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Sample records for prevent future maltreatment

  1. Prevention strategies in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Child maltreatment remains a prevalent problem for which notable best practices such as home visitation can be effective; however, most eligible families do not receive these beneficial services. Additionally, there are other promising prevention interventions to effectively address child maltreatment. This review focuses on the recent advances and strategies for child maltreatment prevention. Although home visiting does not have a single clearly defined methodology of providing service to children and families, the general supportive framework to improve maternal, child, and family factors makes this intervention the most widely studied and accepted prevention strategy. However, there has been limited effectiveness for most models. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) has provided consistently positive results by targeting families with many risk factors by using highly trained professionals when implementing a research-based intervention. A promising public health approach to parent training (Triple P) may reduce maltreatment and out-of-home placement. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), while a treatment model, is becoming an increasingly important approach to child maltreatment prevention. There may be an opportunity to reduce child maltreatment by enhancing care in the pediatric medical home setting. Effective child maltreatment prevention efforts exist; however, not all programs provide the same effectiveness, or target the same maltreatment issues. Pediatricians are in a key position to offer support to families in their own practice, as well as to direct families to the appropriate resources available.

  2. Preventing the recurrence of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the federal child welfare performance measurement system, recurrence of maltreatment refers to circumstances in which children that have previously been substantiated as victims of abuse or neglect experience another incident of substantiated maltreatment. Multiple episodes of maltreatment can lead to: (1) more serious short and long term negative consequences, (2) entry into the juvenile justice system, and (3) juvenile delinquency. In this literature review the authors summarize the research on child, family, and systemic factors related to maltreatment recurrence and promising practices for improving performance. Promising practices aimed at preventing recurrence of maltreatment include interventions at multiple levels (e.g., the child, caregiver, family, and agency) and include a range of service modalities.

  3. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Prevent Shaken Baby Syndrome Suggested Practices for Journalists Reporting on Child Abuse and Neglect [PDF 2. ... input class="button submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related Links Saving Lives & Protecting People ...

  4. Can community based interventions prevent child maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.

    Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the

  5. Can social networking be used to promote engagement in child maltreatment prevention programs? Two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Gaura, Anna; Whitaker, Daniel; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the United States' most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs), which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents' use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors for maltreatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially beneficial supplement for future parents enrolling in parenting programs.

  6. Preventing child maltreatment: An evidence-based update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that include one or more measures of child maltreatment and related outcomes (reports of abuse and neglect, injuries, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Most programs targeting at-risk families have not shown evidence of effectiveness in preventing abuse or neglect. An important exception is the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP, a program provided by nurses to first-time socially disadvantaged mothers beginning prenatally that has undergone rigorous evaluation in three randomized controlled trials. It has shown consistent effects in reducing reports of maltreatment and associated outcomes as well as additional benefits in maternal and child health in high-risk families. A second exception is the promising Early Start program provided by nurses and social workers to at-risk families beginning postnatally. One randomized controlled trial of the program has shown reduced rates of parental reports of severe abuse and hospital attendance for injuries and poisonings, based on records. The characteristics of the NFP and Early Start programs are discussed with special emphasis on ways in which they differ from other home visitation programs.

  7. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers' experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring's maltreatment, and (b) mothers' mental health problems, social isolation, and social…

  8. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    risk factors across individual, family, workplace , and community were significantly related to men’s perpetration of physical abuse against their...Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models PRINCIPAL...CONTRACT NUMBER Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models 5b

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of a Parenting Program to Prevent Child Maltreatment in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment has become a global health concern because child maltreatment is a violation of children's rights. Across the world, a variety of parenting programs have been developed to address this problem. However, no such parenting program currently exists in Suriname. This

  11. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  12. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Brown, Derek S; Florence, Curtis S; Mercy, James A

    2012-02-01

    To present new estimates of the average lifetime costs per child maltreatment victim and aggregate lifetime costs for all new child maltreatment cases incurred in 2008 using an incidence-based approach. This study used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. For each cost category, the paper used attributable costs whenever possible. For those categories that attributable cost data were not available, costs were estimated as the product of incremental effect of child maltreatment on a specific outcome multiplied by the estimated cost associated with that outcome. The estimate of the aggregate lifetime cost of child maltreatment in 2008 was obtained by multiplying per-victim lifetime cost estimates by the estimated cases of new child maltreatment in 2008. The estimated average lifetime cost per victim of nonfatal child maltreatment is $210,012 in 2010 dollars, including $32,648 in childhood health care costs; $10,530 in adult medical costs; $144,360 in productivity losses; $7,728 in child welfare costs; $6,747 in criminal justice costs; and $7,999 in special education costs. The estimated average lifetime cost per death is $1,272,900, including $14,100 in medical costs and $1,258,800 in productivity losses. The total lifetime economic burden resulting from new cases of fatal and nonfatal child maltreatment in the United States in 2008 is approximately $124 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the total burden is estimated to be as large as $585 billion. Compared with other health problems, the burden of child maltreatment is substantial, indicating the importance of prevention efforts to address the high prevalence of child maltreatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Technology-Based Innovations in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs: Examples from SafeCare®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cowart-Osborne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-based hybrid approach to SafeCare delivery. With this unique approach, the provider brings a tablet computer to each session, and the parent interacts with the software to receive psychoeducation and modeling of target skills. The provider and parent then work together to practice the targeted skills until mastery is achieved. Initial findings from ongoing research of both of these strategies indicate that they show potential for improving engagement and use of positive parenting skills for parents and ease of implementation for providers. Future directions for technology enhancements in SafeCare are also presented.

  14. Preventive Interventions and Sustained Attachment Security in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Erin Pickreign; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen-month-old maltreated infants (n = 137) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI), and community standard (CS). A fourth group of nonmaltreated infants (n =52) and their mothers served as a normative comparison (NC) group. A prior investigation found that the CPP and PPI groups demonstrated substantial increases in secure attachment at post-intervention, whereas this change was not found in the CS and NC groups. The current investigation involved the analysis of data obtained at a follow-up assessment that occurred 12-months after the completion of treatment. At follow-up, children in the CPP group had higher rates of secure and lower rates of disorganized attachment than did children in the PPI or CS groups. Rates of disorganized attachment did not differ between the CPP and NC groups. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) also showed higher rates of secure attachment at follow-up in the CPP group relative to the PPI and CS groups. However, groups did not differ on disorganized attachment. Both primary and ITT analyses demonstrated that maternal reported child behavior problems did not differ among the four groups at the follow-up assessment. This is the first investigation to demonstrate sustained attachment security in maltreated children 12 months after the completion of an attachment theory-informed intervention. Findings also suggest that, while effective in the short term, parenting interventions alone may not be effective in maintaining secure attachment in children over time. PMID:24229539

  15. Practice variation amongst preventive child healthcare professionals in the prevention of child maltreatment in the Netherlands: Qualitative and quantitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J.A. Visscher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides both qualitative and quantitative data on practice variation amongst preventive child healthcare professionals in the prevention of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. Qualitative data consist of topics identified during interviews with 11 experts (with quotes, resulting in an online survey. The quantitative data are survey responses from 1104 doctors and nurses working in 29 preventive child healthcare organizations. Additionally, the interview topic list, the qualitative data analysis methodology, the survey (in English and Dutch and anonymized raw survey data (http://hdl.handle.net/10411/5LJOGH are provided as well. This data-in-brief article accompanies the paper “Variation in prevention of child maltreatment by Dutch child healthcare professionals” by Simeon Visscher and Henk van Stel [1].

  16. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  17. The Cultural Adaptation of a Community-Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Katz, Carmit; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2017-06-01

    A unique primary prevention effort, Strong Communities for Children (Strong Communities), focuses on changing attitudes and expectations regarding communities' collective responsibilities for the safety of children. Findings from a 6-year pilot of the initiative in South Carolina have shown promise in reducing child maltreatment, but efforts to adapt the initiative to different cultural contexts have been lacking. No models exist for adapting an initiative that takes a community-level approach to ensuring children's safety. Thus, this article addresses the gap by providing an overview of the original initiative, how the initiative was adapted to the Israeli context, and lessons learned from the experience. Building on conceptualizations of cultural adaptation by Castro et al. (Prevention Science, 5, 2004, 41) and Resnicow et al. (Ethnicity and Disease, 9, 1999, 11), sources of nonfit (i.e., sociodemographic traits, political conflict, government services, and the presence and role of community organizations) were identified and deep and surface structure modifications were made to the content and delivery. Ultimately, this article describes the adaption and dissemination of a community-based child maltreatment prevention initiative in Tel Aviv, Israel, and addresses researchers' calls for more publications describing the adaptation of interventions and the procedures that need to be implemented to achieve cultural relevance. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  18. A Comparison of Willingness to Pay to Prevent Child Maltreatment Deaths in Ecuador and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Phaedra S.; Ingels, Justin B.; Roldos, M. Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the benefits of preventing child maltreatment (CM) is essential for policy makers to determine whether there are significant returns on investment from interventions to prevent CM. The aim of this study was to estimate the benefits of preventing CM deaths in an Ecuadorian population, and to compare the results to a similar study in a US population. The study used the contingent valuation method to elicit respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a 1 in 100,000 reduction in the risk of CM mortality. After adjusting for differences in purchasing power, the WTP to prevent the CM mortality risk reduction in the Ecuador population was $237 and the WTP for the same risk reduction in the US population was $175. In the pooled analysis, WTP for a reduction in CM mortality was significantly impacted by country (p = 0.03), history of CM (p = 0.007), payment mechanism (p Ecuador, may be better served by developing their own benefits estimates for use in future benefit-cost analyses of interventions designed to prevent CM. PMID:23538730

  19. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  20. Child and adult outcomes of chronic child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Kohl, Patricia L; Drake, Brett

    2012-05-01

    To describe how child maltreatment chronicity is related to negative outcomes in later childhood and early adulthood. The study included 5994 low-income children from St Louis, including 3521 with child maltreatment reports, who were followed from 1993-1994 through 2009. Children were 1.5 to 11 years of age at sampling. Data include administrative and treatment records indicating substance abuse, mental health treatment, brain injury, sexually transmitted disease, suicide attempts, and violent delinquency before age 18 and child maltreatment perpetration, mental health treatment, or substance abuse in adulthood. Multivariate analysis controlled for potential confounders. Child maltreatment chronicity predicted negative childhood outcomes in a linear fashion (eg, percentage with at least 1 negative outcome: no maltreatment = 29.7%, 1 report = 39.5%, 4 reports = 67.1%). Suicide attempts before age 18 showed the largest proportionate increase with repeated maltreatment (no report versus 4+ reports = +625%, P child outcomes were added in multivariate models of child maltreatment perpetration and mental health issues. The relationship between adult substance abuse and maltreatment report history disappeared after controlling for adverse child outcomes. Child maltreatment chronicity as measured by official reports is a robust indicator of future negative outcomes across a range of systems, but this relationship may desist for certain adult outcomes once childhood adverse events are controlled. Although primary and secondary prevention remain important approaches, this study suggests that enhanced tertiary prevention may pay high dividends across a range of medical and behavioral domains.

  1. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Neglect Moderate the Impact of an Efficacious Preventive Intervention for Maltreated Children in Foster Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward; Knudtson, Michael D.; Petrenko, Christie L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Physically neglected youth are at increased risk for mental health problems, but there are few interventions that have demonstrated efficacy in reducing mental health symptoms for this vulnerable population. The Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) program, which consists of mentoring and skills groups, was developed for preadolescent youth in foster care. In a published randomized controlled trial with 156 youth, FHF demonstrated positive impacts on mental health functioning. The current study sought to determine whether FHF might be particularly effective in ameliorating the impact of neglectful family environments. Because it was not possible to isolate a neglected-only subgroup, as most children with physical neglect histories had experienced other types of maltreatment, we tested the hypothesis that intervention effects would be stronger among children with more severe physical neglect. Findings did not support this hypothesis, however, as severity of physical neglect did not significantly moderate the impact of the intervention on psychosocial outcomes PMID:23076837

  3. The Economic Burden of Child Maltreatment in the United States and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Brown, Derek S.; Florence, Curtis S.; Mercy, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To present new estimates of the average lifetime costs per child maltreatment victim and aggregate lifetime costs for all new child maltreatment cases incurred in 2008 using an incidence-based approach. Methods: This study used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. For each cost category, the paper used…

  4. Common components of evidence-based parenting programs for preventing maltreatment of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temcheff, Caroline E; Letarte, Marie-Josée; Boutin, Stéphanie; Marcil, Katherine

    2018-04-06

    Child maltreatment can lead to a variety of negative outcomes in childhood including physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Given the transactional nature of child maltreatment and the difficulties that many maltreating families experience, child protection services typically offer various kinds of programs to maltreated children, their parents, and/or their families. Although the specific difficulties experienced by these families may vary, sub-optimal parenting practices are typically part of the picture and may play a central role in maltreated children's development. Hence, to deal with child maltreatment, programs that focus on parenting practices are essential, and identifying the common components of effective programs is of critical importance. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) describe the components of evidence-based parenting programs aimed at parents who have maltreated their elementary school-aged children or are at-risk for doing so and 2) identify the components that are common to these programs, using the approach proposed by Barth and Liggett-Creel (2014). Fourteen evidence-based parenting programs aimed at parents who had maltreated their elementary school-aged children (ages 6-12) or were at-risk for doing so were identified using both a review of relevant online databases of evidence-based programs (California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development, Youth.gov, and the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices). Common components were identified (operationalized as components present in two thirds of programs) and discussed. The identification of common components of evidence-based programs may help clinicians choose the best intervention methods. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Child Maltreatment, Mental Health Problems and Prevention of Violence among Secondary School Students in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Nkuba, Mabula

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a worldwide societal phenomenon of concern that has continuously subjected children to various health risks (Gershoff, 2010; Lansford et al., 2015; UNICEF, 2010). Research findings in high-income countries have reported a high prevalence of child maltreatment in families and schools, which were consistently associated with children’s mental health challenges (Lansford, Sexton, Davis-Kean, & Sameroff, 2012; Weaver, Borkowski, and Whitman, 2008). Moreover, findings from gl...

