treatment of a nail-gun injury with a barbed nail. Prior to removal, radiographic analysis of the impaled nail must be performed to determine the presence of barbs. If possible, the surgeon should request a similar nail for analysis prior to surgery. Last, the treating surgeon must have knowledge of the barbs' position at all times during nail removal, to prevent damage to critical structures.

  12. Age, Poverty, Homicide, and Gun Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Males

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theories of “adolescent risk taking” have not been validated against recent research indicating that youthful traffic crash, violent crime, felony crime, and firearms mortality rates reflect young people’s low-socio-economic status (SES compared with older adults’, not young age. Aside from a small number of recent, conflicting studies, the literature gap on this key issue remains. The present study examines the 54,094 homicide deaths, including 41,123 gun homicides, victimizing California residents ages 15 to 69 during 1991 to 2012 by poverty status. Without controlling for poverty, homicide rates display the traditional age-curve peaking at 19, then declining. When poverty is controlled, the traditional age-curve persists only for high-poverty populations, in which young people are vastly over-represented, and homicide rates are elevated for all ages. This finding reiterates that “adolescent risk taking” may be an artifact of failing to control for age-divergent SES.

  13. Water guns affect abundance and behavior of bigheaded carp and native fish differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose; Glover, David C.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Garvey, James E.; Gaikowski, Mark; Jensen, Nathan R.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    Water guns have shown the potential to repel nuisance aquatic organisms. This study examines the effects of exposure to a 1966.4 cm3 seismic water gun array (two guns) on the abundance and behavior of Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Silver Carp H. molitrix (collectively referred to as bigheaded carp) and native fishes (e.g., Smallmouth Buffalo Ictiobus bubalus). Water guns were deployed in a channel that connects the Illinois River to backwater quarry pits that contained a large transient population of bigheaded carp. To evaluate the effect of water guns, mobile side-looking split-beam hydroacoustic surveys were conducted before, during and between replicated water gun firing periods. Water guns did not affect abundance of bigheaded carp, but abundance of native fish detected during the firing treatment was 43 and 34% lower than the control and water guns off treatments, respectively. The proximity of bigheaded carp to the water gun array was similar between the water guns on and water guns off treatments. In contrast, the closest detected native fish were detected farther from the water guns during the water guns on treatment (mean ± SE, 32.38 ± 3.32 m) than during the water guns off treatment (15.04 ± 1.59 m). The water gun array had a greater impact on native fish species than on bigheaded carp. Caution should be taken to the extrapolation of these results to other fish species and to fish exposed to water guns in different environments (e.g., reduced shoreline interaction) or exposure to a larger array of water guns, or for use of water guns for purposes other than a barrier.

  14. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Dragoş E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Holloway, Lois; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T

  15. Playing To Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, George S.; Rusher, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies the concepts and skills young children learn through play and describes ways to implement a successful play program in early-childhood settings. Includes discussions of planning for play activities, providing props and other materials, contextualizing play, assessing learning during play, and explaining the play curriculum to families…

  16. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  17. RF Processing Experience with the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmerge, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. A total of five different metal cathodes (4 Cu and 1 Mg) have been installed on the GTF gun. The rf processing history with the different cathodes will be presented including peak field achieved at the cathode. The LCLS gun is intended to operate at 120 MV/m and fields up to 140 MV/m have been achieved in the GTF gun. After installing a new cathode the number of rf pulses required to reach 120 MV/m is approximately 5-10 million. Total emitted dark current and Fowler Nordheim plots are also shown over the life of the cathode. The GTF photo-injector gun is an S-band standing-wave structure, with two resonant cavities and an intervening thick washer (Figure 1). The flat, back wall of the first cavity is a copper plate that serves as photocathode when illuminated with ultraviolet light from a pulsed, high-power laser. RF power enters the gun through an iris on the outer wall of the second cavity, and is coupled to the first through the axial opening of the washer. The first cavity is often referred to as a half cell, because its full-cell length has been truncated by the cathode plate and the second cavity is called the full cell. The gun is designed to operate in a π mode, with the peak field on axis in each cell approximately equal. The maximum in the half cell occurs at the cathode, and in the full cell near the center of the cavity. The field profile and tuning procedures are discussed in a separate tech note (1).

