WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent future terrorist

  1. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  2. Preventing Terrorist Bombings on United States Subway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    extracurricular activities to deter drug use; drug and alcohol tests for railway employees to encourage safety; car stops at borders to intercept illegal...26 Table 3. Possible Signs of Suspicious Activity .............................................................27 Table 4...Mass transportation has been and remains an attractive target for terrorist activity throughout the world. In the last three years, major

  3. Are We Doing Enough to Prevent a Nuclear Terrorist Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Cesium-137 from nuclear medicine therapy units, Cobalt-60 from food sterilization irradiators, Strontium-90 from communications generators, and...Plutonium-239. A terrorist group would not use the medical isotopes to design and build a nuclear weapon, but the isotopes could be used in a...sized devices used as scanning tools to search for 18 and detect nuclear and radiological materials; hand-held radioisotope identification

  4. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PREVENTION OF TERRORIST ACTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  5. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  6. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  7. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Farnham

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research. This paper explores a possible ‘copycat effect’ in cases of suicide terrorism, which entails a perpetrator being inspired by a preceding attack to carry out a similar attack not long after the original. In the wake of mounting risks of lone wolf terrorist attacks today and due to the general difficulties faced in preventing such attacks, in this paper we explore a potential area of future prevention in media reporting, security and anti-terrorism policies today. Using the START Global Terrorism Database (GTD, this paper investigates terrorist suicide-attack clusters and analyses the relationship between attacks found within the same cluster. Using a mixed-method approach, our analyses did not uncover clear evidence supporting a copycat effect among the studied attacks. These and other findings have numerous policy and future research implications.

  8. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger

    2017-05-01

    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  9. Australian Correctional Management Practices for Terrorist Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Tompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.

  10. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  11. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  12. Motives of terrorist acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.

  13. On Terrorists and Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellen, Konrad

    1982-01-01

    ...; it examines their socioeconomic backgrounds and their driving ideologies; and it probes into elements that may aid the cohesion of terrorist groups, as well as at elements that drive toward disintegration...

  14. Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K

    2003-01-01

    Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...

  15. The Future of Primary Prevention: Parent Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the most important new frontier in the prevention of drug abuse is parent power. Marijuana use is a wave whose peak has passed. If this is true it will be less the result of efforts of drug abuse professionals than the direct result of outrage coming from American parents. (Author/BEF)

  16. Future opportunities in preventing cisplatin induced ototoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. H.; Beijnen, J. H.; Balm, A. J. M.; Schellens, J. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used cytotoxic agents. Ototoxicity is an important and dose-limiting side-effect of cisplatin therapy. It is believed that cisplatin suppresses the formation of endogenous anti-oxidants that normally prevent the inner ear against reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  17. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  18. Future of phylogeny in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Bluma G; Wainberg, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    The success of the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial has led to revisions in HIV-1 treatment guidelines. Antiretroviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmissions at the population level. The design of successful treatment as prevention interventions will be predicated on a comprehensive understanding of the spatial, temporal, and biological dynamics of heterosexual men who have sex with men and intravenous drug user epidemics. Viral phylogenetics can capture the underlying structure of transmission networks based on the genetic interrelatedness of viral sequences and cluster networks that could not be otherwise identified. This article describes the phylogenetic expansion of the Montreal men who have sex with men epidemic over the last decade. High rates of coclustering of primary infections are associated with 1 infection leading to 13 onward transmissions. Phylogeny substantiates the role of primary and recent stage infection in transmission dynamics, underlying the importance of timely diagnosis and immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation to avert transmission cascades.

  19. Terror breeds terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism can be carried out by the state or by its citizens. The latter may be labelled 'freedom fighters' or 'terrorists' depending on the political context. One of the most important aetiological factors driving Islamic terrorists is the experience of alienation and shame. This sense of being made to feel totally invalidated, of feeling worthless in the eyes of the other, is at the root of rage and violent revenge, implying that the way the current 'War on Terror' is being fought by the United States and the United Kingdom can only lead to more terrorism and danger for our society.

  20. Future of obesity prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has risen sharply during the last 4 decades imposing a serious health burden to modern society. Obesity is known to cause and exacerbate many chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, obstructive sleep apnea and certain cancers, among many others. The rise in obesity prevalence is mainly caused by overconsumption of energy, coupled to a sedentary life in susceptible individuals. Weight homeostasis is paramount for survival and its control is coordinated by neural and endocrine signals emanating from the fat tissue, digestive system and brain. During thousands of years humans were challenged by nutrient deprivation, developing an efficient mechanism to store energy. It explains the difficulty in losing weight, making obesity prevention the main effective health approach to halt the obesity epidemic.

  1. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  2. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number...... of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later....

  3. Prevention of Rheumatic Diseases: Strategies, Caveats and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckh, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases affect a significant portion of the population and lead to increased health care costs, disability and even premature mortality; as such, effective preventive measures for these diseases could lead to substantial improvements in public health. Importantly, established and emerging data from natural history studies show that for most rheumatic diseases there is a period of ‘preclinical’ disease development during which abnormal biomarkers or other processes can be detected. These changes are useful to understand mechanisms of disease pathogenesis; in addition, they may be applied to estimate a personal risk of future disease, while individuals are still relatively asymptomatic. Based on this, a hope is to implement effective screening and preventive approaches for some rheumatic diseases, perhaps in the near future. However, a key part of such approaches is a deep understanding of the mechanisms of disease development as well as evidence-based and effective screening and preventive interventions that incorporate disease biology as well as ethical and public health concerns. PMID:25437291

  4. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  5. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  6. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  7. Game Theoretic Centrality Analysis of Terrorist Networks : The Cases of Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of key players in a terrorist network can lead to prevention of attacks, due to efficient allocation of surveillance means or isolation of key players in order to destabilize the network. In this paper we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist

  8. Cooperative game theoretic centrality analysis of terrorist networks : The cases of Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of key players in a terrorist organization aids in preventing attacks, the efficient allocation of surveillance measures, and the destabilization of the corresponding network. In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist networks. In

  9. Training, SEVIS, and NSEERS: Will They Stop Terrorists from Entering the U.S

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugarin, Darwina S

    2007-01-01

    .... Stopping their entry is key to preventing attacks. The 9/11 Commission's Staff Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, identified pre-9/11 gaps/weaknesses in U.S...

  10. Defending against a stockpiling terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell; Zhuang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Hausken, K. & Zhuang, J. (2011) Defending against a stockpiling terrorist. The Engineering Economist: A Journal Devoted to the Problems of Capital Investment, 56(4), pp. 321-353. The Engineering Economist is available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00137916908928807#.UnjESBA2HZU. A government defends against a terrorist who attacks repeatedly and stockpiles its resources over time. The government defends an ...

  11. The Deradicalisation of Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason-Leigh Striegher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Governments today tend to grapple with the development and implementation of deradicalisation programs; and as such, the results of such programs have led to varying degrees of success. The programs of three nation states—Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia have been selected for discussion due to the diversity of programs used in these Islamic states. This study focuses on the distinction between disengagement and deradicalisation; and identifying and understanding the affects that push and pull factors potentially have to extricate identified terrorists from violent extremism. It also highlights Jack Roche as an example of someone that in general deradicalised himself as a result of push and pull factors. “If the development of terrorism is a product of its own time and place, it follows that issues of disengagement (and all that that implies will also be context-specific and necessarily nuanced . . . in terms of how the programmes are constructed, implemented, and promoted . . .” (Horgan, 2008a: 7.

  12. Cancer prevention: state of the art and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, I; Tramalloni, D; Bragazzi, N L

    2015-06-10

    Cancer imposes a heavy societal burden worldwide, in terms of both epidemiology and costs. The introduction of more sophisticated imaging and diagnostic techniques and advanced drugs that specifically target tumor cells is leading to increasingly expensive treatments, which may be affordable only for few patients. Prevention, and particularly primary prevention, is an effective way of addressing the challenging issue of cancer, since between a third and a half of cancers could be prevented on the basis of our current knowledge of risk factors. Moreover, prevention is cost-effective, its effects are not limited to high-risk subjects but extend to the entire population, and it is not dependent on socioeconomic status. Regulatory measures can have a broad impact, even on future generations; by empowering and educating subjects, promoting healthy behaviours and teaching self-care, they can trigger a virtuous cycle. In recent decades, oncology has shifted from being merely reactive to being proactive; this shift has led to the development of so-called "P4 medicine", where the 4 Ps stand for "preventive", "predictive", "personalized" and "participatory". Prevention programs are an important part of the effort to control cancer, as they are able to reduce both the incidence of cancer and mortality. For instance, screening for colorectal, breast and cervical cancer is reducing the burden of these common tumors. Anti-cancer vaccines, both prophylactic and therapeutic, constitute another important preventive tool. Although progress has been made in these areas, much remains to be done. With regard to screening programs, coverage could be increased by introducing new, more acceptable, less invasive tests, stratifying screening through correlation with anamnestic, clinical, radiological and genomic data (so-called "populationbased personalized cancer screening"), and exploiting new information and communication technologies, such as smartphone applications or personalized text

  13. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  14. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  15. School Preparation to the Terrorist Threat. SVRC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Violence Resource Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a list of "lessons learned" to assist schools in better preparing for a crisis event. The list was compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Education specifically to assist schools in preparing for a terrorist attack. The lessons can help schools better identify appropriate…

  16. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  17. Nigeria as a Potential Terrorist Haven Explaining the Convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Nigeria a possible terrorist haven? This article aims to answer this question from two perspectives: international and domestic terrorism. From the perspective of international terrorism and in the standpoint of Western liberalism, for a foreseeable future Nigeria cannot be a haven for terrorism. This is the impossibility ...

  18. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnham, N.T.; Liem, M.C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research.

  19. Terrorist targeting, information and secret coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Lindner, I.; McCormick, G.; Owen, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a game played by a state sponsor of terrorism, a terrorist group, and the target of terrorist attacks. The sponsoring state wishes to see as much damage inflicted on the target of attack as possible, but wishes to avoid retaliation. To do so, his relationship with the terrorist group

  20. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  1. Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups Abroad: Implications for the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochmanek, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to help defense planners anticipate the types of demands that future operations against terrorists will place on the armed forces of the United States, particularly...

  2. Disrupting Terrorist Networks: An Analysis of the PKK Terrorist Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Turkey (and the State’s Counter Measures), 361. 68 the refugees are able to find a job and provide their own financial support.271 Ultimately, the...concur, this embeddedness did not turn the PKK into a criminal group. In this part of the chapter, the study focused on the assisting factors that...PKK too. The next chapter will further analyze the role of geographical safe havens along with the embeddedness of the PKK terrorist organization in

  3. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  4. Current and Future Directions in Elementary School Drug Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Drug prevention efforts in elementary schools are widespread. Nonetheless, there are clear challenges that both researchers and practitioners face. Because there may be occasional unintended negative outcomes--statistically these are guaranteed--does not mean all prevention efforts should grind to a halt. It is far better that any observed…

  5. Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Romero, José A; Deal, Carolyn; Herold, Betsy C; Schiller, John; Patton, Dorothy; Zydowsky, Thomas; Romano, Joe; Petro, Christopher D; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-07-01

    Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV Research for Prevention (R4P) conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today, new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs), and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Terrorist Use, Capability, and Strategic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Ryan Jokl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    There has been unparalleled proliferation and technological advancement of consumer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) across the globe in the past several years. As witnessed over the course of insurgency tactics, it is difficult to restrict terrorists from using widely available technology they perceive as advantageous to their overall strategy. Through a review of the characteristics, consumer market landscape, tactics, and countertactics, as well as operational use of consumer-grade UAVs, this open-source report seeks to provide an introductory understanding of the terrorist-UAV landscape, as well as insights into present and future capabilities. The caveat is evaluating a developing technology haphazardly used by terrorists in asymmetric conflicts.

  7. Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV R4P conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today; new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs); and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality. PMID:25759332

  8. Cancer prevention: state of the art and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    VALLE, I.; TRAMALLONI, D.; BRAGAZZI, N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cancer imposes a heavy societal burden worldwide, in terms of both epidemiology and costs. The introduction of more sophisticated imaging and diagnostic techniques and advanced drugs that specifically target tumor cells is leading to increasingly expensive treatments, which may be affordable only for few patients. Prevention, and particularly primary prevention, is an effective way of addressing the challenging issue of cancer, since between a third and a half of cancers could be prev...

  9. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  11. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  12. Combination chemoprevention: future direction of colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Yang, Rong; Wang, Bing; Liu, Jian

    2012-05-01

    Recent research has drawn attention to protective effects of chemopreventive agents that reverse, suppress, or prevent the carcinogenic progression using pharmacological or nutritional agents. Aspirin and celecoxib are the promising preventive agents to effectively reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but such agents are associated with severe gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side effects in long-term administration at high doses. Recently, the strategy that combinational use with several chemopreventive agents at low doses induces greater inhibition of carcinogenesis has become the focus. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may combine with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, epidermal growth factor signaling inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, to magnify the chemoprophylactic effect. It is noteworthy that the phase III trial of difluoromethylornithine combination with sulidac has shown greater and effective preventive roles, which pave the way for the use of combinations of other agents. The long-term statins and low-dose NSAIDs have also been associated with risk reduction in vitro, in vivo, and in retrospective studies; however, the data are inconsistent. Epidermal growth factor signaling inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand have been demonstrated to potentiate the preventive effects of NSAIDs in vitro and in vivo, but these combinational regimens have not yet been applied to clinical research. The major goal of this study was to review combination chemoprevention for colorectal cancer by means of combining low doses of potential preventive agents to increase their chemoprophylaxis efficacy and to minimize toxicity.

  13. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  14. Definition of Terrorist Act under Eth Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen_D_K

    Abstract. While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing ...

  15. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  16. Dutch politicians' coping with terrorist threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The psychosocial effects of terrorist threat and close protection have never been studied systematically in political leaders. We conducted a study among 12 Dutch politicians and their partners who were living under terrorist threat and close protection in the aftermath of two political murders.

  17. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  18. Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications for prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderland Elsie M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their new paper, Bellanger and coauthors show substantial economic impacts to the EU from neurocognitive impairment associated with methylmercury (MeHg exposures. The main source of MeHg exposure is seafood consumption, including many marine species harvested from the global oceans. Fish, birds and other wildlife are also susceptible to the impacts of MeHg and already exceed toxicological thresholds in vulnerable regions like the Arctic. Most future emissions scenarios project a growth or stabilization of anthropogenic mercury releases relative to present-day levels. At these emissions levels, inputs of mercury to ecosystems are expected to increase substantially in the future, in part due to growth in the legacy reservoirs of mercury in oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seawater mercury concentration trajectories in areas such as the North Pacific Ocean that supply large quantities of marine fish to the global seafood market are projected to increase by more than 50% by 2050. Fish mercury levels and subsequent human and biological exposures are likely to also increase because production of MeHg in ocean ecosystems is driven by the supply of available inorganic mercury, among other factors. Analyses that only consider changes in primary anthropogenic emissions are likely to underestimate the severity of future deposition and concentration increases associated with growth in mercury reservoirs in the land and ocean. We therefore recommend that future policy analyses consider the fully coupled interactions among short and long-lived reservoirs of mercury in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial ecosystems. Aggressive anthropogenic emission reductions are needed to reduce MeHg exposures and associated health impacts on humans and wildlife and protect the integrity of one of the last wild-food sources globally. In the near-term, public health advice on safe fish consumption choices such as smaller species, younger fish, and harvests

  19. A Review of Sources on Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet ALIU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism financing is one of the most complex problems the democratic world is facing today. The transfer of funds to support terrorist activities has created enormous challenges across the world. This has fuelled several inter-religious and nationalist hate, and as such has put many nations into war with terrorist organisations. The main objective of this study is to review the sources of terrorist financing. The paper relies on secondary data that were drawn from various books, journals, as well as from institutional materials relevant to the issues raised. It concludes that terrorists are exploiting established financial systems at the global level to move their finances, and that informal systems remain the biggest challenge to thwart terrorist activities.

  20. Public health preparedness and response to a radiological terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Given the potential for intentional malevolent acts, the security of radioactive sources should be ensured. In the event of a terrorist attack using a radioactive source, we should care not only about health concerns of victims, especially including first responders who suffer from radiation injury, but also public health activities with affected people during the long recovery phase. Regarding the radiological public health viewpoint, preventive efforts are also important. In fact, regulatory reform is progressing in Japan according to the code of conduct issued by IAEA. One of the difficulties of countermeasures for the security of radioactive sources in Japan is to establish a disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, since radioactive waste has been additionally a point of contention in society since the nuclear disaster. This paper presents an overview of countermeasures for terrorist attacks using a radioactive source, from the viewpoint of public health in Japan including the results of survey targeted hospitals equipped with blood irradiation machines. (author)

  1. The future of digital games for HIV prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, José A; LeGrand, Sara; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2017-09-01

    Although there has been a significant increase in mHealth interventions addressing the HIV prevention and care continuum, interventions using game mechanics have been less explored. Digital games are rapidly becoming an important tool for improving health behaviors and supporting the delivery of care and education. The purpose of this review is to provide a historical context for the use of gamification and videogames (including those using virtual reality) used in technology-based HIV interventions and to review new research in the field. A review of recently published (1 January 2016-31 March 2017) or presented abstracts (2016) identified a paucity of technology-based interventions that included gamification elements or any terms associated with videogames or gameplay. A larger portfolio of digital gaming interventions is in the pipeline. Use of digital games that include elements of gamification or consist of standalone videogames or virtual-reality-based games, represent a promising intervention strategy to address the HIV prevention and care continuum, especially among youth. Our review demonstrates that there is significant room for growth in this area in designing, developing, testing and most importantly, implementation and dissemination these novel interventions.

  2. Prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Nyholm

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Nyholm1, Mark R Schleiss21Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women’s Health, and 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is the most common cause of perinatal viral infection in the developed world, resulting in approximately 40,000 congenitally infected infants in the United States each year. Congenital CMV infection can produce varying degrees of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The significant impact of congenital CMV has led the Institute of Medicine to rank development of a CMV vaccine as a top priority. Vaccine development has been ongoing; however no licensed CMV vaccine is currently available. Treatment of pregnant women with CMV hyperimmune globulin has shown promising results, but has not been studied in randomized controlled trials. Education on methods to prevent CMV transmission, particularly among young women of child-bearing age, should continue until a CMV vaccine becomes available. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention strategies, and treatment of CMV infections are reviewed.Keywords: cytomegalovirus, CMV vaccines, congenital CMV, CMV infection, immunoglobulin

  3. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  4. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  5. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyson Chatagnier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizations. After reviewing the results and insights derived from this analysis, we conclude with implications for policies to counter terrorism.

  6. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: a systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Iruarrizaga, Itziar; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Galea, Sandro

    2011-06-01

    Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed.

  7. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  8. Mass casualty response in the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2011-12-01

    The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.

  9. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Identifying and structuring the objectives of terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Gregory L; Von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2010-12-01

    The risk of terrorism is of great concern to many countries and significant resources are spent to counter this threat. A better understanding of the motivation of terrorists and their reasons for selecting certain modes and targets of attack can help improve the decisions to allocate resources in the fight against terrorism. The fundamental question addressed in this article is: "What do terrorists want?" We take the view that terrorists' preferences for actions are based on their values and beliefs. An important missing piece in our knowledge of terrorists' preferences is an understanding of their values. This article uses a novel approach to determine these values and state them as objectives, using principles from decision analysis and value-focused thinking. Instead of interviewing decisionmakers and stakeholders, as would be normal in decision analysis, we extract the values of terrorists by examining their own writings and verbal statements. To illustrate the approach, we extract the values of Al-Qaeda and structure them in terms of strategic, fundamental, and means objectives. These objectives are interrelated through a means-ends network. This information is useful for understanding terrorists' motivations, intent, and likely actions, as well as for developing policies to counter terrorism at its root causes. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  12. Theoretical Aspects in Developing Directions for Risking Terroristic Threats for National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizgar J. Aziz Galali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of the existence of the world community is characterized by an ever-increasing level of threat of the emergence of undesirable effects on the world economy of acts of a terrorist nature. Historical facts show that such phenomenon as terrorism can take place in any state of the world, regardless of the standard of living of the population, education and other factors. However, studies in this area still show that countries with an underdeveloped economy and a low standard of living of the population are more likely to be affected by terrorist acts. Such states can act as the "cradle" of terrorism and this, first of all, affects their economic and social situation. But practice shows that terrorism is capable of spreading actively around the world, therefore, an important element in preventing the emergence of terrorism is the construction of an integral system of national economic security, with a special place to search for and develop methods and approaches to reduce the risks of terrorist threat. The article is devoted to the consideration of topical issues of the theory of the emergence of a terrorist threat, as well as the possible negative impact of terrorist acts on the national economy, its security and stability. In addition, the article suggests an improved scheme of risks of the national economy, as well as a scheme of types of diversification of risks of a terrorist threat, and a mechanism for managing the risk of a terrorist threat to the national economy has been developed.

  13. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism.

  14. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  15. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  16. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ...; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... administers three sanctions programs with respect to terrorists and terrorist organizations. The Terrorism... foreign terrorists that disrupt the Middle East peace process.'' The Global Terrorism Sanctions...

  17. The social psychological makings of a terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, David; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2018-02-01

    Social psychological factors pertain to all aspects of terrorism, including how terrorist organizations operate, and the impact of terrorism on everyday people. The present analysis focuses on the aspect of terrorism where social psychology's voice is perhaps most critical: radicalization (i.e., how terrorists are made) and deradicalization (i.e., how terrorists are unmade). In reviewing the literature, we identify three factors critical to radicalization: (1) the individual need that motivates one to engage in political violence, (2) the ideological narrative that justifies political violence, and (3) the social network that influences one's decisions along the pathway to extremism. Theoretical and empirical contributions are discussed. We end with an examination of interviews conducted with former extremists of various ideological leanings to highlight these same three factors as critical to their individual deradicalization experiences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Health effects of technologies for power generation: Contributions from normal operation, severe accidents and terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Cazzoli, Eric; Heck, Thomas; Spada, Matteo; Treyer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of comprehensive analysis of current and future energy systems we carried out numerous analyses of health effects of a wide spectrum of electricity supply technologies including advanced ones, operating in various countries under different conditions. The scope of the analysis covers full energy chains, i.e. fossil, nuclear and renewable power plants and the various stages of fuel cycles. State-of-the-art methods are used for the estimation of health effects. This paper addresses health effects in terms of reduced life expectancy in the context of normal operation as well as fatalities resulting from severe accidents and potential terrorist attacks. Based on the numerical results and identified patterns a comparative perspective on health effects associated with various electricity generation technologies and fuel cycles is provided. In particular the estimates of health risks from normal operation can be compared with those resulting from severe accidents and hypothetical terrorist attacks. A novel approach to the analysis of terrorist threat against energy infrastructure was developed, implemented and applied to selected energy facilities in various locations. Finally, major limitations of the current approach are identified and recommendations for further work are given. - Highlights: • We provide state-of-the-art comparative assessment of energy health risks. • The scope of the analysis should to the extent possible cover full energy chains. • Health impacts from normal operation dominate the risks. • We present novel approach to analysis of terrorist threat. • Limitations include technology choices, geographical coverage and terrorist issues.

  19. Social, psychological, and psychiatric interventions following terrorist attacks: recommendations for practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; Cahill, Shawn P; Boscarino, Joseph A; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Lahad, Mooli; McNally, Richard J; Solomon, Zahava

    2005-10-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the constant threat of imminent terrorist activity have brought into the forefront the urgent need to prepare for the consequences of such attacks. Such preparation entails utilization of existing knowledge, identification of crucial gaps in our scientific knowledge, and taking steps to acquire this knowledge. At present, there is little empirical knowledge about interventions following terrorism and absolutely no available empirical knowledge about interventions following bioterrorism. Therefore, this paper reviews knowledge about (1) reactions following the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City and other places, (2) the practical experiences accumulated in recent years in countries (eg, Israel) that have had to cope with the threat of bioterrorism and the reality of terrorism, and (3) interventions for acute and chronic stress reactions following other types of traumatic events (eg, rape, war, accidents). Our review found several treatments efficacious in treating individuals for acute and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to other traumatic events that will likely be efficacious in treating PTSD related to terrorist attacks. However, there were significant gaps in our knowledge about how to prepare populations and individuals for the possibility of a terrorist attack and what interventions to apply in the immediate aftermath of such an attack. Accordingly, we conclude the paper with several questions designed to guide future research.

  20. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neil, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    ... not. Terrorist precursor crimes, offenses committed to facilitate a particular attack or promote a terrorist campaign's objectives, are thought to be often carried out far away from the primary theater...

  1. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  2. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  3. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially designated terrorist. (a) The term specially designated terrorist means: (1...

  4. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign terrorist... respect to which the Secretary of State has notified Congress of the intention to designate as a foreign...

  5. Real Time Big Data Analytics for Predicting Terrorist Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Terrorism is a complex and evolving phenomenon. In the past few decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of terrorist incidents in the world. The security and stability of many countries is threatened by terrorist groups. Perpetrators now use sophisticated weapons and the attacks are more and more lethal. Currently, terrorist incidents…

  6. Fall Prediction and Prevention Systems: Recent Trends, Challenges, and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Rajagopalan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fall prediction is a multifaceted problem that involves complex interactions between physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Existing fall detection and prediction systems mainly focus on physiological factors such as gait, vision, and cognition, and do not address the multifactorial nature of falls. In addition, these systems lack efficient user interfaces and feedback for preventing future falls. Recent advances in internet of things (IoT and mobile technologies offer ample opportunities for integrating contextual information about patient behavior and environment along with physiological health data for predicting falls. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in fall detection and prediction systems. It also describes the challenges, limitations, and future directions in the design and implementation of effective fall prediction and prevention systems.

  7. Considering treatment of male genital schistosomiasis as a tool for future HIV prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Kallestrup, Per; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    and acquisition, and treatment could be a neglected chance of HIV prevention. This review summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MGS as a hypothesized risk factor for HIV transmission. Future research areas of global interest are suggested. METHODS: Pub...... association between MGS and HIV are urgently needed. Furthermore, field diagnostic tools should be developed and future mass treatment programs should include adults to reduce morbidity and prevent HIV acquisition. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015016252.......OBJECTIVES: Male genital schistosomiasis (MGS) is a neglected manifestation of Schistosoma haematobium infection with ignored implications on reproductive health and a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted infections in endemic regions. MGS may have associations with HIV transmission...

  8. Gene–Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Narimatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene–environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future.

  9. The Role of Statins in Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Promise for the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Katsi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia has been linked to high morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. However, no efficient pharmacological options for the prevention of this condition are currently available. Preeclampsia is thought to share several pathophysiologic mechanisms with cardiovascular disease, which has led to investigations for the potential role of statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in its prevention and early management. Pravastatin seems to have a safer pharmacokinetic profile compared to other statins, however, the existing preclinical evidence for its effectiveness in preeclampsia treatment has been mostly restricted to animal models. This review aims to summarize the current data and delineate the potential future role of statins in the prevention and management of preeclampsia.

  10. Identifying foreign terrorist fighters: The Role of Public-Private Partnership, Information Sharing and Financial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Keatinge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, financial institutions have found themselves placed squarely on the front line of efforts to combat terrorism: countering terrorist financing has been a core element of the global counter-terrorism architecture since President George W Bush signed Executive Order 13224 promising to starve terrorists of funding. Financial institutions have played valuable “post-event” forensic roles, but despite the apparently immense troves of data they hold, their effective involvement in the identification and disruption of terrorist intentions or activity remains elusive. With global authorities consumed with the mushrooming growth of “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs, it seems timely to revisit the question of how financial institutions can play a more preventative role in countering terrorist threats. As the intergovernmental Financial Action Task Force (FATF noted recently, “greater domestic cooperation among AML/CFT [anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism] bodies and other authorities” is needed to tackle funding of FTFs. Banks must play a key role in the development of this architecture. The issue of FTFs flowing to and from the conflict in Syria is likely to shape the international security agenda for the foreseeable future. Identifying citizens who have joined terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq pose a threat to the UK. The UK is certainly not alone in Europe in facing this threat. Evidence suggests these fears are now being realised. Both the scale of the issue in the context of the Syrian conflict and the speed with which the numbers have risen have caught international security authorities off guard, which – it would seem – have only belatedly appreciated the magnitude of the challenge. Whilst there has been much discussion and debate about who these travelling fighters are, their motivations, and the threats they pose, the majority of this analysis has focused on the role of social media in this

  11. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  12. Terrorist Group Brands: Understanding Terrorist Group Strategies Through Brand Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    references the product’s ability to gain the trust and loyalty of the target audience and as a result, generate consumer loyalty . Credibility can be...groups. These organizations market their brands in an effort to generate support in terms of both funding and recruits, which ultimately increase their...Clarion Project, 2015): “Tobias Feakin and Benedict Wilkinson, The Future of Jihad: What Next for ISIL and Al-Qaeda?” (Australia: Australian Strategic

  13. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia--the future is prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-03-30

    hence FASD, should be our future goal. The causal pathway to drinking in pregnancy is complex and requires a broad social ecological approach. Prevention will take time, must involve all government sectors and should incorporate primary, secondary and tertiary strategies to target both the broader community and populations at high risk of alcohol use during pregnancy.