  6. Bridging research and practice: challenges and successes in implementing evidence-based preventive intervention strategies for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Manly, Jody Todd

    2011-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of negative developmental outcomes for children and families as well as significant economic consequences. While efficacious intervention strategies have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of trauma and to improve behavioral and emotional functioning, these models have not been widely adopted by clinicians. The challenges associated with exporting evidence-based interventions into community settings are discussed, along with an example of a preventive intervention program for young mothers, successfully implemented through a partnership of community agencies and funders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  8. Reflective function mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and borderline pathology in adolescents: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Jeremy; Newman, Louise K; Bennett, Clair; Gordon, Michael S; Saeedi, Naysun; Melvin, Glenn A

    2017-10-01

    Deficits in mentalizing, particularly within the context of attachment relationships i.e., reflective function (RF), are posited to result from childhood maltreatment and to influence the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Whilst a mentalization-based model of BPD provides a theoretical explanation, direct empirical support for this model, in linking childhood maltreatment to borderline pathology remains limited. This study examined the interrrelationships between childhood maltreatment, RF, and borderline pathology in a mixed adolescent sample, consisting of adolescents with BPD (n=26) and a group of non-clinical adolescents (n=25). With the aim of directly testing the mentalization-based model of BPD, we additionally investigated the influence of each form of childhood maltreatment within this developmental pathway. Self-report data supported the hypothesized indirect effect of childhood maltreatment on elevated borderline pathology through lowered RF in adolescents. Both emotional abuse and emotional neglect were found to indirectly influence borderline pathology through adolescent RF, however, only emotional abuse indirectly influenced borderline pathology through RF, after all other maltreatment types were controlled for. Findings support the promotion of mentalization, within attachment-related contexts, as an intervention target for adolescents with borderline pathology and as a potential target of prevention for at-risk children and adolescents with histories of childhood maltreatment, especially emotional abuse. Future research should delineate other underlying mechanisms, independent of RF, which may also link the influence of childhood maltreatment, and in particular, emotional abuse, to BPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resilience and protective factors among people with a history of child maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Muzi; D'Arcy, Carl

    2018-05-01

    To provide an overview of resilience and protective factors associated with a better life following child maltreatment exposure, to compare protective factors across specific subtypes of maltreatment, and to explore existing issues in the current state of the literature. Electronic databases and grey literature up to October 2017 were systematically searched for English language with observational study designs for the research on resilience and childhood maltreatment. Systematic review and qualitative approaches were used to synthesize the results. Study quality and heterogeneity were also examined. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 247 papers being reviewed. A total of 85 articles met eligibility criteria of this review. Most of these studies had low or middle study quality. There were two subgroups of studies reviewed: (1) 11 studies examined whether resilience protected against the negative consequence of childhood maltreatment, and, (2) 75 studies explored what protective factor was associated with a kind of adaptive functioning. Although the conceptualization of resilience significantly varied from study to study, protective factors associated with resilience at individual, familial, and societal levels reduced the likelihood of negative consequences of childhood maltreatment. Negative consequences following childhood maltreatment can be prevented or moderated if protective factors are provided in time. Future research needs to address the conceptualization issue of resilience. Public and population mental health preventions should focus on early childhood and apply preventive strategies as early as possible. Cost-effective studies should be considered in the evaluation of resilience prevention program.

  10. Family risk as a predictor of initial engagement and follow-through in a universal nurse home visiting program to prevent child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marsden, Shelley; Dodge, Kenneth A; O'Donnell, Karen J; Murphy, Robert A; Sato, Jeannine M; Christopoulos, Christina

    2013-08-01

    As nurse home visiting to prevent child maltreatment grows in popularity with both program administrators and legislators, it is important to understand engagement in such programs in order to improve their community-wide effects. This report examines family demographic and infant health risk factors that predict engagement and follow-through in a universal home-based maltreatment prevention program for new mothers in Durham County, North Carolina. Trained staff members attempted to schedule home visits for all new mothers during the birthing hospital stay, and then nurses completed scheduled visits three to five weeks later. Medical record data was used to identify family demographic and infant health risk factors for maltreatment. These variables were used to predict program engagement (scheduling a visit) and follow-through (completing a scheduled visit). Program staff members were successful in scheduling 78% of eligible families for a visit and completing 85% of scheduled visits. Overall, 66% of eligible families completed at least one visit. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that high demographic risk and low infant health risk were predictive of scheduling a visit. Both low demographic and infant health risk were predictive of visit completion. Findings suggest that while higher demographic risk increases families' initial engagement, it might also inhibit their follow-through. Additionally, parents of medically at-risk infants may be particularly difficult to engage in universal home visiting interventions. Implications for recruitment strategies of home visiting programs are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High school incompletion and childhood maltreatment among street-involved young people in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Brittany; Kerr, Thomas; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; DeBeck, Kora

    2017-03-01

    While the link between educational attainment and future health and wellness is well understood, little investigation has considered the potential impacts of distinct forms of childhood maltreatment on high school completion. In the present study, the relationship between five categories of childhood maltreatment (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and completion of high school education were examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). From September 2005 to May 2013, data were collected for the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved young people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and high school completion, while controlling for a range of potential confounding variables. Specifically, five separate models for each category of maltreatment and two combined models were employed to examine the relative associations between, and cumulative impact of, different forms of childhood maltreatment and educational attainment. Among 974 young people, 737 (76%) reported not completing high school. In separate multivariable analyses physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect remained positively and independently associated with an incomplete high school education. In a combined multivariable model with all forms of childhood maltreatment considered together, emotional abuse (adjusted odds ratio = 2.08; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-2.86) was the only form of maltreatment that remained significantly associated with an incomplete high school education. The cumulative impact assessment indicated a moderate dose-dependent trend where the greater the number of different forms of childhood maltreatment the greater the risk of not completing a high school education. These findings point to the need for trauma-informed interventions to improve educational attainment among vulnerable young

  12. Development and pretest of key visual imagery in a campaign for the prevention of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Émilie; Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Goulet, Julie

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the development and pretesting of key visual imagery in a promotional campaign developed in Quebec, Canada. This campaign is the media-based component of a broader prevention strategy involving the use of the Triple P program (Sanders, 1999). The purpose was to pretest with parents the preliminary version of a poster that uses the campaign's key visual imagery prior to final production. In total, 26 parents from the regions of Quebec City and Montreal participated in four focus groups. Two general themes emerged from the focus groups: (i) emotions and reactions arising from the key visual imagery; and (ii) comprehension of the message being conveyed. Based on this information, recommendations were made to the marketing agency, which then modified the campaign's key visual imagery and proposed a final layout.

  13. Academic achievement despite child maltreatment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J; Whitney, Stephen D

    2011-09-01

    Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential risk, promotive, and protective factors within children and their environments along with characteristics of the maltreatment to account for variability in test scores. A national longitudinal probability sample of 702 maltreated school-aged children, ages 6-10, and their caregivers was used to predict reading and math scores among maltreated children over three years. We found that chronic maltreatment, poorer daily living skills, and lower intelligence explained a substantial proportion of the variance in maltreated children's math scores (39%), whereas type of maltreatment, poorer daily living skills and lower intelligence explained a substantial proportion of the variance in reading scores (54%) over time. Contrary to our prediction, having a behavior problem seemed to protect chronically maltreated children from poorer performance in math over time. To increase academic achievement among maltreated children, it is imperative that we prevent chronic maltreatment and help children increase their competency on daily living skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, A; Tan, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect.

  15. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  16. A critical review of child maltreatment indices: Psychometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While such surveillance responses are obviously important for the prevention and management of child maltreatment and neglect, there appears to have been insufficient attention directed at examining their utility in the ... Keywords: review, child maltreatment and neglect, indices, cross-cultural application, South Africa ...

  17. Child Maltreatment, Problem Behaviors, and Neighborhood Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Schuck, Amie M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2017-12-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and living in high-risk neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors were assessed at mean age of 29 and neighborhood characteristics were assessed at mean age of 40. Child maltreatment predicted living in less desirable neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors in young adulthood partially mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and residence in less desirable neighborhoods in middle adulthood. The direct paths from child maltreatment to neighborhoods were not significant for Black children. For White children, there was a direct relationship between child maltreatment and living in an economically disadvantaged neighborhood. Problem behaviors were a stronger mediator between child maltreatment and living in more disordered and less socially cohesive neighborhoods for Black children, while the problem behaviors were a stronger mediator for living in more economically disadvantaged and less socially cohesive neighborhoods for White children. Further research is needed to understand these racial differences. Interventions should focus on preventing problem behaviors to minimize the risk of residency in high-risk neighborhoods. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  18. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  19. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  20. The Future of Primary Prevention: Parent Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the most important new frontier in the prevention of drug abuse is parent power. Marijuana use is a wave whose peak has passed. If this is true it will be less the result of efforts of drug abuse professionals than the direct result of outrage coming from American parents. (Author/BEF)

  1. Future opportunities in preventing cisplatin induced ototoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. H.; Beijnen, J. H.; Balm, A. J. M.; Schellens, J. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used cytotoxic agents. Ototoxicity is an important and dose-limiting side-effect of cisplatin therapy. It is believed that cisplatin suppresses the formation of endogenous anti-oxidants that normally prevent the inner ear against reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  2. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  3. Future of phylogeny in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Bluma G; Wainberg, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    The success of the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial has led to revisions in HIV-1 treatment guidelines. Antiretroviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmissions at the population level. The design of successful treatment as prevention interventions will be predicated on a comprehensive understanding of the spatial, temporal, and biological dynamics of heterosexual men who have sex with men and intravenous drug user epidemics. Viral phylogenetics can capture the underlying structure of transmission networks based on the genetic interrelatedness of viral sequences and cluster networks that could not be otherwise identified. This article describes the phylogenetic expansion of the Montreal men who have sex with men epidemic over the last decade. High rates of coclustering of primary infections are associated with 1 infection leading to 13 onward transmissions. Phylogeny substantiates the role of primary and recent stage infection in transmission dynamics, underlying the importance of timely diagnosis and immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation to avert transmission cascades.

  4. Future of obesity prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has risen sharply during the last 4 decades imposing a serious health burden to modern society. Obesity is known to cause and exacerbate many chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, obstructive sleep apnea and certain cancers, among many others. The rise in obesity prevalence is mainly caused by overconsumption of energy, coupled to a sedentary life in susceptible individuals. Weight homeostasis is paramount for survival and its control is coordinated by neural and endocrine signals emanating from the fat tissue, digestive system and brain. During thousands of years humans were challenged by nutrient deprivation, developing an efficient mechanism to store energy. It explains the difficulty in losing weight, making obesity prevention the main effective health approach to halt the obesity epidemic.

  5. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  6. Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

  7. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  8. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  9. Urbanicity matters in self-reported child maltreatment prevalence: Findings from a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Salhi, Carmel; Griffith, John L; Molnar, Beth E

    2018-05-01

    Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation. Using nationally representative data from waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the prevalence of six maltreatment outcomes was estimated for rural, minor urban, and major urban areas (N = 14,322). Multivariable logistic models were estimated identifying if risk associated with urbanicity persisted after adjusting for other risk factors. Interactions between urbanicity and main effects were explored. Prevalence estimates of any CM, poly-victimization, supervision neglect, and physical abuse were significantly higher in major urban areas. Those from major urban areas were more likely to report any maltreatment and supervision neglect even after adjusting for child and family risk factors. The association between race/ethnicity, welfare receipt, low parental educational attainment, and disability status and CM were modified by urbanicity. Significant differences in the prevalence and correlates of CM exist between urban and rural areas. Future research and policy should use self-reported prevalence, in conjunction with official reports, to inform child maltreatment prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Etiology of child maltreatment: a developmental-ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, J

    1993-11-01

    This article applies a developmental-ecological perspective to the question of the etiology of physical child abuse and neglect by organizing the paper around a variety of "contexts of maltreatment." The roles of parent and child characteristics and processes are considered ("developmental context"), including an examination of intergenerational transmission. The "immediate interactional context" of maltreatment, which focuses on the parenting and parent-child interactional processes associated with abuse and neglect, is analyzed. Finally, the "broader context" is discussed with 3 specific subsections dealing with the community, cultural, and evolutionary contexts of child maltreatment. Implications for intervention are considered and future research directions are outlined.