  18. Gun availability and use of guns for suicide, homicide, and murder in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Kunselman, Julie C

    2004-04-01

    A reliability check of Lester's (2000b) 1970-1995 time series that examined associations between the availability of firearms and their use for homicide and suicide in Canada. For the period 1974 to 1999, the relative availability of firearms as measured by the rate of accidental death from firearms and the average of the percentages of suicides + homicides using firearms was positively associated with the rate of homicide by firearms but not negatively associated with the rate of homicide by all other methods, and positively associated with the rate of suicide by firearms and negatively associated with the rate of suicide by all other methods. Correlations for the homicide versus murder rates, homicide rate using guns versus murder rate using guns, and homicide rate by all other methods versus murder rate by all other methods were very similar. There was a decrease over time of total suicide and homicide rates and firearm suicide and homicide rates, and with a slight indication of substitution of other methods for suicide.

  19. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  20. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... the range of play, the value of playful experiences, and explore the potential of design for play with the goal of generating a more playful world. With its participatory approach, Design for Play includes strong elements of making, engaging and co-creating with users, and thereby ways to learn from...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  1. Research on Miniature Calibre Rail-Guns for the Mechanical Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronggang Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail-gun should not only be used to military applications, but also can be developed as applications in the civilian aspects of the market. With the development of the electromagnetic launch technology, based on the similarity theory, using the existing rail-gun model to guide the construction of more economical miniature calibre rail-guns, and apply it in some machinery and equipment, this idea will open up a wider rail-gun application space. This article will focus on the feasibility of application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm. This paper designs the schematic diagram, then theoretical analyzes force conditions of the armature in the mechanical arm, calculates the possible range of the current amplitude and so on. The existing rail-gun model can be used to guides design the circuit diagram of the miniature calibre rail-gun. Based on the similarity theory and many simulation experiments, designed the experimental parameters of a miniature rail-gun and analyzed the current, Lorentz force, velocity, and location of the existing rail-gun and miniature rail-gun. The results show that the rail-gun launching technology applied to robot arms is feasibility. The application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm will benefit to the further development of rail-guns.

  2. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Schaer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  3. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Mattia; Citterio, Alessandro; Craievich, Paolo; Reiche, Sven; Stingelin, Lukas; Zennaro, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL) machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least) double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  4. Momentum equation for arc-driven rail guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteh, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In several models of arc-driven rail guns, the rails are assumed to be infinitely high to simplify the calculation of the electromagnetic fields which appear in the momentum equation for the arc. This assumption leads to overestimates of the arc pressures and accelerations by approximately a factor of 2 for typical rail-gun geometries. In this paper, we develop a simple method for modifying the momentum equation to account for the effect of finite-height rails on the performance of the rail gun and the properties of the arc. The modification is based on an integration of the Lorentz force across the arc cross section at each axial location in the arc. Application of this technique suggests that, for typical rail-gun geometries and moderately long arcs, the momentum equation appropriate for infinite-height rails can be retained provided that the magnetic pressure term in the equation is scaled by a factor which depends on the effective inductance of the gun. The analysis also indicates that the magnetic pressure gradient actually changes sign near the arc/projectile boundary because of the magnetic fields associated with the arc current

  5. Characterization of the C-2W Plasma Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Ami; Sokolov, Vladimir; Korepanov, Sergey; Osin, Dima; Player, Gabriel; TAE Team

    2017-10-01

    Previous use of coaxial arc discharge plasma guns on the C-2U device exhibited great success in plasma stabilization and improved confinement. On the C-2W experiment, arc discharge plasma guns will again be used to facilitate the electrical connection between the plasma core and the divertor electrodes in order to maintain the electrode edge biasing and induce E x B shear to control plasma rotation. Each plasma gun contains an internal solenoid used to shape the plasma stream. Characterization of electron density (ne) , electron temperature (Te) , floating potential (Vf) , and total plasma flux in an arc discharge lasting 6 ms without the internal solenoid are presented. A Langmuir probe located 27 cm axially outside of the plasma gun anode measures a bell-like radial ne profile with peak ne 1018 m-3 and Te 2 - 10 eV. Observed spectral lines of impurity ions provide an estimate of Te, and Balmer series line ratios of the main ion component are used to evaluate ne at both the probe location and near the plasma gun anode. A calorimeter measures the plasma flux to be constant and equivalent to 1 kA.