  14. TERRORIST THREATS AND PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan NASCU

    2009-01-01

    public transportation is an activity facing various problems. One of them, very complex and dangerous, is terrorism which together with criminal activities and vandalism, is making the top of the threats affecting public transportation and therefore urban life quality. Public transportation has several characteristics which make it vulnerable to terroris attacks and a main target for them. To compensate for these weeknesses, certain solutions are necessary to prevent the attack or in case it ...

  15. The Developmental Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968–2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes. PMID:23185267

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention education in Singapore: challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mee Lian; Sen, Priya; Wong, Christina M; Tjahjadi, Sylvia; Govender, Mandy; Koh, Ting Ting; Yusof, Zarina; Chew, Ling; Tan, Avin; K, Vijaya

    2012-12-01

    We reviewed the current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention education programmes in Singapore, discussed the challenges faced and proposed prevention education interventions for the future. Education programmes on HIV prevention have shown some success as seen by reduced visits to sex workers among the general adult population and a marked increase in condom use among brothel-based sex workers. However, we still face many challenges such as low awareness of HIV preventive strategies and high prevalence of HIV stigma in the general population. Voluntary HIV testing and condom use remain low among the priority groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men who buy sex. Casual sex has increased markedly from 1.1% in 1989 to 17.4% in 2007 among heterosexuals in Singapore, with the majority (84%) practising unprotected sex. Sex workers have moved from brothels to entertainment venues where sex work is mostly hidden with lack of access to sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/ HIV prevention education and treatment programmes. Education programmes promoting early voluntary testing is hampered because of poor access, high cost and stigma towards people living with HIV. It remains a challenge to promote abstinence and consistent condom use in casual and steady sexual relationships among heterosexuals and MSM. New ways to promote condom use by using a positive appeal about its pleasure enhancing effects rather than the traditional disease-oriented approach should be explored. Education programmes promoting early voluntary testing and acceptance of HIV-infected persons should be scaled up and integrated into the general preventive health services.

  17. When Do Governments Concede to Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project...crisis, 146 people were taken hostage by the terrorist group Tupac Amaru (MRTA) at the Japanese Embassy in Peru . Six of those were American...within Colombia, the primary one being social inequality between the locals and the government. Another factor is the drug dealers’ desire to

  18. Designating Domestic Terrorist Individuals or Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    partially defined domestic terrorism as: …the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within...appear intend to intimidate, or the locale in which perpetrators operate… Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by...use violence and criminal activity to further their agendas. (Mueller, 2010) This research focused on the domestic terrorist threat to the homeland

  19. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Murad Ismayilov

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualizat...

  20. Extremist Ideological Influence on Terrorist Decision Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    culture in terms of lists of domain-general, stable traits, such as individualist - collectivist value orientations li7J Researchers operating within this...heavily on terrorist communication of specific aspects from their ideological framework to shape the common perspective of their intended audiences...to define culture from a cognitive perspective . There is a somewhat natural tendency to talk about culture as if it were a concrete, material thing

  1. Putting the Barker Theory into the Future: Time to Act on Preventing Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agosti, Massimo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo

    2016-11-17

    Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life-conception through 24 months of age-represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders. The Mediterranean Nutrition Group (MeNu Group), a group of researchers of the Mediterranean Region, in this Special Issue titled "Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days", presented results that advanced the science of obesity risk factors in early life, coming both from animal model studies and studies in humans. In the future, early-life intervention designs for the prevention of pediatric obesity will need to look at different strategies, and the MeNu Group is available for guidance regarding an appropriate conceptual framework to accomplish either prevention or treatment strategies to tackle pediatric obesity.

  2. Putting the Barker Theory into the Future: Time to Act on Preventing Pediatric Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pietrobelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life—conception through 24 months of age—represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders. The Mediterranean Nutrition Group (MeNu Group, a group of researchers of the Mediterranean Region, in this Special Issue titled “Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days”, presented results that advanced the science of obesity risk factors in early life, coming both from animal model studies and studies in humans. In the future, early-life intervention designs for the prevention of pediatric obesity will need to look at different strategies, and the MeNu Group is available for guidance regarding an appropriate conceptual framework to accomplish either prevention or treatment strategies to tackle pediatric obesity.

  3. Preventing relapse in the treatment of nicotine addiction: current issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, T P

    1992-01-01

    Although smoking-cessation rates have continued to increase, the vast majority of smokers who quit eventually relapse. Between 1974 and 1985, over 1.3 million smokers quit during each of those years. However, 75% to 80% of those individuals resumed smoking within six months. This article describes the dynamic phenomenon of smoking relapse within the context of cyclical episodes of smoking and quitting during an individual's lifetime. Theories of the determinants of smoking relapse are reviewed and methods designed to prevent relapse are described. Smoking relapse is discussed in terms of three aspects of tobacco addiction: (1) biological-addiction mechanisms, (2) conditioning processes, and (3) cognitive-social learning factors. The major determinants of smoking relapse are reviewed, including nicotine withdrawal, stress, weight gain, social influences, conditioning factors, causal attributions, and environmental variables. A transtheoretical-developmental model is explored in the longitudinal investigation of the natural history of slips (lapses) and relapse episodes. Relapse prevention interventions are described that emphasize self-awareness, self-regulation, self-efficacy, affect regulation, social support, and lifestyle balance. Recent developments in pharmacological adjuncts to treatment are also examined. It is concluded that innovative relapse prevention methods need to be designed for hard-core smokers with histories of cessation failures, substance abuse and/or psychiatric impairment. These and other recommendations for future research on smoking relapse and relapse prevention are discussed.

  4. The role of infant nutrition in the prevention of future disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron eShaoul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that nutrition is part of the environmental factors affecting the incidence of various diseases. The effect starts in the prenatal life and affects fetal growth and continues in early life and throughout childhood. The effect has been shown on various disease states such as allergic diseases, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome and immunologic diseases such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus. It seems that the recommendations of exclusive breastfeeding until the age of 4 months and subsequently exposure to various solid foods has beneficial effect in terms of allergic, immune and cardiovascular diseases prevention. Will these recommendations change the natural course of these diseases is unknown yet, but there is an accumulating evidence that indeed this is the case. In this review we review the evidence of early nutritional intervention and future disease prevention.

  5. [Institutional changes for the future of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the initiatives undertaken since 2005 by the Italian Society of Hygiene (SitI) regarding he future of Hygiene and Public Health in Italy, the authors examine the latest proposals for renewing the organizational structure of the departments of Prevention, as well as for training programs and function of public health physicians. These changes, however, may be insufficient for a real renewal of public health, in the absence of institutional changes which would allocate administrative management of healthcare functions to local government, with community participation in health promotion. The planned establishment of "metropolitan cities" in 2012 is an opportunity for the SItI to show that the management of health administrative functions by the new local government organs is compatible with the institutional framework, is useful for achieving the objectives of health promotion and disease prevention, and facilitates health policy in local governments.

  6. [Behavioral patterns of domestic terrorist groups in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Wataru

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the behavioral patterns of Japanese extremist groups, based on 377 terror incidents that occurred in Japan between 1990 and 2010. These incidents included bombings, rocket attacks, hostage taking, and vehicle assaults. Information was drawn primarily from on-line newspaper databases. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed using five categories: extremist group identity, time of attack, target of attack, attack strategy, and method of claiming responsibility. Extremist group characteristics varied along two dimensions: the interaction level between terrorist and victim, and the indiscriminate level of use of force. We categorized multiple far-left, far-right, and religious extremist groups based on these two dimensions. Our findings may help prevent terror attacks, and help identify the group responsible for a given incident.

  7. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  8. There and back again: The study of mental disorder and terrorist involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2017-04-01

    For the past 40 years, researchers studied the relationship between mental disorder and terrorist involvement. The literature developed in 4 paradigms, each of which differs in terms of their empirical evidence, the specific mental disorders studied, and their conceptualizations of terrorist involvement. These paradigms have not, however, witnessed linear and incremental improvements upon 1 another. Although 1 paradigm has generally tended to dominate a temporal period, many false assumptions and incorrect interpretations of earlier work permeate into today's discourse. This article provides a history of the study of mental disorders and the terrorist. First, we briefly outline the core fundamental principles of the first 2 paradigms, The article then outlines the core arguments produced by the seminal reviews conducted in Paradigm 3. We highlight how these findings were consistently misinterpreted in subsequent citations. We then highlight recent innovations in the study of terrorism and mental disorder since the various influential literature reviews of 1997-2005. We conclude by outlining how future research in this area may improve in the coming years by broadening our understanding of both terrorist involvement and psychopathology away from simple dichotomous thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Considering treatment of male genital schistosomiasis as a tool for future HIV prevention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Kallestrup, Per; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Vennervald, Birgitte; Petersen, Eskild

    2015-11-01

    Male genital schistosomiasis (MGS) is a neglected manifestation of Schistosoma haematobium infection with ignored implications on reproductive health and a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted infections in endemic regions. MGS may have associations with HIV transmission and acquisition, and treatment could be a neglected chance of HIV prevention. This review summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MGS as a hypothesized risk factor for HIV transmission. Future research areas of global interest are suggested. PubMed published literature was reviewed based on the MOOSE guidelines. All publications on MGS were included regardless of publication year and study design. Furthermore, all publications were searched for information on possible HIV association. The 40 identified publications related to MGS were dominated by case reports and observational studies. No randomized clinical trials have been conducted to date, and very scant information related to possible associations with HIV transmission was presented. Clinical, randomized studies and epidemiological studies covering the possible association between MGS and HIV are urgently needed. Furthermore, field diagnostic tools should be developed and future mass treatment programs should include adults to reduce morbidity and prevent HIV acquisition. CRD42015016252.

  10. [Forensic-medical assessment of terroristic chemical attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanian, R B; Bushuev, E S

    2005-01-01

    By potential damage, chemical terroristic attacks are much more dangerous than terroristic bombing. To fight chemical terrorism it is necessary to create the system of medical-environmental defense of the population. In line with emergency medicine, forensic medical service is a very important element of the antiterroristic defense. The activity of forensic-medical experts in the field of terroristic chemical attack is analysed.

  11. Combating nuclear terrorism in India: preventive nuclear forensic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, N.K.; Lad, J.S.; Deshmukh, A.V.; Jagtap, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is constant threat to India by many terrorist organization and neighboring country. These organizations are directly or indirectly aided with nuclear material by terrorism supporting country. Such organization has a significant potential source for acquiring nuclear and other radioactive material. Possibility of leakage is widely feared because of the deteriorating law and order condition, great spur of nuclear proliferation after the cold war and disintegration of USSR. Terrorist could gain access to Nuclear and radioactive material and smuggle to India through porous borders. Preventive forensic approach in screening and searching nuclear and radioactive material will play cardinal role to prevent nuclear disaster happening in India. Future plans could be extracted from terrorists through their narco-tests, brain fingerprinting and a data base on this could be prepared, which could later be used to help prevent any attacks. In present paper authors strongly recommend setting up Preventive Forensic Units in India so that any internal or external nuclear attack could be aborted. (author)

  12. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  13. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    .... Persistent Internet and computer security vulnerabilities, which have been widely publicized, may gradually encourage terrorists to develop new computer skills, or develop alliances with criminal...

  14. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term specially...

  15. The timing of terrorist attacks: An optimal stopping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later.

  16. Clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M; Kucuk, Omer; Jones, Dean P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the most important human clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents conducted to date, provide an overview of currently ongoing studies, and discuss future steps needed to advance research in this field. To date there have been several large (at least 7000 participants) trials testing the efficacy of antioxidant supplements in preventing cancer. The specific agents (diet-derived direct antioxidants and essential components of antioxidant enzymes) tested in those trials included β-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, selenium, retinol, zinc, riboflavin, and molybdenum. None of the completed trials produced convincing evidence to justify the use of traditional antioxidant-related vitamins or minerals for cancer prevention. Our search of ongoing trials identified six projects at various stages of completion. Five of those six trials use selenium as the intervention of interest delivered either alone or in combination with other agents. The lack of success to date can be explained by a variety of factors that need to be considered in the next generation research. These factors include lack of good biological rationale for selecting specific agents of interest; limited number of agents tested to date; use of pharmacological, rather than dietary, doses; and insufficient duration of intervention and follow-up. The latter consideration underscores the need for alternative endpoints that are associated with increased risk of neoplasia (i.e., biomarkers of risk), but are detectable prior to tumor occurrence. Although dietary antioxidants are a large and diverse group of compounds, only a small proportion of candidate agents have been tested. In summary, the strategy of focusing on large high-budget studies using cancer incidence as the endpoint and testing a relatively limited number of antioxidant agents has been largely unsuccessful. This lack of success in previous trials should not preclude us from seeking novel

  17. The mental health benefits of regular physical activity, and its role in preventing future depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Stanton,1 Brenda Happell,1 Peter Reaburn2 1Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Centre for Mental Health Nursing Innovation and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia; 2School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia Abstract: There is a large body of literature which examines the mental health benefits of physical activity. In general, studies report an inverse, dose dependent relationship between leisure-time physical activity participation, and mental health outcomes. Studies also show a positive association between maximal aerobic capacity and general well-being. More recent studies have confirmed the positive effects of physical activity participation on cognition, including the treatment and prevention of dementia. The current exercise prescription suggested for the treatment of depression is similar to that recommended to the general population for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. There is also strong evidence from large population level studies that long term physical activity participation reduces the risk of future depressive illness. From the available evidence, it would appear that physical activity performed at a frequency, intensity, and duration which is substantially less than that required for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in the general population, may afford significant benefits in reducing the risk of future depressive illness. This may be particularly encouraging for people with prior depressive illness, or at high risk of future depressive illness, since this vulnerable population already faces significant barriers to physical activity participation over and above those encountered by the general population. Keywords: exercise, major depression, depressive disorder, preventive medicine

  18. Genetics-Current and Future Role in the Prevention and Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to review genetic risk variants for coronary artery disease (CAD) and how they will change the management and prevention of CAD currently and in the future. Through the efforts of international consortia, 58 genetic risk variants for CAD of genome-wide significance have been replicated in appropriate independent populations. Only one third of these variants mediate their risk through known conventional risk factors for CAD. Thus, unknown mechanisms contribute to CAD. Secondly, the genetic risk is proportional to the total number of risk variants rather than the intensity of any risk factor. Thirdly, the availability of the genetic risk variants enables one to perform Mendelian randomization (MR) studies since they are randomized at conception, not confounded, fixed for life, and can be used to determine if a risk factor is causative or just a marker. MR can also be used to determine the safety and efficacy of a gene product targeted for drug therapy. Genetic risk variants have been shown to successfully risk stratify for CAD in both primary and secondary preventions. Contrary to dogma, MR documents that plasma HDL-C is not protective of CAD. The use of genetic risk score (GRS) for CAD is shown to be more effective in risk stratifying for CAD than the Framingham risk score and independent of the conventional risk factors including family history. Furthermore, the GRS predicts the response to statin therapy in primary and secondary preventions. The use of GRS could represent a paradigm shift in the prevention of CAD.

  19. Association between human papillomavirus vaccine uptake uptake and cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands: Implications for future impact on prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, A.; Wielders, C.C.; Bogaards, J.A.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Greeff, de S.C.; Melker, de H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Several countries recently added human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to cervical cancer screening in the effort to prevent cervical cancer. They include the Netherlands, where both programs are free. To estimate their combined future impact on cancer prevention, information is needed on the

  20. Development, Evaluation, and Future Directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Reeves, Melissa A.; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development, program evaluation, and future directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum (PREPaRE). Satisfaction ratings were analyzed for 1,073 participants who attended the Crisis Prevention and Preparedness workshop (Workshop 1) and 1,008 participants who attended the Crisis…

  1. How far can we prevent further physical soil degradation in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    .g. fodder production and harvesting, adequate animal grazing), - wind is furthermore minimized by adequate hedgerow plantations, continuous cover crop growth, optimized particle bindings by water, infiltrating organic acids, appropriate grazing intensity. Agroforestry can be considered as an additional positive measure to reduce soil erosion risks generally and to ameliorate degraded sites. C) -plant cover on slopes remains untouched, overgrazing and consecutive soil homogenization especially under moist climatic conditions must be prevented but adjusted to the actual structure stability of the hillsides. The communication of these findings followed by application of such measures can help farmers and foresters as well as landowners to prevent (further) physical soil degradation in the future.

  2. Air Force Critical Incident Stress Management outreach with Pentagon staff after the terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Anderson B

    2002-09-01

    This article describes the Critical Incident Stress Management outreach to Pentagon staff conducted after the terrorist attack by a team of Air Force mental health and chaplain personnel. Also discussed are lessons learned from the author's experience while leading the mental health component and working in a larger tri-service outreach. Finally, the observed impacts of the outreach effort are examined along with recommendations for future postcritical incident outreach efforts.

  3. Combatting Commercial Terrorists: The PKK Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    describes it in accordance with its own goals and political concerns. The cliché of one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter mindset causes...47 76 Justine A. Rosenthal, “For-Profit Terrorism: The Rise of Armed Entrepreneurs ,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 6 (06/13; 2015/07...the left of Makarenko’s continuum. She sees these kinds of hybrids as “armed entrepreneurs ” and names their activity as “for- profit-terrorism

  4. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...... and followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure....

  5. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  6. Consequence Assessment for Potential Scenarios of Radiological Terrorists Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul

    2007-01-01

    Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity

  7. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  8. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a

  9. National Intelligence Estimate: The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... Among the key judgments in this NIE are the following: the U.S. Homeland will face a persistent and evolving terrorist threat over the next 3 years, with the main threat coming from Islamic terrorist groups and cells, especially al-Qa'ida...

  10. Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information Operations in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    terrorist financing enterprise. Internet Ponzi schemes , identity theft, counterfeiting, and other types of computer fraud have been shown to yield high...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information Operations in...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  11. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  12. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32 Terrorist...

  13. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  14. Terrorist threats: Technical and policy approaches to countering them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of the history of terrorist threats to the United States and other nations over the last few decades, and will discuss means, both technical and policy-oriented, that can counter such threats. Changing trends in terrorist attacks are discussed, together with the need to develop countermeasures to changes in the types of threats.

  15. Future Issues and Approaches to Health Monitoring and Failure Prevention for Oil-Free Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Recent technology advances in foil air bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of small Oil-Free gas turbines. These turbomachines are currently commercialized as small (<100 kW) microturbine generators and larger machines are being developed. Based upon these successes and the high potential payoffs offered by Oil-Free systems, NASA, industry, and other government entities are anticipating Oil-Free gas turbine propulsion systems to proliferate future markets. Since an Oil-Free engine has no oil system, traditional approaches to health monitoring and diagnostics, such as chip detection, oil analysis, and possibly vibration signature analyses (e.g., ball pass frequency) will be unavailable. As such, new approaches will need to be considered. These could include shaft orbit analyses, foil bearing temperature measurements, embedded wear sensors and start-up/coast down speed analysis. In addition, novel, as yet undeveloped techniques may emerge based upon concurrent developments in MEMS technology. This paper introduces Oil-Free technology, reviews the current state of the art and potential for future turbomachinery applications and discusses possible approaches to health monitoring, diagnostics and failure prevention.

  16. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  17. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy......The law enforcement agencies need up-to-the minute intelligence about terrorist threats, which makes the development of expanded and improved intelligence a pre-requisite for their success As such, the intelligence community is actively developing new technologies to facilitate the identification...... and targeting of new and emerging threats. These threats can be manifested in network-centric form of organizations, doctrines, and technologies attuned to the information age. It is a widely held belief that terrorist activities are done by dispersed organizations (like non-hierarchical organizations), small...

  18. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  19. The impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on psychiatric patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Victoria A; Glass, Carol R; Arnkoff, Diane B; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2009-06-01

    Studies of the general population have shown that the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had a well-documented psychological effect, regardless of whether or not individuals were directly exposed to the events. In light of findings that pre-existing mental illness and prior exposure to trauma are associated with vulnerability to PTSD following a subsequent traumatic event, this article reviews research on the impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on psychiatric patients. Findings suggest that, in general, psychiatric patients experienced immediate and long-term posttraumatic symptoms at levels greater than normal controls, although there were differential effects by diagnostic group and symptoms as observed did not always match complaints of subjective impairment. Studies sampling inpatients and outpatients, as well as research regarding service utilization, are evaluated. Assessment and treatment implications for clinicians responsible for the care of psychiatric patients following a national trauma are discussed, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  20. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.).

  1. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  2. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Australia: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehmy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…

  3. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ismayilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.

  4. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: one potentially preventable and modifiable disease? Part II: Management, prevention and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    The management of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) includes pharmacological, nonpharmacological and caregiver interventions. Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have a small beneficial effect in mild-to-moderate dementia. Attention is increasingly focused on long-term measures that may prevent, delay or minimize MCI and dementia, including Mediterranean diet, exercise, early active treatment of hypercholesterolaemia hypertension, and diabetes starting in midlife and earlier. High cognitive activity and a high cognitive reserve may prevent or delay the onset of aging-related MCI and dementia. Although the numbers of the elderly with dementia are rapidly increasing worldwide, the incidence of dementia in some countries is decreasing attributable to higher educational levels, decreased vascular risk factors and healthier lifestyles. Prevention of dementia is feasible and reasonable.

  5. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation: A Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Bart; Bakker, Edwin; Gill, Paul; Bouhana, Noémie

    2017-10-23

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists' attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors are not highly lethal or surreptitious attackers. They are generally poor at maintaining operational security, leak their motivations and capabilities in numerous ways, and generally do so months and even years before an attack. Moreover, the "loneness" thought to define this type of terrorism is generally absent; most lone actors uphold social ties that are crucial to their adoption and maintenance of the motivation and capability to commit terrorist violence. The results offer concrete input for those working to detect and prevent this form of terrorism and argue for a re-evaluation of the "lone actor" concept. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Gynecologic Cancer Prevention and Control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Progress, Current Activities, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M.; Larkin, O. Ann; Moore, Angela R.; Hayes, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  7. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  8. Anesthetic gases and global warming: Potentials, prevention and future of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Greenhouse gases make the earth warmer by trapping energy inside the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere and include: water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Hazardous chemicals enter the air we breathe as a result of dozens of activities carried out during a typical day at a healthcare facility like processing lab samples, burning fossil fuels etc. We sometimes forget that anesthetic agents are also greenhouse gases (GHGs). Anesthetic agents used today are volatile halogenated ethers and the common carrier gas nitrous oxide known to be aggressive GHGs. With less than 5% of the total delivered halogenated anesthetic being metabolized by the patient, the vast majority of the anesthetic is routinely vented to the atmosphere through the operating room scavenging system. The global warming potential (GWP) of a halogenated anesthetic is up to 2,000 times greater than CO2. Global warming potentials are used to compare the strength of different GHGs to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to that of CO2. Here we discuss about the GWP of anesthetic gases, preventive measures to decrease the global warming effects of anesthetic gases and Xenon, a newer anesthetic gas for the future of anesthesia.

  9. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    .... From that, it is further possible to use the resulting social profile to compare terrorist groups against each other in order to develop predictive models as to the propensity of violence of a particular group...

  10. The "FTO List" and Congress: Sanctioning Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K

    2003-01-01

    .... It centers on the list of terrorist groups that are formally designated by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended under the Antiterrorism...

  11. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    ... organizations and consider attempting a cyberattack against the critical infrastructure. Cybercrime increased dramatically between 2004 and 2005, and several recent terrorist events appear to have been funded partially through online credit card fraud...

  12. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  13. Alternatives to retaliation in response to state sponsored terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Paul James

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited We consider a game played between a state sponsor of international terrorism, a terrorist organization and the victim of a terrorist attack. The state sponsor wishes to inflict as much damage to the victim as possible without risking retaliation. The victim state wishes to end these attacks as soon as possible, through non-retaliatory means if possible in order to avoid the penalty associated with retaliation. In this thesis we compare...

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  15. [Maternal filicide in Japan: analyses of 96 cases and future directions for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hisako

    2007-01-01

    Maternal filicide is not an isolated phenomenon. When a mother kills her child, she may be affected by many factors and confronted with different problems based on the child's developmental stage. In this study in Japan, a judicial sample of 96 adult women, convicted in their first trial for the murder or attempted murder of their children, was divided into four groups of mothers according to the age of the victim (25 women killed neonates, 22 women infants, 27 women preschool children, and 22 women schoolchildren and/or teenagers) in order to identify the factors that have a major impact on filicide in each group. The socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, circumstantial, and offense characteristics, and legal disposition of 96 cases drawn from judicial records were compared among the four groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test; comparison of two groups was conducted using the Mann-Whitney test. Neonaticide cases were distinguished from the other three groups by marked differences: a significantly higher rate of unmarried mothers, financial difficulties, absence of mental illness, and admission of not wanting an illegitimate child. In the other groups, mental disorders were frequent; in particular, post-partum depression was the primary cause of infanticide. For the two groups of cases involving a child older than one year, filicidal mothers were more affected by circumstantial factors such as health problems of the child or severe marital discord. These problems may then have caused a reactive mental disorder among these mothers. The risk of fatal abuse or neglect was higher for handicapped preschool children. Filicide-suicide was most frequently seen among school-aged children and/or teenagers who had serious behavioral problems, and these children often had a mental disorder. The classification of maternal filicide by age of the child demonstrated that there are specific issues for each group. Based on these findings, future directions for prevention include

  16. FUTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  17. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders Using Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions: A Narrative Review and Recommendations for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Daniel Ebert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD, their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs. This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs, effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include

  18. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  19. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures.

  20. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Yunus, Muslim A; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Booy, Robert; Alotaibi, Badriah M

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Yezli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD. KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks.

  2. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, S.D.; Aven, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  3. Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Trauma: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent, tenacious, and disabling consequence of traumatic events. The disorder's identifiable onset and early symptoms provide opportunities for early detection and prevention. Empirical findings and theoretical models have outlined specific risk factors and pathogenic processes leading to PTSD. Controlled studies have shown that theory-driven preventive interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or stress hormone-targeted pharmacological interventions, are efficacious in selected samples of survivors. However, the effectiveness of early clinical interventions remains unknown, and results obtained in aggregates (large groups) overlook individual heterogeneity in PTSD pathogenesis. We review current evidence of PTSD prevention and outline the need to improve the disorder's early detection and intervention in individual-specific paths to chronic PTSD.

  4. Non-communicable disease prevention in Nepal: systemic challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Page, Rachel; Matheson, Anna; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2017-08-01

    Developing countries such as Nepal are experiencing a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) resulting in social and economic losses. In Nepal, more than half of the disease burden is due to NCDs. The major NCDs in Nepal are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Behavioural factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are driving the epidemic of NCDs, which are further influenced by social, economic and environmental determinants. The health system of Nepal has not been able to address the ever-increasing burden of NCDs. With the formulation of the Multisectoral Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCDs 2014-2020, there has been some hope for tackling the NCDs and their social determinants in Nepal through a primary prevention approach. This paper discusses the systemic challenges and recommends two key actions for the prevention and control of NCDs in Nepal.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention: Is This the Future of Colorectal Cancer Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is presently one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in our setting and affects a great number of people each year. Screening strategies are commonly used but they do not seem enough to avoid CRC development or prevent completely its mortality. Because of this fact other prevention strategies have gained interest in recent years. Chemoprevention seems to be an attractive option in this setting and several drugs have been studied in this field. This review is focused on salicylates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cycloxygenase-2 inhibitors (COXIBs, whose mechanism of action could be directly related to colon cancer chemoprevention.