  11. Child maltreatment in DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E; Foran, Heather M

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is widespread and has a tremendous impact on child victims and their families. Over the past decade, definitions of child maltreatment have been developed that are operationalized, face valid, and can be reliably applied in clinical settings. These definitions have informed the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and are being considered for the International Classification of Disease-11 (World Health Organization). Now that these definitions are available in major diagnostic systems, primary healthcare providers and clinicians who see children and families are poised to help screen for, identify, prevent, and treat child maltreatment. This article reviews the definitions of maltreatment in these diagnostic systems, along with assessment and screening tools, and empirically supported prevention and intervention approaches. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  12. Can Parenting Intervention Prevent Cascading Effects From Placement Instability to Insecure Attachment to Externalizing Problems in Maltreated Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Fleming, Charles B; Oxford, Monica L; Zheng, Yao; Spieker, Susan J

    2016-08-01

    Multiple placement changes disrupt continuity in caregiving and undermine well-being in children in child welfare. This study conducted secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial to examine whether a relationship-based intervention, Promoting First Relationships(©) (PFR), reduced risk for a maladaptive cascade from placement instability to less secure attachment to elevated externalizing problems. Participants included caregivers (birth or foster/kin) of toddlers (10-24 months) recently transitioned to their care because of child welfare placement decisions. Although main effects of PFR on security and externalizing problems were not previously observed, this study's results revealed that PFR attenuated the association between multiple placement changes (baseline) and less security (postintervention) and that the indirect effect of placement instability on greater externalizing problems (6-month follow-up) via less security was evident only in toddlers in the comparison condition. These findings shed light on how a history of multiple caregiver changes may influence toddlers' risk for poor adjustment in subsequent placements, and the promise of supporting caregivers through a parenting intervention to prevent such risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  14. SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn M. Guastaferro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.

  15. Risk of maltreatment for siblings: Factors associated with similar and different childhood experiences in a dyadic sample of adult siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Susanne; Fegert, Jörg M; Walper, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    Siblings share the same environment and thus potentially a substantial number of risk factors for child maltreatment. Furthermore, the number of siblings and the sibling constellation itself might pose a risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about the likelihood that more than one child in a family is maltreated and which factors increase the risk. This study sought to investigate similarities and differences in maltreatment in siblings and risk factors associated with the maltreatment of more than one child from the same family. Data on maltreatment during childhood and adolescence, family background, and sibling constellation were collected from 870 pairs of siblings. In the dyadic analyses, siblings reported similar maltreatment experiences, especially when any type of maltreatment was considered. Parents' mental health problems were significant predictors for maltreatment of at least one sibling. Father's mental health problems were predictive of maltreatment of both or only the younger sibling, mother's mental health problems of both or only the older sibling. Closeness in age and same gender of siblings did not emerge as a consistent predictor. The increasing number of siblings was a risk factor for any type of maltreatment of both siblings. The results highlight the need for preventive measures for families with a large number of children and with parents with mental health problems as well as a repeated risk assessment of all siblings in a family when one sibling was maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood maltreatment and its link to borderline personality disorder features in children: A systematic review approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.

  17. Definition and constituents of maltreatment in sport: establishing a conceptual framework for research practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, A E

    2009-12-01

    There has recently been an increased emergence of research on the maltreatment of athletes in sport. It is suggested that research may play a particularly salient role with respect to athlete protection initiatives. However, as it stands, current research in this area is limited by a lack of consistency in definitions. The purpose of the paper, therefore, is to propose a conceptual framework of maltreatment in sport to be used among research practitioners. More specifically, a conceptual model of the different categories, constructs and constituents of maltreatment in sport is proposed. Sport-specific examples of the various maltreatments are outlined. Current literature is reviewed, and recommendations are made for future research.

  18. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Child Maltreatment, Bullying, Gender-Based Harassment, and Adolescent Dating Violence: Making the Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; Crooks, Claire C.; Chiodo, Debbie; Jaffe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Learning to relate to others begins at birth and carries forward to new relationships, which is why child maltreatment and exposure to intimate partner violence have emerged as powerful risk factors for future coercive and hostile relationship patterns. Although not inevitable, it is more likely that children who are victims of maltreatment will…

  20. Pathways linking childhood maltreatment and adult physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Meeyoung O; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Singer, Lynn T

    2013-06-01

    aware that childhood maltreatment contributes to adult health problems. Interventions aimed at preventing child maltreatment and addressing life stress and psychological distress will improve long-term physical health among abused children, adults with such histories, as well as children who are likely to be affected by maternal history of childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Child maltreatment 2002: recognition, reporting and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Felzen

    2002-10-01

    Child abuse is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and in all other countries which have studied its incidence. It is the second leading cause of death of children in the USA. To decrease the incidence of child abuse and improve the welfare of children there must be international efforts to recognize, and report child abuse and to decrease those risk factors, which place children in jeopardy. In the USA, reports of child maltreatment have decreased each year since 1994 after nearly two decades of increase. The increase was associated with the passage of laws that mandated reporting child maltreatment and increased recognition of maltreatment. Several theories have been proposed to explain the decrease. These include: improved economy with decreased caretaker stress and more vulnerable children in day-care, imprisonment of offenders, treatment of victims to prevent reactive abuse, decreased use of corporal punishment, earlier recognition and reporting, prevention programs including home visitors and less corporal punishment in schools. If early recognition is to occur there must be clearly defined and uniform laws that define abuse and the significant consequences to mandated reporters for failure to report. The laws must be concise, understandable and contain medically based definitions of abuse. A bruise should be considered a significant injury. The use of an instrument on a child, for any reason should be reportable as abusive. Society must be taught that a child's head and its contents are particularly susceptible to trauma. Heads should not be slapped, shaken, or struck. The purpose of a report of suspect maltreatment should be to obtain services for families. Without proper services, abuse will reoccur and victims will become victimizers. Any sexual act, including pornography, involving a child who is unable to give consent constitutes reportable sexual abuse. Recognition of what constitutes abuse would be simplified if all countries adopted

  2. Interplay between childhood maltreatment, parental bonding, and gender effects: impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R; Kelly, Megan M; Gagne, Gerard G; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n=72) and those who reported no significant adverse events in childhood (n=69). Subjects completed retrospective measures of childhood maltreatment and perceived parenting style, as well as measures of current depressive symptoms and quality of life. The subjects without childhood maltreatment were younger and endorsed less current depressive symptomatology than did subjects with childhood maltreatment. While the subjects without a history of maltreatment reported more "optimal" bonding experiences with their parents, the maltreatment group members were more likely to characterize their early parental bonding experiences in terms of "affectionless control" (pparenting), "affectionate constraint" (p=.025 for maternal parenting and p=.004 for paternal parenting), or "weak or absent" bonding (pparenting). Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that overall quality of paternal care (p=.015) and current level of depressive symptoms (pparental bonding data were limited to the group with childhood maltreatment. These findings extend previous work documenting a relationship between early life maltreatment and suboptimal parental bonding, suggesting gender-specific effects of maternal and paternal care. Effects of childhood maltreatment on quality of life in adulthood appear to be linked with the quality of childhood paternal care and the occurrence of depressive symptomatology in adulthood, suggesting possible targets for primary or secondary prevention.

  3. Prevention of Rheumatic Diseases: Strategies, Caveats and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckh, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases affect a significant portion of the population and lead to increased health care costs, disability and even premature mortality; as such, effective preventive measures for these diseases could lead to substantial improvements in public health. Importantly, established and emerging data from natural history studies show that for most rheumatic diseases there is a period of ‘preclinical’ disease development during which abnormal biomarkers or other processes can be detected. These changes are useful to understand mechanisms of disease pathogenesis; in addition, they may be applied to estimate a personal risk of future disease, while individuals are still relatively asymptomatic. Based on this, a hope is to implement effective screening and preventive approaches for some rheumatic diseases, perhaps in the near future. However, a key part of such approaches is a deep understanding of the mechanisms of disease development as well as evidence-based and effective screening and preventive interventions that incorporate disease biology as well as ethical and public health concerns. PMID:25437291

  4. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  5. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  6. Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement.

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    Thompson, Kevin M.; Braaten-Antrim, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that maltreatment increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth are physically and sexually abused their odds of gang involvement are four times higher than those who…

  7. Cancer prevention: state of the art and future prospects.

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    Valle, I; Tramalloni, D; Bragazzi, N L

    2015-06-10

    Cancer imposes a heavy societal burden worldwide, in terms of both epidemiology and costs. The introduction of more sophisticated imaging and diagnostic techniques and advanced drugs that specifically target tumor cells is leading to increasingly expensive treatments, which may be affordable only for few patients. Prevention, and particularly primary prevention, is an effective way of addressing the challenging issue of cancer, since between a third and a half of cancers could be prevented on the basis of our current knowledge of risk factors. Moreover, prevention is cost-effective, its effects are not limited to high-risk subjects but extend to the entire population, and it is not dependent on socioeconomic status. Regulatory measures can have a broad impact, even on future generations; by empowering and educating subjects, promoting healthy behaviours and teaching self-care, they can trigger a virtuous cycle. In recent decades, oncology has shifted from being merely reactive to being proactive; this shift has led to the development of so-called "P4 medicine", where the 4 Ps stand for "preventive", "predictive", "personalized" and "participatory". Prevention programs are an important part of the effort to control cancer, as they are able to reduce both the incidence of cancer and mortality. For instance, screening for colorectal, breast and cervical cancer is reducing the burden of these common tumors. Anti-cancer vaccines, both prophylactic and therapeutic, constitute another important preventive tool. Although progress has been made in these areas, much remains to be done. With regard to screening programs, coverage could be increased by introducing new, more acceptable, less invasive tests, stratifying screening through correlation with anamnestic, clinical, radiological and genomic data (so-called "populationbased personalized cancer screening"), and exploiting new information and communication technologies, such as smartphone applications or personalized text

  8. Childhood maltreatment and the structure of common psychiatric disorders†

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    Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert F.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Wall, Melanie M.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that various types of childhood maltreatment frequently co-occur and confer risk for multiple psychiatric diagnoses. This non-specific pattern of risk may mean that childhood maltreatment increases vulnerability to numerous specific psychiatric disorders through diverse, specific mechanisms or that childhood maltreatment engenders a generalised liability to dimensions of psychopathology. Although these competing explanations have different implications for intervention, they have never been evaluated empirically. Aims We used a latent variable approach to estimate the associations of childhood maltreatment with underlying dimensions of internalising and externalising psychopathology and with specific disorders after accounting for the latent dimensions. We also examined gender differences in these associations. Method Data were drawn from a nationally representative survey of 34 653 US adults. Lifetime DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed using the AUDADIS-IV. Physical, sexual and emotional abuse and neglect were assessed using validated measures. Analyses controlled for other childhood adversities and sociodemographics. Results The effects were fully mediated through the latent liability dimensions, with an impact on underlying liability levels to internalising and externalising psychopathology rather than specific psychiatric disorders. Important gender differences emerged with physical abuse associated only with externalising liability in men, and only with internalising liability in women. Neglect was not significantly associated with latent liability levels. Conclusions The association between childhood maltreatment and common psychiatric disorders operates through latent liabilities to experience internalising and externalising psychopathology, indicating that the prevention of maltreatment may have a wide range of benefits in reducing the prevalence of many common mental disorders. Different forms of abuse have

  9. Maternal impulse control disability and developmental disorder traits are risk factors for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Takehara, Kenji; Kakee, Naoko; Mikami, Masashi; Inoue, Eisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Ota, Erika; Koizumi, Tomoe; Okuyama, Makiko; Kubo, Takahiko

    2017-11-14

    Previous work has suggested that maternal developmental disorder traits related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are significantly associated with child maltreatment. However, there may be other important maternal characteristics that contribute to child maltreatment. We hypothesized that maternal impulse control disability may also affect child maltreatment in addition to maternal developmental disorder traits. We aimed to test this hypothesis via a cohort study performed in Tokyo (n = 1,260). Linear regression analyses using the Behavioural Inhibition/Behavioural Activation Scales, the self-administered short version of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, the short form of the Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale, and the Child Maltreatment Scale, revealed that excessive inhibition of behaviour and affect, which is impulse control disability, is significantly associated with child maltreatment (b = 0.031, p = 0.018) in addition to maternal developmental disorder traits (ASD: b = 0.052, p = 0.004; ADHD: b = 0.178, p child maltreatment, while ADHD was associated (AOR = 1.034, p = 0.022) with severe child maltreatment. These maternal characteristics may inform the best means for prevention and management of child maltreatment cases.