  6. Numerical design of electron guns and space charge limited transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and limitations of computer programs used to design electron guns and similarly space-charge limited transport systems. Examples of computer generated plots from several different types of gun problems are included

  7. Non-channel magnetron gun as the electron source for resonance linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, G.M.; Makhnenko, L.A.; Cherenshchikov, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the magnetron gun with a cold cathode being part of linear accelerator on the travelling wave are described. Two modes of the gun operation differing by presence of UHF field of the pre-buncher near the gun are observed. In the mode without UHF field the short (about 2 ns) pulses of accelerated electrons with amplitude up to 0.5 A at the gun current up to 20 A were obtained. The presence of UHF field near the gun makes it possible to obtain the beam of higher duration (up to 1.0 μs), but with current up to 20 mA at the accelerator outlet and up to 1 A at the gun outlet. The mechanism of the gun operation is concerned with the secondary-electron current increase and setting self-sustaining secondary emission. Gun characteristics under study are acceptable for the purposes of injection into accelerator [ru

  8. Thermochemical Erosion Modeling of the 25-MM M242/M791 Gun System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel

    1997-01-01

    The MACE gun barrel thermochemical erosion modeling code addresses wall degradations due to transformations, chemical reactions, and cracking coupled with pure mechanical erosion for the 25-mm M242/M791 gun system...

  9. An Independently Tunable Cells Thermionic RF Gun (ITC-RF GUN) for Sub-Picosecond Short Pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Hama, H; Kawai, M; Tanaka, T

    2005-01-01

    As a result of simulation study so far, a specific feature has been found in the longitudinal dynamics in thermionic RF guns. At the beginning of beam extraction, the head of the electrons from a cathode is followed immediately by the electrons just behind, which is extracted by the higher electric field than that at the head of the beam train. Thus later electrons would get velocity faster than the head of the electrons, so that the electrons are expected to concentrates onto the head of the beam under certain conditions such as the gun geometry and the strength of the RF field. In order to investigate this velocity-bunching like effect, a prototype thermionic RF gun was designed and its characteristics have been studied by a 3-D simulation code based on a FDTD (finite difference time demain) method. The gun is consists of two independentlly power feeding S-band RF cavities, and can be operated at modes with different power ratio and phase between two RFs. This paper report the thermionic RF gun is expected ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  11. Modelling and simulation of beam formation in electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabchevski, S.; Barbarich, I.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a new PC version of the software package GUN-EBT for computer simulation of beam formation in rotationally symmetric electron guns with thermionic cathodes. It is based on a self-consistent physical model which takes into account the beam space charge and the initial velocity effects. The theoretical framework used for both the formulation of the model and for the interpretation of the results of numerical experiments is the formalism of the charged particle dynamics in phase space. This enables not only a trajectory analysis (ray tracing) but also a phase-space analysis of beams to be performed. The package can be used as an effective tool for computer aided design and optimization of electron guns in various electron-optical systems. The operation of the package is illustrated with a typical example. (orig.)

  12. Modelling and simulation of beam formation in electron guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika; Mladenov, G. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika; Titov, A. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Barbarich, I. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a new PC version of the software package GUN-EBT for computer simulation of beam formation in rotationally symmetric electron guns with thermionic cathodes. It is based on a self-consistent physical model which takes into account the beam space charge and the initial velocity effects. The theoretical framework used for both the formulation of the model and for the interpretation of the results of numerical experiments is the formalism of the charged particle dynamics in phase space. This enables not only a trajectory analysis (ray tracing) but also a phase-space analysis of beams to be performed. The package can be used as an effective tool for computer aided design and optimization of electron guns in various electron-optical systems. The operation of the package is illustrated with a typical example. (orig.).

  13. Upgraded G-optk program for electron gun characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasao, K.; Takebe, M.; Ushio, W.; Fujita, S.; Ohye, T.; Shimoyama, H.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized trajectory theory (the G-optk program) has been extended in order to make the method applicable to electron guns with curved and/or asymmetric cathodes. The object-image analysis mode has also been added. Enhanced capability of the upgraded G-optk program was demonstrated by applying the program to three electron optical systems: (a) the point cathode gun, (b) the hairpin-type cathode gun, and (c) the LEEM objective lens. The Canonical Mapping Transformation (CMT) diagrams were calculated both by direct ray tracing and by the upgraded G-optk program. In each case, it was found that the upgraded program reproduces well the results obtained by ray tracing. The generalized trajectory method has several advantages over direct ray tracing, such as substantially lighter calculation load and easy interpretation of the calculation results in terms of the optical parameters.