  6. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  7. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  8. EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

  9. Behavioral research in cancer prevention and control: a look to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W; McDonald, Paige G; Nebeling, Linda; O'Connell, Mary E; Riley, William T; Taplin, Stephen H; Tesauro, Gina

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer control continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  10. The future of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease prevention: polyhype or polyhope?: tales from the polyera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, O.; Karnik, K.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently society has been witnessing the rise of a new era in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: the Polyera. This new era started when a promising concept – the Polypill – was introduced by Wald et al. in 2003. The Polypill is a theoretical

  11. Opening the Future. The Ounce of Prevention Fund Annual Report 1990-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusslan, Carol, Ed.

    This report describes the ways in which programs sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund (OPF) are using innovative strategies to provide children and families with opportunities for health, education, and employment. A program summary lists agencies participating in OPF programs. For each agency, the summary includes a racial and ethnic…

  12. Counterinsurgency Meets Soft Power: An Alternative Approach to Deterring Terrorist Recruitment in Mindanao

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jason; Stroh, Rieka; Williams, John

    2008-01-01

    Terrorist activity in Southeast Asia remains a challenge to U.S. national security. In particular, terrorist organizations in the Philippines continue to conduct deadly attacks and attract more recruits despite...

  13. Hitting a Moving Target: A Strategic Tool for Analyzing Terrorist Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ken; Ishisoko, Noriko; Trounce, Milana; Bernard, Kenneth

    The subject of terrorism risk can be confusing for both the general public and for those responsible for protecting us from attack. Relatively minor terrorist threats are often conflated with much more serious ones, in part because it is hard to quantify either intent or technical ability to carry out an attack. Plotting threats on a "potential mass casualties" versus "ease of obtainment or production" matrix creates some order out of a seemingly endless array of worldwide threats, and it highlights those threats that are in need of more urgent attention. The specific threats on this 2x2 matrix can fall into one or multiple quadrants, which can be qualitatively described as "most dangerous," "dangerous but difficult," "worrisome," and "persistent terror." By placing threats into these quadrants and illustrating movement within and between them, the matrix can help (1) visualize and parse a diverse set of threats, (2) view how threats have changed over time and judge the efficacy of current countermeasures, and (3) evaluate the merit of future actions and investments. Having a dynamic matrix that can visually map the comparative risk of terrorist threat events in toto and that can help us monitor the effectiveness of present and future resource investments can add intellectual rigor to some of the most difficult and daunting decisions pertaining to our nation's safety and security.

  14. Terrorists and Fair Trial: The Right to a Fair Trial for Alleged Terrorists Detained in Guantánamo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ambos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into whether the right to a fair trial can be restricted with regard to alleged terrorists within the framework of the ‘war on terror’. After briefly identifying the relevant sources of this right and its content, possible restrictions are analysed. The paper elaborates, in particular, on international humanitarian law, such as the Third and Fourth Geneva Convention, and international human rights law, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. It further deals with US constitutional law. We conclude that the right to a fair trial fully applies to alleged terrorists irrespective of the context of their detention (armed conflict or peace or the qualification of these terrorists (de facto or unlawful combatants and thus amounts to a general principle of transnational criminal law.

  15. Using commercial video games for falls prevention in older adults: the way for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Eva; Cotea, Cristina; Pullman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Falls in older adults are an increasingly costly public health issue. There are many fall prevention strategies that are effective. However, with an increasing population of older people and ever-decreasing availability of health practitioners and health funding, novel modes of intervention are being developed, including those relying on computer technologies.The aim of this article was to review the literature on the use of exergaming to prevent falls in older adult persons living in the community. The Cochrane, Medline, and Embase databases were searched using prespecified search terms. To be included, studies had to investigate the effect of using commercially available consoles and video games on outcome measures such as a decrease in falls, improvements in balance control or gait parameters, decreased fear of falling, and attitude to exercise in older adult persons living in the community. All study designs with the exception of single-person case studies were included. Articles had to be published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The following outcomes were observed: (1) using computer-based virtual reality gaming for balance training in older adults was feasible; (2) the majority of studies showed a positive effect of exergaming on balance control; (3) some studies showed a positive effect on balance confidence and gait parameters; (4) the effect was seen across the age and sex spectrum of older adults, including those with and without balance impairment. There is as yet no evidence that using virtual reality games will prevent falls, but there is an indication that their use in balance training may improve balance control, which in turn may lead to falls prevention.

  16. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Symptom-based, algorithmic approach for handling the initial encounter with victims of a potential terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Italo; Johnson, Christopher; Bond, William F; Schwid, Howard A; Wasser, Thomas E; Deye, Greg A; Burkhart, Keith K

    2005-01-01

    This study intended to create symptom-based triage algorithms for the initial encounter with terror-attack victims. The goals of the triage algorithms include: (1) early recognition; (2) avoiding contamination; (3) early use of antidotes; (4) appropriate handling of unstable, contaminated victims; and (5) provisions of force protection. The algorithms also address industrial accidents and emerging infections, which have similar clinical presentations and risks for contamination as weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The algorithms were developed using references from military and civilian sources. They were tested and adjusted using a series of theoretical patients from a CD-ROM chemical, biological, radiological/nuclear, and explosive victim simulator. Then, the algorithms were placed into a card format and sent to experts in relevant fields for academic review. Six inter-connected algorithms were created, described, and presented in figure form. The "attack" algorithm, for example, begins by differentiating between overt and covert attack victims (A covert attack is defined by epidemiological criteria adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations). The attack algorithm then categorizes patients either as stable or unstable. Unstable patients flow to the "Dirty Resuscitation" algorithm, whereas, stable patients flow to the "Chemical Agent" and "Biological Agent" algorithms. The two remaining algorithms include the "Suicide Bomb/Blast/Explosion" and the "Radiation Dispersal Device" algorithms, which are inter-connected through the overt pathway in the "Attack" algorithm. A civilian, symptom-based, algorithmic approach to the initial encounter with victims of terrorist attacks, industrial accidents, or emerging infections was created. Future studies will address the usability of the algorithms with theoretical cases and utility in prospective, announced and unannounced, field drills. Additionally, future studies will assess the

  18. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  19. 77 FR 56515 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Notice of September 11, 2012--Continuation of the National... the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the... declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11...

  20. 78 FR 56579 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C..., in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... national emergency declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist...

  2. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1622(d... Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and...

  3. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical

  4. FLU AS PROBLEM COMMON TO ALL MANKIND. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korovaeva I.V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that form the basis of pathogen escape from the immune response. The article shows the promising areas of modern prevention and treatment of this disease

  5. Present and future of desertification in Spain: Implementation of a surveillance system to prevent land degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Ibáñez, Javier; Del Barrio, Gabriel; Sanjuán, Maria E; Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Vicente, Silvio; Ruiz, Alberto; Puigdefábregas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Mitigation strategies are crucial for desertification given that once degradation starts, other solutions are extremely expensive or unworkable. Prevention is key to handle this problem and solutions should be based on spotting and deactivating the stressors of the system. Following this topic, the Spanish Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (SPACD) created the basis for implementing two innovative approaches to evaluate the threat of land degradation in the country. This paper presents tools for preventing desertification in the form of a geomatic approach to enable the periodic assessments of the status and trends of land condition. Also System Dynamics modelling has been used to integrate bio-physical and socio-economic aspects of desertification to explain and analyse degradation in the main hot spots detected in Spain. The 2dRUE procedure was implemented to map the land-condition status by comparing potential land productivity according to water availability, the limiting factor in arid lands, with plant-biomass data. This assessment showed that 20% of the territory is degraded and an additional 1% is actively degrading. System Dynamics modelling was applied to study the five desertification landscapes identified by the SPACD. The risk analysis, implemented on these models, concluded that 'Herbaceous crops affected by soil erosion' is the landscape most at risk, while the Plackett-Burman sensitivity analysis used to rank the factors highlighted the supremacy of climatic factors above socioeconomic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is it possible to prevent sports injuries? Review of controlled clinical trials and recommendations for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkari, J; Kujala, U M; Kannus, P

    2001-01-01

    Sports injuries are one of the most common injuries in modern western societies. Treating sports injuries is often difficult, expensive and time consuming, and thus, preventive strategies and activities are justified on medical as well as economic grounds. A successful injury surveillance and prevention requires valid pre- and post-intervention data on the extent of the problem. The aetiology, risk factors and exact mechanisms of injuries need to be identified before initiating a measure or programme for preventing sports injuries, and measurement of the outcome (injury) must include a standardised definition of the injury and its severity, as well as a systematic method of collecting the information. Valid and reliable measurement of the exposure includes exact information about the population at risk and exposure time. The true efficacy of a preventive measure or programme can be best evaluated through a well-planned randomised trial. Until now, 16 randomised, controlled trials (RCT) have been published on prevention of sports injuries. According to these RCT, the general injury rate can be reduced by a multifactorial injury prevention programme in soccer (relative risk 0.25, p ankle disk training, combined with a thorough warm-up, in European team handball [odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.32, p Ankle sprains can be prevented by ankle supports (i.e. semirigid orthoses or air-cast braces) in high-risk sporting activities, such as soccer and basketball (Peto odds ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.66), and stress fractures of the lower limb by the use of shock-absorbing insoles in footwear (Peto odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.76). In future studies, it is extremely important for researches to seek consultation with epidemiologists and statisticians to be certain that the study hypothesis is appropriate and that the methodology can lead to reliable and valid information. Further well-designed randomised studies are needed on preventive actions

  7. Terrorist Use of the Internet: The Real Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    majority of cyber attacks , even viruses that cause billions of dollars of damage to an economy, are not going to cause the levels of fear desired by...influence operations. Terrorists use the Internet to harm U.S. national security interests, but not by conduct- ing large-scale cyber attacks . Instead

  8. Understanding Terrorist Network Topologies and Their Resilience Against Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the structural position of covert (terrorist or criminal) networks. Using the secrecy versus information tradeoff characterization of covert networks it is shown that their network structures are generally not small-worlds, in contradistinction to many overt social

  9. Freed: Ripples of the Convicted and Released Terrorist in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Singapore, Malaysia , Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines (The International Conference on Terrorist Rehabilitation, 2009). No single methodology to...intersection of prisoner reentry and civil society” are the issues of “public health, families and children, employment, housing and homelessness , youth

  10. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  11. [Preclinical and intrahospital management of mass casualties and terrorist incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A; Bieler, D; Friemert, B; Kollig, E; Flohe, S

    2017-10-01

    Due to the recent terrorist attacks in Paris, Brussels, Ansbach, Munich, Berlin and more recently Manchester and London, terrorism is realized as a present threat to our society and social life, as well as a challenge for the health care system. Without fueling anxiety, there is a need for sensitization to this subject and to familiarize all concerned with the special kind of terrorist attack-related injuries, the operational priorities and tactics and the individual basic principles of preclinical and hospital care. There is a need to adapt the known established medical structure for a conventional mass casualty situation to the special requirements that are raised by this new kind of terrorist threat to our social life. It is the aim of this article, from a surgical point of view, to depict the tactics and challenges of preclinical care of the special kind of terrorist attack-related injuries from the site of the incident, via the advanced medical post or casualty collecting point, to the triage point at the hospital. The special needs of medical care and organizational aspects of the primary treatment in the hospital are highlighted and possible decisional options and different approaches are discussed.

  12. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL MECHANISMS TO COUNTER TERRORIST THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Startsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.

  13. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  14. An Analysis of Modern State-Level Terrorist Deradicalization Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    of achieving temporary 68 disengagement through instant gratification , Det 88’s use of selective incentives achieves its desired effects. The...convince individuals to renounce their radical beliefs. However, this program works through the Internet . This program uses credible religious personnel...they all seek to moderate violent behavior of the individual terrorist through immediate gratification and material compensation. These mechanisms

  15. Protecting chemical plants against terrorist attacks: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and

  16. Threat Barometer. Ten Years of Terrorist Threat Assessment Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, which was commissioned by the NCTV to mark the occasion of the conference “Threat Barometer. Ten years of Terrorist Threat Assessments for the Netherlands 2005-2015”, we address this and other aspects of the DTN and consider how this instrument has developed over the past decade. We

  17. Queen leads tributes to nurses in wake of terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel

    2017-06-15

    The Queen and the prime minister led tributes to nurses and other NHS staff caring for people injured in the recent terrorist attacks in Manchester and London. Emergency services worked through the night to assist in the immediate aftermath of the explosion at the Manchester arena, which killed 22 people and left many more injured, who were treated at hospitals across the city.

  18. [The hospital care of victims of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaddou, Assena; Nion, Nathalie; Riou, Bruno; Blandeau, Fanny; Moreau, Pilar; Guemache, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of victims of terrorist attacks in a trauma centre requires the putting in place of plans, training and simulation exercises. Previous experiences have highlighted the areas which require improvement. As exceptional health situations are unpredictable, it is essential to always be vigilant and prepared for an unforeseen event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Are Risk Assessments of a Terrorist Attack Coherent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined 3 types of violations of coherence criteria in risk assessments of a terrorist attack. First, the requirement that extensionally equivalent descriptions be assigned the same probability (i.e., additivity) was violated. Unpacking descriptions of an attack into subtypes led to an increase in assessed risk. Second,…

  20. Is prophylactic fixation a cost-effective method to prevent a future contralateral fragility hip fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Scott C; Genuario, James W; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2010-02-01

    : A previous hip fracture more than doubles the risk of a contralateral hip fracture. Pharmacologic and environmental interventions to prevent hip fracture have documented poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic fixation of the uninjured hip to prevent contralateral hip fracture. : A Markov state-transition model was used to evaluate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for unilateral fixation of hip fracture alone (including internal fixation or arthroplasty) compared with unilateral fixation and contralateral prophylactic hip fixation performed at the time of hip fracture or unilateral fixation and bilateral hip pad protection. Prophylactic fixation involved placement of a cephalomedullary nail in the uninjured hip and was initially assumed to have a relative risk of a contralateral fracture of 1%. Health states included good health, surgery-related complications requiring a second operation (infection, osteonecrosis, nonunion, and malunion), fracture of the uninjured hip, and death. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimated as cost per QALY gained in 2006 US dollars with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below $50,000 per QALY gained considered cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of patient age, annual mortality and complication rates, intervention effectiveness, utilities, and costs on the value of prophylactic fixation. : In the baseline analysis, in a 79-year-old woman, prophylactic fixation was not found to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio = $142,795/QALY). However, prophylactic fixation was found to be a cost-effective method to prevent contralateral hip fracture in: 1) women 71 to 75 years old who had 30% greater relative risk for a contralateral fracture; and 2) women younger than age 70 years. Cost-effectiveness was greater when the additional costs of prophylaxis were less than $6000. However, for

  1. Stakeholders' opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Antonson, Hans; Ihlström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars. New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process

  2. Introduction to proceedings of healthy futures: engaging the oral health community in childhood obesity prevention national conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, Norman; Holt, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has worked to ensure that all children have healthy weights. To promote this goal, the RWJF has supported the Healthy Futures: Engaging the Oral Health Community in Childhood Obesity Prevention National Conference, held on November 3-4, 2016, and the proceeding of this conference. The goals of the conference were to increase understanding of the science focusing on oral health and childhood obesity, increase understanding of how to prevent childhood obesity, and provide opportunities to network and plan activities to prevent childhood obesity. The papers prepared for the conference identified through systematic reviews or scoping reviews the state of the science related to preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and strategies that oral health professionals and organizations can employ prevent childhood obesity. Causes of childhood obesity are multifactorial and include genetic components, environmental and lifestyle variables, and nutritional factors. Dental caries also is caused by a combination of factors, including cariogenic diet, inadequate fluoride exposure, a susceptible host, and the presence of caries-causing bacteria in the oral cavity. One key risk factors for both obesity and caries is excessive sugar consumption. To reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries in children, health professionals and parents need to be aware of the sugar content of processed foods and beverages as well as of current daily sugar-consumption recommendations. Additionally, oral health professionals must become more engaged in identifying children who are at risk for obesity and dental caries; and provide education, screening and referral to reduce these risks. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Prevention of inhibitor development in hemophilia A in 2016. A glimpse into the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Thanks to considerable progresses made over the last 30years, hemophilia benefits from the most efficacious and safe treatment among the many monogenic inherited disorders. The most challenging complication of replacement therapy in hemophilia A is the occurrence of alloantibodies against infused factor VIII (FVIII), thus predisposing the patients to increased morbidity and disability. Extensive research in this field has definitively unraveled that development of inhibitors in hemophilia A is a complex and multifactorial process, in which inherited and environmental factors dynamically interact. This narrative review, after providing a concise overview about the main genetic and non-genetic risk factors, is aimed to focus on prediction risk models and preventive strategies for minimizing the risk of developing inhibitors in hemophilia A patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  5. Nanotechnology and the future of condoms in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S; Simate, Geoffrey S; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M

    2018-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs - including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases.

  6. Nanotechnology and the Future of Condoms in the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S.; Simate, Geoffrey S.; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. Methods: We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. Results and Discussion: In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. Conclusions: A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs – including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases. PMID:29536957

  7. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (4). Future tasks in the field of structure and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Structure and components subcommittee under the special committee of seismic safety of nuclear power stations of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan discussed future activities related with technical problems of seismic design of structures, components and piping system and evaluation of seismic effects in collaboration with the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. These problems were arranged by 'logic of seismic safety' and tabulated just enough, and then their roadmap was prepared. This article described selected relevant problems and discussed safety margins of seismic design and their related problems, referring to state of countermeasures and evaluated results of nuclear power stations after Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. Main problems were related with seismic safety margins of structure and components, consideration of ground motion index, rationalization and upgrade of seismic design, application of new technology, integrity evaluation of structure and components after or at earthquake, and upgrade of seismic probabilistic risk assessment methodology. (T. Tanaka)

  8. College prevention: a view of present (and future) web-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Neighbors, Clayton

    2011-01-01

    College campuses in the United States may be the most electronically "wired" environments on earth. College students use the Internet not only to write term papers and receive correspondence but also to report (and keep track of) friends' personal status, download music, view classroom lectures, and receive emergency messages. In fact, college students spend considerably more time online than the average person. In a recent survey of U.S. college students (Jones et al. 2009), nearly all respondents (94 percent) stated that they spent at least 1 hour on the Internet each day, with the main tasks including social communication, entertainment, and class work. In keeping with this trend, Web-based programs that address alcohol consumption among college students have become widely available in the United States. This sidebar provides an overview of currently available programs as well as of the advantages and disadvantages of this approach and the future outlook of Web-based programs.

  9. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghfur Maghfur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-suspects’ wives are more dominant is exclusive patterned- if it is compared to moderate or inclusive ones. In terms of adjustment, the wives are just accept the fate and tend to be indifferent to the activities of their husbands. The wives also nullifying the public’s negative perception and judgment, but some are closed to the social interaction. While the pattern of relationships that were frequently built tent to be more owner property and head-complement in characteristics. Wives are positioned as husband’s complement for all activities in the fields of social, religious and political.

  10. Antioxidant agents: a future alternative approach in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Cuba, Letícia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality frequently employed for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). It destroys tumor cells, but it is not selective, also affecting healthy tissues and producing adverse effects. One that stands out is oral mucositis because of the morbidity that it is capable of causing. This lesion is characterized by the presence of erythema, ulcerations, pain, opportunistic infections, and weight loss. These side effects can lead to serious situations that require the interruption of the antineoplastic treatment and can result in hospitalization and even death. The complex mechanisms linked to the pathogenesis of oral mucositis were recently established, and since then, the control of oxidative stress (OS) has been tied to the prevention and management of this disease. The authors have carried out a review of the literature about the use of antioxidant agents in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis, using the PubMed database. This review has shown that the research on use of antioxidants (AOX) has proved insufficient to justify suggesting the products in treatment protocols. Results are promising, however, and AOX may represent a future alternative in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  12. Public health preparedness for maritime terrorist attacks on ports and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassel, John J

    2008-01-01

    To assess the risk of mass casualties and necessary public health and provider preparation relating to maritime terrorist attacks on the US ports. Articles were obtained by searching PubMed database, Google, and Google Scholar search engines using terms such as "maritime security," "maritime terrorism,"port security," "terrorist attacks on the U.S. ports," "terrorist nuclear attacks," "terrorist attacks on liquefied natural gas tankers," and "terrorist attack on high occupancy ships." U.S. ports and coastal waters. Seventy-six journal articles were reviewed. Morbidity and mortality high for nuclear terrorist attack; mortality low but morbidity potentially high for radiological attacks. It would be more difficult for terrorist attack on natural gas tankers to cause high mortality and/or morbidity.

  13. Expression of cyanobacterial FBP/SBPase in soybean prevents yield depression under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Iris H.; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M.; Thomey, Michell L.; Clemente, Tom; Ort, Donald R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Predictions suggest that current crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet global food and energy demands. Based on theory and experimental studies, overexpression of the photosynthetic enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is expected to enhance C3 crop photosynthesis and yields. Here we test how expression of the cyanobacterial, bifunctional fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase) affects carbon assimilation and seed yield (SY) in a major crop (soybean, Glycine max). For three growing seasons, wild-type (WT) and FBP/SBPase-expressing (FS) plants were grown in the field under ambient (400 μmol mol−1) and elevated (600 μmol mol−1) CO2 concentrations [CO2] and under ambient and elevated temperatures (+2.7 °C during daytime, +3.4 °C at night) at the SoyFACE research site. Across treatments, FS plants had significantly higher carbon assimilation (4–14%), Vc,max (5–8%), and Jmax (4–8%). Under ambient [CO2], elevated temperature led to significant reductions of SY of both genotypes by 19–31%. However, under elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature, FS plants maintained SY levels, while the WT showed significant reductions between 11% and 22% compared with plants under elevated [CO2] alone. These results show that the manipulation of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can mitigate the effects of future high CO2 and high temperature environments on soybean yield. PMID:28204603

  14. Mobile system for radiation reconnaissance after terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resehetin, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    Well-timed radiation reconnaissance aimed at identifying a source of radiation contamination and drawing up a contamination map represents an important and complex problem, the solution of which allows for the reduction of the irradiation dose, the implementation of decontamination works, and finally minimizing the consequences of a terrorist attack. New opportunities for operational gathering of radiation contamination data and corresponding space coordinates can be associated with the development of mobile systems which provide measurements of ionizing radiation dose rate and corresponding space coordinates, and subsequent transferral to the crisis centre server where these data are processed and used for mapping radiation contamination. In such a way, the data obtained on radiation contamination could be incorporated in a timely manner as input data to computer models, describing the dispersion of radionuclides in an environment that makes it possible not only to forecast the development of a situation but to define necessary protection measures for mitigating and localizing the consequences. The mobile reconnaissance system was developed as a prototype of such a solution, based on a cellular terminal such as the Nokia 12i (Teltonika BoxGPS). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine space coordinates. A Russian BDMG device measured the dose rate of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent data were transferred to the server of the crisis centre of the Nuclear Safety Institute of RAS (IBRAE). The main operation regime involved setting the GPRS connection, transferring data, and switching off the connection. A change of the operation regime can be produced via SMS commands from the crisis centre's terminal or with the help of a cellular phone. When a connection is not available, the data are aggregated in memory and transferred to the server when the connection channel arises. A few data transfer protocols, including FTP and HTTP/HTTPS, are provided

  15. Are Russian propolis ethanol extracts the future for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambi, Ashwin; Bryan, Julia; Borbon, Katherine; Centeno, Daniel; Liu, Tianchi; Chen, Tung Po; Cattabiani, Thomas; Traba, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Most studies reveal that the mechanism of action of propolis against bacteria is functional rather than structural and is attributed to a synergism between the compounds in the extracts. Propolis is said to inhibit bacterial adherence, division, inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, and protein synthesis. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional and may be attributed to the metals found in propolis. If the metals found in propolis are removed, cell lysis still occurs and these modified extracts may be used in the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations. The antibacterial activity of metal-free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE) on two biofilm forming bacteria: penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated using MTT and a Live/Dead staining technique. Toxicity studies were conducted on mouse osteoblast (MC-3T3) cells using the same viability assays. In the MTT assay, biofilms were incubated with MTT at 37°C for 30min. After washing, the purple formazan formed inside the bacterial cells was dissolved by SDS and then measured using a microplate reader by setting the detecting and reference wavelengths at 570nm and 630nm, respectively. Live and dead distributions of cells were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Complete biofilm inactivation was observed when biofilms were treated for 40h with 2µg/ml of MFRPEE. Results indicate that the metals present in propolis possess antibacterial activity, but do not have an essential role in the antibacterial mechanism of action. Additionally, the same concentration of metals found in propolis samples, were toxic to tissue cells. Comparable to samples with metals, metal free samples caused damage to the cell membrane structures of both bacterial species, resulting in cell lysis. Results suggest that the structural mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol

  16. [Quality indicators for rescue operations in terrorist attacks or other threats : A pilot study after the Würzburg terrorist attack of July 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmb, T; Justice, P; Dietz, S; Schua, R; Jarausch, T; Kinstle, U; Greiner, J; Möldner, G; Müller, J; Kraus, M; Simon, S; Wagenhäuser, U; Roewer, N; Helm, M

    2017-06-01

    Terrorist attacks have become reality in Germany. The aim of this work was, after the Würzburg terrorist attack, to define quality indicators and application characteristics for rescue missions in life-threatening situations. The results can be used to record data from future missions using this template in order to make them comparable with each other. After approval of the local ethic committee, the first step was to designate a group of experts in order to define the template in a consensus process. The next step was to perform the consensus process by defining the template. An independent expert for emergency medicine and disaster management reviewed and approved the results afterwards. The expert group defined 13 categories and 158 parameters that will further serve the systematic evaluation of the rescue mission of the Würzburg terror attack. Preliminary results of this evaluation process are given in this paper; the full evaluation has not yet been completed. In this study we first describe quality indicators and parameters suitable for the German rescue system in order to evaluate rescue operations for violence caused mass casualties. There is similar international documentation, but it does not specifically focus on life-threatening operations and are not adapted to the German context. There is an important need to systematically evaluate rescue missions after mass killing incidents. In this study we report a template of parameters and quality indicators in order to systematically evaluate mass violence events. The presented template is the result of an expert consensus process and may serve as a basis for further development and research.

  17. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  18. Deuterium depletion in cancer treatment and prevention - achievements and perspectives for future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlyai, G.; Jancso, G.; Jakli, Gy.; Berkenyi, T.; Szabo, M.; Molnar, M.; Gyongyi, Z.; Ember, I.

    2004-01-01

    clinical investigation. The results verified high potency as anticancer hypodermic drug, this was supported not only by macroscopic results, but pathological examinations. Vetera-DDW-25 A.U.V. injection is under registration. Double blind controlled, human Phase II clinical trial with prostate cancer, in compliance with GCP principles confirmed a significant difference between the control and treated groups with respect to the examined parameters that indicated the anti-tumour effect of the preparation. We suggest that the cells are able to regulate the D/H ratio and the changes in the D/H ratio can trigger certain molecular mechanisms having key role in cell cycle regulation. We suppose that not the shift in the intracellular pH, but the concomitant increase in the D/H ratio is the real trigger for the cells to enter into S phase. The decrease of D concentration can intervene in the signal transduction pathways thus leading to tumour regression. This assumption is supported by the observation that the D-depletion has an influence on the expression of genes (c-myc, Ha-ras and p53) playing a key role in tumour development. Deuterium depletion inhibited COX-2 gene expression in healthy myometrial cell line and in HT-29 colon tumorous cell line. COX-2 gene inhibition correlated with the D-concentration. In a long-term study the consumption of DDW-25 inhibited the development of tumors in carcinogen treated mice Deuterium depletion opens new perspectives in cancer treatment and prevention offering a completely safe and non-invasive treatment modality. (authors)

  19. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  20. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex

  1. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.

  2. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions. Interns completed a survey before (n = 37) and after (n = 22) the interventions. The survey included 12 Likert scale questions about attitudes and intentions toward wellness and health promotion models. The interventions consisted of classroom lectures, clinical training, and online information pertaining to health promotion and wellness. The interns initially favored wellness models, perceived a need for them, and felt partially prepared to administer them, with mean Likert scores 4 or greater on a 1 to 5 scale. Afterward, the average scores were higher and the interns reported some benefit from this short course of training. The initial survey demonstrated that interns had some understanding of wellness, health promotion, and preventive services, and favored utilization of these services. The follow-up survey suggested that a short educational intervention could have a positive impact on these attitudes and future utilization of wellness procedures in their practices.