  10. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  11. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Drug Use in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview and Multinational Research Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Gonzalez, Yolanda W.; Melendez, Marlon O.; Garcia, Monica R.; Gomez, Juan D.; Juarez, Cristina G.; Martinez, Eduardo A.; Penalba, Sobeyda J.; Pizzanelli, Miguel E.; Solorzano, Lucia I.; Wright, Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Patricia; Mann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and…

  13. Childhood maltreatment preceding depressive disorder at age 18 years: A prospective Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; De Mola, Christian Loret; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Gonçalves, Helen; Kieling, Christian; Murray, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment is linked with increased risk for mental illness in adolescence and adulthood. However, little evidence is available on whether different forms of maltreatment have specific effects, and no prospective studies in low- or middle-income countries have addressed this issue. Participants in a population-based, birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (N=3715) self-reported exposure to maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence) in confidential questionnaires at age 15 years, and were assessed for major depression in interviews at age 18 years, using the MINI. Confounding variables concerning family characteristics were measured in interviews with mothers in the perinatal period and at age 11 years. Females exposed to emotional abuse (OR=2.7; 95%CI=1.9, 3.8) and domestic violence (OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2, 2.9) were at increased risk for depression after adjustment for confounders and other types of maltreatment. Females exposed to two or more forms of maltreatment were at particularly high risk for depression (OR=4.1; 95%Cl=2.8, 6.1) compared with females not exposed to maltreatment. In adjusted analyses, maltreatment was not associated with depression for males. Detailed information about maltreatment such as timing and frequency was not available, and 1534 individuals were not included in the analyses, who had poorer and less educated mothers. Emotional abuse and domestic violence are strong risk factors for major depression for females. Early intervention to prevent maltreatment and its consequences is critical, especially for girls exposed to poly-maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Hovdestad

    Full Text Available Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research.To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work.We included surveys that: 1 were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2 included a broad age range (≥ 40 years; 3 measured health; 4 assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5 were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014, expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content.Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment. Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity.Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but

  15. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

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    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  16. History of maltreatment among unintentional injury deaths: analyses of Texas child fatality review data, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sharyn E; Mirchandani, Gita; Rodriguez, Susan; Hellsten, John

    2011-02-01

    This report examines unintentional injury deaths among children with and without a history of child maltreatment. Data are from reviews of 1192 unintentional injury deaths occurring among children in Texas during 2005-2007. The study examined differences in child demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, and supervisor status at time of death between children with and without maltreatment history by using descriptive statistics and χ² tests. Separate analyses compared characteristics of asphyxia, drowning, and poisoning deaths. In 10% of the unintentional injury deaths that were reviewed, the child had a history of maltreatment. The prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among black decedents and lowest among white decedents. Prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among infant decedents and lowest among youth decedents, ages 10-14 years. Among deaths where there was no maltreatment history, 54% were due to motor vehicle related incidents, whereas 51% of deaths among children with maltreatment history were caused by drowning, asphyxia, and poisoning. Supervisors of child decedents with a history of maltreatment were significantly more likely to have been alcohol impaired (6.9% vs 1.6%; pdeath. Differences between child decedents with and without maltreatment history were observed in infant sleep surface in suffocation deaths, location and barrier type in drowning deaths, and substance type in poisoning deaths. These data show that the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding unintentional injury deaths among children with a history of maltreatment differ from those without a history of maltreatment. This underscores the need for appropriate interventions to prevent unintentional and intentional injuries in families with a history of maltreatment.

  17. Not All Bad Treatment Is Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    2011-01-01

    One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…

  18. Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  20. The different faces of impulsivity as links between childhood maltreatment and young adult crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Cook, Amy K; Morris, Nancy A; McDougle, Robyn; Groves, Lauren Peasley

    2016-07-01

    Crime is a major public health and safety threat. Many studies have suggested that early exposure to child maltreatment increases an individual's risk for persistent serious crime in adulthood. Despite these findings about the connection between child maltreatment and criminal behavior, there is a paucity of empirically-based knowledge about the processes or pathways that link child maltreatment to later involvement in crime. Using a community sample of 337 young adults (ages 18-25) in a U.S. metropolitan area, the present study examined the role of various facets of impulsivity in linking child maltreatment to crime. A series of factor analyses identified three types of crime including property crime, violent crime, and fraud. Structural equation modelings were conducted to examine the associations among childhood maltreatment, four facets of impulsivity, and criminal behavior, controlling for sociodemographic information, family income and psychological symptoms. The present study found that child emotional abuse was indirectly related to property crime and fraud through urgency while a lack of premeditation mediates the relationship between child neglect and property crime. Child physical abuse was directly related to all three types of crime. Personality traits of urgency and lack of premeditation may play a significant role in the maltreatment-crime link. Preventive interventions targeting impulsivity traits such as urgency and a lack of premeditation might have promising impacts in curbing criminal behavior among maltreatment victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Child Maltreatment History and Response to CBT Treatment in Depressed Mothers Participating in Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Peugh, James L; Teeters, Angelique R; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    Child maltreatment contributes to depression in adults. Evidence indicates that such experiences are associated with poorer outcomes in treatment. Mothers in home visiting programs display high rates of depression and child maltreatment histories. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat maternal depression in home visiting. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of child maltreatment history on depression, social functioning, and parenting in mothers participating in a clinical trial of IH-CBT. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and then confirmation of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Measures of child maltreatment history, depression, social functioning, and parenting were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated high rates of maltreatment in both conditions relative to the general population. Mixed model analyses found a number of main effects in which experiences of different types of trauma were associated with poorer functioning regardless of treatment condition. Evidence of a moderating effect of maltreatment on treatment outcomes was found for physical abuse and parenting and emotional abuse and social network size. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of IH-CBT with depressed mothers who have experienced child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Current and Future Directions in Elementary School Drug Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Drug prevention efforts in elementary schools are widespread. Nonetheless, there are clear challenges that both researchers and practitioners face. Because there may be occasional unintended negative outcomes--statistically these are guaranteed--does not mean all prevention efforts should grind to a halt. It is far better that any observed…

  3. Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Romero, José A; Deal, Carolyn; Herold, Betsy C; Schiller, John; Patton, Dorothy; Zydowsky, Thomas; Romano, Joe; Petro, Christopher D; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-07-01

    Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV Research for Prevention (R4P) conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today, new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs), and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interplay between childhood maltreatment, parental bonding, and gender effects: Impact on quality of life☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Kelly, Megan M.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Method Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n = 72) and those who reported no significant adverse events in childhood (n = 69). Subjects completed retrospective measures of childhood maltreatment and perceived parenting style, as well as measures of current depressive symptoms and quality of life. Results The subjects without childhood maltreatment were younger and endorsed less current depressive symptomatology than did subjects with childhood maltreatment. While the subjects without a history of maltreatment reported more “optimal” bonding experiences with their parents, the maltreatment group members were more likely to characterize their early parental bonding experiences in terms of “affectionless control” (p parenting), “affectionate constraint” (p = .025 for maternal parenting and p = .004 for paternal parenting), or “weak or absent” bonding (p parenting). Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that overall quality of paternal care (p = .015) and current level of depressive symptoms (p effects between subjects providing parental bonding data were limited to the group with childhood maltreatment. Conclusion These findings extend previous work documenting a relationship between early life maltreatment and suboptimal parental bonding, suggesting gender-specific effects of maternal and paternal care. Effects of childhood maltreatment on quality of life in adulthood appear to be linked with the quality of childhood paternal care and the occurrence of depressive symptomatology in adulthood, suggesting possible targets for primary or secondary prevention. PMID:18082260

  5. Examining Childhood Maltreatment and School Bullying Among Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study From Anhui Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng-Fu; Jiang, Liu; Wang, Lu-Han; Hu, Guo-Yun; Fang, Yu; Yuan, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Su, Pu-Yu

    2016-05-03

    Although a body of research has established the relationship between childhood maltreatment and bullying in Western culture backgrounds, few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and bullying in China. Moreover, to date, the relationship between multiple types of childhood maltreatment and cyber bullying is poorly understood. This study examined the association between multiple types of childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and multiple forms of school bullying (physical, verbal, relational, and cyber). A cross-sectional study using three-stage random cluster-sampling approach was conducted in Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang, in Anhui Province. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 5,726 middle school students to assess their school bullying involvement and childhood maltreatment experiences. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between each single type of childhood maltreatment and each single form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of bullying as bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Specifically, both childhood physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with involvement in cyber bullying. Students who experienced multiple types of childhood maltreatment seem to report more forms of school bullying. Furthermore, multiple forms of school bullying caused the co-occurrence of several forms of school bullying. Our results indicated a significant association between school bullying and childhood maltreatment among adolescents. Interventions to reduce school bullying encompassing prevention toward childhood maltreatment might get better results in China. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  7. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results: Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion: The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions.

  8. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Feddern, Dagmar; Christoffersen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Background The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs) from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23626869

  9. Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne B; Arseneault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-01-01

    Both prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports may be used to measure childhood maltreatment, though both methods entail potential limitations such as underestimation and memory biases. The validity and utility of standard measures of childhood maltreatment requires clarification in order to inform the design of future studies investigating the mental health consequences of maltreatment. The present study assessed agreement between prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment, as well as the comparative utility of both reports for predicting a range of psychiatric problems at age 18. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative birth cohort of 2232 children followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). Childhood maltreatment was assessed in two ways: (i) prospective informant-reports from caregivers, researchers, and clinicians when children were aged 5, 7, 10 and 12; and (ii) retrospective self-reports of maltreatment experiences occurring up to age 12, obtained at age 18 using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants were privately interviewed at age 18 concerning several psychiatric problems including depression, anxiety, self-injury, alcohol/cannabis dependence, and conduct disorder. There was only slight to fair agreement between prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment (all Kappa's ≤ 0.31). Both prospective and retrospective reports of maltreatment were associated with age-18 psychiatric problems, though the strongest associations were found when maltreatment was retrospectively self-reported. These findings indicate that prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment capture largely non-overlapping groups of individuals. Young adults who recall being maltreated have a particularly elevated risk for psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  10. Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV R4P conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today; new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs); and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality. PMID:25759332

  11. Cancer prevention: state of the art and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    VALLE, I.; TRAMALLONI, D.; BRAGAZZI, N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cancer imposes a heavy societal burden worldwide, in terms of both epidemiology and costs. The introduction of more sophisticated imaging and diagnostic techniques and advanced drugs that specifically target tumor cells is leading to increasingly expensive treatments, which may be affordable only for few patients. Prevention, and particularly primary prevention, is an effective way of addressing the challenging issue of cancer, since between a third and a half of cancers could be prev...

  12. The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.

  13. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  15. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  16. Combination chemoprevention: future direction of colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Yang, Rong; Wang, Bing; Liu, Jian

    2012-05-01

    Recent research has drawn attention to protective effects of chemopreventive agents that reverse, suppress, or prevent the carcinogenic progression using pharmacological or nutritional agents. Aspirin and celecoxib are the promising preventive agents to effectively reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but such agents are associated with severe gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side effects in long-term administration at high doses. Recently, the strategy that combinational use with several chemopreventive agents at low doses induces greater inhibition of carcinogenesis has become the focus. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may combine with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, epidermal growth factor signaling inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, to magnify the chemoprophylactic effect. It is noteworthy that the phase III trial of difluoromethylornithine combination with sulidac has shown greater and effective preventive roles, which pave the way for the use of combinations of other agents. The long-term statins and low-dose NSAIDs have also been associated with risk reduction in vitro, in vivo, and in retrospective studies; however, the data are inconsistent. Epidermal growth factor signaling inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand have been demonstrated to potentiate the preventive effects of NSAIDs in vitro and in vivo, but these combinational regimens have not yet been applied to clinical research. The major goal of this study was to review combination chemoprevention for colorectal cancer by means of combining low doses of potential preventive agents to increase their chemoprophylaxis efficacy and to minimize toxicity.

  17. Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications for prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderland Elsie M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their new paper, Bellanger and coauthors show substantial economic impacts to the EU from neurocognitive impairment associated with methylmercury (MeHg exposures. The main source of MeHg exposure is seafood consumption, including many marine species harvested from the global oceans. Fish, birds and other wildlife are also susceptible to the impacts of MeHg and already exceed toxicological thresholds in vulnerable regions like the Arctic. Most future emissions scenarios project a growth or stabilization of anthropogenic mercury releases relative to present-day levels. At these emissions levels, inputs of mercury to ecosystems are expected to increase substantially in the future, in part due to growth in the legacy reservoirs of mercury in oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seawater mercury concentration trajectories in areas such as the North Pacific Ocean that supply large quantities of marine fish to the global seafood market are projected to increase by more than 50% by 2050. Fish mercury levels and subsequent human and biological exposures are likely to also increase because production of MeHg in ocean ecosystems is driven by the supply of available inorganic mercury, among other factors. Analyses that only consider changes in primary anthropogenic emissions are likely to underestimate the severity of future deposition and concentration increases associated with growth in mercury reservoirs in the land and ocean. We therefore recommend that future policy analyses consider the fully coupled interactions among short and long-lived reservoirs of mercury in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial ecosystems. Aggressive anthropogenic emission reductions are needed to reduce MeHg exposures and associated health impacts on humans and wildlife and protect the integrity of one of the last wild-food sources globally. In the near-term, public health advice on safe fish consumption choices such as smaller species, younger fish, and harvests

  18. Family Characteristics Associated With Child Maltreatment Across the Deployment Cycle of U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Griffis, Heather M; Taylor, Christine M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David M

    2017-09-01

    Soldier deployment can create a stressful environment for U.S. Army families with young children. Prior research has identified elevated rates of child maltreatment in the 6 months immediately following a soldier's return home from deployment. In this study, we longitudinally examine how other child- and family-level characteristics influence the relationship of deployment to risk for maltreatment of dependent children of U.S. Army soldiers. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated reports and medical diagnoses of maltreatment among the 73,404 children of 56,087 U.S. Army soldiers with a single deployment between 2001 and 2007. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard rates of maltreatment across deployment periods and simultaneously considered main effects for other child- and family-level characteristics across periods. In adjusted models, maltreatment hazard was highest in the 6 months following deployment (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.63, p Army to better direct resources that prevent and address child maltreatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Combined role of childhood maltreatment, family history, and gender in the risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M C; Geier, T; Keyes, K; Skodol, A E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S

    2013-05-01

    Studies of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol dependence have not controlled comprehensively for potential confounding by co-occurring maltreatments and other childhood trauma, or determined whether parental history of alcohol disorders operates synergistically with gender and maltreatment to produce alcohol dependence. We addressed these issues using national data. Method Face-to-face surveys of 27 712 adult participants in a national survey. Childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical neglect were associated with alcohol dependence (prelationships for physical abuse in the entire sample, and for sexual abuse and emotional neglect in women (APs, 0.21, 0.31, 0.26 respectively), indicating that the odds of alcohol dependence given both parental history and these maltreatments were significantly higher than the additive effect of each alone (pdependence. Importantly, results suggest a synergistic role of parental alcoholism: the effect of physical abuse on alcohol dependence may depend on parental history, while the effects of sexual abuse and emotional neglect may depend on parental history among women. Findings underscore the importance of early identification and prevention, particularly among those with a family history, and could guide genetic research and intervention development, e.g. programs to reduce the burden of childhood maltreatment may benefit from addressing the negative long-term effects of maltreatments, including potential alcohol problems, across a broad range of childhood environments.