  14. Emittance compensation of CW DC-gun photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Wu Dai; Xu Zhou; Li Ming; Yang Xingfan

    2011-01-01

    Emittance growth induced by space charge effect is very important, especially for CW DC-gun photoinjector. In this work, the linear space charge force and its effect on electron beam transverse emittance are studied, and the principle and properties of emittance compensation by solenoid are analyzed. The CAEP DC-gun photoinjector with a solenoid is also simulated by code Parmela. Simulated results indicate that the normalized transverse emittance of an 80 pC bunch at the 350 keV DC-gun ex-it is 5.14 mm · mrad. And after compensated by a solenoid, it becomes 1.27 mm · mrad. The emittance of beam is well compensated. (authors)

  15. Trapping of gun-injected plasma by a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    It is shown that a plasma produced by a Marshall gun can be injected into and trapped by a tokamak plasma. Gun injection raises the line-averaged density and peaks the density profile. Trapping of the gun-injected plasma is explainable in terms of a depolarization current mechanism. A model is developed which describes the slowing of a plasma beam crossing into the magnetic field of a tokamak. The slowing down time is shown to go as tau/sub s/ ∞ n -1 /sub b/T 3 /sub e/(α 0 /L) 2 , where n/sub b/ and T/sub e/ are the density and temperature of the plasma beam and α 0 /L is the pitch of the field lines per unit length in the direction in which the beam is traveling. Experimental tests of this model are consistent with the scaling predictions

  16. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  17. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Longitudinal Jitter Analysis of a Linear Accelerator Electron Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MingShan Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements and analysis of the longitudinal timing jitter of a Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII linear accelerator electron gun. We simulated the longitudinal jitter effect of the gun using PARMELA to evaluate beam performance, including: beam profile, average energy, energy spread, and XY emittances. The maximum percentage difference of the beam parameters is calculated to be 100%, 13.27%, 42.24% and 65.01%, 86.81%, respectively. Due to this, the bunching efficiency is reduced to 54%. However, the longitudinal phase difference of the reference particle was 9.89°. The simulation results are in agreement with tests and are helpful to optimize the beam parameters by tuning the trigger timing of the gun during the bunching process.

  19. A design study of non-adiabatic electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, J.J.; Stellati, C.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a non-adiabatic gun capable of producing a 10 A, 50 KeV high-quality laminar electron beam is reported. In contrast to the magnetron injection gun with a conical cathode, where the beam is generated initially with a transverse velocity component, in the non-adiabatic gun electrons are extracted in a direction parallel to the axial guide magnetic field. The beam electrons acquire cyclotron motion as result of non-adiabatic processes in a strong non uniform electric field across the modulation anode. Such an extraction method gives rise to favourable features that are explored throughout the work. An extensive numerical simulation study has also been done to minimize velocity and energy spreads. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. A pulsed electron gun for the Plane Wave Transformer Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, S; Nandedkar, R V

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed diode electron gun delivering 500 mA current at 40 kV is described. The gun geometry is optimized using the Electron Trajectory Program EGUN at higher scaling factors by choosing the closest converging starting surface. The effect of an annular gap between cathode and focusing electrode on beam behaviour is compensated by using a suitable focusing electrode. The estimated perveance is 0.065 mu perv and the normalized emittance is within 5 pi mm mrad. The variation in current density at the cathode has been limited to within 10% across the face of the cathode. Salient features of the pulsed power supply and an insight of its interconnection with the gun are presented. The current measured at the Faraday cup is in agreement with the designed perveance.

  1. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence.

  2. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  3. Supply system with microprocessor control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplin, N.I.; Sergeev, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Precision supply system for electron gun used in Auger-spectrometer is described. The supply system consists of control and high-voltage parts, made as separate units. Supply high-voltage unit includes system supply module, filament module to supply electron gun cathode and 6 high-volt modules to supply accelerating, modulating and three focusing electrodes of the gun. High-voltage modules have the following characteristics: U-(100-1000)V output voltage, 5x10 -5 U stability, 10 -5 xU pulsation amplitude, J-(0-5)A filament current change range at 10 -4 xJ stability. Control unit including microprocessor, timer and storage devices forms control voltage for all modules and regulates voltage and current of filament at electrodes