  3. MOTIVATION SPECIFIC FOR YOUNGSTERS INVOLVED INTO TERRORIST OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Beslan Alexeyevich Tarchokov

    2015-01-01

    The paper made an attempt to explore preconditions, motives, reasons and factors capable of facilitating youth’ involvement into terrorist operations, emergence of youth terrorism and its spreading around, including the specifics of social and economic domains, of ideology and politics, psychology and law, etc. all of them taken on the scene of nowadays globalized society. Specifying in greater detail the causes and circumstances that contributed to involvement of young Russians into terroris...

  4. Burdens on emergency responders after a terrorist attack in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemann, U; Zimmermann, P; Mahnke, M; Butler, O; Polk, S; Willmund, G

    2018-02-16

    Terrorist attacks induce various responses in emergency responders. Addressing this range of responses in individual workers is of central interest. To assess the gender- and occupation-specific effects of a terrorist attack, particularly in emergency responders. This was a pilot study. Emergency responders present during the 2016 terrorist attack at Breitscheidplatz in Berlin were asked to participate. Measures for crisis management had been previously implemented. Stress (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]), quality of life (The World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQOL-BREF]), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 [PCL-5]) and current psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI]) were assessed. Thirty-seven subjects were included, 11 female and 26 male. The occupational groups included 16 firefighters, six police officers, five psychosocial health care personnel and nine members of aid organizations. Three months after the attack, female workers showed higher scores in stress and paranoid ideation, police officers showed higher scores in hostility and firefighters scored lower quality of life in environment and physical health. The mental health burden identified in this study plays an important role for emergency responders after terrorist attacks. Differences between occupational groups may be attributable to differences in tasks that responders perform during acute incidents. The presence of these differences 3 months after the incident suggests that these are at least medium-term conditions. This study may inform the development of treatments and policies and it thus recommended to develop a multi-level assessment and treatment programme that is gender- and occupation-specific. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  6. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  7. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  8. The pattern of thoracic trauma after suicide terrorist bombing attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Shussman, Noam; Rivkind, Avraham I; Izhar, Uzi; Almogy, Gidon

    2010-11-01

    The worldwide escalation in the volume of suicide terrorist bombing attacks warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. The goal of this study was to characterize thoracic injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and compare pattern of injury to penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma. Prospectively collected database of patients with chest injury who were admitted to Hadassah Hospital Level I trauma centre, in Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into three groups according to the mechanism of injury: terrorist explosions (n = 55), gunshot wounds (GSW; n = 78), and blunt trauma (n = 747). There were many female victims after suicide bombing attacks (49.1%) compared with GSW (21.8%) and blunt trauma (24.6%; p = 0.009). The number of body regions injured was significantly higher in the terror group compared with the GSW and blunt groups (median, 4, 2, and 3, respectively, p attacks was caused by a unique combination of the effects of the blast wave and penetrating shrapnel. More than half (52.7%) of the terror victims suffered from lung contusion and 25 (45.5%) required tube thoracostomy. Five patients (9.1%) underwent thoracotomy for lung lacerations (n = 3), injury to great vessels (n = 2), cardiac lacerations (n = 1), and esophageal injury (n = 1). Penetrating shrapnel was the mechanism of injury in all these cases. Injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of thoracic wounds. Victims are exposed to a combination of lung injury caused by the blast wave and penetrating injury caused by metallic objects.

  9. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  10. Infection prevention behaviour and infectious disease modelling: a review of the literature and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Dale; Hauck, Katharina; Amlôt, Richard

    2018-03-09

    Given the importance of person to person transmission in the spread of infectious diseases, it is critically important to ensure that human behaviour with respect to infection prevention is appropriately represented within infectious disease models. This paper presents a large scale scoping review regarding the incorporation of infection prevention behaviour in infectious disease models. The outcomes of this review are contextualised within the psychological literature concerning health behaviour and behaviour change, resulting in a series of key recommendations for the incorporation of human behaviour in future infectious disease models. The search strategy focused on terms relating to behaviour, infectious disease and mathematical modelling. The selection criteria were developed iteratively to focus on original research articles that present an infectious disease model with human-human spread, in which individuals' self-protective health behaviour varied endogenously within the model. Data extracted included: the behaviour that is modelled; how this behaviour is modelled; any theoretical background for the modelling of behaviour, and; any behavioural data used to parameterise the models. Forty-two papers from an initial total of 2987 were retained for inclusion in the final review. All of these papers were published between 2002 and 2015. Many of the included papers employed a multiple, linked models to incorporate infection prevention behaviour. Both cognitive constructs (e.g., perceived risk) and, to a lesser extent, social constructs (e.g., social norms) were identified in the included papers. However, only five papers made explicit reference to psychological health behaviour change theories. Finally, just under half of the included papers incorporated behavioural data in their modelling. By contextualising the review outcomes within the psychological literature on health behaviour and behaviour change, three key recommendations for future behavioural

  11. Contextualizing willingness to participate: recommendations for engagement, recruitment & enrolment of Kenyan MSM in future HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Doshi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs in Kenya. In this paper, we explore willingness of Kenyan MSM to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials. In addition to individual and socio-cultural motivators and barriers that influence willingness to participate (WTP, we explore the associations or linkages that participants draw between their experiences with or knowledge of medical research both generally and within the context of HIV/AIDS, their perceptions of a future HIV vaccine and their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Methods Using a social network-based approach, we employed snowball sampling to recruit MSM into the study from Kisumu, Mombasa, and Nairobi. A field team consisting of seven community researchers conducted in-depth interviews with a total of 70 study participants. A coding scheme for transcribed and translated data was developed and the data was then analysed thematically. Results Most participants felt that an HIV vaccine would bring a number of benefits to self, as well as to MSM communities, including quelling personal fears related to HIV acquisition and reducing/eliminating stigma and discrimination shouldered by their community. Willingness to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials was highly motivated by various forms of altruism. Specific researcher responsibilities centred on safe-guarding the rights and well-being of participants were also found to govern WTP, as were reflections on the acceptability of a future preventive HIV vaccine. Conclusion

  12. Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication Technologies to Modern Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    approximate such decisions here by assuming that terrorist groups make rational decisions over the long run using these group sur- 73 Orson Welles ’ War of...surveillance, and reconnais- sance (C4ISR) technologies in military parlance, as well as the consumer-oriented technologies that can often provide the...canonical military command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveil- lance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) technologies1 as well as the

  13. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  14. We Bomb, Therefore We Are: The Evolution of Terrorist Group Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1994 Author...Revolutionary Cell and Palestinian PFLP operation that was led by the international terrorist "Carlos." Urbano . 26 terrorist network. but does imply some...violence. In order to retain the media’s and the public’s attention, a terrorist group continually must raise "Interview with Urbano ," in Urban

  15. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation. PMID:22522588

  16. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-06-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation.

  17. Does being physically active prevent future disability in older people? Attenuated effects when taking time-dependent confounders into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Hennerici, Michael G

    2017-12-21

    Causal experimental evidence that physical activity prevents disability in older people is sparse. Being physically active has nonetheless been shown to be associated with disability-free survival in observational studies. Observational studies are, however, prone to bias introduced by time-dependent confounding. Time-dependent confounding occurs when an exposure (e.g. being physically active at some time-point) potentially affects the future status of a confounder (such as depression sometime later), and both variables have an effect on latter outcome (i.e. disability). "Conventional" analysis with e.g. Cox-regression is the mainstay when analyzing longitudinal observational studies. Unfortunately, it does not provide unbiased estimates in the presence of time-dependent confounding. Marginal structural models (MSM) - a relatively new class of causal models - have the potential to adequately account for time-dependent confounding. Here we analyze the effect of older people being physically active on disability, in a large long-term observational study. We address time-dependent confounding by using marginal structural models and provide a non-technical practical demonstration of how to implement this type of modeling. Data is from 639 elderly individuals ascertained in the European multi-center Leukoaraiosis and Disability study (LADIS), followed-up yearly over a period of three years. We estimated the effect of self-reported physical activity on the probability to transit to instrumental disability in the presence of a large set of potential confounders. We compare the results of "conventional" modeling approaches to those estimated using marginal structural models, highlighting discrepancies. A "conventional" Cox-regression-like adjustment for salient baseline confounders signals a significant risk reduction under physical activity for later instrumental disability (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.90). However, given MSM estimation, the effect is attenuated towards null

  18. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa'ida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Seth G; Libicki, Martin C

    2008-01-01

    .... counterterrorism strategy. The ending of most terrorist groups requires a range of policy instruments, such as careful police and intelligence work, military force, political negotiations, and economic...

  19. The Importance of International Law in Counter-Terrorism: The Need for New Guidelines in International Law to Assist States Responding to Terrorist Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Schlagheck, Heidi Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism, in one way or another, touches everyone's lives. Its affect could be as small as watching media stories on the nightly news and waiting longer in a security line at the airport or as significant as losing a loved one in an attack. As individuals come to grips with living with increased terrorist violence, individual nation-states and the international community have to prepare themselves to prevent, react to, and counter terrorism. This thesis examines whether international law ...

  20. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  1. Serious pneumococcal disease outbreak in men exposed to metal fume - detection, response and future prevention through pneumococcal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Judith; Patterson, Lynsey; Irvine, Neil; Doherty, Lorraine; Loughrey, Anne; Kidney, Joe; Sheppard, Carmen; Kapatai, Georgia; Fry, Norman K; Ramsay, Mary; Jessop, Lucy

    2017-07-13

    Welders and those exposed to metal fume are known to be at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Current UK guidance recommends that vaccination against pneumococcus be considered in those at risk of frequent or continuous occupational exposure to metal fume, taking into account the exposure control measures in place. We report an outbreak of serious pneumococcal disease that occurred between April and June 2015 among a multinational workforce exposed to metal fumes while working on the refurbishment of an oil rig in a Belfast shipyard. Four confirmed and five probable cases were identified, which occurred despite the use of environmental control measures and the availability of respiratory protective equipment. To provide direct protection to those at risk of pneumococcal disease and to eradicate carriage of pneumococcus and interrupt transmission, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and antibiotic prophylaxis were offered to 680 individuals identified as potentially exposed to metal fume. Low levels of prior pneumococcal vaccination were reported among this target group (vaccine-preventable strains covered by the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines currently available. We propose that consideration should be given to strengthening implementation around pneumococcal vaccination for those exposed to metal fume through their work, even when other control measures are in place, to reduce the risk of future cases and outbreaks of serious pneumococcal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Past, Present and Future Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Eric A F; Bont, Louis; Manzoni, Paolo; Fauroux, Brigitte; Paes, Bosco; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Checchia, Paul A; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    The REGAL (RSV Evidence - A Geographical Archive of the Literature) series has provided a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This seventh and final publication covers the past, present and future approaches to the prevention and treatment of RSV infection among infants and children. A systematic review was undertaken of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2017 across PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library. Studies reporting data on the effectiveness and tolerability of prophylactic and therapeutic agents for RSV infection were included. Study quality and strength of evidence (SOE) were graded using recognized criteria. A further nonsystematic search of the published literature and Clinicaltrials.gov on antiviral therapies and RSV vaccines currently in development was also undertaken. The systematic review identified 1441 studies of which 161 were included. Management of RSV remains centered around prophylaxis with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab, which has proven effective in reducing RSV hospitalization (RSVH) in preterm infants half-life are currently entering phase 3 trials. There are approximately 15 RSV vaccines in clinical development targeting the infant directly or indirectly via the mother. Palivizumab remains the only product licensed for RSV prophylaxis, and only available for high-risk infants. For the general population, there are several promising vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in various stages of clinical development, with the aim to significantly reduce the global healthcare impact of this common viral infection. AbbVie.

  3. Addressing the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon From a European Union Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Singleton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the outbreak of civil war and sectarian violence in Syria, Iraq, and Libya, over 15,000 men and women from more than 80 countries around the world have left their homes to become foreign fighters. The security challenge they pose is immense and there are concerns about radicalised fighters returning to their countries of origin or residence, hardened by experience and with the possible intent – and the know-how – to engage in terrorist activities. On 24 September, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2178 (2014 with the support of over 120 states representing a broad cross-section of the UN membership. Resolution 2178 called on all UN member states to ensure increased border security and to screen for or arrest so-called “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs travelling to or returning from conflict areas. Rightly so, it also urges states to counter violent extremism by taking preventive measures, such as engaging with communities at the local level to stop the spread of extremist ideologies. On 23 October 2014, the Global Center on Cooperative Security, the Human Security Collective, and ICCT convened an expert meeting at the European Union (EU in Brussels to discuss the implications of the resolution and to explore appropriate and effective responses to the threat of FTFs, both within the EU and as part of the Union’s foreign security and development programming. Building upon the discussion in Brussels, this policy brief is a compilation of essays from all three organisations on the challenges and opportunities for addressing the FTF threat from a European Union perspective. It also examines the implementation of Resolution 2178 as an integral part of national and multilateral foreign security and development policies and initiatives.

  4. Striking at the Underbelly: Influencing Would-Be Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    value unless he fights for what is right. … I did not want to be an eternal foreigner, a displaced person, a landless, homeless , stateless, shamed...ran dpa’s Islam was for elderly people.”159 According to Scot Atran, people behind most of the terrorist attacks in Indonesia, Malaysia and...being part of a group of youngsters. He writes, “We played soccer and remained brothers—in Malaysia , when I worked on the chicken farm … then back

  5. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  6. Terrorist Attacks: Do We Know How to Assess the Results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 11, 2001, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center (WTC in New York City. Explosions and fires resulted in the complete collapse of the two WTC towers. The collapsing towers served as enormous point sources of gaseous and particulate air pollution, seen as huge plumes of smoke and dust. The smoke contained volatile organic compounds and fine particles and aerosols. The dust fraction contained parts of ceiling tiles, carpets, concrete, adhesives, asbestos, chromium, lead, titanium, and many other elements and materials. Whether there were unusually toxic ingredients in the plumes is largely unknown.

  7. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  8. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  9. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems. Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Maffli, E.; Kuntsche, S.; Delgrande Jordan, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time

  10. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  11. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of violence committed...

  13. TePiTri : a screening method for assessing terrorist-related pipeline transport risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The article proposes an approach to determine relative terrorist-related security risk levels of pipeline transportation. Pipeline routes are divided into smaller route segments. Subsequently, likelihood scores of possible terrorist-related incidents are determined per route segment and per

  14. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless...

  15. The Scope of Definition of a Terrorist Act under Ethiopian Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing that it is ...

  16. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from 5... Candidates File System (JUSTICE/FTTTF-001). This exemption applies only to the extent that information is... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking...

  17. Help-Seeking Behaviours of Adolescents in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Israeli Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima; Kelman, Talia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism poses a challenge for children and adolescents as well as parents. For many years, Israeli citizens have been exposed to ongoing terrorist attacks. The present article is aimed at revealing the reactions of Israeli parents when facing terrorist attacks and their perceptions regarding the help-seeking behaviours of their…

  18. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 176 / Monday...

  19. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  20. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.

    2007-01-01

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  1. Killing Range: Explaining Lethality Variance within a Terrorist Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Gill, Paul; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level.

  2. Mortality salience, political orientation and minimization of terrorists' secondary emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela Sánchez, Raúl; Yela García, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    From the framework of Terror Management Theory, the objective of the present research is to analyze the effect of mortality salience (MS) on the minimization of Muslim terrorists’ secondary emotions (MSE, which can be understood as a particular kind of dehumanization), as a function of political orientation. An experimental design was used, in which the participants (university students, N= 293) were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group, their political orientation was taken note of, and they were asked to attribute emotions to Muslim terrorists. In accordance with the hypotheses, the results indicate that, among those supporting tenets of the political left, MS originates less minimization of secondary emotions of the terrorists (MSE). However, among people who stand on the right, MS inspires greater MSE (that is, a lower attribution of these emotions). These results support the thesis that the effects of MS are not to be found exclusively in conservative people, and that they do not necessarily imply a conservative shift, but constitute a polarization in previous ideological tendencies or cultural worldview.

  3. Research reactors compared with power reactors as terrorist targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, G.; Zaitseva, L.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Concerns about nuclear terrorism have focused on nuclear power reactors more than research reactors. Yet fuel from many research reactors could be used to make nuclear weapons, and the same is not true of power reactors. Radioactive materials from both could be used by terrorists to make 'dirty bombs'. But the used fuel from research reactors is typically easier to transport and easier to use in making a dirty bomb without becoming overcome by its radiation. Moreover, research reactors tend to be less well protected than power reactors from thieves and terrorists by guards, barriers, locks and sensors. The well-intended 'Atoms for Peace Program' initiated by US president Eisenhower in 1953 provided research reactors with weapon-usable highly-enriched uranium to countries all around the world. At the end of the Gulf War, Iraqi scientists were making a nuclear weapon from highly-enriched uranium from a research reactor supplied pursuant to a Soviet research reactor program modeled after the American one. An American program to bring home the US-supplied weapon-usable uranium from around the world has made great progress but is only about half completed. A comparable Russian return program is just beginning. Research reactors with weapon-usable uranium remain in many countries around the world. (author)

  4. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Shaping the Future of Prevention in Social Work: An Analysis of the Professional Literature from 2000 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J.; Velásquez, Esther E.; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Ziperstein, Dory

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act’s goals of better patient care, cost control, and improved population outcomes, prevention is emerging as an important component of health reform. As a result, broad societal interest in prevention is growing, together with widespread interest in public health. The profession, with its extensive involvement in the health system and deep roots in public health, needs to know more about its relationship to prevention. This study builds upon the Social Work Interest in Prevention Study–which evaluated the extent, types, and levels of prevention content in nine social work journals over a six year time period from 2000–2005. The goal of the expanded study, the Social Work Interest in Prevention Study-Expansion (SWIPS-E), was to assess whether interest in prevention had increased over the full decade, which included the time period in which health care reform was enacted. PMID:25929010

  6. Granting Concessions and Paying Ransoms to Terrorists: A Policy Options Analysis of the U.S. Policy on Hostage Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    families the ability to pay ransoms. With lives at stake, it is important to understand relevant material concerning the topic of negotiating with...7 Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Bart Schuurman, “The Paradoxes of Negotiating with Terrorist and Insurgent Organisations ,” Journal of...terrorists?—it is important to understand the dynamics of negotiating with terrorists. There are many different types of terrorists, and much of the

  7. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  8. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  9. 76 FR 3007 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0; Presidential... the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East...

  10. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter... Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended Acting under the...(M), as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to Section 1(b) of the Order. This notice...

  11. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations...

  12. The past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisuna, Ambrose O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Okui, Albert P; Snow, Robert W

    2015-04-15

    An important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs. A review of published and un-published reports of malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda was conducted for the period 1900-2013. The objective was to provide a perspective as to how epidemiological intelligence was used to design malaria control before and during the global malaria eradication programme (GMEP) and to contrast this with the evidence generated in support of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative from 1998 to date. During the GMEP era, comprehensive investigations were undertaken on the effectiveness of vector and parasite control such as indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) and mass drug administration (MDA) at different sites in Uganda. Nationwide malariometric surveys were undertaken between 1964 and 1967 to provide a profile of risk, epidemiology and seasonality leading to an evidence-based national cartography of risk to characterize the diversity of malaria transmission in Uganda. At the launch of the RBM initiative in the late 1990s, an equivalent level of evidence was lacking. There was no contemporary national evidence-base for the likely impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), no new malariometric data, no new national cartography of malaria risk or any evidence of tailored intervention delivery based on variations in the ecology of malaria risk in Uganda. Despite millions of dollars of overseas development assistance over the last ten years in ITN, and more recently the resurrection of the use of IRS, the epidemiological impact of vector control remains uncertain due to an absence of nationwide basic parasite and vector-based field studies. Readily available epidemiological data should become the future business model to maximize malaria funding from 2015. Over the next five to ten years, accountability, impact analysis, financial

  13. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane

    2017-03-01

    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  15. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  16. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services

    OpenAIRE

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions.

  17. Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: a case study of a new terrorist organization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Z

    2003-10-01

    The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was designated a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, the United States, and the United Nations in 2002. However, no systematic studies have been published on the new terrorist organization in Xinjiang, China. Using a case-study approach and interviews, this article attempts to provide information in terms of its historical evaluation, related religious and ethnic issues, organizational agenda, activities, and role in the current international terrorist network. This article argues that better international cooperation and the improvement of social and religious policies will help curtail activities of the ETIM.

  18. The Dynamics of the Creation, Evolution, and Disappearance of Terrorist Internet Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ricardo Torres-Soriano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the organizational nature of the threat posed by jihadi terrorism, supplying quantitative and qualitative data on the dynamics behind the creation, evolution, and disappearance of the main jihadi Internet forums during the period 2008–2012. An analysis of the origins and functions of the forums, their links with terrorist organizations, their internal structures, and the processes accounting for their stability in cyberspace shows that far from representinga horizontal structure where the main actors are a network of followers, the terrorist presence on the Internet is in fact a hierarchical organization in which intervention by formal terrorist organizations plays a crucial role.

  19. Averting HIV infections in New York City: a modeling approach estimating the future impact of additional behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E; Nucifora, Kimberly A; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2013-01-01

    New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs.

  20. Averting HIV Infections in New York City: A Modeling Approach Estimating the Future Impact of Additional Behavioral and Biomedical HIV Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E.; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. Methods A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Results Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Conclusions Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs. PMID:24058465

  1. Is prevention a fantasy, or the future of medicine? A panoramic view of recent data, status, and direction in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Americans are under assault by a fierce epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, of their own doing. Lowered death rates from heart disease and reduced rates of smoking are seriously threatened by the inexorable rise in overweight and obesity. Latest data indicate that 32% of children are overweight or obese, and fewer than 17% exercise sufficiently. Over 68% of adults are overweight, 35% are obese, nearly 40% fulfill criteria for the metabolic syndrome, 8-13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 29% have prediabetes, 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed, 59% engage in no vigorous activity, and fewer than 5% of the US population qualifies for the American Heart Association (AHA) definition of ideal cardiovascular health. Health, nutrition, and exercise illiteracy is prevalent, while misinformation and unrealistic expectations are the norm. Half of American adults have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Up to 65% do not have their conventional risk biomarkers under control. Of those patients with multiple risk factors, fewer than 10% have all of them adequately controlled. Even when patients are treated according to evidence-based protocols, about 70% of cardiac events remain unaddressed. Undertreatment is also common. Poor patient adherence, probably well below 50%, adds further difficulty in reducing cardiovascular risk. Available data indicate that only a modest fraction of the total cardiovascular risk burden in the population is actually now being eliminated. A fresh view of these issues, a change in current philosophy, leading to new and different, multimechanistic methods of prevention may be needed. Adherence to published guidelines will improve substantially outcomes in both primary and secondary prevention. Primordial prevention, which does not allow risk values to appear in a population, affords more complete protection than subsequent partial reversal

  2. Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfand, Neil S

    2003-01-01

    This study is based on open source research into the scope of Asian organized crime and terrorist activity in Canada during the period 1999 to 2002, and the extent of cooperation and possible overlap...

  3. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  4. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Rex A

    1999-01-01

    ...) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure...

  5. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  6. Carnage interrupted : an analysis of fifteen terrorist plots against public surface transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report examines 13 terrorist plots against public surface transportation that were uncovered and foiled by authorities between 1997 and 2010 and two failed attempts to carry out attacks. Certainly, this is not the total universe of foiled or fai...

  7. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCleskey, Edward; McCord, Diana; Leetz, Jennifer; Markey, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This is the second of a two-phased effort: Phase I focused on assessing the underlying reasons for the success and failure of terrorist attacks against targets within the United States and against U.S. interests abroad...

  8. The Use of Terrorist Tactics as Instruments for Causing Change in Japan: 1920-1936,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-08

    was the ’different usage’ classically expressed by Hashimoto Sanai (Acquire mechanical arts from others, retain righteouness, sympathy, and filial piety ...AD-Ai65 976 THE USE OF TERRORIST TACTICS AS INSTRUNENTS FOR CAUSING III C4HANGE IN JAPAN: 928-i936(U) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE COLL WASHINGTON DC J H...FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO * . 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Use of Terrorist Tactics

  9. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  10. Authorities for Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups: The State of the Debate and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    public interest. RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible...activities by forc- ing terrorists to operate under extreme secrecy and making would-be recruits and supporters risk death to participate. In other words...intent on attacking the West. It is important not to overestimate the ability to describe the tax - onomy of terrorist enemies, however. For example

  11. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders using Internet and mobile-based Interventions: a narrative review and recommendations for future research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  12. Prevention of mental health disorders using internet- and mobile-based interventions : A narrative review and recommendations for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  13. HIV Prevention Service Utilization in the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities: Past Experiences and Recommendations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Kubicek, Katrina; Supan, Jocelyn; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    African-American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons are at elevated risk for HIV infection. House and Ball communities, networks of mostly African-American gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals who compete in modeling and dance, represent a prime venue for HIV prevention with these difficult-to-reach populations; however,…

  14. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after a Terrorist Attack: A Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne S; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are more prevalent in women than in men. To improve our understanding of gender differences in PTSD, detailed knowledge about the underlying symptom networks and gender specific symptom profiles is needed. Objective: We aimed to describe the gender differences in levels of individual posttraumatic stress symptoms after a terrorist attack, as well as identify possible gender differences in associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Method: This study used survey data from ministerial employees directly ( n = 190) and indirectly ( n = 1,615) exposed to the 2011 Oslo bombing. Data was collected approximately 10 months after the event. In order to investigate gender differences in levels of symptoms, we used bootstrapped means and standard deviations. Network analyses were conducted to identify gender differences in the associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results: Women reported higher levels of all symptoms, and the strongest effect sizes were found for symptoms of re-experiencing, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. Among individuals with considerable levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms, women reported higher levels of physiological cue activity and exaggerated startle response. No significant gender differences in the networks of posttraumatic stress were found. Conclusions: The present results find no indication that the gender difference in prevalence of PTSD can be explained by differences in associations between symptoms. In order to determine if this finding can be applied to other participants and circumstances, future studies should seek to replicate this study in both community and clinical samples.

  15. Terrorist Stabbings-Distinctive Characteristics and How to Prepare for Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merin, Ofer; Sonkin, Roman; Yitzhak, Avraham; Frenkel, Hagai; Leiba, Adi; Schwarz, Alon D; Jaffe, Eli

    2017-10-01

    The number of terror attack incidents is on the increase worldwide. The knife is one of the weapons most commonly used among terrorists. Appropriate preparation in trauma units for coping with the increasing numbers of terrorist-inflicted stabbings is different from the preparation suitable for civilian stabbings. Therapeutic and logistic guidelines need to be adjusted to accommodate those differences. Characterize the unique injuries related to terrorist stabbing, and suggest preparedness actions. Retrospective data on all terrorist-inflicted stabbing incidents between September 2015 and May 2016 were retrieved from the database of the national Israeli emergency medical services and from the Israeli Defense Forces Medical Corps records. There were a total of 414 civilian victims (34 fatalities) of terror incidents. Of these, 161 involved stabbings during 106 separate incidents. There was more than 1 stab wound per patient in approximately 60% of cases, and more than 1 victim in approximately 40% of cases. Unlike civilian stabbings, terrorist stabbings were characterized by more commonly occurring to the upper part of the body, being executed by large knives with high force, and involving multiple and more severe injuries. There is a clear distinction between the characteristics of wounds resulting from civilian stabbings and those incurred by acts of terror. Terrorists intend to injure as many random victims as possible, and trauma units need to be prepared to cope with the simultaneous admission of multiple patients with penetrating and often life-threatening knife wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Participation in ball sports may represent a prehabilitation strategy to prevent future stress fractures and promote bone health in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam Sebastian; Sainani, Kristin Lynn; Carter Sayres, Lauren; Milgrom, Charles; Fredericson, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation has many benefits for the young athlete, including improved bone health. However, a subset of athletes may attain suboptimal bone health and be at increased risk for stress fractures. This risk is greater for female than for male athletes. In healthy children, high-impact physical activity has been shown to improve bone health during growth and development. We offer our perspective on the importance of promoting high-impact, multidirectional loading activities, including ball sports, as a method of enhancing bone quality and fracture prevention based on collective research. Ball sports have been associated with greater bone mineral density and enhanced bone geometric properties compared with participation in repetitive, low-impact sports such as distance running or nonimpact sports such as swimming. Runners and infantry who participated in ball sports during childhood were at decreased risk of future stress fractures. Gender-specific differences, including the coexistence of female athlete triad, may negate the benefits of previous ball sports on fracture prevention. Ball sports involve multidirectional loading with high ground reaction forces that may result in stiffer and more fracture-resistant bones. Encouraging young athletes to participate in ball sports may optimize bone health in the setting of adequate nutrition and in female athletes, eumenorrhea. Future research to determine timing, frequency, and type of loading activity could result in a primary prevention program for stress fracture injuries and improved life-long bone health. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospital Preparedness to Respond to Biological and Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florin, P.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the terrorist use of chemical or biological agents against civilian population. A large proportion of hospitals are probably poorly prepared to handle victims of chemical or biological terrorism. At national level, starting with 2008 hospitals will be under the administration and control of local authorities. That is good opportunities for local authorities and public health office to tailor the activity of the hospitals to the real needs in the area of responsibility, and to allocate the suitable budget for them. Commonly hospitals are not fully prepared to respond to massive casualty disaster of any kind, either i their capacity to care for large numbers of victims or in their ability to provide care in coordination with a regional or national incident command structure. Preparedness activities to respond properly to chemical or biological attack including the adequate logistic, the principle of training and drill for the hospital emergency units and medical personal, communication and integration of the hospital team in local and regional civil response team are developed by the author.(author)

  18. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2005-01-01

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S

  19. Foreign (Terrorist Fighter Estimates: Conceptual and Data Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This Policy Brief – a short version of a larger Research Paper to be released by ICCT in late 2015 – focuses on the phenomenon of foreign (terrorist fighters (FTFs as it relates to Syria and Iraq. It concentrates on recruits to jihad and the astonishing growth in numbers from less than 1,000 in 2011 to more than 3,500 in 2012, 8,500+ in 2013, 18,000+ in 2014 to more than 25,000 by fall 2015. By October 2015, nearly 30,000 militants from more than 100 countries had become foreign fighters with the so-called “Islamic State” (IS in Syria and Iraq and other militant groups. This Policy Brief first discusses various definitions of FTFs by disaggregating the “foreign”, “terrorist” and “fighters” elements of FTFs of the UN Security Council definition in resolution 2178 (2014. Subsequently, an attempt is made to bring some structure and order to the widely diverging estimates of the numbers of foreign fighters and their origins, with tables presenting the best available estimates for different sides of the conflict at different moments in time since 2011. UN estimates on foreign fighters are juxtaposed with estimates from other sources. The biggest uncertainty is the ratio of foreign fighters to IS own core manpower. It is likely that at least 40 percent of the fighters of IS are foreigners and many more if Iraqis in Syria are counted as such.