  20. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Browne, Kevin; Fergusson, David; Webb, Elspeth; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-03

    Child maltreatment remains a major public-health and social-welfare problem in high-income countries. Every year, about 4-16% of children are physically abused and one in ten is neglected or psychologically abused. During childhood, between 5% and 10% of girls and up to 5% of boys are exposed to penetrative sexual abuse, and up to three times this number are exposed to any type of sexual abuse. However, official rates for substantiated child maltreatment indicate less than a tenth of this burden. Exposure to multiple types and repeated episodes of maltreatment is associated with increased risks of severe maltreatment and psychological consequences. Child maltreatment substantially contributes to child mortality and morbidity and has longlasting effects on mental health, drug and alcohol misuse (especially in girls), risky sexual behaviour, obesity, and criminal behaviour, which persist into adulthood. Neglect is at least as damaging as physical or sexual abuse in the long term but has received the least scientific and public attention. The high burden and serious and long-term consequences of child maltreatment warrant increased investment in preventive and therapeutic strategies from early childhood.

  1. The future of digital games for HIV prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, José A; LeGrand, Sara; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2017-09-01

    Although there has been a significant increase in mHealth interventions addressing the HIV prevention and care continuum, interventions using game mechanics have been less explored. Digital games are rapidly becoming an important tool for improving health behaviors and supporting the delivery of care and education. The purpose of this review is to provide a historical context for the use of gamification and videogames (including those using virtual reality) used in technology-based HIV interventions and to review new research in the field. A review of recently published (1 January 2016-31 March 2017) or presented abstracts (2016) identified a paucity of technology-based interventions that included gamification elements or any terms associated with videogames or gameplay. A larger portfolio of digital gaming interventions is in the pipeline. Use of digital games that include elements of gamification or consist of standalone videogames or virtual-reality-based games, represent a promising intervention strategy to address the HIV prevention and care continuum, especially among youth. Our review demonstrates that there is significant room for growth in this area in designing, developing, testing and most importantly, implementation and dissemination these novel interventions.

  2. Prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Nyholm

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Nyholm1, Mark R Schleiss21Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women’s Health, and 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is the most common cause of perinatal viral infection in the developed world, resulting in approximately 40,000 congenitally infected infants in the United States each year. Congenital CMV infection can produce varying degrees of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The significant impact of congenital CMV has led the Institute of Medicine to rank development of a CMV vaccine as a top priority. Vaccine development has been ongoing; however no licensed CMV vaccine is currently available. Treatment of pregnant women with CMV hyperimmune globulin has shown promising results, but has not been studied in randomized controlled trials. Education on methods to prevent CMV transmission, particularly among young women of child-bearing age, should continue until a CMV vaccine becomes available. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention strategies, and treatment of CMV infections are reviewed.Keywords: cytomegalovirus, CMV vaccines, congenital CMV, CMV infection, immunoglobulin

  3. Psychological maltreatment and adolescents’ suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to shed light on the questions: Do children, who are exposed to psychological maltreatment, have an increased risk for suicide attempts or contemplation? Will children’s suicidal behavior diminish when psychological maltreatment is reduced? Suicidal behavior...... as well as child abuse and neglect were analyzed on the basis of standardized questionnaires addressed to caseworkers assigned to these cases (N=1,055). Half of the children were exposed to abuse and neglect. More than one third of the children were exposed to psychological maltreatment. These children...... showed higher rates of suicidal tendencies, compared to those children who were not exposed to psychological maltreatment....

  4. Culture and context in understanding child maltreatment: Contributions of intersectionality and neighborhood-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadan, Yochay; Spilsbury, James C; Korbin, Jill E

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect commissioned a series of reviews that appeared as the edited volume, Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect (Melton & Barry, 1994). Using the 1994 review "Sociocultural Factors in Child Maltreatment" (Korbin, 1994) as a background, this article reconsiders culture and context in child maltreatment work. Since 1994, conditions promoting research and practice attention in this area include immigration-driven global increases in diverse, multicultural societies where different beliefs and practices meet (and clash); expanding purview of the human rights discourse to children; and the disproportionate and disparate representation of cultural, ethnic, and racial groups in child-welfare systems. Although research on child maltreatment has advanced in many ways over 20 years, the complexity of child maltreatment leaves many critical questions demanding further attention, culture and context among them. To help address these questions, we propose two approaches for future maltreatment research: intersectionality - the simultaneous examination of multiple identities (such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status) - as a framework for understanding the complexity of cultural factors; and neighborhood-based research as a means for understanding the context of child maltreatment from the perspective of an ecological framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk-taking, peer-influence and child maltreatment: a neurocognitive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Puetz, Vanessa B; Viding, Essi; Sethi, Arjun; Palmer, Amy; McCrory, Eamon J

    2018-01-01

    Maltreatment is associated with increased risk of a range of psychiatric disorders, many of which are characterized by altered risk-taking propensity. Currently, little is known about the neural correlates of risk-taking in children exposed to maltreatment, nor whether their risk-taking is atypically modulated by peer influence. Seventy-five 10- to 14-year-old children [maltreated (MT) group: N = 41; non-maltreated Group (NMT): N = 34] performed a Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), under three different peer influence conditions: while alone, while being observed by a peer and while being encouraged by a peer to take risks. The MT group engaged in less risk-taking irrespective of peer influence. There was no differential effect of peer influence on risk-taking behaviour across groups. At the neural level, the right anterior insula (rAI) exhibited altered risk sensitivity across conditions in the MT group. Across groups and conditions, rAI risk sensitivity was negatively associated with risk-taking and within the MT group greater rAI risk sensitivity was related to more anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that children with a history of maltreatment show reduced risk-taking but typical responses to peer influence. Abnormal rAI functioning contributes to the pattern of reduced risk-taking and may predispose children exposed to maltreatment to develop future psychopathology. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  7. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  8. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  9. Childhood maltreatment and adult mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovran, Anders; Winje, Dagfinn; Øverland, Simon; Arefjord, Kjersti; Hansen, Anita; Waage, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between reported childhood maltreatment and general psychological and post-traumatic distress was examined in a sample of 551 adults from different risk samples. Exposure to childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short Form, which detects physical, emotional and sexual abuse and past physical and emotional neglect. The participants' current levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms and general psychological stress symptoms were measured with the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Symptom Checklist 90 - Revised, respectively. The results reveal a high prevalence of reported childhood maltreatment in both men and women, and the severity levels of the five types of childhood maltreatment showed significant associations with the extent of current post-traumatic and general psychological distress. The findings emphasize the need for appropriate procedures for identifying childhood maltreatment.

  10. Intergenerational transmission of maltreatment: A multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Khurana, Atika; Reich, Emily B

    2015-11-01

    Despite the commonly held belief that there is a high degree of intergenerational continuity in maltreatment, studies to date suggest a mixed pattern of findings. One reason for the variance in findings may be related to the measurement approach used, which includes a range of self-report and official indicators of maltreatment and both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. This study attempted to shed light on the phenomenon of intergenerational continuity of maltreatment by examining multiple indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adults and multiple risk factors across different levels within an individual's social ecology. The sample included 166 women who had been placed in out-of-home care as adolescents (>85% had a substantiated maltreatment incident) and followed into young adulthood, and included three waves of adolescent data and six waves of young adult data collected across 10 years. The participants were originally recruited during adolescence as part of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of the Treatment Foster Care Oregon intervention. Analyses revealed weak to modest associations among the three indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood, that is, official child welfare records, self-reported child welfare system involvement, and self-reported maltreatment (r = .03-.51). Further, different patterns of prediction emerged as a function of the measurement approach. Adolescent delinquency was a significant predictor of subsequent self-reported child welfare contact, and young adult partner risk was a significant predictor of perpetration of maltreatment as indexed by both official child welfare records and self-reported child welfare contact. In addition, women who were originally assigned to the intervention condition reported perpetrating less maltreatment during young adulthood. Implications for measurement and interventions related to reducing the risk for intergenerational transmission of risk

  11. Examining the sexual offenses of female juveniles: The relevance of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Krysik, Judy

    2008-10-01

    Research on female juvenile sex offenders is limited by small clinical samples. Little is known about the characteristics of female sexual offending and how it is related to child maltreatment. This study examines data from the case histories of 118 female juvenile sex offenders. In contrast to portrayals in previous research, this study shows that female sex offenders are not a homogeneous group. Findings also included differentiation between female juvenile sexual offenders with a history of child maltreatment and those without a history of child maltreatment. Female juvenile sex offenders who had a history of child maltreatment were more likely to have a current mental health diagnosis and experience clinical levels of anger--irritability and depression--anxiety than those without a history of child maltreatment. The impact of a history of sexual abuse for female juvenile sex offenders was found to be important with regard to higher levels of coercion of their sexual abuse victims. Important distinctions are highlighted that have implications for female-specific assessment, treatment, and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA.

  12. Child maltreatment, attention networks, and potential precursors to borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2005-01-01

    Potential precursors to borderline personality disorder (BPD) were investigated in a sample of 185 maltreated and 175 nonmaltreated school-aged children attending a summer camp research program. Self-report, peer-report, and counselor-report measures were utilized to assess developmental constructs conceptualized to constitute vulnerability for later emerging BPD. These areas, including personality features, representational models of self, parent, and peers, interpersonal relationship difficulties with peers and adults, and suicidal/self-harm behavior, were used to develop a BPD precursors composite. Additionally, the efficiency of three attention networks was assessed with a computerized task. Maltreated children had higher mean scores on the BPD precursors composite, and children classified as having high levels of these precursors were more prevalent in the maltreatment group. No maltreatment group differences were found for the efficiency of the three attention networks; however, children with high levels of BPD precursors evinced less efficient processing of the conflict attention network, comparable to findings observed among adult patients with BPD. Child maltreatment and efficiency of the conflict attention network independently predicted scores on the BPD precursors composite. Experiential and biological contributions to risk for BPD and recommendations for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  13. Early School Engagement and Late Elementary Outcomes for Maltreated Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.; Yoerger, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Children with a history of maltreatment and placement into foster care face elevated risks of poor psychosocial outcomes including school failure, substance use, externalizing, and deviant peer association. For children in the general population, school engagement appears to be a promotive factor in preventing negative outcomes. In this study,…

  14. Estrategia educativa para el control y prevención del maltrato infantil dirigida a padres de niños con síndrome de Down Educational strategy for control and prevention of infantile maltreatment aimed to parents of children presenting with Dow's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Pineda Pérez

    2011-03-01

    the "Zunzún" nursery school there are children with Dow's syndrome and some of them have suffered some way of maltreatment caused by a family's member, thus, we made present research to know some characteristics of the child family environment, information on different ways of maltreatment known by family and to try to eliminate it after application of the designed educational strategy. METHOD. An educational intervention with a before-after design applied in 28 parents (24 mothers and 4 fathers; a progenitor by child of children with Down's syndrome going to this institution. It had three phases and the application of three workshops. RESULTS. Most of parents recognized to have some information on this subject. Some associated risk factors were detected. Before workshops the maltreatment ways generally know by parents were the physical and sexual maltreatment; the actions inciting to infantile maltreatment included the failure to fulfill orders and other related to sexuality. After workshops the parent's knowledge improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS. The workshops were a significant educational strategy for a great knowledge of parents on the infantile maltreatment and its associated risk factors. Also, there was improvement in the possibility of families to control and to prevent the maltreatment. These strategies may be used for a harmonic education of parents of these children and they may be spread to other institutions where Down's children are treated or with specific adaptations to centers where handicapped children assist.

  15. Mentalization Mediates the Relationship between Early Maltreatment and Potential for Violence in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Svenja; Zimmermann, Laura; Ramberg, Axel; Schröder, Paul

    The present study investigates the role of attachment representation and mentalization as possibly protective factors in the relationship between early maltreatment and potential for violence in adolescence. For the current study, 161 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, were recruited from high schools and youth psychiatry. Early maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, and mentalization was coded with the Reflective Functioning Scale from Adult Attachment Interviews. Potential for violence was operationalized using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the presence of conduct disorder was assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview. Using structural equation modeling, reflective functioning and attachment were tested as mediators on the direct effect of early maltreatment on potential for violence. There was a direct effect of early maltreatment on potential for violence. Furthermore, this direct effect was partially mediated by reflective functioning but not by attachment representations. The results contribute to the idea that mentalization serves as a protective factor that may suspend the pathway from early maltreatment to violence in adolescence. Because of the transformation of attachment patterns into generalized cognitive models of attachment, attachment in adolescence may have a less pronounced effect on violence in this specific developmental phase. Future studies should test for further group differences in community and clinical groups, which was not possible in the present study due to the limited sample size. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From "classic" child abuse and neglect to the new era of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2017-01-28

    The evolution of the concept of child abuse leads to consider new types of maltreatment that in the future will certainly be taken into account with a new era of social pediatrics.Pediatric care has been based on the increased awareness of the importance of meeting the psychosocial and developmental needs of children and of the role of families in promoting the health.