  4. Design and remote fiber communication of NSRL electron gun controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weibing; Gao Hui; Hong Jun; Chen Jun; Wang Guicheng; He Duohui; Chen Gang

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of pulse electron gun controller for 200 MeV LINAC at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory was introduced in this paper, including the working principle of the pulse electron gun, the applications of I 2 C serial bus and embedded microcontroller in controlling system. The emphasis is on the hardware design of digital controlled current regulator, digital controlled switch voltage source and high voltage pulse power supply. The software design of fiber communication and PC controlling is also presented. The electron gun controller has successfully been used in NSRL. The result shows that it is quite reliable and the performance is good. This electronic digital system has completely replaced the old mechanical control system. (authors)

  5. High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbloom, A.M.; Hadley, P.; van der Marel, D.; Mooij, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

  6. Design and performance of high uniformity linear filament electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Fazal-e-Aleem

    2006-01-01

    We describe new features and results from the previously reported [M. Iqbal et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4616 (2003)] thermionic long (up to 140 mm) cathode, electromagnetically focused electron beam gun. The gun which was tested up to 50 kW (5000 mAx10 kV) achieves power density of 33 kW/cm 2 at the target. The cathode temperature and emission current was uniform over a length of 100 mm of the cathode. The beam density profile along the line cathode strongly relates to the temperature distribution along the line cathode. The gun has a remarkable application in heat treatment of large surface area and to coat large substrate surfaces at much faster evaporation rates with lower cost

  7. The Uses of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaniss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Teaching artists have techniques for keeping play alive and vital in their work. But how do they think of play as TAs? In this article, the author examines the role of play in the work and life of teaching artists.

  8. Jumping the gun: firearms and the mental health of Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, M; Cantor, C; de Moore, G

    1996-06-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) survey mental health-related correlates of firearms ownership and availability in Australia, and (ii) assess possible causal relationships between civilian gun deaths, gun availability and mental disorders. Available data regarding firearms ownership, injuries and deaths were reviewed as well as studies of (i) gun ownership, suicide and homicide, and (ii) gun control laws and suicide. Findings indicated that 85% of firearm deaths are triggered by distress, as opposed to crime. Most firearm homicides are intrafamilial or involve familiar persons. Firearm suicide rates, although tapering off in recent years, continue to rise among certain groups. It was also found that: (1) Beyond reasonable doubt, a causal relationship exists between gun ownership and firearm suicides and homicides. The role of method substitution is controversial, but is probably less important among the young. (2) Outside the United States, legislation may be useful in reducing firearm and possibly overall suicide rates. (3) If firearm owners are representative of the community, then 15-20% suffer from a psychiatric disorder at any time. While a modest increase in risk of firearms misuse exists for this group, especially those with a history of substance abuse or violence, concern also arises regarding those with mental disorders who access firearms because owners have not secured them. No uniform definition or way of verifying self-reports exists for gun licence applicants regarding these issues. Further regulation of firearm safety and availability is warranted. Public health measures include improved surveillance regarding firearm events, advocacy for appropriate firearm legislation, and better education and communication about firearms.

  9. Low power microwave tests on RF gun prototype of the Iranian Light Source Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghipanah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce RF electron gun of Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF pre-injection system. Design, fabrication and low-power microwave tests results of the prototype RF electron gun have been described in detail. This paper also explains the tuning procedure of the prototype RF electron gun to the desired resonant frequency. The outcomes of this project brighten the path to the fabrication of the RF electron gun by the local industries  

  10. Armed To Learn: Aiming At California K 12 School Gun Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ideology results when culture and capacity support firearms on campus. To date, this ideology has been most prevalent in states with liberal gun laws...where neither gun advocates nor gun opponents achieve their fundamental goal. This approach is characterized primarily by the following: • The culture ...the complexity of implementing a gun policy, each district must assess its own culture , resources, and capabilities in order to determine a course of

  11. Analysis and experimental design of micro-pulse gun

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Xing Fan; LiuXiSan; LuHePing; Xu Zhou; Zhang Zhi Fu

    2002-01-01

    Micro-pulse gun (MPG) is a novel microwave electron gun. It is a kind of high brightness electron source. The concept of MPG has been studied in detail. The multipacting theory and self-bunching progress of the electron beam are discussed. The natural 'bunching', or resonant phase selection of the particles gives rise to high current density (kA/cm sup 2 ). The saturated beam pulse width is found to be typically 5% of the RF period. The cavity parameters such as the accelerating gap width and electric field are determined based on the theory. The cavity design and the dynamical simulation result are also presented

  12. Calculating of Coupling Factor of Microwave Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Xiaohao; Li, Derun; Zheng, Shuxin

    2005-01-01

    To design the coupler of a designing microwave electron gun, we use the "energy method" proposed by Derun Li, et al. The intrinsic Q of the electron gun cavity is very high: about 20000. The method calculates the intrinsic and external Q values of a cavity coupled to a waveguide using MAFIA code in time domain. The comparisons between simulation and experimental results are given for a set of different coupling iris apertures and height. The result shows that "energy method" works efficiently for high Q cavities.