  20. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  1. An Overview of NCRP Report No. 138 on Terrorist Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, John, Sr.

    2005-04-01

    In late 1998, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) convened Scientific Committee 46-14 to prepare a report on the radiological safety aspects of terrorist activities involving radioactivity. The work of this committee was funded through a contract with the Planning and Preparedness Division of the Office of Emergency Management of the Department of Energy. The committee was composed of a diverse group of individuals with expertise in many areas in addition to radiation safety and emergency response. These areas included law (both federal and state), public communications, and psychosocial aspects of such incidents. The statement of work focused the work of the committee, and the resulting report did not necessarily address all issues of such activities. One of the charges of the committee was to provide guidance as to necessary research and make recommendations regarding the present infrastructure with the responsibility for responding to such incidents. This presentation will provide an overview of NCRP Report No. 138 and focus on some of the critical issues raised in the report. These issues include recognition of the event, the interface between federal, state, and local authorities, exposure limits for the first-responders, clean-up criteria, training and resources, the psychosocial aspects of such events, and communications with the media and the public. This report represented the ``beginning'' of such considerations. It pointed the way for additional studies and research in this very important area.

  2. Enhancing public health preparedness for a terrorist attack involving cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The US government considers cyanide to be among the most likely agents of chemical terrorism. Cyanide differs from many other biological or chemical agents for which little or no defense is available because its individual and public health effects are largely remediable through appropriate preparedness and response. Because the toxicity of the cyanide antidote currently available in the United States renders it ill-suited for use in terrorist incidents and other situations requiring rapid out-of-hospital treatment, hydroxocobalamin--an effective and safe cyanide antidote being used in other countries--has been introduced in the United States. Unlike the other available cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin can be administered at the scene of a cyanide disaster, and it need not be reserved for cases of confirmed cyanide poisoning but can be administered in cases of suspected poisoning. Both of these attributes facilitate the rapid intervention necessary for saving lives. To realize the potential benefits of hydroxocobalamin, progress also needs to be realized in other aspects of readiness, including but not limited to developing plans for ensuring local and regional availability of antidote, educating emergency responders and health care professionals in the recognition and management of cyanide poisoning, and raising public awareness of the potential for a chemical weapons attack and of how to respond.

  3. What community-level strategies are needed to secure women's property rights in Western Kenya? Laying the groundwork for a future structural HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Lu, Tiffany; Grabe, Shelly; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural-level HIV prevention interventions that focus on economic empowerment to reduce women's HIV risks, few science-based programs have focused on securing women's land ownership as a primary or secondary HIV risk reduction strategy. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights model that was implemented in two rural areas of western Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (24-30%) and property rights violations were common. The program was designed to reduce women's HIV risk at the community level by protecting and enhancing women's access to and ownership of land. Through in-depth interviews with 50 program leaders and implementers of this program we sought to identify the strategies that were used to prevent, mediate, and resolve property rights violations. Results included four strategies: (1) rights-based education of both women and men individually and at the community level, (2) funeral committees that intervene to prevent property grabbing and disinheritance, (3) paralegal training of traditional leaders and community members and local adjudication of cases of property rights violations, and (4) referring property rights violations to the formal justice system when these are not resolved at the community level. Study participants underscored that local mediation of cases resulted in a higher success rate than women experienced in the formal court system, underscoring the importance of community-level solutions to property rights violations. The current study assists researchers in understanding the steps needed to prevent and resolve women's property rights violations so as to bolster the literature on potential structural HIV prevention interventions. Future research should rigorously test property rights programs as a structural HIV prevention intervention.

  4. "Evita Una Muerte, Esta en Tus Manos" Program: Bystander First Aid Training for Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo Castro, J J; Meneses Pardo, J C; Salinas Casado, P L; Hernandez Martin, P; Montilla Canet, R; Del Campo Cuesta, J L; Incera Bustio, G; Martin Ayuso, D

    The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ training test scores occurred in each of the three groups. There was a clear improvement in the knowledge of the students after the training when pre- and post-training test scores were compared within the three groups. The greatest improvement was seen in the citizens/first responders group. 2017.

  5. Back to the future: Hormone replacement therapy as part of a prevention strategy for women at the onset of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Roger A; Pickar, James H; Stevenson, John C; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N

    2016-11-01

    In the late 1980s, several observational studies and meta-analyses suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was beneficial for prevention of osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia and decreased all-cause mortality. In 1992, the American College of Physicians recommended HRT for prevention of coronary disease. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several randomized trials in older women suggested coronary harm and that the risks, including breast cancer, outweighed any benefit. HRT stopped being prescribed at that time, even for women who had severe symptoms of menopause. Subsequently, reanalyzes of the randomized trial data, using age stratification, as well as newer studies, and meta-analyses have been consistent in showing that younger women, 50-59 years or within 10 years of menopause, have decreased coronary disease and all-cause mortality; and did not have the perceived risks including breast cancer. These newer findings are consistent with the older observational data. It has also been reported that many women who abruptly stopped HRT had more risks, including more osteoporotic fractures. The current data confirm a "timing" hypothesis for benefits and risks of HRT, showing that younger have many benefits and few risks, particularly if therapy is predominantly focused on the estrogen component. We discuss these findings and put into perspective the potential risks of treatment, and suggest that we may have come full circle regarding the use of HRT. In so doing we propose that HRT should be considered as part of a general prevention strategy for women at the onset of menopause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The economic burden of intimate partner violence in ecuador: setting the agenda for future research and violence prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador. Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S.) currency rate. Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events. The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV prevention.

  7. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed

  8. Nanoparticle Delivery of Natural Products in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharali, Dhruba J. [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Aldahmash, Abdullah M. [Stem Cell Unit, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11461 (Saudi Arabia); University Hospital of Odense & Medical Biotechnology Center, Winslowsparken 25, DK-5000, Odense (Denmark); Mukhtar, Hasan [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Mousa, Shaker A., E-mail: shaker.mousa@acphs.edu [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Stem Cell Unit, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11461 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-10-26

    The advent of nanotechnology has had a revolutionary impact on many aspects of 21{sup st} century life. Nanotechnology has provided an opportunity to explore new avenues that conventional technologies have been unable to make an impact on for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of different diseases, and of cancer in particular. Entities in nanometer sizes are excellent platforms to incorporate various drugs or active materials that can be delivered effectively to the desired action site without compromising the activity of the incorporated drug or material. In particular, nanotechnology entities can be used to deliver conventional natural products that have poor solubility or a short half life. Conventional natural products used with entities in nanometer sizes enable us to solve many of the inherent problems (stability, solubility, toxicity) associated with natural products, and also provide a platform for targeted delivery to tumor sites. We recently introduced the novel concept of using nanotechnology for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention, which we called ‘nanochemoprevention’. This idea was subsequently exploited by several laboratories worldwide and has now become an advancing field in chemoprevention research. This review examines some of the applications of nanotechnology for cancer prevention and therapy using natural products.

  9. Good choices, great future: an applied theatre prevention program to reduce alcohol-related risky behaviours during Schoolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Lake-Hui; White, Angela; Low, Christine; Brown, Judith; Dalton, Nigel; Dow, Debbie; Connor, Jason P

    2012-11-01

    The contextual and temporal factors of post-school celebratory events ('Schoolies') place young people at elevated risk of excessive drinking compared with other social occasions. This study investigates the impact of an applied theatre prevention program 'Choices' in reducing the risk of drinking and other risk behaviours during Schoolies celebrations. Choices was delivered in the last term of Year 12 across 28 North Queensland schools. A total of 352 school leavers (43.1% male, mean age = 17.14 years) completed a questionnaire at Whitsunday Schoolies, Queensland, Australia on 23-24 November 2010. Nearly 49% of respondents had attended Choices. The survey included measures of alcohol use, illicit drug use and associated problems during Schoolies and a month prior to Schoolies. After controlling for gender and pre-Schoolies drinking, school leavers who attended Choices were significantly less likely to report illicit drug use (OR = 0.51, P prevention program employing a harm minimisation framework may be effective in reducing high-risk behaviours associated with alcohol consumption at celebratory events, even if young people expect to engage in excessive alcohol consumption. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Nanoparticle Delivery of Natural Products in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers: Current Status and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharali, Dhruba J.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.; Mukhtar, Hasan; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of nanotechnology has had a revolutionary impact on many aspects of 21 st century life. Nanotechnology has provided an opportunity to explore new avenues that conventional technologies have been unable to make an impact on for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of different diseases, and of cancer in particular. Entities in nanometer sizes are excellent platforms to incorporate various drugs or active materials that can be delivered effectively to the desired action site without compromising the activity of the incorporated drug or material. In particular, nanotechnology entities can be used to deliver conventional natural products that have poor solubility or a short half life. Conventional natural products used with entities in nanometer sizes enable us to solve many of the inherent problems (stability, solubility, toxicity) associated with natural products, and also provide a platform for targeted delivery to tumor sites. We recently introduced the novel concept of using nanotechnology for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention, which we called ‘nanochemoprevention’. This idea was subsequently exploited by several laboratories worldwide and has now become an advancing field in chemoprevention research. This review examines some of the applications of nanotechnology for cancer prevention and therapy using natural products

  11. Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection in gay and bisexual men. Implications for the future of HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, S C

    1998-08-01

    To assess the psychological and behavioral characteristics of gay and bisexual men who intend to use antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent HIV infection. Gay and bisexual men who had not tested HIV seropositive and were not in long-term exclusive sexual relationships (n = 327) completed anonymous surveys consisting of demographic characteristics, gay community acculturation, experience with and attitudes toward PEP, substance use, and sexual behavior in the past 6 months. A large annual Gay Pride festival in Atlanta, Georgia. There were 8 (3%) men who had already used PEP and 85 (26%) who planned to use PEP to prevent themselves from becoming HIV infected. Compared to the 242 (74%) men who did not indicate plans to use PEP, those planning to use PEP were younger, less well educated, more likely to have used illicit substances in the past 6 months, and were more likely to have a history of injection drug use. Men intending to use PEP were also more likely to have practiced unprotected anal and oral intercourse as the receptive partner and were more likely to have multiple anal intercourse partners with whom they were receptive. Gay and bisexual men are generally supportive of the immediate use of PEP and a significant number of men are planning to use PEP, particularly less educated men who use multiple substances and practice the highest-risk sexual behaviors. Concurrent behavioral interventions must, therefore, be considered critical in the advancement of PEP.

  12. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus is unlikely to prevent future bat handling among adults in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D

    2018-02-01

    Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  14. The Economic Burden of Intimate Partner Violence in Ecuador: Setting the Agenda for Future Research and Violence Prevention Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Corso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador.Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S. currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events.Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV

  15. Comment on the first anniversary of the terrorist attacks in the United States of America. Vienna, 11 September 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The attacks in September 2001 were, however, a wake-up call to the world nuclear community that more can and must be done. In the wake of the terrorist attacks, Member States of the IAEA meeting in the Agency's General Conference adopted a resolution requesting that the IAEA Director General initiate a thorough review of the Agency's activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The Agency moved rapidly to respond. It devised and is presently implementing an integrated action plan which includes enhanced and new activities to upgrade nuclear security worldwide and to combat nuclear terrorism. The plan covers eight areas: (1) physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; (2) detection of malicious activities (such as illicit trafficking) involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; (3) strengthening of State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; (4) security of radioactive sources; (5) the assessment of safety and security related vulnerabilities at nuclear facilities; (6) response to malicious acts or threats thereof; (7) the adherence to international agreements and guidelines; and (8) co-ordination and information management for nuclear security related matters. National measures for protecting nuclear material and facilities remain uneven in their substance and application. There is wide recognition that the international physical protection regime needs to be further strengthened. Through its International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS), the Agency provides Member States with assessment services, together with associated advice and follow up actions to improve security arrangements at nuclear facilities. It also provides training and workshops, notably in assessing threats, as well as other supporting

  16. A two-dose heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen eliciting sustained immune responses to Ebola Zaire could support a preventive strategy for future outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukarev, Georgi; Callendret, Benoit; Luhn, Kerstin; Douoguih, Macaya

    2017-02-01

    The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination program for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity. Heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens deliver the same or similar antigens through different vaccine types, the first to prime and the second to boost the immune system. Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo is an investigational Ebola Zaire vaccine regimen that uses this heterologous prime-boost approach. Preliminary Phase 1 data suggest that Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo confers durable immunity for at least 240 d and is well-tolerated with a good safety profile. This regimen may therefore be suitable for prophylactic use in a regional or targeted population vaccination strategy, and could potentially aid prevention and control of future Ebola outbreaks.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in HIV prevention; current status and future directions: a summary of the DAIDS and BMGF sponsored think tank on pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joseph; Kashuba, Angela; Becker, Stephen; Cummins, James; Turpin, Jim; Veronese, Fulvia

    2013-11-01

    Thirty years after its beginning, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still raging around the world. According to UNAIDS, in 2011 alone 1.7M deaths were attributable to AIDS, and 2.5M people were newly infected by the virus. Despite the success in treating HIV-infected people with potent antiretroviral drugs, preventing HIV infection is the key to ending the epidemic. Recently, the efficacy of topical and systemic antiviral chemoprophylaxis (i.e., preexposure prophylaxis or "PrEP"), using the same drugs used for HIV treatment, has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. However, results from other trials have been inconsistent, especially those evaluating PrEP in women. These inconsistencies may result from our incomplete understanding of pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) at the mucosal sites of sexual transmission: the male and female gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. The drug concentrations used in these trials were derived from those used for treatment; however, we still do not know the relationship between the therapeutic and the preventive dose. This article presents the first comprehensive review of the available data in the HIV pharmacology field from animal models to human studies, and outlines gaps, challenges, and future directions. Addressing these pharmacological gaps and challenges will be critical in selecting and advancing future PrEP candidates and strategies with the greatest impact on the HIV epidemic.

  18. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  19. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems. Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Maffli, Etienne; Kuntsche, Sandra; Delgrande Jordan, Marina

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time towards one which accepts an alcohol-consuming culture made up of self-determined but well-informed consumers, while still supporting those who choose to live an abstinent life. In the beginning, SIPA was involved primarily in collecting alcohol-related information and making it available to professionals and the general public. From the late 1960s SIPA began conducting its own research projects; by the mid-1970s it had set up its own in-house research department. In 2001, SIPA was appointed a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Substance Abuse, Research, Prevention and Documentation. As a private non-governmental organization, most of its funding comes from external research commissions. SIPA participates in a variety of international projects [e.g. Gender Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS), European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) and Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)] and contributes to numerous national research projects dealing with substance use. It has also forged close links with more than 50 other research institutions in Switzerland and world-wide. Thanks to its work over the last 30 years, SIPA has become a chief port of call for alcohol use research in Switzerland. In the future, SIPA will continue to monitor substance use, while stepping up its prevention research activities and ensuring that it is able to react more promptly to emerging phenomena.

  20. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisogni, Primavera

    2010-01-01

    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  1. Abdominal trauma after terrorist bombing attacks exhibits a unique pattern of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I; Zamir, Gideon; Hadar, Tal; Gertsenshtein, Iryna; Mintz, Yoav; Pikarsky, Alon J; Amar, Dalit; Shussman, Noam; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Almogy, Gidon

    2008-08-01

    The recent growth in the volume of civilian blast trauma caused by terrorist bombings warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. To characterize the abdominal injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and to compare the pattern of injury with civilian, penetrating and blunt, abdominal trauma. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 181 patients with abdominal trauma requiring laparotomy, who were admitted to the Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to mechanism of injury: terror-related blast injury (n = 21), gunshot wounds (GSW) (n = 73) and blunt trauma (n = 87). Median injury severity score in the blast group was significantly higher compared with GSW and blunt groups (34, 18, and 29, respectively, P or = 3) occurred in 85.7% of blast group, 28.8% of GSW group, and 59.7% of blunt group (P Terrorist attacks generate more severe injuries to more body regions than other types of trauma. Abdominal injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of wounds, mainly injury to hollow organs. Shrapnel is the leading cause of abdominal injury following terrorist bombings.

  2. Consumer Adoption of Future MyData-Based Preventive eHealth Services: An Acceptance Model and Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, Timo; Pekkarinen, Saara; Lappi, Minna; Väisänen, Jere; Juntunen, Jouni; Pikkarainen, Minna

    2017-12-22

    Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers' subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view. We are adopting the term "MyData", which according to a White Paper of the Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communication refers to "1) a new approach, a paradigm shift in personal data management and processing that seeks to transform the current organization centric system to a human centric system, 2) to personal data as a resource that the individual can access and control." The aim of this study was to investigate what factors influence consumers' intentions to use a MyData-based preventive eHealth service before use. We applied a new adoption model combining Venkatesh's unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) in a consumer context and three constructs from health behavior theories, namely threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers. To test the research model, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) with Mplus software, version 7.4. A Web-based survey was administered. We collected 855 responses. We first applied traditional SEM for the research model, which was not statistically significant. We then tested for possible heterogeneity in the data by running a mixture analysis. We found that heterogeneity was not the cause for the poor performance of the research model. Thus, we moved on to model-generating SEM and ended up with a statistically significant empirical model (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] 0.051, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] 0

  3. Consumer Adoption of Future MyData-Based Preventive eHealth Services: An Acceptance Model and Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, Saara; Lappi, Minna; Väisänen, Jere; Juntunen, Jouni; Pikkarainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Background Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers’ subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view. We are adopting the term "MyData", which according to a White Paper of the Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communication refers to "1) a new approach, a paradigm shift in personal data management and processing that seeks to transform the current organization centric system to a human centric system, 2) to personal data as a resource that the individual can access and control." Objective The aim of this study was to investigate what factors influence consumers’ intentions to use a MyData-based preventive eHealth service before use. Methods We applied a new adoption model combining Venkatesh’s unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) in a consumer context and three constructs from health behavior theories, namely threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers. To test the research model, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) with Mplus software, version 7.4. A Web-based survey was administered. We collected 855 responses. Results We first applied traditional SEM for the research model, which was not statistically significant. We then tested for possible heterogeneity in the data by running a mixture analysis. We found that heterogeneity was not the cause for the poor performance of the research model. Thus, we moved on to model-generating SEM and ended up with a statistically significant empirical model (root mean square error of approximation

  4. Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention: A Review of Potential Mechanisms and Promising Targets for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity. Most of the epidemiologic evidence derives from cross-sectional or short-term, highly controlled feeding studies that are limited in size. Therefore, high-quality large-scale prospective studies with dietary data collected over the life course and comprehensive gut microbial composition and function assessed well prior to neoplastic occurrence are critically needed to identify microbiome-based interventions that may complement or optimize current diet-based strategies for colorectal cancer prevention and management.

  5. Nickel Allergy and Our Children's Health: A Review of Indexed Cases and a View of Future Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Pelletier, Janice L; Fonacier, Luz S; Usatine, Richard; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Nickel is the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from early childhood through adolescence. Studies have shown that skin piercings and other nickel-laden exposures can trigger the onset of nickel ACD in those who are susceptible. Nickel ACD causes a vast amount of cutaneous disease in children. Cases of nickel ACD in children have been reported in peer-reviewed literature from 28 states. Common items that contain inciting nickel include jewelry, coins, zippers, belts, tools, toys, chair studs, cases for cell phones and tablets, and dental appliances. The diagnosis of nickel ACD has been routinely confirmed by patch testing in children older than 6 months suspected of ACD from nickel. Unlike in Europe, there are no mandatory restrictions legislated for nickel exposure in the United States. Denmark has demonstrated that regulation of the nickel content in metals can lower the risk of ACD and the associated health care-related costs that arise from excess nickel exposure. To further awareness, this article reviews the prominent role of nickel in pediatric skin disease in the United States. It discusses the need for a campaign by caretakers to reduce nickel-related morbidity. Lastly, it promotes the model of European legislation as a successful intervention in the prevention of nickel ACD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pacemaker pocket infection due to environmental mycobacteria: Successful management of an outbreak and steps for prevention in future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Vijaya; Hittinahalli, Vivek; Mishra, Meenakshi; Pradhan, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of surgical site infection (SSI) due to environmental mycobacteria (EMB) occurred in a hospital in Eastern India. A quality improvement project (QIP) was undertaken to analyze the causes and prevent further outbreak. Step (1) Proof of the need: Four patients who had undergone pacemaker implantation consecutively during a 10-day period developed SSI. Step (2) Diagnostic journey: Since all patients developed SSI within 2 months of implantation, a common source of infection was likely. Atypical mycobacteria (AMB) were grown from surgical sites as well as from the surface of operation table, image intensifier, and lead aprons. It was a rapid growing variety that lacked pigment, a characteristic of EMB with pathogenic potential. The EMB was finally traced to its source, the overhead water tank. Step (3) Remedial journey: By thorough cleaning of the water tank and enriching its chlorine content, the EMB was eliminated from its source. Step (4) Holding the gains: Protocol for cleaning the water tank once in 3 months was made. A checklist was prepared to ensure compliance to asepsis protocol in the operation theater. In the ensuing 5 years, the infection did not recur. The bacteria that caused SSI were identified as EMB that grew in the water tank and contaminated the operation room. It could be eliminated by appropriate measures. Water is a potential reservoir for EMB. Use of the term 'environmental mycobacteria' instead of 'atypical mycobacteria' will generate awareness about contamination as the cause of SSI. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracking the evolution of HIV/AIDS in China from 1989-2009 to inform future prevention and control efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.

  8. Preventing future fractures: effectiveness of an orthogeriatric fracture liaison service compared to an outpatient fracture liaison service and the standard management in patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Antonio; Fernández-Conde, Sonia; Ojeda, Soledad; Torres-Hernández, Laura; Hernández-Carballo, Carolina; Bernardos, Idoia; Rodríguez, Sinforiano; Laynez, Pedro

    2017-12-11

    An observational study was carried out in two hospitals in patients > 65 years admitted for hip fracture. At 6 months, 15% of patients in the hospital with orthogeriatric standard care and 75% in the hospital with fracture liaison service were receiving bisphosphonates. Many patients with fractures are discharged without preventive therapy against further fractures. We sought to compare the effectiveness of an orthogeriatric fracture liaison service (FLS), outpatient FLS, and the standard care after hip fractures in prevention of future fractures. An observational study was carried out in two hospitals in patients > 65 years of age, admitted between March and July 2016 for fractures. The Candelaria hospital (HUNSC) has no specific protocol for secondary prevention, while at the Negrin Hospital (HUGCDN), an FLS nurse visits the inpatients, gathers metabolic history, instructs regarding the diet, exercises, and fall prevention, and completes a discharge report regarding osteoporosis treatment. The prescription rate of osteoporosis treatment was analyzed at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge. We also analyzed the data of patients with hip fractures who attended the outpatient FLS before March 2016. We included a total of 185 inpatients with a mean age of 82 years and 73% were women. At admission, 8% of the patients in HUNSC and 10% in HUGCDN were receiving bisphosphonates. At discharge, the percentages were 8 and 96%, while at 6 months they were 15 and 75%, respectively (p < 0.001). The outpatient FLS recorded 206 hip fractures (27% of discharges for fractures), with 77% adherence to treatment at 6 months. Compared with the conventional management, the FLS model for inpatients with hip fractures achieved a fivefold increase in the adherence to treatment at 6 months, similar to the rates of outpatient FLS.

  9. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  10. Angry at the unjust, scared of the powerful: emotional responses to terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Maitner, Angela T

    2013-08-01

    The threat of terrorist attacks motivates emotional reactions that elicit functional behavioral responses to characteristics of a threatening group. We argue that the more the group is seen as unjust, the more anger arises, whereas the more it is seen as powerful, the more fear arises. In Experiment 1, British participants read about terrorist groups with varied levels of injustice and power. As expected, the manipulation of injustice increased anger, and power increased fear. Anger and fear predicted offensive and defensive reactions. Experiment 2 used a representative sample of U.S. residents and again found distinct effects of an injustice manipulation on anger, and a power manipulation on fear. Anger was a primary motivator of support for offensive and defensive measures in both experiments. Willingness to negotiate was reduced with more injustice and anger, but increased with more outgroup power and fear. These findings have implications on public reactions to terrorist organizations.

  11. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  12. Do terrorist attacks affect ethnic discrimination in the labour market? Evidence from two randomized field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth; Chan, Tak Wing; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2018-01-24

    Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name. But the ethnic gap in call-back rates were very similar in the two experiments. Thus, Pakistanis in Norway still experienced the same level of discrimination, despite claims that Norwegians have become more positive about migrants after the far-right, anti-migrant terrorist attacks of 2011. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  13. [Approach to liver, spleen and pancreatic injuries including damage control surgery of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, G A; Lipp, M J; Oldhafer, K J

    2017-10-01

    Terrorist attacks have outreached to Europe with more and more attacks on civilians. Derived from war surgery experience and from lessons learned from major incidents, it seems mandatory for every surgeon to improve understanding of the special circumstances of trauma following a terrorist attack and its' management. A short literature review is followed by outlining the damage control surgery (DCS) principle for each organ system with practical comments from the perspective of a specialized hepatobiliary (HPB) surgery unit. Every surgeon has to become familiar with the new entities of blast injuries and terrorist attack trauma. This concerns not only the medical treatment but also tailoring surgical treatment with a view to a lack of critical resources under these circumstances. For liver and pancreatic trauma, simple treatment strategies are a key to success.

  14. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C.

    2006-01-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  15. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Janecky, David R; Doerr, Ted B

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist actions are aimed at maximizing harm (health, psychological, economical, and political) through the combined physical impacts of the act and fear. Immediate and effective response to a terrorist act is critical to limit human and environmental harm, effectively restore facility function, and maintain public confidence. Though there have been terrorist attacks in public facilities that we have learned from, overall our experiences in restoration of public facilities following a terrorist attack are limited. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. For example, there may be a great need to quickly restore the facility to full operation and allow public access even though it was not designed for easy or rapid restoration, and critical information is needed for quantitative risk assessment and effective restoration must be anticipated to be incomplete and uncertain. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the "adaptive management" paradigm provides a constructive parallel paradigm for restoration of public facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, inefficiencies, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a public facility after a terrorist attack suggest that integration of adaptive management principles explicitly into restoration processes will result in substantially enhanced and flexible responses necessary to meet the uncertainties of potential terrorist attacks.