  18. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  19. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  20. [The connection between maltreatment and preterm birth - in the light of psychomotor development at 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szele, Anna Szabina; Nagy, Beáta Erika

    2017-06-01

    Preterm children' development and harmful affecting factors to development are important aspects of public health, because in our country the number of preterm birth is very high. Description of psychomotor development of preterm children (Brunet-Lézine; Bayley-III) and connection between psychomotor development and maternal abuse history (own questionnaire). Extremely (psychomotor development quotients and higher development risk. Strong associations were found between maternal history of childhood abuse and the development quotients. We would like to draw attention to the importance of assessing preterm children, as well as to the importance of maltreatment and the severity of its consequences. With the early recognition of necessity for developmental interventions we can prevent problems in the future. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(25): 976-983.

  1. Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara M.D., Ph.D., MPH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The association between birth outcomes and child maltreatment remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to test whether infants without congenital or chronic disease who are low birth weight (LBW, preterm, or small for gestational age (SGA are at an increased risk of being maltreated. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of infants without congenital or chronic diseases who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2005 was conducted. Cases (N = 35 and controls (N = 29 were compared on mean birth weight, gestational age, and z-score of birth weight. Results SGA was significantly associated with infant maltreatment after adjusting for other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio: 4.45, 95% CI: 1.29–15.3. LBW and preterm births were not associated with infant maltreatment. Conclusion Infants born as SGA are 4.5 times more at risk of maltreatment, even if they do not have a congenital or chronic disease. This may be because SGA infants tend to have poorer neurological development which leads them to be hard-to-soothe and places them at risk for maltreatment. Abbreviations SCAN, Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect; LBW, low birth weight; ZBW, z-score of birth weight adjusted for gestational age, sex, and parity; SGA, small for gestational age; SD, standard deviation; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; IPV, intimate partner violence.

  2. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  3. Assessing the Mediating Role of Social Support in Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology Among College Students in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagdon, Susan; Ross, Jana; Robinson, Martin; Contractor, Ateka A; Charak, Ruby; Armour, Cherie

    2018-02-01

    The detrimental impact of early trauma, particularly childhood maltreatment, on mental health is well documented. Although it is understood that social support can act as a protective factor toward mental health for children who experience such adversity, few studies have addressed the experience of childhood maltreatment and the important function of social support in adulthood. The current study aimed to assess the mediating role of social support in the relationship between childhood experiences of maltreatment and mental health outcomes including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and problematic alcohol use in a sample of university students ( N = 640) from Northern Ireland. Results of binary logistic regression analyses indicated that those reporting experiences of childhood maltreatment were at increased odds of mental health outcomes of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, but not alcohol use. Those reporting greater social support were significantly less likely to report on these mental health outcomes. In addition, the indirect paths from childhood maltreatment through social support to PTSD, depression, and anxiety were all significant, suggesting that social support, particularly family support, is a significant mediator of these relationships. Such findings have important implications for the social care response to children experiencing maltreatment and future support for such children as they transition to adolescence and adulthood.

  4. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  5. [Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván-Gonzalvo, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there are differences between Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers in the characteristics of the maltreatment, social and familial factors linked to maltreatment, and health status. The social and health reports of 83 Spanish gypsy and 105 foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers of the Aragonese Institute for Social Services (Instituto Aragones de Servicios Sociales [IASS]) because of maltreatment from January 1994 to December 2003 were reviewed. Maltreatment, its types, and warning signs were defined and assessed according to the guidelines drawn up by the IASS. The social and familial risk factors associated with maltreatment were determined according to national studies. Health status was assessed following protocols used by the IASS. A descriptive and comparative statistical study was performed. The Spanish gypsy children were mostly in the age group of 0-5 years, while foreign immigrants were mostly in the age group of 12-17 years. Spanish gypsy children showed a greater frequency of physical and emotional neglect and/or abandonment (p social and health risk factor (OR = 9.3; 95%CI, 3.8-22.8). Spanish gypsy children showed a greater frequency of neurological disorders, disabling diseases, absent or incomplete immunizations, and dermatologic diseases. Foreign immigrant children showed a greater frequency of physical and psychological and/or sexual abuse (p social services in charge of developing intervention strategies for the prevention and early detection of maltreatment, as well as for professionals in charge of the health of these children during their stay in a protection center.

  6. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  7. Associations between body mass index, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child maltreatment in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Eschenbacher, Michaela A; Diemer, Elizabeth W; Nelson, Elliot C; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine interrelationships between child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and body mass index (BMI) in young women. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore the possibility that PTSD statistically mediates or moderates the association between BMI category and self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical abuse (CPA), or neglect among 3,699 young women participating in a population-based twin study. Obese women had the highest prevalence of CSA, CPA, neglect, and PTSD (p<.001 for all). Although all three forms of child maltreatment were significantly, positively associated with overweight and obesity in unadjusted models, only CSA was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates (OR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.00). CSA and neglect, but not CPA, were associated with underweight in unadjusted models; however, after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates, the associations were no longer statistically significant (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.90-2.28 and OR=2.16, 95% CI: 0.90-5.16 for CSA and neglect, respectively). Further adjustment for PTSD generally resulted in modest attenuation of effects across associations of child maltreatment forms with BMI categories, suggesting that PTSD may, at most, be only a weak partial mediator of these associations. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking CSA and obesity and to further evaluate the role of PTSD in associations between child maltreatment and obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Self reported awareness of child maltreatment among school professionals in Saudi Arabia: impact of CRC ratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A

    2011-12-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fall Prediction and Prevention Systems: Recent Trends, Challenges, and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Rajagopalan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fall prediction is a multifaceted problem that involves complex interactions between physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Existing fall detection and prediction systems mainly focus on physiological factors such as gait, vision, and cognition, and do not address the multifactorial nature of falls. In addition, these systems lack efficient user interfaces and feedback for preventing future falls. Recent advances in internet of things (IoT and mobile technologies offer ample opportunities for integrating contextual information about patient behavior and environment along with physiological health data for predicting falls. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in fall detection and prediction systems. It also describes the challenges, limitations, and future directions in the design and implementation of effective fall prediction and prevention systems.

  10. Considering treatment of male genital schistosomiasis as a tool for future HIV prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Kallestrup, Per; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    and acquisition, and treatment could be a neglected chance of HIV prevention. This review summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MGS as a hypothesized risk factor for HIV transmission. Future research areas of global interest are suggested. METHODS: Pub...... association between MGS and HIV are urgently needed. Furthermore, field diagnostic tools should be developed and future mass treatment programs should include adults to reduce morbidity and prevent HIV acquisition. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015016252.......OBJECTIVES: Male genital schistosomiasis (MGS) is a neglected manifestation of Schistosoma haematobium infection with ignored implications on reproductive health and a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted infections in endemic regions. MGS may have associations with HIV transmission...

  11. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  12. Child Maltreatment Identification and Reporting Behavior of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…

  13. Gene–Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Narimatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene–environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future.

  14. The Role of Statins in Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Promise for the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Katsi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia has been linked to high morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. However, no efficient pharmacological options for the prevention of this condition are currently available. Preeclampsia is thought to share several pathophysiologic mechanisms with cardiovascular disease, which has led to investigations for the potential role of statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in its prevention and early management. Pravastatin seems to have a safer pharmacokinetic profile compared to other statins, however, the existing preclinical evidence for its effectiveness in preeclampsia treatment has been mostly restricted to animal models. This review aims to summarize the current data and delineate the potential future role of statins in the prevention and management of preeclampsia.

  15. Child Maltreatment in Turkey: Comparison of Parent and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sarıyer, Görkem; Ataman, M Gökalp

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents. This is the first study of its kind conducted in Turkey. First, ICAST was translated into Turkish by bilingual experts. Students and their parents were asked to complete ICAST-C and ICAST-P respectively, with the help of trained researchers. In total, data from 2,608 matched reports (2,608 children and 2,608 parents) was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate demographical variables, and chi-square tests were employed to investigate the statistical significance of comparisons. The present study demonstrated that Turkish parents consider rebukes, insults and corporal punishment effective ways of disciplining children. According to parents' reports, the use of psychological abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 16, while the use of physical abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 13. A statistically significant relationship was found between parents' economic conditions and child abuse (p0.05). However, the relationship between paternal educational background and psychological abuse was observed to be significant (pchildren's and parents' reports shows that parents tended to under-report child maltreatment. The results show that there is a significant healthcare problem in Turkey, since child maltreatment is prevalent, but parents are not generally aware of its extent. Possible approaches to changing this situation include efforts to increase education levels, promoting public awareness, and strengthening political commitments

  16. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  17. Promoting the development of resilient academic functioning in maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Berg, Kristen A; Cage, Jamie L; Perzynski, Adam T

    2018-01-01

    This study examined (a) the extent of heterogeneity in the patterns of developmental trajectories of language development and academic functioning in children who have experienced maltreatment, (b) how maltreatment type (i.e., neglect or physical abuse) and timing of abuse explained variation in developmental trajectories, and (c) the extent to which individual protective factors (i.e., preschool attendance, prosocial skills), relationship protective factors (i.e., parental warmth, absence of past-year depressive episode, cognitive/verbal responsiveness) and community protective factors (i.e., neighborhood safety) promoted the development of resilient language/academic functioning trajectories. Longitudinal data analyses were conducted using cohort sequential Growth Mixture Model (CS-GMM) with a United States national representative sample of children reported to Child Protective Services (n=1,776). Five distinct developmental trajectories from birth to age 10 were identified including two resilient groups. Children who were neglected during infancy/toddlerhood or physically abused during preschool age were more likely to be in the poorer language/academic functioning groups (decreasing/recovery/decreasing and high decreasing) than the resilient high stable group. Child prosocial skills, caregiver warmth, and caregiver cognitive stimulation significantly predicted membership in the two resilient academic functioning groups (low increasing and high stable), after controlling for demographics and child physical abuse and neglect. Results suggest that it is possible for a maltreated child to successfully achieve competent academic functioning, despite the early adversity, and identifies three possible avenues of intervention points. This study also makes a significant contribution to the field of child development research through the novel use of CS-GMM, which has implications for future longitudinal data collection methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia--the future is prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-03-30

    hence FASD, should be our future goal. The causal pathway to drinking in pregnancy is complex and requires a broad social ecological approach. Prevention will take time, must involve all government sectors and should incorporate primary, secondary and tertiary strategies to target both the broader community and populations at high risk of alcohol use during pregnancy.

  19. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Witt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4–17 years. Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ. Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA, “Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables” (Witt et al., [1].

  20. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.

  1. Cycle of coercion: experiences of maltreatment and disciplinary measures in Canadian inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, David; Archambault, Kyle; Brown, Greg

    2014-01-01

    In spite of past and current efforts at implementing effective rehabilitative interventions in carceral settings, institutions of confinement are primarily concerned with the maintenance of order within their walls. The purpose of this paper is to better understand associations between inmates' developmental background and the experience of institutional discipline, to collect information on childhood maltreatment and disciplinary measures for a sample of Canadian prisoners. Information relative to socio-economic background, childhood maltreatment and experience of discipline while in custody was obtained using face-to-face interviews and institutional file review for a sample of 416 male and 106 female offenders in Canadian provincial institutions. Results from logistic regression analyses provided support for the association between childhood maltreatment and the experience of discipline, specifically in the form of increased monitoring from correctional staff. Furthermore, this association was found to be more pronounced for female offenders. The findings highlight the need to incorporate a developmental perspective to current understanding of the use of disciplinary interventions in a prison environment. Such an approach may allow for preventing the enactment of a cycle of coercion, with negative consequences for the inmates. This study is original in its use of latent variable analytic methods to uncover the structure underlying the construct of childhood maltreatment in adult offenders. In addition, it provides valuable data of interest to researchers, corrections personnel and policy makers on the possible links between earlier developmental experiences and adjustment to the prison environment.

  2. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  3. Corporal punishment and child maltreatment in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    On 2 May, 2007, the New Zealand Parliament passed a law repealing Section 59 of the Crimes Act. In so doing, New Zealand became the first English-speaking nation in the world to make corporal punishment of a child illegal. The passage of this legislation was surrounded by intense and persistent public debate, and supporters of corporal punishment continue to advocate against the law change to the present day. In Sweden, where the first stage of similar repeal took place in 1957, it may be difficult for many to understand the strength of the public opposition to this change in New Zealand. This article will present a viewpoint on the evolution of the debate in New Zealand, review the wider context of child maltreatment and family violence in New Zealand and summarize a range of attempts to prevent or intervene effectively in the cycle of dysfunction. Child maltreatment and family violence are public health issues of great importance, and a stain on all societies. While corporal punishment may be a significant contributing factor, there is no single 'solution'. Change must occur on multiple levels (political, economic, cultural, familial and professional) before the tide will turn.