  13. Electric gun: a new tool for ultrahigh-pressure research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingart, R.C.; Chau, H.H.; Goosman, D.R.; Hofer, W.W.; Honodel, C.A.; Lee, R.S.; Steinberg, D.J.; Stroud, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed a new tool for ultrahigh-pressure research at LLL. This system, which we call the electric gun, has already achieved thin flyer plate velocities in excess of 20 km/s and pressures of the order of 2 TPa in tantalum. We believe that the electric gun is competitive with laser- and nuclear-driven methods of producing shocks in the 1-to-5 TPa range because of its precision and ease and economy of operation. Its development is recommended for shock initiation studies, dry runs for Site 300 hydroshots, and as a shock wave generator for surface studies

  14. Beta II plasma-gun mechanical design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.; Deis, G.; Wong, R.; Calderon, M.; Chargin, A.; Garner, D.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetized coaxial plasma gun (located on the east end of the Beta II facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory) will be used to test a new method of initiating a field reversed mirror plasma. The field-reversed mirror is expected to improve the mirror-fusion reactor by enhancing the ratio of fusion power to injected power. This paper concentrates on the mechanical design and construction of the magnetized coaxial plasma gun and also discusses the diagnostic devices necessary to demonstrate the formation of field-reversed rings

  15. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao

    2012-01-01

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  16. Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    whether hand-held or mounted on aircraft or armored vehicles. Any machine gun too heavy or having too much recoil to be fired hand-held should be capable... Guns 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Small Arms Systems Division (TEDT-AT-FP-S) US Army Aberdeen Test Center 400 Colleran Road Aberdeen

  17. Gun laws and the involuntarily committed: a California road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Sohrab; Burchuk, Robert; Stone, David C; Kopelowicz, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 incident at Virginia Tech brought the question of gun ownership by the mentally ill to the forefront of public attention. Moreover, it underscored the potentially devastating consequences of the imperfect connection between federal and state laws that apply to the right of gun ownership by a psychiatric patient. The laws are complex, and, as demonstrated in this article, conflicting. We present a case report of an involuntarily committed patient in the state of California, and discuss details of state and federal laws that applied to him.

  18. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  19. Guns and states: pediatric firearm injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin; Moriarty, Kevin P; Tashjian, David B; Patterson, Lisa A

    2013-07-01

    A recent report indicates that firearm-related injuries are responsible for 30% of pediatric trauma fatality. The literature is however limited in examining pediatric firearm injuries and variations in state gun control laws. Therefore, we sought to examine the association between pediatric firearm injuries and the Stand-Your-Ground (SYG) and Child Access Protection (CAP) laws. All pediatric (age, 0-20 years) hospitalizations with firearm injuries were identified from the Kids' Inpatient Database from 2006 and 2009. States were compared for SYG and CAP laws. A total of 19,233 firearm injury hospitalizations were identified, with 64.7% assault, 27.2% accidental, and 3.1% suicide injury. Demographics for assault injury were as follows: mean age of 17.6 years, 88.4% male, 44.4% black, 18.2% Hispanic, 70.5% from metropolitan areas, and 50.1% from the poorest median income neighborhoods. Suicide injury cases were more likely to be white (57.8% vs. 16.6%, p law were associated with increased accidental injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.282; p law and the incidence of accidental injury or suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found other predictive demographic factors for firearm injury: black (OR, 6.164), urban areas (OR, 1.557), poorest median income neighborhoods (OR, 2.785), male (OR, 28.602), and 16 years or older (OR, 37.308). Total economic burden was estimated at more than $1 billion dollars, with a median length of stay of 3 days, 8.4% discharge to rehabilitation, and 6.2% in-hospital mortality. Pediatric firearm injuries continue to be a significant source of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. A significant increase in accidental firearm injuries in states with the SYG law may highlight inadvertent effects of the law. Race, sex, and median income are additional contributing factors. Advocacy and focused educational efforts for specific socioeconomic and racial groups may potentially reduce firearm injuries. Prognostic study, level II.