  16. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard A.

    2011-04-26

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  17. The Rise and the Fall of Terrorist Organizations in Post-Dictatorial Greece: The Role and the Lessons for the Intelligence Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakitsas, Miltiadis

    2003-01-01

    The Greek government unsuccessfully battled leftist terrorist groups from 1975 to 2002, The two most notorious terrorist organizations during this period were the "November 17" group and another group...

  18. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a... the United States constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten...

  19. 75 FR 3845 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by Executive Order 13099, the President modified the Annex to...

  20. 78 FR 4303 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by Executive Order 13099, the President modified the Annex to...

  1. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researche...

  2. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

    of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  3. 78 FR 59751 - Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of... Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order. This notice shall be published...

  4. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order. This...

  5. The Financial Impact of Terrorist Attacks on the Value of the Oil and Gas Industry: An International Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, David; Scholtens, Bert; Dorsman, André; Arslan-Ayaydin, Özgür; Baha Karan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Energy firms operate in a strategic industry and their operations are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We investigate how terrorism impacts stock returns of these firms. We analyze the effect of 105 terrorist attacks on oil and gas companies during 2001–2012. We find that there is no evidence that

  6. ANTI-TERROR POLICY OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE REGIONAL ANTI-TERRORIST POLICY OF THE SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С П Базылева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century was marked by a number of serious problems, including cancer, world hunger, environmental problems and increasing every year the problem of global terrorism, which poses a great threat to the security of the modern multipolar world. Uzbekistan today occupies a firm position in fight against terrorist threat. The principled position of Uzbekistan in the fight against terrorism is that “no country should exclude their participation in the fight against global terrorism, there must be no transit zones and "green corridors" for terrorist organizations”. The Central Asian region is one of the most vulnerable, because it is necessary to pay special attention to the strategy of the anti-terrorist security of the countries included in the structure of the Central Asian region. In this article, we consider the anti-terrorist policy of Uzbekistan in the framework of the regional anti-terrorist policy of the SCO.

  7. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  8. Temporal framing and persuasion to adopt preventive health behavior: moderating effects of individual differences in consideration of future consequences on sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Kyriakaki, Maria

    2008-11-01

    Previous work on temporal framing of health communications has focused upon detection behaviors that possess an inherent immediate risk of negative consequences. The present studies evaluate the role of temporal frame for a preventive behavior, using sunscreen. Two experimental field studies manipulated the temporal frame in which positive and negative consequences of using sunscreen were presented. Cognitive responses, intention, and behavior (experiment 2). Consistent with hypotheses, Experiment 1 showed that individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC; A. Strathman, F. Gleicher, D. S. Boninger, & C. S. Edwards, 1994) moderated (a) the processing of long- versus short-term consequences and (b) the persuasive impact of the different temporal frames on behavioral intentions. In Experiment 2, the balance of positive versus negative thoughts generated by reading the persuasive communications was shown to mediate the effects of the Temporal Frame x CFC interaction on a behavioral measure. Findings extend previous work by demonstrating the importance of individual differences in CFC to the processing of health communication about a preventive health behavior and to a behavioral outcome.

  9. 48 CFR 252.209-7004 - Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7004 Section 252.209....209-7004 Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist... Controlled by the Government of a Terrorist County (DEC 2006) (a) Unless the Government determines that there...

  10. 75 FR 78336 - Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist... for the 2004 re-designation of the aforementioned organization as a foreign terrorist organization... determine that the designation of the aforementioned organization as a foreign terrorist organization...

  11. The Tablets, Ring, Injections as Options (TRIO) study: what young African women chose and used for future HIV and pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Ariane; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Weinrib, Rachel; Browne, Erica N; Manenzhe, Kgahlisho; Owino, Fredrick; Schwartz, Jill; Minnis, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies are key global health priorities. To inform product rollout and to understand attributes of future multipurpose prevention technologies (MPT) associated with preference and use, we evaluated three placebo delivery forms: daily oral tablets, a monthly vaginal ring, and two monthly intramuscular injections in TRIO, a five-month study among young Kenyan and South African women. HIV-negative, sexually active, non-pregnant women aged 18 to 30 were enrolled and randomized to use each placebo delivery form for one month (stage 1). Then, participants chose one product to use for two additional months (stage 2). We assessed safety, product ranking, choice, and use. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of choice and, reciprocally, unwillingness to use in the future with logistic regression models. 277 women enrolled, 249 completed stage 1 and 246 completed stage 2. Median age was 23 years, 49% were Kenyan and 51% were South African. Three participants became pregnant during the study and one participant HIV-seroconverted. There were 18 product-related adverse events, six tablets-related, 11 ring-related, and one injection-related. After trying each product, 85% preferred a TRIO product over condoms. Injections were chosen most (64%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 58%, 70%; p < 0.001), and by more South Africans than Kenyans (odds ratio (OR) 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.43; p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in choosing tablets versus ring (21%, 95% CI: 16%, 26% vs. 15%, 95% CI: 11%, 20%; p = 0.11). Tablet and ring adherence, based on direct observations and self-reports, improved over time. However, participants' self-reported use of tablets did not match objective data from the electronic dose monitoring device. Participants were fully compliant with injections. In this population at risk for HIV and pregnancy, all participants agreed to choose and use a placebo MPT delivery form. A majority of participants

  12. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  13. Occupational practitioner's role in the management of a crisis: lessons learned from the Paris November 2015 terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Descatha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015.During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners in collaboration with emergency and security professionals were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans.Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events, and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, post-traumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols.In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up.

  14. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  15. 15 CFR 744.14 - Restrictions on exports and reexports to designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on exports and reexports to designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs). 744.14 Section 744.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY...

  16. Reasoning about Emotional Contents Following Shocking Terrorist Attacks: A Tale of Three Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Richards, Anne; Melnyk, Laura; Lavda, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined reasoning following the terrorist attacks carried out in London in July 2005. They tested participants in London (United Kingdom), Manchester (United Kingdom), and London (Canada) within 1 week of the attacks and again 6 months later. Participants reasoned about syllogisms of 3 types: neutral, generally emotional, and…

  17. European Lone Actor Terrorists Versus “Common” Homicide Offenders : An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.; Buuren, van G.M.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.H.; Schönberger, H.J.M.; Bakker, E.

    2017-01-01

    The term “Lone Actor” has been applied to a variety of violent individuals who are thought to act out of ideological motivations using terrorist tactics. So far, much of the research is U.S.-based. There is an empirical vacuum of Lone Actor violence in Europe and a conceptual gap in how these acts

  18. Terrorist attack of 15 January 2016 in Ouagadougou: how resilient was Burkina Faso's health system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Lechat, Lucie; Meda, Ivlabehire Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, health systems are often not very responsive. Their resilience is often tested by health or geopolitical crises. The Ebola epidemic, for instance, exposed the fragility of health systems, and recent terrorist attacks have required countries to respond to urgent situations. Up until 2014, Burkina Faso's health system strongly resisted these pressures and reforms had always been minor. However, since late 2014, Burkina Faso has had to contend with several unprecedented crises. In October 2014, there was a popular insurrection. Then, in September 2015, the Security Regiment of the deposed president attempted a coup d'état. Finally, on 15 January 2016, a terrorist attack occurred in the capital, Ouagadougou. These events involved significant human injury and casualties. In these crises, the Burkinabè health system was sorely tried, testing its responsiveness, resiliency and adaptability. We describe the management of the recent terrorist attack from the standpoint of health system resilience. It would appear that the multiple crises that had occurred within the previous 2 years led to appropriate management of that terrorist attack thanks to the rapid mobilisation of personnel and good communication between centres. For example, the health system had put in place a committee and an emergency response plan, adapted blood bank services and psychology services, and made healthcare free for victims. Nevertheless, the system encountered several challenges, including the development of framework documents for resources (financial, material and human) and their use and coordination in crisis situations.

  19. Activist or Terrorist? Negotiating Discourses of Eco-Terror in "If a Tree Falls"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jade

    2018-01-01

    Environmentalist voices like the Earth Liberation Front have been labeled "eco-terrorists." The 2011 documentary film "If a Tree Falls" explores how "eco-terrorism" troubles the unstable border between activism and terrorism. This essay offers a textual analysis of the film's negotiation of the activism/terrorism…

  20. Terrorist-Insurgent Thinking and Joint Special Operational Planning Doctrine and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    gent threat and challenges the reader to expand his own planning paradigm to more fully encompass the implications of terrorist-insurgent thinking in...counterinsurgency doctrine. She has served in Canada’s Reserve Forces with the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa. Dr. Paquette’s Web site is at

  1. Providing Crisis Counseling to New Yorkers after the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Karin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of two crisis intervention techniques used by a marriage and family counselor who served as a crisis counselor in New York City after the September 11th terrorist attack. The intervention techniques described are Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and one-on-one crisis counseling. An overview of both techniques…

  2. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  3. The Myth of My Widow: A Dramatistic Analysis of News Portrayals of a Terrorist Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Jack

    Dramatistic analysis suggests that the "New York Times" portrayals of the 1985 terrorist killing of Leon Klinghoffer, the 69 year old American tourist on the Achille Laurs, may contain a mythic dimension. Through the myth of the hero, the news stories invoked the symbol of the self, inviting intense identification of the individual…

  4. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  5. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli

    2010-03-01

    Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  6. Social categorization and fear reactions to the September 11th terrorist attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, M; Yzerbyt, [No Value; Wigboldus, D; Gordijn, EH

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were run in The Netherlands and Belgium 1 week after the terrorist attacks against the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001. The aim was to investigate whether social categorization affected emotional reactions, behavioral tendencies, and actual behaviors. Results

  7. The Traumatic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks and the Potential Protection of Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Santangelo, Linda K.; Cascio, Toni

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks on graduate and undergraduate students and the role of optimism in posttraumatic distress. A sample of 457 students who attended courses at three schools of social work (Nevada, Pennsylvania, and Washington) participated in the study. A quarter of them had a known person as an…

  8. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  9. Terrorist attack of 15 January 2016 in Ouagadougou: how resilient was Burkina Faso's health system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Lechat, Lucie; Meda, Ivlabehire Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, health systems are often not very responsive. Their resilience is often tested by health or geopolitical crises. The Ebola epidemic, for instance, exposed the fragility of health systems, and recent terrorist attacks have required countries to respond to urgent situations. Up until 2014, Burkina Faso's health system strongly resisted these pressures and reforms had always been minor. However, since late 2014, Burkina Faso has had to contend with several unprecedented crises. In October 2014, there was a popular insurrection. Then, in September 2015, the Security Regiment of the deposed president attempted a coup d’état. Finally, on 15 January 2016, a terrorist attack occurred in the capital, Ouagadougou. These events involved significant human injury and casualties. In these crises, the Burkinabè health system was sorely tried, testing its responsiveness, resiliency and adaptability. We describe the management of the recent terrorist attack from the standpoint of health system resilience. It would appear that the multiple crises that had occurred within the previous 2 years led to appropriate management of that terrorist attack thanks to the rapid mobilisation of personnel and good communication between centres. For example, the health system had put in place a committee and an emergency response plan, adapted blood bank services and psychology services, and made healthcare free for victims. Nevertheless, the system encountered several challenges, including the development of framework documents for resources (financial, material and human) and their use and coordination in crisis situations. PMID:28588927

  10. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  11. Impact of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks on Teenagers' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lubell, Keri; Provenzano, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on adolescents' mental health is reported. Two successive cohorts of students in 6 New York state high schools, identified from health courses, completed an in-school self-report baseline assessment of hopelessness, impairment, and help-seeking behavior. One year later, these students completed a…

  12. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  13. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the terrorist attacks on children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. These children may be adversely affected in a number of ways including inattentiveness, increased restlessness, crying, sleeplessness, use of profanity, and even inappropriate laughter. Several suggestions are offered to…

  15. Suggestions for Adults: Talking and Thinking with Children about the Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Fifteen suggestions for adults talking with children about the terrorist attacks include taking the time to listen, separating fact from fiction, stressing the senselessness of violence, recognizing the impact of their own reactions on children, and addressing religious and moral concerns. (DB)

  16. Aptitude for Destruction. Volume 2: Case Studies of Organizational Learning in Five Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Shinrikyo’s Organization and Terrorist Attacks with Chemical and Biological Weapons," Archives of Toxicology, Kinetics and Xenobiotic Metabolism, Vol. 7...attack in which nine bombs were planted on a fleet of refrigerated meat trucks. And although both the ELF and the ALF have avoided tactics that directly

  17. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pterrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  19. The Future of Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José

    2013-01-01

    Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011.......Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011....

  20. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  1. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  2. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2016-12-29

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  3. Review of the Estimates for the Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on New York Tax Revenues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    As a follow-up to our May 2002 report, reviewing the estimates of the economic impact of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York, Congress requested additional information on New York tax revenues...

  4. Probabilistic Project Management for a Terrorist Planning a Dirty Bomb Attack on a Major US Port [video

    OpenAIRE

    John, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Video: Richard John and Heather Rossoff: Probabilistic Project Management for a Terrorist Planning a Dirty Bomb Attack on a Major US Port. A talk for the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Metrics and Tools Conference, June 2008

  5. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision— (1) Government of a terrorist country includes the state... the government of which has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism. As of the...

  6. The plutonium mountain: preventing diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohling-Brown, Pamela.

    1997-01-01

    With continued arms-reduction between the USA and the former Soviet Union, surplus nuclear materials, from dismantled weapons, requires handling. A number of risks are identified including occupational safety for workers involved with handling nuclear materials, and environmental protection. Perhaps the most sinister is the extra security needed to ensure that these materials are not diverted to rogue states or terrorist groups, as materials are handled in a larger number of countries. In particular, the author addresses the problem of plutonium reserves, and discusses the role of reprocessing in preventing diversion. (UK)

  7. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  8. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danwitz, T. von

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [de

  9. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  10. Controversies of Conversions: The Potential Terrorist Threat of European Converts to Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika G. Bartoszewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarising some findings from a doctoral dissertation discusses European converts to Islam. It explores the conditions under which conversion leads to radicalisation and terrorist violence; it analyses recrudescent concomitances of causal mechanisms of this phenomenon. Furthermore, it explores possible pathways existing between conversion, radicalisation and terrorist violence; identifies key variables pertaining to causal pathways and processes; provides hypotheses regarding the radicalisation pathways, and establishes a typology that can serve as a basis for further studies. By dispelling stereotypes on European New Muslims (ENM this research note offers a new, contextual approach to the issue under consideration. In doing so it invites the reader to reconsider the concepts of “convert”, “radicalisation” and “potential”- concepts crucial for questioning the widely expressed assumptions that European converts to Islam are a homogenous “risk group” and a security threat.

  11. Transporting nuclear wastes from energy production sites: What can terrorists do and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee-Ballard, D.R.; Ballard, J.D.; Dilger, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Recent discussions in the United States and among NATO allies have debated the vulnerability of nuclear waste shipments, their transports, and the engineered packaging they transport within to terrorist attack. These debates generally focus on the regulatory and engineered controls necessary to protect such shipments, but in the post-September 11, 2001 reality of a potential mass suicide attack using asymmetrical weapons and tactics, can the underlying 'safe' assumptions of regulators and security personnel be questioned? This paper will offer a history of the debates surrounding how safe such shipments from energy faculties are to dedicated terrorist attack and then focus on recent research that looks at several transportation related scenarios that may bring into question heretofore un-assessed vulnerabilities for highway and railway transports, routes, and cargoes of highly radioactive wastes that come from such energy production sites. (author)

  12. ‘Let the Punishment Match the Offence’: Determining Sentences for Australian Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGarrity

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, 38 men have been charged with terrorism offences in Australia. Twenty-six have been convicted. The article commences with an overview of the factual circumstances leading to these convictions. This provides important background for the following discussion of a largely unexplored issue in Australian anti-terrorism law and policy, namely, the difficulties faced by the Australian courts in adapting traditional sentencing principles to the (for the most part, preparatory terrorism offences enacted by the Commonwealth Parliament after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Of particular interest are how the courts determine the objective seriousness of these offences and the respective weight placed upon deterrence (both specific and general and the rehabilitation of convicted terrorists.

  13. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsdal, Nils O

    2014-01-01

    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again.

  14. Unhealthy complacency: The vulnerability of US hospitals to direct terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, David J

    2018-01-01

    Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, terrorists have demonstrated both the intent and capability to execute direct attacks on US public hospitals. Nonetheless, hospital administrators have basically ignored this threat, as they do not view hospitals as likely targets. Unfortunately, it may take a catastrophic event before policymakers appreciate this threat enough to take appropriate actions. However, analyzing and managing these threats is just another part of risk management, as the cost of doing so up front to protect against such loss is no different than other risk management assessments. While the threat may never be completely eradicated, failing to implement reasonable security measures to specifically address the threat of direct terrorist attacks leaves hospitals vulnerable to severe loss. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  15. [Treatment strategies for mass casualty incidents and terrorist attacks in trauma and vascular surgery : Presentation of a treatment concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemert, B; Franke, A; Bieler, D; Achatz, A; Hinck, D; Engelhardt, M

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of patients in the context of mass casualty incidents (MCI) represents a great challenge for the participating rescue workers and clinics. Due to the increase in terrorist activities it is necessary to become familiar with this new kind of threat to civilization with respect to the medical treatment of victims of terrorist attacks. There are substantial differences between a "normal" MCI and a terrorist MCI with respect to injury patterns (blunt trauma vs. penetrating/perforating trauma), the type and form of the incident (MCI=static situation vs. terrorist attack MCI= dynamic situation) and the different security positions (rescue services vs. police services). This article is concerned with question of which changes in the surgical treatment of patients are made necessary by these new challenges. In this case it is necessary that physicians are familiar with the different injury patterns, whereby priority must be given to gunshot and explosion (blast) injuries. Furthermore, altered strategic and tactical approaches (damage control surgery vs. tactical abbreviated surgical care) are necessary to ensure survival for as many victims of terrorist attacks as possible and also to achieve the best possible functional results. It is only possible to successfully counter these new challenges by changing the mindset in the treatment of terrorist MCI compared to MCI incidents. An essential component of this mindset is the acquisition of a maximum of flexibility. This article would like to make a contribution to this problem.

  16. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    armed groups in Northern Ireland had decommissioned their arms.230 While the intractable and deeply-rooted political conflict in Northern Ireland still...As a conflict management strategy, mediation has offered a way to abate or resolve conflicts , and it is a solid alternative to escalating hostilities...terrorism conflicts , this thesis explores the styles of international mediation that have been employed in peace processes between states and terrorist

  17. The Study of New Religious Movements and the Process of Radicalization in Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    and the cross-cutting management pressures confronting leaders of controversial new religions, and potentially terrorist organizations as well...aggravate this situation in ways that foster ever more extreme behaviour. Four of the relevant management issues are: (1) maintaining the leader’s...catalyseurs vers le changement , mais la vraie raison est un sens éternel de privation morale relative. Le processus est essentiellement viii DRDC CSS

  18. Internet Posting of Chemical Worst Case Scenarios: A Roadmap for Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-10

    with homework and connect with friends. As a parent, the greatest concern I used to have about the Internet was porn and the other things that sickos...states, terrorists, and orga- nized criminals .’’ Indeed, the President’s budget for 1999, pending congressional ap- proval, devotes hundreds of millions...Brutalized groups that either bum with revenge following a genocide against their nation or face the prospect of imminent destruction without any

  19. Cross-Milieu Terrorist Collaboration: Using Game Theory to Assess the Risk of a Novel Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Gary A; Zhuang, Jun; Weerasuriya, Sitara

    2017-02-01

    This article uses a game-theoretic approach to analyze the risk of cross-milieu terrorist collaboration-the possibility that, despite marked ideological differences, extremist groups from very different milieus might align to a degree where operational collaboration against Western societies becomes possible. Based upon theoretical insights drawn from a variety of literatures, a bargaining model is constructed that reflects the various benefits and costs for terrorists' collaboration across ideological milieus. Analyzed in both sequential and simultaneous decision-making contexts and through numerical simulations, the model confirms several theoretical arguments. The most important of these is that although likely to be quite rare, successful collaboration across terrorist milieus is indeed feasible in certain circumstances. The model also highlights several structural elements that might play a larger role than previously recognized in the collaboration decision, including that the prospect of nonmaterial gains (amplification of terror and reputational boost) plays at least as important a role in the decision to collaborate as potential increased capabilities does. Numerical simulation further suggests that prospects for successful collaboration over most scenarios (including operational) increase when a large, effective Islamist terrorist organization initiates collaboration with a smaller right-wing group, as compared with the other scenarios considered. Although the small number of historical cases precludes robust statistical validation, the simulation results are supported by existing empirical evidence of collaboration between Islamists and right- or left-wing extremists. The game-theoretic approach, therefore, provides guidance regarding the circumstances under which such an unholy alliance of violent actors is likely to succeed. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Some argue that greater economic inequality creates broad grievances that favor terrorism.26 “Governments that fail to meet the basic welfare and eco...p. 78); Cronin (2002–2003, pp. 39–42). 26 On civil conflict, see Edward N. Muller, “Income Inequality , Regime Repressiveness, and Political...7,000” (Hekmat Karzai, Afghanistan and the Globalisation of Terrorist Tactics, Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, January 2006

  1. Maritime tourism and terrorism: Customer perceptions of the potential terrorist threat to cruise shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, C.; Fidgeon, P.; Page, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Maritime terrorism is a neglected area of research in tourism, particularly the use of scenario planning to understand potential threats to the cruise industry. Since the events of 9/11, terrorism, and the threat of terrorism, has become a major concern within the tourism industry. This article analyses tourist perception of perceived terrorist threats given that many ships are American owned. Using the scenario analysis presented by Greenberg, Chalk, Willis, Khilko, and Ortiz, this study sug...

  2. A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    incidents. Other groups include the IRA, Moslem separatists in the Southern Philippines, right -wing Christian extremists in Lebanon, Polisario guerrillas... emigres , Palestinian groups, and the IRA alone account for nearly 40 percent of the terrorist attacks recorded in this chronology. These groups are...opponent of Dr. Salazar’s government. The liner was on a holiday cruise witn over 600 Portuguese, American, Dutch, Venezuelan and Spanish passengers on

  3. Ku Klux Rising: Toward an Understanding of American Right Wing Terrorist Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    achieved its goals. Once comfortable with its status, the sponsor will simply turn off its Frankenstein- like creation and put it into hibernation until it...group. Organizational design, leadership, recruitment strategies, and communication outlets of the terrorist group thus bear analyzing. The...Reconstruction, the Klan would go into hibernation , only to be reawakened four decades later. E. CONCLUSIONS With regard to the applicability

  4. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  6. About a hypothetical terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    After the terrorism attack on the World Trade Center, a record number ( two thirds) of US citizens favour the use of nuclear energy and consider nuclear plants to be safe. At the same time 59% definitely support building more nuclear plants, less than in March during the Californian crisis, but more than earlier., Most american citizens ( 84%) continue to support licence renewal for nuclear plants and 72 % agree with keeping the option open to build new nuclear plants in the future. The strongest supporters are those who have visited a nuclear plant or information centre. (N.C.)

  7. Epidemiology of pediatric burns and future prevention strategies-a study of 475 patients from a high-volume burn center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhopte, Amol; Tiwari, V K; Patel, Pankaj; Bamal, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric burns have a long-term social impact. This is more apparent in a developing country such as India, where their incidence and morbidity are high. The aim of this study was to provide recent prospective epidemiological data on pediatric burns in India and to suggest future preventive strategies. Children up to 18 years old admitted to the Department of Burns, Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, between January and December 2014 were included in the study. Data regarding age, sex, etiology, total body surface area (TBSA), circumstances of injury, and clinical assessment were collected. The Mann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test or ANOVA was used to compare involved TBSA among various cohort groups accordingly. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of TBSA. There were a total of 475 patients involved in the study, including seven suicidal burns, all of whom were females with a mean age greater than the cohort average. Age, type of burns, mode of injury, presence or absence of inhalation injury, gender, and time of year (quarter) for admission were found to independently affect the TBSA involved. Electrical burns also formed an important number of presenting burn patients, mainly involving teenagers. Several societal issues have come forth, e.g., child marriage, child labor, and likely psychological problems among female children as suggested by a high incidence of suicidal burns. This study also highlights several issues such as overcrowding, lack of awareness, dangerous cooking practices, and improper use of kerosene oil. There is an emergent need to recognize the problems, formulate strategies, spread awareness, and ban or replace hazardous substances responsible for most burn accidents.

  8. Organization in response to massive afflux of war victims in civilian practice - experimental feedback from the November 2015 Paris terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, M; Rousseau, R; Le Saché, F; Pariente, D; Castro, S; Delay, M; Hausfater, P; Raux, M; Menegaux, F

    2017-12-01

    The arrival of a large number of war-weapon casualties at a civilian trauma center requires anticipation. A plan defining the management principles and the respective roles of the involved physicians and nurses and their interaction with each other is essential. Uni-directional patient flow associated with adequate numbers of staff physicians and nurses under the leadership of a medical director is essential to prevent the overwhelming of the trauma center. Routine and regular interaction between the pre-hospital medical flow control system and the medical director, on one hand, and between surgical teams and the medical director, on the other, are necessary to know when to apply "damage control" surgical techniques. Based on the feedback of a level 1 trauma center that received 53 victims of the November 13, 2015 terrorist attack in Paris, we present the factors of success, and the stumbling blocks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. A New Paradigm of Injuries From Terrorist Explosions as a Function of Explosion Setting Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Shenhar, Gili; Renert, Liran; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-06-01

    Examine the impact of setting on the magnitude and pattern of civilian injuries from terrorist explosions. This may help surgical staffs anticipate the resources required to treat victims of terrorist attacks. A retrospective study of 823 patients from 65 explosive events of the Second Intifada (2000-2005) in the National Trauma Registry. After verification all the events were divided into 5 categories: explosions inside buildings (CS), explosions near buildings (SO), explosions inside buses (IB), explosions near buses (AB), and explosions in an open space (OS). The categories were then compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources and clinical outcomes. CS and IB scenarios were found to cause the most severe injuries, demanded the most hospital resources and had the worst outcomes, but had several important differences in injury profiles. AB setting proved to be a stand-alone scenario with the lowest severity, possibly due to protection provided to the passengers by the bus. The high volume of blast injuries in SO scenario supports the idea that the explosion wave could be reflected onto the people standing outside a building next to its wall. OS patients had the lowest proportion of blast trauma and burns. The existing taxonomy of terrorist bombings, which distinguishes explosions in open spaces from those occurring in closed environments, does not fully differentiate patterns of injury that follow blasts in intermediate environments. Expanding the framework from 2 categories to 5 appears to provide greater precision and may be clinically useful to health care providers.

  10. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  11. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  12. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  13. Impact of a general practitioners' strike and of terrorist attacks on a call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Paul-Georges; Orsini, Charlotte; Grave, Mélanie; Linval, Frédéric; Akodad, Hayatte; Goix, Laurent; Adnet, Frédéric; Lapostolle, Frédéric

    2016-11-30

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of the same-day GPs' strike and terrorist attacks on a call centre's activity. We compared the number of calls received, the number of patient's medical files (PMFs) created and the number of mobile ICU (MICU) dispatched per hour on Friday, 13 November, to the repository established on the five previous Fridays. As previously published, the variation criterion was set to an activity variation above 20% for more than 2 h. On Friday, 13 November, 1745 calls were received compared with 1455 calls, on average, for the five previous Fridays. The number of calls received increased after the terrorist attacks (≤90%) and remained above the threshold for 3 h. The number of PMFs exceeded the threshold from 10:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m., but was not affected by the attacks. The number of MICUs dispatched exceeded the threshold (>500%) in the first hour after the attacks. The GPs' strike and the terrorist attacks did not impact our call centre's activity in the same manner. The strike increased the number of PMFs without increasing the number of calls received. The attacks increased the number of calls received and MICU dispatched without increasing the number of PMFs. Many markers are at the disposal of call centres to evaluate the impact of healthcare events.