  4. Reducing sibling conflict in maltreated children placed in foster homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p conflict during play (p conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p conflict and promote parental mediation, which together may reduce sibling aggression in the foster home.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention education in Singapore: challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mee Lian; Sen, Priya; Wong, Christina M; Tjahjadi, Sylvia; Govender, Mandy; Koh, Ting Ting; Yusof, Zarina; Chew, Ling; Tan, Avin; K, Vijaya

    2012-12-01

    We reviewed the current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention education programmes in Singapore, discussed the challenges faced and proposed prevention education interventions for the future. Education programmes on HIV prevention have shown some success as seen by reduced visits to sex workers among the general adult population and a marked increase in condom use among brothel-based sex workers. However, we still face many challenges such as low awareness of HIV preventive strategies and high prevalence of HIV stigma in the general population. Voluntary HIV testing and condom use remain low among the priority groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men who buy sex. Casual sex has increased markedly from 1.1% in 1989 to 17.4% in 2007 among heterosexuals in Singapore, with the majority (84%) practising unprotected sex. Sex workers have moved from brothels to entertainment venues where sex work is mostly hidden with lack of access to sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/ HIV prevention education and treatment programmes. Education programmes promoting early voluntary testing is hampered because of poor access, high cost and stigma towards people living with HIV. It remains a challenge to promote abstinence and consistent condom use in casual and steady sexual relationships among heterosexuals and MSM. New ways to promote condom use by using a positive appeal about its pleasure enhancing effects rather than the traditional disease-oriented approach should be explored. Education programmes promoting early voluntary testing and acceptance of HIV-infected persons should be scaled up and integrated into the general preventive health services.

  6. Putting the Barker Theory into the Future: Time to Act on Preventing Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agosti, Massimo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo

    2016-11-17

    Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life-conception through 24 months of age-represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders. The Mediterranean Nutrition Group (MeNu Group), a group of researchers of the Mediterranean Region, in this Special Issue titled "Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days", presented results that advanced the science of obesity risk factors in early life, coming both from animal model studies and studies in humans. In the future, early-life intervention designs for the prevention of pediatric obesity will need to look at different strategies, and the MeNu Group is available for guidance regarding an appropriate conceptual framework to accomplish either prevention or treatment strategies to tackle pediatric obesity.

  7. Putting the Barker Theory into the Future: Time to Act on Preventing Pediatric Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pietrobelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life—conception through 24 months of age—represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders. The Mediterranean Nutrition Group (MeNu Group, a group of researchers of the Mediterranean Region, in this Special Issue titled “Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days”, presented results that advanced the science of obesity risk factors in early life, coming both from animal model studies and studies in humans. In the future, early-life intervention designs for the prevention of pediatric obesity will need to look at different strategies, and the MeNu Group is available for guidance regarding an appropriate conceptual framework to accomplish either prevention or treatment strategies to tackle pediatric obesity.

  8. Preventing relapse in the treatment of nicotine addiction: current issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, T P

    1992-01-01

    Although smoking-cessation rates have continued to increase, the vast majority of smokers who quit eventually relapse. Between 1974 and 1985, over 1.3 million smokers quit during each of those years. However, 75% to 80% of those individuals resumed smoking within six months. This article describes the dynamic phenomenon of smoking relapse within the context of cyclical episodes of smoking and quitting during an individual's lifetime. Theories of the determinants of smoking relapse are reviewed and methods designed to prevent relapse are described. Smoking relapse is discussed in terms of three aspects of tobacco addiction: (1) biological-addiction mechanisms, (2) conditioning processes, and (3) cognitive-social learning factors. The major determinants of smoking relapse are reviewed, including nicotine withdrawal, stress, weight gain, social influences, conditioning factors, causal attributions, and environmental variables. A transtheoretical-developmental model is explored in the longitudinal investigation of the natural history of slips (lapses) and relapse episodes. Relapse prevention interventions are described that emphasize self-awareness, self-regulation, self-efficacy, affect regulation, social support, and lifestyle balance. Recent developments in pharmacological adjuncts to treatment are also examined. It is concluded that innovative relapse prevention methods need to be designed for hard-core smokers with histories of cessation failures, substance abuse and/or psychiatric impairment. These and other recommendations for future research on smoking relapse and relapse prevention are discussed.

  9. The role of infant nutrition in the prevention of future disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron eShaoul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that nutrition is part of the environmental factors affecting the incidence of various diseases. The effect starts in the prenatal life and affects fetal growth and continues in early life and throughout childhood. The effect has been shown on various disease states such as allergic diseases, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome and immunologic diseases such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus. It seems that the recommendations of exclusive breastfeeding until the age of 4 months and subsequently exposure to various solid foods has beneficial effect in terms of allergic, immune and cardiovascular diseases prevention. Will these recommendations change the natural course of these diseases is unknown yet, but there is an accumulating evidence that indeed this is the case. In this review we review the evidence of early nutritional intervention and future disease prevention.

  10. [Institutional changes for the future of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the initiatives undertaken since 2005 by the Italian Society of Hygiene (SitI) regarding he future of Hygiene and Public Health in Italy, the authors examine the latest proposals for renewing the organizational structure of the departments of Prevention, as well as for training programs and function of public health physicians. These changes, however, may be insufficient for a real renewal of public health, in the absence of institutional changes which would allocate administrative management of healthcare functions to local government, with community participation in health promotion. The planned establishment of "metropolitan cities" in 2012 is an opportunity for the SItI to show that the management of health administrative functions by the new local government organs is compatible with the institutional framework, is useful for achieving the objectives of health promotion and disease prevention, and facilitates health policy in local governments.

  11. Emotional abuse in a sample of multiply maltreated, urban young adolescents: issues of definition and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Mennen, Ferol E; Kim, Kihyun; Sang, Jina

    2009-01-01

    investigation. The nature of this abuse was not minor, but rather likely to be dangerous to the mental health and well-being of these children. Further more emotional abuse, in this sample of young adolescents, at least, was likely to be accompanied by other forms of maltreatment, especially physical abuse and/or neglect. These findings have important implications for practice and the direction of future research. All those who interact with child welfare clients must recognize the prevalence of emotional abuse in maltreated children so that appropriate interventions are instituted. Screening for emotional abuse should be part of all intake referrals and when confirmed should be noted in official records. When children are placed, foster parents (both kin and non-kin) need training on the prevalence and consequences of emotional abuse, and strategies to help their foster children recover from the aftermath. When children remain with maltreating parents, emotional abuse should be a focus of the interventions designed to help maltreating parents with more effective parenting strategies and also should be a focus of the interventions designed to help the child recover from the consequences of maltreatment.

  12. History of Maltreatment in Childhood and Subsequent Parenting Stress in At-Risk, First-Time Mothers: Identifying Points of Intervention During Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Ammerman, Robert T; Teeters, Angelique R; Bensman, Heather E; Allen, Elizabeth K; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2017-04-01

    Home visiting is an effective preventive intervention that can improve parenting outcomes for at-risk, new mothers, thereby optimizing subsequent child development. A history of maltreatment in childhood is common in mothers participating in home visiting, yet the extent to which such a history is related to parenting outcomes during home visiting is unknown. The current study evaluated whether mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood respond less favorably to home visiting by examining the direct and indirect pathways to subsequent parenting stress, a key parenting outcome affecting child development. First-time mothers (N = 220; age range = 16-42) participating in one of two home visiting programs, Healthy Families America or Nurse Family Partnership, were evaluated at enrollment and again at 9-and 18-month post-enrollment assessments. Researchers administered measures of maternal history of maltreatment in childhood, depressive symptoms, social support, and parenting stress. Maternal history of maltreatment in childhood predicted worsening parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Mediation modeling identified two indirect pathways, one involving social support at enrollment and one involving persistent depressive symptoms during home visiting, that explained the relation between a history of maltreatment in childhood and parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Ways to improve the preventive effects of home visiting for mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood through the identification of relevant intervention targets and their ideal time of administration are discussed.

  13. Considering treatment of male genital schistosomiasis as a tool for future HIV prevention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Kallestrup, Per; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Vennervald, Birgitte; Petersen, Eskild

    2015-11-01

    Male genital schistosomiasis (MGS) is a neglected manifestation of Schistosoma haematobium infection with ignored implications on reproductive health and a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted infections in endemic regions. MGS may have associations with HIV transmission and acquisition, and treatment could be a neglected chance of HIV prevention. This review summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MGS as a hypothesized risk factor for HIV transmission. Future research areas of global interest are suggested. PubMed published literature was reviewed based on the MOOSE guidelines. All publications on MGS were included regardless of publication year and study design. Furthermore, all publications were searched for information on possible HIV association. The 40 identified publications related to MGS were dominated by case reports and observational studies. No randomized clinical trials have been conducted to date, and very scant information related to possible associations with HIV transmission was presented. Clinical, randomized studies and epidemiological studies covering the possible association between MGS and HIV are urgently needed. Furthermore, field diagnostic tools should be developed and future mass treatment programs should include adults to reduce morbidity and prevent HIV acquisition. CRD42015016252.

  14. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  15. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  16. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  17. Methodological Challenges in Measuring Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; Fluke, John; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil; Yuan, Ying-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article reviewed the different surveillance systems used to monitor the extent of reported child maltreatment in North America. Methods: Key measurement and definitional differences between the surveillance systems are detailed and their potential impact on the measurement of the rate of victimization. The infrastructure…

  18. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency

  19. Investigating the neurodevelopmental mediators of aggression in children with a history of child maltreatment:An exploratory field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, J F; Brewer, W; Northam, E; Yucel, M; Anderson, V

    2017-08-01

    Maltreatment of children is a chronic community problem that increases the risk of future aggression. Despite several decades of research highlighting this relationship, few studies have explored the potential neuropsychological deficits that are likely to mediate it. This exploratory study aimed to examine how child maltreatment may be associated with aggression via impairment in the developing prefrontal-limbic-autonomic pathways that are implicated in neuropsychological models of aggression. Furthermore, it aimed to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and both reactive and proactive aggression subtypes. To investigate this non-invasively in an at-risk population, children with a documented protective care history (n = 20) and a community control group (n = 30), aged between 6 and 12 years, were compared on measures of cardiovascular functioning, affect regulation and cognitive functioning aligned with this neuropsychological model. Whilst no group differences were found on cardiovascular functioning (i.e., resting heart rate, heart rate reactivity, heart rate variability), the protective care group performed significantly worse on measures of affect regulation and cognitive functioning (i.e., global intelligence, executive functioning, smell identification and social cognition). The relationship between child maltreatment and aggression was mediated by executive dysfunction and affect dysregulation but not global IQ, social cognition or olfactory identification. The results suggest that interventions targeting aggression in maltreated children will benefit from clinical assessment and psychological strategies that address the executive dysfunction and affect dysregulation that has been associated with this clinical outcome.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do not identify when these experiences may have occurred, who was involved or the feelings evoked, such as helplessness or terror. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed to overcome these limitations. In view of the improvements over previous self-report instruments that this new tool offers and of the small number of self-report questionnaires for childhood maltreatment assessment available in Brazil, this study was conducted to conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the MACE scale for Brazilian Portuguese. The following steps were performed: translation, back-translation, committee review for semantic and conceptual evaluation, and acceptability trial for equivalence. Semantic and structural changes were made to the interview to adapt it for the Brazilian culture and all 75 of the items that comprise the longer version of MACE were translated. The results of the acceptability trial suggest that the items are comprehensible. The MACE scales may be useful tools for investigation of childhood maltreatment and make a valuable contribution to research in Brazil. Future studies should consider testing the availability and reliability of the three versions of the instrument translated into Brazilian Portuguese.

  1. Clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M; Kucuk, Omer; Jones, Dean P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the most important human clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents conducted to date, provide an overview of currently ongoing studies, and discuss future steps needed to advance research in this field. To date there have been several large (at least 7000 participants) trials testing the efficacy of antioxidant supplements in preventing cancer. The specific agents (diet-derived direct antioxidants and essential components of antioxidant enzymes) tested in those trials included β-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, selenium, retinol, zinc, riboflavin, and molybdenum. None of the completed trials produced convincing evidence to justify the use of traditional antioxidant-related vitamins or minerals for cancer prevention. Our search of ongoing trials identified six projects at various stages of completion. Five of those six trials use selenium as the intervention of interest delivered either alone or in combination with other agents. The lack of success to date can be explained by a variety of factors that need to be considered in the next generation research. These factors include lack of good biological rationale for selecting specific agents of interest; limited number of agents tested to date; use of pharmacological, rather than dietary, doses; and insufficient duration of intervention and follow-up. The latter consideration underscores the need for alternative endpoints that are associated with increased risk of neoplasia (i.e., biomarkers of risk), but are detectable prior to tumor occurrence. Although dietary antioxidants are a large and diverse group of compounds, only a small proportion of candidate agents have been tested. In summary, the strategy of focusing on large high-budget studies using cancer incidence as the endpoint and testing a relatively limited number of antioxidant agents has been largely unsuccessful. This lack of success in previous trials should not preclude us from seeking novel

  2. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought...... to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process....