  20. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun.... The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance adopted this Liquor Ordinance on...

  1. Is it a dangerous world out there? The motivational bases of American gun ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Leander, N. Pontus; Kruglanski, Arie W.

    2017-01-01

    Americans are the world’s best armed citizens and public polling suggests protection/self-defense is their main reason for gun ownership. However, there is virtually no psychological research on gun ownership. The present article develops the first psychological process model of defensive gun

  2. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the…

  3. Crime, Culture Conflict, and the Sources of Support for Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether attitudes towards gun control are influenced primarily by exposure to high crime rates, prior victimization, and fear of crime, or result from membership in social groups hostile to gun ownership. Maintains that support for gun control is more a product of culture conflict than a response to crime. (MJP)

  4. Development of an electron gun for high power CW electron linac (1). Beam experiment for basic performance of electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshio; Nomura, Masahiro; Komata, Tomoki

    1999-05-01

    Presently, the Beam Group of Oarai Engineering Center in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) completed the high power CW electron linac. Then we started full-scale beam experiments after the government permission for a radiation equipment had given last January. Measurements of basic performance for the mesh-grid type electron gun have been done to launch stable beam at 300 mA peak current downstream of the accelerator. These experiments disclosed to increase beam loss in the electron gun in some cases of voltage supplied the mesh-grid in spite of same beam current from gun. Consequently, we could find the best condition for mesh-grid voltage and heater current to supply stable beam at 300 mA peak current for accelerator study. (author)

  5. Factors affecting a recently purchased handgun's risk for use in crime under circumstances that suggest gun trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J; Webster, Daniel W

    2010-05-01

    .94). These findings persisted in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest specific strategies for intervention to prevent gun violence.

  6. Overview and Recent Results from the HyperV Plasma Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We present an overview of research at HyperV to develop high velocity dense plasma jets for application to fusion and HEDP. The approach uses symmetrical pulsed injection of high density plasma into a coaxial EM accelerator having a cross-section tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. Two development paths are followed to accomplish this injection step: we compare large arrays of capillary discharges to sparkgaps arranged in a toroidal configuration. Experiments on three test fixtures are described: a 2pi configuration with 64 capillary injectors, a 32 injector prototype gun designed to drive rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, and a second gun using 112 sparkgap electrodes for injection. Data is presented from visible light spectroscopy, fast optical imaging, Rogowski coils, pressure probes, Bdot probes, photodiodes, and a laser interferometer. Ballistic pendulum tests indicate plasma jets with mass 160 micrograms at 70 km/s have been achieved with plasma density above 10^15 cm-3.

  7. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  10. Design of a high repetition rate S-band photocathode gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Janghui; Cox, Matthew; Huang, Houcheng; Pande, Shivaji

    2011-01-01

    Photocathode RF guns have been developed in many laboratories for generating high quality electron beams for free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators. Such guns can generate electron beams with an exceptionally high peak current as well as a small transverse emittance. Their applications have been recently expanded for ultrafast electron diffraction, coherent terahertz radiation, and X-ray or γ-ray radiation by Compton scattering. In this paper, we design an S-band normal-conducting gun with capabilities of high quality beam generation and high repetition rate operation. The RF design and thermal analysis of the gun cavity and coupler are introduced. Optimal position of the gun focusing solenoid for low emittance beam generation is found by performing particle tracking simulations. Then, the gun system is designed to be able to afford the optimal solenoid position. The cooling-water channel surrounding the gun cavity and coupler is designed and analyzed numerically. The pressure in the gun is simulated with a vacuum model containing the detailed inner structure of the gun. An injector for a free-electron laser application is designed by using this gun and the beam dynamics simulation is shown. A cold test with a prototype gun for confirmation of the RF design is reported. - Highlights: → We design an S-band gun for low emittance beam generation and high repetition rate operation. → The RF design and thermal analysis of the gun cavity and coupler are studied. → An FEL injector is designed by using this gun and the beam dynamics simulation is shown. → A cold test with a prototype gun for confirmation of the RF design is reported.