  14. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  15. Pattern of Fatal Injuries in Counter Terrorist Operations: An Innovative Analysis through Embalming Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, M M; Bhatia, J K; Rana, Kvs

    2009-04-01

    Mortal remains of the soldiers killed in counter-terrorist operations in Kashmir valley are sent to their home after undergoing mandatory embalming. Injuries on the mortal remains of the soldiers killed in counter terrorist operations between Jan 1999 to Dec 2006 were analysed with respect to the agent, mode of injury, age, rank structure, body parts involved, seasonal variations and changing trends. Fatalities consequent to enemy action across line of control and fatalities of Kargil war were also analysed for comparison. Statistical analysis was done using chi square test for difference in proportions. Over the study period, terrorist induced injuries accounted for 8.16 deaths per thousand troops deployed whereas enemy action from across the line of control accounted for 0.63 deaths per thousand. Terrorist induced fatalities peaked in 2001 and thereafter revealed a declining trend ('p' terrorist induced fatalities, 78.2% died of gunshot wounds and 21.5% by splinters and improvised explosive devices (IED). The ratio was reversed in enemy induced fatalities and in Kargil war. Fatalities peaked during June to November and declined in winters. Body region wise, 23.4% of all deaths were due to head injury, 8.4% due to neck and maxillofacial injury, 18.4% due to injury to lungs and 11% due to heart injury. Most frequent target of the fatal bullet was brain (25.4%), closely followed by lungs (22.5%) and heart (12.3%). When soldier died of splinters / IED, multiple body parts were injured in 57.5%, brain in 17.3%, face & neck in 3.5%, heart in 6.6%, lungs in 5.3%, abdomen in 3.5% and limbs in 5.8%. Fatality due to head and heart injury peaked in 2001, while multiple injuries peaked in 2000, declined in 2001 and peaked again in 2004 and 2005 ('p' < 0.001). In fatalities of Kargil war, chest injuries were less but multiple injuries were more. Most of the fatalities were due to gunshot wounds selectively aimed at head, face, neck and thorax. Therefore, a lightweight

  16. Ariadne´s house (Pompeii, Italy wall paintings: A multidisciplinary study of its present state focused on a future restoration and preventive conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, M.C.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a multidisciplinary study on the current state of conservation of Ariadne's house (Pompeii, Italy, a domus of great archaeological value. The aim of this study is to undertake the preventive conservation actions required and increase the knowledge about its conservation and to generate discussions and points of view for a future restoration. Environmental studies, electromagnetic radiation measurements, study of materials and a photographical study were carried out. Those studies revealed that the rooftops covering the analyzed rooms resulting in adverse weather conditions causing grave damage to the conservation of the wall paintings. Thus, between 2009-2010 the rooftops were changed and new environmental studies were conducted. Studies of materials showed that the paintings match in execution and composition with those reported by other authors. The salts from modern mortars from previous restorations were affecting frescoes, also it is described a thin grayish surface layer from environmental contaminants.Este trabajo desarrolla un estudio multidisciplinar sobre el actual estado de conservación de la casa de Ariadna (Pompeya, Italia, domus de gran valor arqueológico. El objetivo es aumentar el conocimiento del estado actual de conservación de la casa para la discusión de una futura restauración. Para ello se realizaron estudios ambientales, mediciones de radiación electromagnética, estudio de materiales y un estudio fotográfico. Los estudios revelaron que los tejados que cubrían las salas analizadas estaban originando unas condiciones climatológicas adversas que se traducían en un grave daño para la conservación de las pinturas murales. Entre 2009-2010 se cambiaron las cubiertas y los estudios ambientales fueron repetidos. Los estudios de materiales demostraron que las pinturas coinciden en ejecución y composición con las señaladas por otros autores. Las sales procedentes de morteros

  17. Pathological personality development after the Chornobyl disaster and the anti terrorist operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K M; Gresko, M V

    2016-12-01

    Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done. The neuropsychiatric clinical and psychometric methods as General Health Questionnaire, GHQ 28; Eysenck Personality Inventory, EPI; method of personality diag nostic by H. Schmischek - K. Leongard, and modified social psychological questionnaire (Joint Study Project 1993) - «dangers questionnaire» were used. Extraversion, hyperthymia and demonstrativity in the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident and evac uees decreased, while emotiveness, pedantry, anxiety, cyclothymia, excitability and dysthymia increased. Extraversion and hyperthymia decreased in the ATO participants while jams, pedantry, cyclothymia, excitability and dysthymia increased. According to the social psychological assessment («dangers questionnaire») there were found that at present the «national conflict» factor takes among the clean up workers the 22th rank place, evacuees - the 18th, while the participants ATO - the 11th, however the risk perception of disease associated with the presence in the environment of radioactive substances in the ATO participants takes the 6th place, the liquidators - the 8th, the evac

  18. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Previous exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack and posttraumatic symptoms among older adults following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Goodwin, Robin; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    The present study tested the maturation and inoculation hypotheses by examining whether age and previous exposure to the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack moderated the relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. An online sample of 1,000 participants from affected states completed self-report questionnaires one month after Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast. Participants reported their degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack and to Hurricane Sandy, and their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following Hurricane Sandy. The positive relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and level of PTSD symptoms was weaker among older adults. An additional significant three-way interaction suggested that both age and previous exposure to the WTC terrorist attack moderated the relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and level of PTSD symptoms. Previous high degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack was related to a weaker effect of current exposure to Hurricane Sandy on PTSD symptoms among older adults. However, among younger adults, previous high degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack was related to a stronger effect of current exposure on PTSD symptoms. When confronted by a natural disaster, American older adults are generally resilient. Supporting the inoculation hypothesis, resilience of older adults may be partly related to the strength successfully extracted from previous exposure to adverse events.

  20. Who deserves basic rights? People condone violations of procedural and physical rights in the treatment of terrorist suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; DeMarco, Tina C

    2018-02-01

    Public discourse regarding the treatment of terrorist suspects typically emphasizes utilitarian "greater-good" justifications related to ensuring public safety. By contrast, we hypothesized that laypeople's judgments of how suspected terrorists ought to be treated are more strongly informed by retributive concerns related to deservingness. Participants (N = 607, M age = 34.25, recruited via Mechanical Turk) read about a terrorist suspect who was (vs. was not) presented as deserving of punishment and described as posing (vs. not posing) a continued threat to public safety. Participants rated the acceptability of procedural and physical rights violations occurring during the arrest and interrogation of the suspect and provided their perceptions of the suspect's dangerousness and deservingness of lawful treatment. We found that participants were more willing to condone rights violations when the suspect was (vs. was not) deserving of punishment. This willingness was not affected by the continued threat manipulation. Moreover, the effect of the punishment deservingness manipulation was mediated by perceptions that suspected terrorists are less deserving of having their rights upheld, but not by perceived dangerousness. Retributive concerns related to deservingness can thus lead people to condone the denial of suspected terrorists' basic rights, which may have consequences for the curtailment of all citizens' civil liberties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. “JABHAT AL-NUSRA” - TERRORIST ORGANIZATION AND PARTICIPANT OF SYRIAN CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Крылов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the history and evolution of the jihadist terrorist organization “Jab-hat al-Nusra” (“The Support Front for the People of the Levant”. It also reveals the ideological principals of the organization, its main goals and objectives and the methods used to achieve them. “Jabhat al-Nusra” was created as a branch of “Al Qaeda” in Syria. Subsequently, the organization changed its name twice. From July 2016 known as the “Jabhat Fateh al-Sham” (“The Liberation Front of the Levant” and from January 2017 - as the “Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham” (“Organization for the Liberation of the Levant”. The replacement of the signboard was determined primarily by the fact that “Al-Nusra” had been designated as a terrorist organization in many countries around the world, including Russia. The main goals of “Jabhat al-Nusra” are follows: first - to overthrow the legitimate government of the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; second - to create a Muslim Sunni state governed by the laws of Sharia on the territory of Syria. The article shows that now the front “Al-Nusra” is the most powerful military and political force among all political organizations and military groups of the Syrian opposition. “Al-Nusra” is actively trying to become a more respectable movement and persistently seeks to get rid of the image of a terrorist organization. The article reflects the official position of the Russian Federation toward “Jabhat al-Nusra”.

  2. Effect of 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Emad; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in suicide in England and Wales has been reported after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA. It may be plausible therefore to expect a much greater impact on suicide in the UK in response to the events of 7 July 2005, caused by the first suicide terrorist attack by Islamic extremists on British soil. To examine the effect of the 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide rates in England and Wales. Analysis of number of suicide (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) and undetermined injury deaths (ICD-10 codes Y10-Y34) reported in England and Wales in the 12 weeks before and after 7 July 2005. We used Shewhart Control Charts based on Poisson rates to explore adjusted daily and weekly suicide rates and rate differences with respect to 7 July 2005. A brief but significant reduction in daily suicide rate was observed a few days after the terrorist attack in London on 7 July 2005. Further reduction was also observed on the 21 July 2005, coinciding with the second wave of attacks. No similar reduction in suicide was seen during the same period in the previous 4 years. Poisson regression models with indicator variables for each day in July 2005 revealed a reduction of 40% of the expected daily rate for these 2 days only. We found no evidence of any longer-term effect on suicide. The study findings are contrary to our expectation and only weakly support Durkheim's theory that periods of national threat lower the suicide rate through the impact on social cohesion. It is possible that previous experience of IRA terrorism in the UK may have limited the effect of the 7 July 2005 attacks on suicide in England and Wales. The shock value of suicide terrorism and its psychological potency appear to diminish over time as the tactic becomes overused.

  3. Stochastic nanopore sensors for the detection of terrorist agents: Current status and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aihua; Zhao Qitao; Guan Xiyun

    2010-01-01

    Nanopore stochastic sensor works by monitoring the ionic current modulations induced by the passage of analytes of interest through a single pore, which can be obtained from a biological ion channel by self-assembly or artificially fabricated in a solid-state membrane. In this minireview, we overview the use of biological nanopores and artificial nanopores for the detection of terrorist agents including explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, nitrogen mustards, organoarsenic compounds, toxins, and viruses. We also discuss the current challenge in the development of deployable nanopore sensors for real-world applications.

  4. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  5. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

  6. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  7. Insider Threat: Preventing Direct Action Attacks Within the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    of Other Actions Available to Commanders .............................55 Table 8. TARP Indicators of Potential International Terrorist-Associated...effectively prevent direct action attacks by insider threats? What actions are available to commanders who identify potential insider threats within... actions are available to commanders who identify potential insider threats within their organizations? As an initial research hypothesis the author

  8. Political terrorism and affective polarization in "black" and "red" terrorists in Italy during the years 1968-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2018-04-01

    Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent. We put forward the hypothesis that formal and transpolitical radical choices, either in favor of an illegal lifestyle or of activities involving a high level of risk, may be linked with certain mental states, especially when considering small clandestine groups showing a high level of internal ideological consensus, and a no-return attitude toward a commitment to radical choices. Available data about the psycho(patho)logical profile of terrorists are still hard to come by. The only available studies are those on identified living terrorists (judging by the trials of those who personally admitted to having been terrorists), and statistical data imply a number of documented cases belonging to the same terrorist organization. In Italy, the period often called the "years of lead [bullets]" displays an interesting viewpoint for the study of terrorist psychology, for two main reasons: first of all, it is a historically defined period (1968-1988), and second, the number of ascertained participants in terrorist activities was quite large.

  9. The game-theoretic national interstate economic model : an integrated framework to quantify the economic impacts of cyber-terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests an integrated framework to quantify cyber attack impacts on the U.S. airport security system. A cyber attack by terrorists on the U.S. involves complex : strategic behavior by the terrorists because they could plan to invade an ai...

  10. 77 FR 58203 - In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist Organization... designate the aforementioned organization and its aliases as a Foreign Terrorist Organization pursuant to...

  11. Preemption Contested: Suspect Spaces and Preventability in the July 7 Inquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2014-01-01

    The London Coroner's Inquest into the deaths of July 7 2005 unequivocally rejected the notion that the security services could and should have been able to identify the 7/7 perpetrators as potential future terrorists before July 2005. These findings contest powerful post-9/11 security logics of

  12. [Analysis on the individual-response behavior and the influence factors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Siheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei

    2015-04-01

    To analyze related behaviors of individual preparedness and influencing factors on violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates. A total of 1 800 undergraduates from 5 colleges or universities in Guangzhou were selected, using the stratified cluster method. A questionnaire involving the response to violent terrorist attack behavior was used to assess the individual preparedness behaviors among undergraduates. A self-made questionnaire was applied to collect information on demographic factors, cognitive and preparedness behaviors. The mean score of individual preparedness behavior among undergraduates was 13.49 ± 5.02 while information on seeking behavior was 4.27 ± 1.64, avoidance behavior was 5.97 ± 2.16 and violent terrorist attack response behaviors was 23.73 ± 7.21, with 30.0 percent of undergraduates behaved properly. Significant differences were found in the scores of behaviors on the response to violent terrorist attack with different gender, major they pursue or religious belief (P undergraduates involved in this study. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that persons being girls (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.06-2.01), with bigger perceived probability (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.12-2.30), with higher alertness (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.15-6.61), with stronger coping confidence (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.24-0.48) and bigger affective response (OR1 = 3.42, 95% CI: 2.40-4.86; OR2 = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.13-0.41), would present more prominent behavior responses when facing the violent terrorist attack. Individual response behaviors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates were relatively ideal. Perceived probability, alertness, coping confidence and affective response appeared to be independent influencing factors related to response behaviors against violent terrorist attack. In colleges and universities, awareness on violent terrorist attacks should be strengthened among undergraduates. Focus should target on psychological education dealing with

  13. Radiological preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.

    2005-01-01

    During the Cold War, every information about weapons of mass destruction was treated as top secret, regardless of whether the information concerned friend or foe. The most serious threat in our post Cold War era are terrorist radiological dispersal devices. Dirty nukes are what you may choose to build if you're unable to create a real nuclear bomb, i.e. one whose explosion is based on a nuclear reaction. A dirty bomb is a conventional explosive salted with radioactive isotopes in order to spew out that nuclear material and contaminate a wide area. The military usefulness of such devices have always been in dispute. In fact, the TNT in such a bomb may still be more dangerous than the nuclear material. Its destructive power would really depend on the size of the conventional bomb, and the volume and nature of nuclear material. This paper addresses the possibilities of decontamination and preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or accident.(author)

  14. Tracking and Analyzing Individual Distress Following Terrorist Attacks Using Social Media Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Margolin, Drew; Wen, Xidao

    2017-08-01

    Risk research has theorized a number of mechanisms that might trigger, prolong, or potentially alleviate individuals' distress following terrorist attacks. These mechanisms are difficult to examine in a single study, however, because the social conditions of terrorist attacks are difficult to simulate in laboratory experiments and appropriate preattack baselines are difficult to establish with surveys. To address this challenge, we propose the use of computational focus groups and a novel analysis framework to analyze a social media stream that archives user history and location. The approach uses time-stamped behavior to quantify an individual's preattack behavior after an attack has occurred, enabling the assessment of time-specific changes in the intensity and duration of an individual's distress, as well as the assessment of individual and social-level covariates. To exemplify the methodology, we collected over 18 million tweets from 15,509 users located in Paris on November 13, 2015, and measured the degree to which they expressed anxiety, anger, and sadness after the attacks. The analysis resulted in findings that would be difficult to observe through other methods, such as that news media exposure had competing, time-dependent effects on anxiety, and that gender dynamics are complicated by baseline behavior. Opportunities for integrating computational focus group analysis with traditional methods are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  16. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Heleniak, Charlotte; Beck, Aaron T; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-08-24

    Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack. A sample of 78 Boston-area adolescents (mean age = 16.72 years, 65% female) who previously participated in studies assessing emotion regulation and psychopathology were recruited following the terrorist attack. Within 4 weeks of the attack, we assessed self-reported PTSD symptoms and attack-related media exposure via an online survey. We examined the association of pretrauma emotion regulation strategies with PTSD symptom onset after adjustment for pretrauma internalizing symptoms and violence exposure. Greater pretrauma engagement in rumination predicted onset of PTSD symptoms following the attack. Adolescents who engaged in catastrophizing also had greater PTSD symptoms postattack, but only when exposed to high levels of media coverage of the attacks; the same pattern was observed for adolescents who engaged in low levels of cognitive reappraisal. Engagement in specific emotion regulation strategies prior to a traumatic event predicts the onset of PTSD symptoms among youths exposed to trauma, extending transdiagnostic models of emotion regulation to encompass trauma-related psychopathology in children and adolescents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Optimizing Visits to the Site of Death for Bereaved Families After Disasters and Terrorist Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pål; Dyregrov, Atle; Weisæth, Lars; Straume, Marianne; Dyregrov, Kari; Heir, Trond; Bugge, Renate Grønvold

    2017-09-13

    In recent years it has been common after disasters and terrorist events to offer bereaved families the opportunity to visit the place where their loved ones died. Many report that such visits are beneficial in processing their loss. Various factors, both cognitive (eg, counteracting disbelief) and existential or emotional (eg, achieving a sense of closeness to the deceased), are associated with the experienced benefit. Nonetheless, exacerbations of trauma and grief reactions (eg, re-enactment fantasies) are common, with some of the bereaved also reporting adverse reactions after the visit. Subsequently, proper preparations are a prerequisite before such visits take place. This article describes how to optimize collective visits to the site of death after disasters or terrorist events for bereaved families. Important questions-for example, concerning those who should be responsible for organizing a visit and those who should be invited, the timing of the visit, what can be done at the site, the need for support personnel, and other practical issues-are discussed and general guidelines are recommended. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  18. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  19. [Terrorist attack trauma - an individual entity of polytrauma : A 10-year update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, C; Franke, A; Hentsch, S; Kollig, E; Schwab, R

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of terrorist attacks is increasing worldwide, and they have also become a permanent threat in European cities. Due to its complexity, terrorist attack trauma places high demands on the strategy of surgical treatment. The combination of various mechanisms, explosions and gunshot injuries, with the characteristic pressure (blast) damage and a high proportion of penetrating trauma with simultaneous burns are characteristic features. Unlike in military conflicts, injuries to people of all ages and without ballistic body protection (body armor) are to be expected. The mechanism of the attack and its local conditions are of relevance for the assessment of the situation and the expected injury patterns. Thus, suicide attacks result in several times higher numbers of fatalities and casualties. Explosions on free ground lead to different types of injury than those in closed or semi-enclosed spaces. The treatment principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS®) are based on the intrahospital care of casualties as well as damage control strategies with trigger factors. In order to prepare and educate clinics and surgeons in Germany for such scenarios, various course formats of the professional societies, the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) and the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU) have now been established.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to trauma reminders after a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Kristin A; Jensen, Tine K; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Dyb, Grete

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to systematically describe the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported after a terrorist attack and (b) to examine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. A total of 285 survivors (M age = 22.2, SD = 4.3, 53% males) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, were interviewed face to face 14-15 months after the terror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced a range of different trauma reminders in the past month and which was most distressing. Current posttraumatic stress reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. In all, 33.3% of the survivors reported having experienced 1 or more trauma reminders often/very often in the past month. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and were reported to be the most distressing, especially sudden and sharp noises. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was significantly associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. The findings suggest that trauma reminders are common among survivors of a terrorist attack almost 1.5 years after the trauma and that PTSD is strongly related to the frequency of exposure to reminders. It is important that clinicians are aware of the significant role trauma reminders may play in maintaining PTSD and help trauma survivors recognize and manage reminders.

  1. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  2. Plastic Surgery Management of Victims of Terrorist Violence in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İğde, Murat; Kaplan, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Terror attacks have been progressively increasing worldwide through the present era. The management of the consequences of terrorism events is under debate in almost every scientific area. The organization and advancement of health services constitute important components of the crisis management. Similar to other specialty areas in medicine, the medical management of terrorist attacks is becoming important in terms of plastic and reconstructive surgery.Ankara, the capital of Turkey, has been subject to 2 terrorist events in public places within a year. The total number of patients involved in both cases was 434. Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital is a tertiary health care institution and one of the most important trauma centers in the region. A total of 178 Patients exposed to these events referred to our hospital. Of the total, 34 patients were completely or partially treated in the plastic and reconstructive surgery clinic. In this study, we tried to discuss the difficulties encountered in the classification of patients and plastic surgery during the treatment period of patients who experienced these attacks.Data were obtained from The National News Agency, hospital, and our own clinic registries. Patient classification was based on the injured parts of the body. Statistical analysis was performed for all data. In conclusion, the role and the importance of plastic surgery department especially in trauma management have been emphasized in the light of our findings.

  3. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.

  4. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Heleniak, Charlotte; Beck, Aaron T.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack. Methods A sample of 78 Boston-area adolescents (mean age =16.72 years, 65% female) who previously participated in studies assessing emotion regulation and psychopathology were recruited following the terrorist attack. Within 4 weeks of the attack, we assessed self-reported PTSD symptoms and attack-related media exposure via an online survey. We examined the association of pretrauma emotion regulation strategies with PTSD symptom onset after adjustment for pretrauma internalizing symptoms and violence exposure. Results Greater pretrauma engagement in rumination predicted onset of PTSD symptoms following the attack. Adolescents who engaged in catastrophizing also had greater PTSD symptoms postattack, but only when exposed to high levels of media coverage of the attacks; the same pattern was observed for adolescents who engaged in low levels of cognitive reappraisal. Conclusions Engagement in specific emotion regulation strategies prior to a traumatic event predicts the onset of PTSD symptoms among youths exposed to trauma, extending transdiagnostic models of emotion regulation to encompass trauma-related psychopathology in children and adolescents. PMID:27557454

  5. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Male fetal loss in the U.S. following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Catalano, Ralph; Ahern, Jennifer

    2010-05-25

    The secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male birth) reportedly declines following natural disasters, pollution events, and economic collapse. It remains unclear whether this decline results from an excess of male fetal loss or reduced male conceptions. The literature also does not converge as to whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 induced "communal bereavement", or the widespread feeling of distress among persons who never met those directly involved in the attacks. We test the communal bereavement hypothesis among gravid women by examining whether male fetal deaths rose above expected levels in the US following September 11, 2001. We apply interrupted time-series methods to all fetal deaths at or greater than the 20th week of gestation in the US from 1996 to 2002. Time-series methods control for trends, seasonality, and other forms of autocorrelation that could induce spurious associations. Results support the hypothesis in that the fetal death sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male fetal death) increased above its expected value in September 2001. Additional analysis of the secondary sex ratio indirectly supports that the terrorist attacks may have threatened the gestation of male more than female fetuses. Societal responses to events such as September 11, 2001 do not appear confined only to persons who have ever met the deceased. The fetal death sex ratio in the US population may serve as a sentinel indicator of the degree to which pregnant women react to population stressors.

  7. Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2013-05-15

    Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Adherence to Public Service Announcements on Ebola in Nigeria: Suggestions for Improving Future Ebola Prevention Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilore, Kolade; Atakiti, Ifeoluwa; Onyenankeya, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Apprehension over a possible recurrence of Ebola remains pervasive among college students in Nigeria. Prevention education continues to be carried out through public service announcements (PSAs) on radio, television and in the social media. However, little is known about college students' knowledge, attitudes and adherence to PSAs on…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (10th) - Outthinking the Terrorist: An International Challenge Held at Springfield, Virginia on 23-24 April 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-24

    and the surrendered to terrorists, and its resolve to stand up to favourite form of attack is the bomb. Terrorist them now extends beyond the United...data are corrupt , inadequate, oppressing. The terrorist is at war available and, since the problem is not solved and its with it and has lost. The

  10. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Meertens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and

  11. Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists (by Jeffrey Kahn, University of Michigan Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ginsburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, migration-related security measures, including a growing reliance on watch-lists, have limited the right to travel. Jeffrey Kahn’s book, Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists, examines the legal and policy questions raised by prohibitions on travel by US citizens. 

  12. What Are We Really Afraid Of? The Practitioner View of the Terrorist Threat in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    mental disorders listed in the DSM-III that are most frequently associated with terrorists: sociopathy or psychopathy, narcissism, Freudian “thanatos...death wish), and organic or physiological disorders (Corrado 1982:295). Sociopathy and psychopathy are used interchangeably, although sociopathy

  13. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  14. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-07-25

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  15. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  16. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  17. Radicalization patterns and modes of attack planning and preparation among lone-actor terrorists : an exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindekilde, L.; O'Connor, F.; Schuurman, B.W.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the link between radicalization patterns and modes of attack planning and preparation among lone-actor terrorists. Building on theorized patterns of lone-actor radicalization, we discuss and compare their modes of pre-attack behavior, including target and weapon choice,

  18. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: A Review of the Literature among Highly Exposed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; Digrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2011-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly…

  20. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  1. The Effect of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks on Suicide and Deliberate Self-Harm: A Time Trend Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Aart W.; Neeleman, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following the attacks. These findings contrast with…

  2. The Reporting of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks in American Social Studies Textbooks: A Muslim Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohammed M.; Thomas, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the reporting of the September 11th terrorist attacks in social studies textbooks from a Muslim perspective and reports on findings from a study of the responses of American Muslim children to the treatment of the events of September 11th in social studies textbooks. Constructivist grounded theory was used to centralize the…

  3. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  4. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  5. The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV-risk behaviours in Durban, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial, and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gibbs

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions. Methods Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention is a participatory gender transformative and livelihoods strengthening intervention. It is being evaluated through a cluster randomized control trial amongst young women and men (18–30 living in urban informal settlements in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. The evaluation includes a qualitative process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis. A comparison of baseline characteristics of participants is also included. Discussion This is one of the first large trials to prevent IPV and HIV-vulnerability amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements. Given the mixed methods evaluation, the results of this trial have the ability to develop a stronger understanding of what works to prevent violence against women and the processes of change in interventions. Trial registration NCT03022370 . Registered 13 January 2017, retrospectively registered.

  6. The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV-risk behaviours in Durban, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha; Ntini, Nolwazi; Khumalo, Thobani; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Strauss, Michael; Ferrari, Giulia; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-04-20

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions. Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention is a participatory gender transformative and livelihoods strengthening intervention. It is being evaluated through a cluster randomized control trial amongst young women and men (18-30) living in urban informal settlements in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. The evaluation includes a qualitative process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis. A comparison of baseline characteristics of participants is also included. This is one of the first large trials to prevent IPV and HIV-vulnerability amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements. Given the mixed methods evaluation, the results of this trial have the ability to develop a stronger understanding of what works to prevent violence against women and the processes of change in interventions. NCT03022370 . Registered 13 January 2017, retrospectively registered.

  7. Pyro-Terrorism -- The Threat of Arson Induced Forest Fires as a Future Terrorist Weapon of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    endorsed direct action targets as, “forest destruction, new developments, SUVs, gmo (sic)[genetically modified] crops and research, police and military...of ammunition, rice, and petroleum products …100-200 Vietcong were killed or incapacitated while either fighting the fire or by rocket ships and air

  8. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  9. Suicide Bombers in Israel: Their Motivations, Characteristics, and Prior Activity in Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Sela-Shayovitz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics of suicide bombers as reflected in the Israeli press during the Second Intifada in Israel. The analysis aims to determine whether there were significant differences in the characteristics of suicide bombers with religious motives versus those with nationalist motives. The findings reveal that gender, education level, and organizational affiliation correlated significantly with motives for carrying out suicide attacks. Most of the suicide bombers with religious motives were men with elementary education. In addition, the results show that most of the suicide bombers who were affiliated with the Hamas organization acted out of religious motives. No significant differences were found between suicide bombers with religious and those with nationalist motives with regard to age, marital status, and prior activity in terrorist organizations.

  10. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  11. The (Non)Impact of the 2015 Paris Terrorist Attacks on Political Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho Silva, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found widespread attitudinal impacts of terrorist attacks. Using data from the European Social Survey, which was conducting interviews in 11 countries when the Charlie Hebdo attacks happened in January 2015, I compare respondents from before and after the shootings to test whether the event shifted public opinion on several topics. There is no evidence of average impacts across a range of issues, from xenophobia to ideological self-placement and immigration policy preferences. Data collected when the Paris November 2015 shootings happened also present no evidence of public opinion change on immigration and refugee policy matters in France, but there appears to be an effect in other countries-which varies according to contextual vulnerability. Results suggest that views on immigration and immigrants have, to a certain extent, stabilized in Europe and are less susceptible to shifts from dramatic events.