  11. Designing for Immediate Play

    OpenAIRE

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play situations. After a detailed explanation of immediate play, we analyze the context of the immediate play situation, which is mostly characterized by an overlap between different realities of the exper...

  12. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children′s healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist′s narration of the child′s play.

  13. Electron gun for high-performance color display tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangqin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    1998-08-01

    In order to design a high-performance electron gun, a new design concept was adapted to reduce the spherical aberration and coma of the electron optical system. In the electron gun we used a new asymmetric beam-forming region (BFR) and asymmetric main lens. This gun has been used for 40 cm 0.28 mm-pitch full square color display tubes. At cathode current of 0.2 microampere, the spot size on the screen center was measured 0.65 mm (10% of the maximum current distribution), and at the cathode current of 0.2 - 0.5 microampere, the focus voltage difference (focus trial characteristic) is less than 150 V. When the horizontal- scanning frequency reached 57 kHz, the tubes using the electron gun can display 1024 X 768 dots, and the corner- center focus performance is good. So it can meet the requirements of 40 cm 0.28 mm CDT of the market. In this design we used computer simulation software called Electron Beam Simulation to simulate the BFR and the main lens, through it we can adjust the lens structure, predict the performance and make it better. A good coincidence is obtained between the calculations and experiment results.

  14. Developments in the electron gun simulation program, EGUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper discusses the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN with its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications of this evolution on EGN2 are discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family are described

  15. Optimizing SRF Gun Cavity Profiles in a Genetic Algorithm Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofler, Alicia; Evtushenko, Pavel; Marhauser, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Automation of DC photoinjector designs using a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization is an accepted practice in accelerator physics. Allowing the gun cavity field profile shape to be varied can extend the utility of this optimization methodology to superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency (SRF/RF) gun based injectors. Finding optimal field and cavity geometry configurations can provide guidance for cavity design choices and verify existing designs. We have considered two approaches for varying the electric field profile. The first is to determine the optimal field profile shape that should be used independent of the cavity geometry, and the other is to vary the geometry of the gun cavity structure to produce an optimal field profile. The first method can provide a theoretical optimal and can illuminate where possible gains can be made in field shaping. The second method can produce more realistically achievable designs that can be compared to existing designs. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation for these two methods for generating field profiles for SRF/RF guns in a GA based injector optimization scheme and provide preliminary results.

  16. America, guns and freedom: Part II - An international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The need for reducing gun violence is discussed along with the necessity for citizens to assume some responsibility for protecting themselves, their families, and their property from criminal elements because the police cannot physically be everywhere to protect us all of the time. The problem of sensationalization of gun crimes by the media, multiple shootings by deranged individuals, accidents with firearms, suicide rates, and children with guns are discussed.The relationship of civilian disarmament in the context of tyrannical governments and genocide are also explored. Incidents in which liberty has been extinguished because firearms have been banned and citizens have been disarmed by increasingly oppressive governments, and the converse, countries where freedom has been preserved by armed citizens are also described. We conclude that guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens deter crimes, and nations that trust their citizens with firearms have governments that sustain liberty and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical, and are a potential danger to good citizens - and a peril to humanity.

  17. Fundamentals for a terahertz-driven electron gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Olsen, Filip D.; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    dipoles placed with a small gap in between. We conclude that it is possible to make ultra-bright electron bunches shorter than 1 ps and accelerate them to the low keV range over 15 mu m using only a single THz transient. Our results are fundamental to understand and build a THz-driven electron gun....

  18. Algorithm Design for Grip-Pattern Verification in Smart Gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Ganzevoort, W.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The Secure Grip project1 focuses on the development of a hand-grip pattern recognition system, as part of the smart gun. Its target customer is the police. To explore the authentication performance of this system, we collected data from a group of police officers, and made authentication simulations

  19. Guns on Campus: A Current Debate. E-Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Almost all U.S. college campuses ban concealed weapons. But in the aftermath of the tragic shooting deaths at Virginia Tech in 2007, the debate on whether guns should be permitted at colleges and universities has intensified. Dozens of states have considered proposals to lift bans on concealed weapons at colleges and universities, but so far none…

  20. Kids and Guns. 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This report provides information about the use of guns by children and adolescents, with related information on juvenile homicides and suicides. The annual number of juveniles killed with a firearm increased substantially between 1987 and 1993 as occurrences of other types of homicide remained constant. Since 1980, one in four murders of juveniles…