  12. Non-terrorist suicidal death by oral explosion: A rare case from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Jamebaseer Masiuddin; Farooqui, Anjum Ara Jamebaseer; Mukherjee, Bimbisar Bikas; Manjhi, Shiv Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives are rare. Their occurrence depends on both the availability of materials and the victim's expertise in handling explosive material. We report here a rare case from India of non-terrorist suicidal death involving explosives. The victim was around 25 years old, a blaster by occupation. He committed suicide by detonating dynamite in his mouth. The materials he used to operate this explosion were found near his body at the crime scene. There was characteristic bilateral symmetrical laceration around the oral cavity. Considering all the facts of the case in relation to history, location, nature, distribution and extent of injuries and recovered material at crime scene enables the cause and manner of death to be ascertained. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. PTSD and Depression Among Museum Workers After the March 18 Bardo Museum Terrorist Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Chennoufi, Leila; Cheour, Mejda

    2017-10-01

    On March 18, 2015, two gunmen attacked the Bardo museum in Tunis, Tunisia, killing 23 foreign tourists. We assessed PTSD and depression symptoms 4-6 weeks after the event among museum workers, in relation to sociodemographic factors and social support, and we analysed the determinants and predictor factors of PTSD and depression symptoms among the participants. Our findings indicated that 68.6% of the respondents had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cutoff point (IER-S scores >33), and 40.6% reported severe levels of depressive symptoms (DASS-depression scores >20). Male and female participants did not significantly differ in terms of their symptom severities. Low social support was the best predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that interventions designed to reinforce ties within social networks may be particularly helpful for victims in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.

  14. Chronic thought suppression and posttraumatic symptoms: data from the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Hervás, Gonzalo; Pérez-Sales, Pau

    2008-12-01

    Although a considerable number of people either witnessed directly or in the mass media the traumatic scenes of the terrorist attack that took place on March 11th, 2004 in Madrid, only a fraction of Madrid citizens developed posttraumatic symptoms. In this study, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, degree of exposure, coping strategies related to the attack, and chronic attempts to avoid intrusive thoughts (i.e., thought suppression) were assessed in a general population Madrid sample (N=503) 2-3 weeks after the attacks. Our results showed that participants with higher scores in chronic thought suppression exhibited higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Higher scores in chronic thought suppression also correlated positively with the use of avoidant coping strategies after the attacks. We discuss the possible common roots of avoidance of intrusive thoughts and avoidant coping strategies and the implications of this relationship for the emergence of stress-related symptoms as well as for public health policies.

  15. The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeshin

    2016-01-01

    Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.

  16. Strategies to prevent loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Fokkema, T.; Sha'ked, A.; Rokach, A.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention is better than cure’. This also applies to loneliness experiences: preventing people from loneliness is better than helping them to reduce their feelings of loneliness through interventions. In this chapter, we argue the necessity of loneliness prevention strategies for handling future

  17. Detection of pandemic strain of influenza virus (A/H1N1/pdm09) in pigs, West Africa: implications and considerations for prevention of future influenza pandemics at the source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Oluwagbenga A; Olugasa, Babasola O; Emikpe, Benjamin O

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal influenza are inextricably linked. In particular, the pig is uniquely important as a mixing vessel for genetic reassortment of influenza viruses, leading to emergence of novel strains which may cause human pandemics. Significant reduction in transmission of influenza viruses from humans, and other animals, to swine may therefore be crucial for preventing future influenza pandemics. This study investigated the presence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus, A(H1N1)pdm09, in Nigerian and Ghanaian pigs, and also determined levels of acceptance of preventive measures which could significantly reduce the transmission of this virus from humans to pigs. Nasal swab specimens from 125 pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria, and Kumasi, Ghana, were tested for the presence of influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) by quantitative antigen-detection ELISA. A semi-structured questionnaire was also administered to pig handlers in the two study areas and responses were analyzed to evaluate their compliance with seven measures for preventing human-to-swine transmission of influenza viruses. The virus was detected among pigs in the two cities, with prevalence of 8% in Ibadan and 10% in Kumasi. Levels of compliance of pig handlers with relevant preventive measures were also found to be mostly below 25 and 40% in Ibadan and Kumasi, respectively. Detection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among pigs tested suggests the possibility of human-to-swine transmission, which may proceed even more rapidly, considering the very poor acceptance of basic preventive measures observed in this study. This is also the first report on detection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Ghanaian pigs. We recommend improvement on personal hygiene among pig handlers, enforcement of sick leave particularly during the first few days of influenza-like illnesses, and training of pig handlers on recognition of influenza-like signs in humans and pigs. These could be crucial for prevention of future influenza pandemics.

  18. Assessing the EU's Added Value in the Area of Terrorism Prevention and Violent Radicalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bossong, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions the effectiveness and the prospects of EU efforts to prevent terrorism and violent radicalisation. After the terrorist of attacks of Madrid and London,, member states agreed on a comprehensive strategy to prevent radicalisation and recruitment into terrorism, but simultaneously underlined the limits of EU competences. The European Commission therefore focused on indirect measures, such as research support. Over time, however, both flexible cooperation among a subset of me...

  19. Amygdala response to negative stimuli predicts PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Busso, Daniel S; Duys, Andrea; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alves, Sonia; Way, Marcus; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuing manhunt and shelter in place order. We examined associations of neural function measured prior to the attack with PTSD symptom onset related to these events. A sample of 15 adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years) who previously participated in a neuroimaging study completed a survey assessing posttraumatic symptoms related to the terrorist attack. We examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to viewing and actively down-regulating emotional responses to negative stimuli in regions previously associated with PTSD, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and mPFC, as prospective predictors of posttraumatic symptom onset. Increased BOLD signal to negative emotional stimuli in the left amygdala was strongly associated with posttraumatic symptoms following the attack. Reduced bilateral hippocampal activation during effortful attempts to down-regulate emotional responses to negative stimuli was also associated with greater posttraumatic symptoms. Associations of amygdala reactivity with posttraumatic symptoms were robust to controls for pre-existing depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms and prior exposure to violence. Amygdala reactivity to negative emotional information might represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to traumatic stress and, potentially, a risk factor for PTSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Who can I trust? Extended fear during and after the Utøya terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkuková, Petra; Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie; Jensen, Tine K

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate specific peritraumatic reactions among adolescent and young adult survivors of the 2011 terrorist attack on Utøya Island, Norway. The authors focused specifically on a phenomenon that has so far not been thoroughly investigated: fear of nondangerous stimuli ("extended fear") during and immediately after the traumatic event. In total, 325 survivors of the shooting on Utøya Island were interviewed 4-5 months after the attack and provided a free narrative of the event. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index; depression and anxiety were assessed using HSCL-8. For the purpose of the current study, the authors chose participants who were under the age of 26 at the time of the terrorist attack (M = 18.4 years), which constituted the vast majority of the total sample (93%). The authors found that 54% of the sample felt threatened during and immediately after the attack, not only by the perpetrator himself, but by other people as well; in most cases by people who came to help them (medical personnel, policemen, volunteers). The participants who mentioned experiencing extended fear in their trauma narratives had significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression 5 months after the attack than participants who did not peritraumatically experience extended fear. Early detection of extended fear can help in identifying individuals who will later develop symptomatology. In addition, knowledge of the phenomenon could help policemen and medical personnel understand survivors' seemingly irrational reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Local emergency medical response after a terrorist attack in Norway: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandrud, Aleidis S; Bretthauer, Michael; Brattebø, Guttorm; Pedersen, May Jb; Håpnes, Kent; Møller, Karin; Bjorge, Trond; Nyen, Bjørnar; Strauman, Lars; Schreiner, Ada; Haldorsen, Gro S; Bergli, Maria; Nelson, Eugene; Morgan, Tamara S; Hjortdahl, Per

    2017-10-01

    On 22 July 2011, Norway suffered a devastating terrorist attack targeting a political youth camp on a remote island. Within a few hours, 35 injured terrorist victims were admitted to the local Ringerike community hospital. All victims survived. The local emergency medical service (EMS), despite limited resources, was evaluated by three external bodies as successful in handling this crisis. This study investigates the determinants for the success of that EMS as a model for quality improvement in healthcare. We performed focus group interviews using the critical incident technique with 30 healthcare professionals involved in the care of the attack victims to establish determinants of the EMS' success. Two independent teams of professional experts classified and validated the identified determinants. Our findings suggest a combination of four elements essential for the success of the EMS: (1) major emergency preparedness and competence based on continuous planning, training and learning; (2) crisis management based on knowledge, trust and data collection; (3) empowerment through multiprofessional networks; and (4) the ability to improvise based on acquired structure and competence. The informants reported the successful response was specifically based on multiprofessional trauma education, team training, and prehospital and in-hospital networking including mental healthcare. The powerful combination of preparedness, competence and crisis management built on empowerment enabled the healthcare workers to trust themselves and each other to make professional decisions and creative improvisations in an unpredictable situation. The determinants for success derived from this qualitative study (preparedness, management, networking, ability to improvise) may be universally applicable to understanding the conditions for resilient and safe healthcare services, and of general interest for quality improvement in healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  2. Management of Vascular Trauma during the Paris Terrorist Attack of November 13, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresson, Philippe; Touma, Joseph; Gaudric, Julien; Pellenc, Quentin; Le Roux, Marielle; Pierret, Charles; Kobeiter, Hicham; Julia, Pierre; Goeau-Brissonniere, Olivier; Desgranges, Pascal; Koskas, Fabien; Castier, Yves

    2017-04-01

    On November 13, 2015, Paris and Saint-Denis were the targets of terrorist attacks. The Public Hospitals of Paris Organization and the Percy Armed Forces Instruction Hospitals were mobilized to face the mass casualty situation. The objective of this study is to analyze the management of the victims presenting with a nonthoracic vascular trauma (NTVT). All the data relating to the victims of NTVT who required a specific vascular open or endovascular treatment were analyzed retrospectively. A 6-month follow-up was obtained for all the patients. Among the 351 wounded, 20 (5.7%) patients had an NTVT and were dispatched in 8 hospitals (11 men of average age 32). NTVTs were gunshots in 17 cases (85%) or due to a handmade bomb in 3 cases (15%). Twelve patients (60%) received cardiopulmonary resuscitation during prehospital care. NTVT affected the limbs (14 cases, 70%) and the abdomen or the small pelvis (6 cases, 30%). All the patients were operated in emergency. Arterial lesions were treated with greater saphenous vein bypasses, by ligation, and/or embolization. Eleven venous lesions were treated by direct repair or ligation. Associated lesions requiring a specific treatment were present in 19 patients (95%) and were primarily osseous, nervous, and abdomino-pelvic. Severe postoperative complications were observed in 9 patients (45%). Fourteen patients (70%) required blood transfusion (6.4 U of packed red blood cells on average, range 0-48). There were no deaths or amputation and all vascular reconstructions were patent at 6 months. The effectiveness of the prehospital emergency services and a multisite and multidisciplinary management made it possible to obtain satisfactory results for NTVT casualties. All the departments of vascular surgery must be prepared to receive many wounded victims in the event of terrorist attacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amygdala Response to Negative Stimuli Predicts PTSD Symptom Onset following a Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Busso, Daniel S.; Duys, Andrea; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alves, Sonia; Way, Marcus; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuing manhunt and shelter in place order. We examined associations of neural function measured prior to the attack with PTSD symptom onset related to these events. METHODS A sample of 15 adolescents (mean age=16.5 years) who previously participated in a neuroimaging study completed a survey assessing posttraumatic symptoms related to the terrorist attack. We examined blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response to viewing and actively down-regulating emotional responses to negative stimuli in regions previously associated with PTSD, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and mPFC, as prospective predictors of posttraumatic symptom onset. RESULTS Increased BOLD signal to negative emotional stimuli in the left amygdala was strongly associated with posttraumatic symptoms following the attack. Reduced bilateral hippocampal activation during effortful attempts to down-regulate emotional responses to negative stimuli was also associated with greater posttraumatic symptoms. Associations of amygdala reactivity with posttraumatic symptoms were robust to controls for pre-existing depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms and prior exposure to violence. CONCLUSIONS Amygdala reactivity to negative emotional information might represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to traumatic stress and, potentially, a risk factor for PTSD. PMID:24995938

  4. Future challenges for occupational health services can be prevented by proactive collaboration with the companies using the services: a participatory and reflection project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydell M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marie Lydell,1 Cathrine Hildingh,1 Arne Söderbom,2 Kristina Ziegert1 1Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI, School of Social and Health Sciences, 2Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL, School of Economics, Technology and Science, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden Background: There is clearly a need for research in the field of occupational health service (OHS for applying new perspectives. Proactive collaboration is needed between the OHSs and the companies. The customers of the companies using the services should be able to safeguard themselves from the health problems caused by the work environment through proactive collaboration with the OHSs. Objective: The main purpose of this interdisciplinary study was to explore how the stakeholders reflected to create and agree on core values for future challenges in OHS, as seen from the perspectives of OHS professionals and customer companies. Methodology: An action research process was conducted. This study was divided into three phases. In phase I, the data were collected from interviews and diaries of interdisciplinary occupational health professionals (n=12. A focus group that sampled the eight managers of the customer companies was also included. In phase II, a questionnaire was developed with 24 questions focusing on examining the future challenges for OHS. The questionnaire was sent to customer companies (n=116. In phase III, a scoping review was undertaken. Results: Three categories emerged from the analysis: “Balancing complex situations” clarified the complexity regarding senior employees; “Working with a proactive approach” indicated the need for working with a new proactive approach supporting sustainable health; and “Collaborate internally and externally” showed good relationships between the customer and the OHS, which is a mutual responsibility to both the partners. Conclusion: The results outlined that it is necessary to

  5. Future challenges for occupational health services can be prevented by proactive collaboration with the companies using the services: a participatory and reflection project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydell, Marie; Hildingh, Cathrine; Söderbom, Arne; Ziegert, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    There is clearly a need for research in the field of occupational health service (OHS) for applying new perspectives. Proactive collaboration is needed between the OHSs and the companies. The customers of the companies using the services should be able to safeguard themselves from the health problems caused by the work environment through proactive collaboration with the OHSs. The main purpose of this interdisciplinary study was to explore how the stakeholders reflected to create and agree on core values for future challenges in OHS, as seen from the perspectives of OHS professionals and customer companies. An action research process was conducted. This study was divided into three phases. In phase I, the data were collected from interviews and diaries of interdisciplinary occupational health professionals (n=12). A focus group that sampled the eight managers of the customer companies was also included. In phase II, a questionnaire was developed with 24 questions focusing on examining the future challenges for OHS. The questionnaire was sent to customer companies (n=116). In phase III, a scoping review was undertaken. Three categories emerged from the analysis: "Balancing complex situations" clarified the complexity regarding senior employees; "Working with a proactive approach" indicated the need for working with a new proactive approach supporting sustainable health; and "Collaborate internally and externally" showed good relationships between the customer and the OHS, which is a mutual responsibility to both the partners. The results outlined that it is necessary to take action to apply new proactive health promotions, with a focus on workplace health promotion. The results also indicated that interventions for senior employees are of importance. This study was done in collaboration with the stakeholders from the occupational health care service center and the managers from the customer companies. The use of a participatory research design, including close

  6. Nutrient loads in the river mouth of the Río Verde basin in Jalisco, Mexico: how to prevent eutrophication in the future reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayme-Torres, Gonzalo; Hansen, Anne M

    2017-10-04

    Since nutrients are emitted and mobilized in river basins, causing eutrophication of water bodies, it is important to reduce such emissions and subsequent nutrient loads. Due to processes of attenuation, nutrient loads are reduced during their mobilization in river basins. At the mouth of the Río Verde basin in western Mexico, the El Purgatorio dam is being constructed to supply water to the metropolitan area of the second most populated city in the country, Guadalajara. To analyze situations that allow protecting this future dam from eutrophication, nutrient loads in the mouth of the river basin were determined and their reduction scenarios evaluated by using the NEWS2 (Nutrient Export from Watersheds) model. For this, a nutrient emissions inventory was established and used to model nutrient loads, and modeling results were compared to an analysis of water quality data from two different monitoring sites located on the river. The results suggest that 96% of nitrogen and 99% of phosphorus emissions are attenuated in the watershed. Nutrient loads reaching the mouth of the river basin come mainly from wastewater discharges, followed by livestock activities and different land uses, and loads are higher as emissions are located closer to the mouth of the river basin. To achieve and maintain mesotrophic state of water in the future dam, different nutrient emission reduction scenarios were evaluated. According to these results, the reduction of 90% of the phosphorus loads in wastewater emissions or 75% of the phosphorus loads in wastewater emissions and at least 50% in emissions from livestock activities in the river basin are required.

  7. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furthermore, almost all lone operators do display a degree of commitment to, and identification with, extremist movements – providing leads for preventing new rounds of radicalization within this potential group of sympathizers or followers. With the apparent increase of Islamist lone wolf terrorism and fears for right-wing extremists wanting to follow the example of the Norwegian mass murderer A.B. Breivik, new questions need to be posed, addressing the role of virtual communities with which lone operators identify themselves. 

  8. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

  9. Factors affecting adherence to short-course ARV prophylaxis for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a review and lessons for future elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Manuela; Stöckl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy; Agamasu, Enyonam; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2014-01-01

    Despite the biomedical potential to eliminate vertical HIV transmission, drug adherence to short regimens is often sub-optimal. To inform future programmes, we reviewed evidence on the factors influencing maternal and infant drug adherence to preventing MTCT drug regimens at delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature review yielding 14 studies on adherence to drug regimes among HIV-positive pregnant women and mothers in sub-Saharan Africa was conducted. Rates of maternal adherence to preventive drug regimens at time of delivery varied widely across sites between 35 and 93.5%. Factors most commonly associated with low adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) prophylaxis for preventing MTCT at the health system level include giving birth at home, quality and timing of HIV testing and counselling, and late distribution of nevirapine (NVP). Socio-demographic and demand-side factors include fear of stigma, lack of male involvement, fear of partner's reaction to disclosure, few antenatal (ANC) visits, young age and lack of education. With the implementation of the newly published WHO guidelines recommending triple-drug ARV regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding for all women with HIV, it is important that women are able to adhere to recommended drug regimens. Service improvements should include clear and timely communication with women about the benefits of combined regimens and greater emphasis on patient confidentiality. Efforts must be made to help women overcome barriers that reduce adherence, such as financial logistical challenges, social stigma and women's fear of violence.

  10. [The role of the public health personnel in the Prevention Department (in the Hygiene Services and Public Health Care and Hygiene of Food and Nutrition): proposal for the future of public health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusaferro, Silvio; Marcolongo, Adriano; Schiava, Flavio; Bggio, Luca; Betta, Alberto; Buzzo, Armando; Cinquetti, Sandro; Coin, Paulo; Dal Fior, Tina; De Battisti, Fabio; De Marchi, Chiara; De Noni, Lucia; Donatoni, Luigi; Ferraresso, Anna; Gallo, Giovanni; Gallo, Lorenza; Gallo, Tolinda; Gottardello, Lorena; Menegon, Tiziana; Minuzzo, Michele; Paussi, Gianna; Pinna, Clara; Poli, Albino; Rossato, Luigi; Sbrogliò, Luca; Simeoni, Josef; Speccini, Manuela; Stoppato, Ugo; Superbi, Piero; Tardivo, Stefano; Urdich, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Massimo; Zamparo, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    A global and local discussion on Public Health relevance is taking place, including the future role and organization of its services. Noteworthy becomes the role played by Public Health Specialists. This work presents the results of a workshop, carried out following the Guilbert methodology, whose aim was to define Public Health Doctors functions and their related activities. The programme involved 30 professionals from Triveneto area (North Eastern Italy), working in Prevention Departments at National Health Service and Universities. The key-functions identified were: 1) Health status assessment and identification of community risk factors, 2) Health Promotion, 3) Prevention, 4) Protection, 5) Planning, 6) Communication, 7) Professional Training, 8) Alliances and resources for complex Public Health programs, 9) Crisis management in Public Health, 10) Research. For each function activities were identified, meaning concerning areas and contents that must be warranted by professionals. This experience allowed to share existing attitudes and experiences present in Triveneto area, and it can stand as a feasible instrument for different settings. Nevertheless, it appears mandatory explaining at each level in the society role and functions of Prevention Departments.

  11. Prevention of periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, Andrew R; Kassab, Moawia M; Renner, Erica J

    2005-07-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal disease prevention is to maintain the dentition over a lifetime in a state of health, comfort, and function in an aesthetically pleasing presentation. This article focuses on primary and secondary periodontal disease prevention as they relate to gingivitis and periodontitis. Risk assessment, mechanical plaque control, chemical plaque control, current clinical recommendations for optimal prevention, and future preventive strategies are discussed.

  12. Current and Future Challenges in Point-of-Care Technologies: A Paradigm-Shift in Affordable Global Healthcare With Personalized and Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P; Heetderks, William J; Pavel, Misha; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Akay, Metin; Mairal, Anurag; Wheeler, Bruce; Dacso, Clifford C; Sunder, T; Lovell, Nigel; Gerber, Martin; Shah, Milind; Senthilvel, S G; Wang, May D; Bhargava, Balram

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the panel discussion at the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Point-of-Care Healthcare Technology Conference (POCHT 2013) held in Bangalore India from Jan 16-18, 2013. Modern medicine has witnessed interdisciplinary technology innovations in healthcare with a continuous growth in life expectancy across the globe. However, there is also a growing global concern on the affordability of rapidly rising healthcare costs. To provide quality healthcare at reasonable costs, there has to be a convergence of preventive, personalized, and precision medicine with the help of technology innovations across the entire spectrum of point-of-care (POC) to critical care at hospitals. The first IEEE EMBS Special Topic POCHT conference held in Bangalore, India provided an international forum with clinicians, healthcare providers, industry experts, innovators, researchers, and students to define clinical needs and technology solutions toward commercialization and translation to clinical applications across different environments and infrastructures. This paper presents a summary of discussions that took place during the keynote presentations, panel discussions, and breakout sessions on needs, challenges, and technology innovations in POC technologies toward improving global healthcare. Also presented is an overview of challenges and trends in developing and developed economies with respect to priority clinical needs, technology innovations in medical devices, translational engineering, information and communication technologies, infrastructure support, and patient and clinician acceptance of POC healthcare technologies.

  13. Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Kyratsis, Yiannis; Iwami, Michiyo; Rawson, Timothy M; Holmes, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC) has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as 'serious games' have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a) to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers' behaviour change and best practice learning; and b) to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC. A scoping study was conducted using the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley. We interrogated electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar) in December 2015. Evidence from these studies was assessed against an analytic framework of intervention formulation and evaluation. Nine hundred sixty five unique papers were initially identified, 23 included for full-text review, and four finally selected. Studies focused on intervention inception and development rather than implementation. Expert involvement in game design was reported in 2/4 studies. Potential game users were not included in needs assessment and game development. Outcome variables such as fidelity or sustainability were scarcely reported. The growing interest in serious games for health has not been coupled with adequate evaluation of processes, outcomes and contexts involved. Explanations about the mechanisms by which game components may facilitate behaviour change are lacking, further hindering adoption.

  14. Preventive and Therapeutic Role of Dietary Inositol Supplementation in Periconceptional Period and During Pregnancy: A Summary of Evidences and Future Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noventa, Marco; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Quaranta, Michela; Borgato, Shara; Abdulrahim, Baydaa; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    Although inositol dietary deficiency in the general population has not been demonstrated at the serum level, several findings are emerging regarding the impact of inositol supplementation in periconceptional period and in early phases of pregnancy. We are aimed to summarize all experimental (murine in vivo and in vitro murine embryo studies) and clinical (human) evidences regarding the role of inositol in the prevention and treatment of folate-resistant embryo neural tube defects (FR-NTDs) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We also collected all information regarding the effect that inositol supplementation may have in the metabolic reassessment of early and late pregnancy in order to draw evidence-based conclusions and suggest further studies defining the potential therapeutic role of this molecule in human reproduction. The systematic review of literature clearly showed that inositol supplementation in preconceptional period and in early phase of pregnancy reduces the risk of developing GDM in patients at increased risk. Furthermore, continued intake during pregnancy improves the metabolic status of affected patients, but further studies are needed to confirm this end point. All women at risk of FR-NTDs assuming inositol from the periconceptional period until late pregnancy are reported to have healthy newborns without any significant complications linked to inositol supplementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as ‘serious games’ have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers’ behaviour change and best practice learning; and b to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC. Methods A scoping study was conducted using the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. We interrogated electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar in December 2015. Evidence from these studies was assessed against an analytic framework of intervention formulation and evaluation. Results Nine hundred sixty five unique papers were initially identified, 23 included for full-text review, and four finally selected. Studies focused on intervention inception and development rather than implementation. Expert involvement in game design was reported in 2/4 studies. Potential game users were not included in needs assessment and game development. Outcome variables such as fidelity or sustainability were scarcely reported. Conclusions The growing interest in serious games for health has not been coupled with adequate evaluation of processes, outcomes and contexts involved. Explanations about the mechanisms by which game components may facilitate behaviour change are lacking, further hindering adoption.

  16. Neural substrates underlying reconcentration for the preparation of an appropriate cognitive state to prevent future mistakes: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Nozawa, Takayuki; Takahashi, Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Yukako; Sakaki, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    The ability to reconcentrate on the present situation by recognizing one’s own recent errors is a cognitive mechanism that is crucial for safe and appropriate behavior in a particular situation. However, an individual may not be able to adequately perform a subsequent task even if he/she recognize his/her own error; thus, it is hypothesized that the neural mechanisms underlying the reconcentration process are different from the neural substrates supporting error recognition. The present study performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis to explore the neural substrates associated with reconcentration related to achieving an appropriate cognitive state, and to dissociate these brain regions from the neural substrates involved in recognizing one’s own mistake. This study included 44 healthy volunteers who completed an experimental procedure that was based on the Eriksen flanker task and included feedback regarding the results of the current trial. The hemodynamic response induced by each instance of feedback was modeled using a combination of the successes and failures of the current and subsequent trials in order to identify the neural substrates underlying the ability to reconcentrate for the next situation and to dissociate them from those involved in recognizing current errors. The fMRI findings revealed significant and specific activation in the dorsal aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex (MFC) when participants successfully reconcentrated on the task after recognizing their own error based on feedback. Additionally, this specific activation was clearly dissociated from the activation foci that occurred during error recognition. These findings indicate that the dorsal aspect of the MFC may be a distinct functional region that specifically supports the reconcentration process and that is associated with the prevention of successive errors when a human subject recognizes his/her own mistake. Furthermore, it is likely that this

  17. Posse Comitatus and the Use of the Military in Denying Terrorist Access to the United States Along the Border with Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Greg A

    2005-01-01

    .... The largely unsecured border we share with Mexico is an enticing avenue for illegal immigrants and drug smugglers but also, and more importantly, for potential terrorists hostile to the United States...

  18. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E

    2002-01-01

    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  19. Who Must We Target Now to Minimize Future Cardiovascular Events and Total Mortality?: Lessons From the Surveillance, Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay R; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Xu, Zhiyuan; Schroeder, Emily B; Karter, Andrew J; Steiner, John F; Nichols, Gregory A; Reynolds, Kristi; Xu, Stanley; Newton, Katherine; Pathak, Ram D; Waitzfelder, Beth; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Butler, Melissa G; Kirchner, H Lester; Thomas, Abraham; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Examining trends in cardiovascular events and mortality in US health systems can guide the design of targeted clinical and public health strategies to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality rates. We conducted an observational cohort study from 2005 to 2011 among 1.25 million diabetic subjects and 1.25 million nondiabetic subjects from 11 health systems that participate in the Surveillance, Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) DataLink. Annual rates (per 1000 person-years) of myocardial infarction/acute coronary syndrome (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, 410.0–410.91, 411.1–411.8), stroke (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, 430–432.9, 433–434.9), heart failure (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, 428–428.9), and all-cause mortality were monitored by diabetes mellitus (DM) status, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and a prior cardiovascular history. We observed significant declines in cardiovascular events and mortality rates in subjects with and without DM. However, there was substantial variation by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and prior cardiovascular history. Mortality declined from 44.7 to 27.1 (P<0.0001) for those with DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), from 11.2 to 10.9 (P=0.03) for those with DM only, and from 18.9 to 13.0 (P<0.0001) for those with CVD only. Yet, in the [almost equal to]85% of subjects with neither DM nor CVD, overall mortality (7.0 to 6.8; P=0.10) and stroke rates (1.6–1.6; P=0.77) did not decline and heart failure rates increased (0.9–1.15; P=0.0005). To sustain improvements in myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and mortality, health systems that have successfully focused on care improvement in high-risk adults with DM or CVD must broaden their improvement strategies to target lower risk adults who have not yet developed DM or CVD.

  20. Searching for and Finding Meaning in Collective Trauma: Results From a National Longitudinal Study of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, John A.; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E. Alison

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one’s life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans’ searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval—the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N = 931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people’s fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability. PMID:18729704