  3. The mental health benefits of regular physical activity, and its role in preventing future depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Stanton,1 Brenda Happell,1 Peter Reaburn2 1Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Centre for Mental Health Nursing Innovation and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia; 2School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia Abstract: There is a large body of literature which examines the mental health benefits of physical activity. In general, studies report an inverse, dose dependent relationship between leisure-time physical activity participation, and mental health outcomes. Studies also show a positive association between maximal aerobic capacity and general well-being. More recent studies have confirmed the positive effects of physical activity participation on cognition, including the treatment and prevention of dementia. The current exercise prescription suggested for the treatment of depression is similar to that recommended to the general population for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. There is also strong evidence from large population level studies that long term physical activity participation reduces the risk of future depressive illness. From the available evidence, it would appear that physical activity performed at a frequency, intensity, and duration which is substantially less than that required for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in the general population, may afford significant benefits in reducing the risk of future depressive illness. This may be particularly encouraging for people with prior depressive illness, or at high risk of future depressive illness, since this vulnerable population already faces significant barriers to physical activity participation over and above those encountered by the general population. Keywords: exercise, major depression, depressive disorder, preventive medicine

  4. The Relation between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam B.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we…

  5. Genetics-Current and Future Role in the Prevention and Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to review genetic risk variants for coronary artery disease (CAD) and how they will change the management and prevention of CAD currently and in the future. Through the efforts of international consortia, 58 genetic risk variants for CAD of genome-wide significance have been replicated in appropriate independent populations. Only one third of these variants mediate their risk through known conventional risk factors for CAD. Thus, unknown mechanisms contribute to CAD. Secondly, the genetic risk is proportional to the total number of risk variants rather than the intensity of any risk factor. Thirdly, the availability of the genetic risk variants enables one to perform Mendelian randomization (MR) studies since they are randomized at conception, not confounded, fixed for life, and can be used to determine if a risk factor is causative or just a marker. MR can also be used to determine the safety and efficacy of a gene product targeted for drug therapy. Genetic risk variants have been shown to successfully risk stratify for CAD in both primary and secondary preventions. Contrary to dogma, MR documents that plasma HDL-C is not protective of CAD. The use of genetic risk score (GRS) for CAD is shown to be more effective in risk stratifying for CAD than the Framingham risk score and independent of the conventional risk factors including family history. Furthermore, the GRS predicts the response to statin therapy in primary and secondary preventions. The use of GRS could represent a paradigm shift in the prevention of CAD.

  6. Association between human papillomavirus vaccine uptake uptake and cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands: Implications for future impact on prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, A.; Wielders, C.C.; Bogaards, J.A.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Greeff, de S.C.; Melker, de H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Several countries recently added human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to cervical cancer screening in the effort to prevent cervical cancer. They include the Netherlands, where both programs are free. To estimate their combined future impact on cancer prevention, information is needed on the

  7. Development, Evaluation, and Future Directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Reeves, Melissa A.; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development, program evaluation, and future directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum (PREPaRE). Satisfaction ratings were analyzed for 1,073 participants who attended the Crisis Prevention and Preparedness workshop (Workshop 1) and 1,008 participants who attended the Crisis…

  8. How far can we prevent further physical soil degradation in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    .g. fodder production and harvesting, adequate animal grazing), - wind is furthermore minimized by adequate hedgerow plantations, continuous cover crop growth, optimized particle bindings by water, infiltrating organic acids, appropriate grazing intensity. Agroforestry can be considered as an additional positive measure to reduce soil erosion risks generally and to ameliorate degraded sites. C) -plant cover on slopes remains untouched, overgrazing and consecutive soil homogenization especially under moist climatic conditions must be prevented but adjusted to the actual structure stability of the hillsides. The communication of these findings followed by application of such measures can help farmers and foresters as well as landowners to prevent (further) physical soil degradation in the future.

  9. Child Psychological Maltreatment in the Family: Definition and Severity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.

  10. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse During Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaptagin eKhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age.METHODS: 560 (223M/337F young adults (18-25 years were recruited from the community without regard to diagnosis and balanced to have equal exposure to 0-4 plus types of maltreatment. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure scale assessed severity of exposure to 10 types of maltreatment across each year of childhood. Major depression (MDD and current symptoms were evaluated by SCID, interview and self-report. Predictive analytics assessed importance of exposure at each age and evaluated whether exposure at one or two ages was a more important predictor than number, severity or duration of maltreatment across childhood.RESULTS: The most important predictors of lifetime history of MDD was non-verbal emotional abuse (NVEA in males and peer emotional abuse (EA in females at 14 years of age, and these were more important predictors across models than number of types of maltreatment (Males: t9=16.39, p<10-7; Females t9=5.78, p<10-4. Suicidal ideation was predicted, in part, by NVEA and peer EA at age 14, but most importantly by parental verbal abuse at age 5 in males and sexual abuse at age 18 in females. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for sensitive exposure periods when maltreatment maximally impacts risk for depression, and provides an alternative interpretation of the ACE study results. These findings fit with emerging neuroimaging evidence for regional sensitivity periods. The presence of sensitive exposure periods has important implications for prevention, preemption and

  11. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Rachael; Fallon, Barbara; Van Wert, Melissa; Filippelli, Joanne

    2017-02-08

    There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013) were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001). The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  12. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lefebvre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013 were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001. The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  13. Problem-specific racial/ethnic disparities in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jonathan I; Gudiño, Omar G; Lau, Anna S

    2013-05-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic differences in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in contact with the Child Welfare system. Participants included 1,600 non-Hispanic White, African American, and Latino youth (age 4-14) who were the subjects of investigations for alleged maltreatment and participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Maltreatment exposure, internalizing, and externalizing problems were assessed at baseline and subsequent specialty mental health service use was assessed 1 year later. Maltreatment exposure predicted both internalizing and externalizing problems across all racial/ethnic groups, but non-Hispanic White youth were the only group for whom maltreatment exposure was linked with subsequent service use via both internalizing and externalizing problem severity. Only externalizing problems predicted subsequent service use for African American youth and this association was significantly stronger relative to non-Hispanic White youth. Neither problem type predicted service use for Latinos. Future research is needed to understand how individual-, family-, and system-level factors contribute to racial/ethnic differences in pathways linking maltreatment exposure to services via internalizing/externalizing problems.

  14. Maltreatment experiences and associated factors prior to admission to residential care: a sample of institutionalized children and youth in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morantz, Gillian; Cole, Donald C; Ayaya, Samuel; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2013-10-01

    maltreatment prior to admission, particularly among nonorphans, suggests the need for better child abuse and neglect prevention programs in communities, and psychosocial support services in institutions. The significant proportion of children admitted for poverty, predominantly among orphans, indicates that community-based poverty-reduction programs might reduce the need for institutionalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Future Issues and Approaches to Health Monitoring and Failure Prevention for Oil-Free Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Recent technology advances in foil air bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of small Oil-Free gas turbines. These turbomachines are currently commercialized as small (<100 kW) microturbine generators and larger machines are being developed. Based upon these successes and the high potential payoffs offered by Oil-Free systems, NASA, industry, and other government entities are anticipating Oil-Free gas turbine propulsion systems to proliferate future markets. Since an Oil-Free engine has no oil system, traditional approaches to health monitoring and diagnostics, such as chip detection, oil analysis, and possibly vibration signature analyses (e.g., ball pass frequency) will be unavailable. As such, new approaches will need to be considered. These could include shaft orbit analyses, foil bearing temperature measurements, embedded wear sensors and start-up/coast down speed analysis. In addition, novel, as yet undeveloped techniques may emerge based upon concurrent developments in MEMS technology. This paper introduces Oil-Free technology, reviews the current state of the art and potential for future turbomachinery applications and discusses possible approaches to health monitoring, diagnostics and failure prevention.

  16. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  17. Maltreatment Risk Among Children With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Miriam J; Sims, Scott; Bower, Carol; Leonard, Helen; Stanley, Fiona J; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2017-04-01

    Children with disabilities are at increased risk of child maltreatment; however, there is a gap in the evidence about whether all disabilities are at equal risk and whether risk factors vary according to the type of disability. A population-based record-linkage study of all children born in Western Australia between 1990 and 2010. Children with disabilities were identified by using population-based registers and risk of maltreatment determined by allegations reported to the Department for Child Protection and Family Support. Although children with disabilities make up 10.4% of the population, they represent 25.9% of children with a maltreatment allegation and 29.0% of those with a substantiated allegation; however, increased risk of maltreatment was not consistent across all disability types. Children with intellectual disability, mental/behavioral problems, and conduct disorder continued to have increased risk of an allegation and substantiated allegation after adjusting for child, family, and neighborhood risk factors. In contrast, adjusting for these factors resulted in children with autism having a lower risk, and children with Down syndrome and birth defects/cerebral palsy having the same risk as children without disability. The prevalence of disabilities in the child protection system suggests a need for awareness of the scope of issues faced by these children and the need for interagency collaboration to ensure children's complex needs are met. Supports are needed for families with children with disabilities to assist in meeting the child's health and developmental needs, but also to support the parents in managing the often more complex parenting environment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Emotional and behavioral sequelae of childhood maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Kaufman, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize research on the emotional and behavioral consequences of childhood maltreatment published between January 2009 and April 2010. Recent findings Many studies published during this time frame replicated prior research studies that have shown that childhood maltreatment is a nonspecific risk factor for a range of different emotional and behavioral problems. Two research groups highlighted the high revictimization rate among abused girls, with more than one in five abused girls found to have subsequent experiences of rape by young adulthood. The association between physical and sexual abuse and subsequent perpetration of violence toward self and other was also demonstrated, with one study noting the particular vulnerability of sexually abused boys to these negative outcomes. In this study, sexually abused boys had a 15-fold increased risk of making a suicide attempt, and a 45-fold increased risk of perpetrating domestic violence. A three-generation longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of abuse is also highlighted in the review, together with emerging findings on genetic and environmental risk and protective factors associated with variability in child outcomes. Summary Maltreated children are at-risk for a host of negative outcomes. Although marked gains have been made in treating trauma-related psychopathology, these recent studies highlight the need to examine long-term outcomes of youths who have received state-of-the-art evidence-based interventions, and determine if there is a need for more comprehensive and sustained intervention approaches. PMID:20736837

  19. Reducing Sibling Conflict in Maltreated Children Placed in Foster Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N=22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n=13) or a comparison (n=9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5–11 years placed together in a foster home. The Siblings, Parent, and Joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73%. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre-and post-intervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At post-intervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (pFoster parents in the intervention group reported a higher number of conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p Foster parents in the intervention group reported lower sibling physical aggression from the older toward the younger child than those in the comparison group (p foster home. PMID:24585072

  20. Maltreated and non-maltreated children's true and false memories of neutral and emotional word lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Howe, Mark L; Magnussen, Svein; Melinder, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Maltreated (n=26) and non-maltreated (n=31) 7- to 12-year-old children were tested on the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task using emotional and neutral word lists. True recall was significantly better for non-maltreated than maltreated children regardless of list valence. The proportion of false recall for neutral lists was comparable regardless of maltreatment status. However, maltreated children showed a significantly higher false recall rate for the emotional lists than non-maltreated children. Together, these results provide new evidence that maltreated children could be more prone to false memory illusions for negatively valenced information than their non-maltreated counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  2. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Australia: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehmy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…

  3. Dimensions of Emotional Maltreatment of School Adolescents at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human beings at birth are naturally bequeathed to express their pleasant and unpleasant dispositions to people and life events around them. Unpleasant feeling is an indication of emotional maltreatment by significant others. The emotional maltreatment originating from parents/guardian was the subject of investigation of ...

  4. Defining Maltreatment Chronicity: Are There Differences in Child Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, D.J.; Graham, J.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Everson, M.; Bangdiwala, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: For nearly 25 years researchers have suggested that better taxonomic systems conceptualizing and reliably differentiating among different dimensions of maltreatment are required. This study examines the utility of three different characterizations of one dimension of maltreatment, chronicity, to predict child behavioral and emotional…

  5. Maltreatment of Youth Heads of Households in Rwanda | Ntaganira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH). Orphans and YHH are particularly vulnerable to maltreatment because of marginalization from the community. The objectives of this study were to: (a) determine the prevalence of maltreatment among YHH after a two year follow-up by age and ...

  6. Maltreatment of Youth Heads of Households in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of maltreatment among YHH after a two year follow-up by age and gender; (b) assess the association between ... treatment or maltreatment of YHH. ..... even if he is small those people do not disturb them. [Youth female age 22]. There are times when boys come to our house and refuse to go. [Youth girl age 18].

  7. Neuropsychology of Child Maltreatment and Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.; Moss, Lauren E.; Nogin, Margarita M.; Webb, Nadia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment has the potential to alter a child's neurodevelopmental trajectory and substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric disorders, as well as to deleteriously impact neurocognitive functioning throughout the lifespan. Child maltreatment has been linked to multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment, including…

  8. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  9. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  10. Invisible child maltreatment and long-term social harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    maltreatment without the knowledge of the local authorities? Will young adults suffer from PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), if they have been exposed to child maltreatment? Will social support from a significant other reduce the developmental problems despite all odds? Method Three separate datasets were......Research questions Research on child maltreatment has suggested that children exposed to abuse and neglect exhibit various social, cognitive and emotional developmental problems. The paper explores long-term consequences and addresses the following questions: how many is exposed to child....... The third consisted of hospital registers including all children born 1994-2006 which was analyzed to estimate the number of cases of child maltreatment known to the local authorities and the hospitals’ wards (N=914,800 children). Findings Most child-maltreatment is invisible for local authorities...

  11. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: one potentially preventable and modifiable disease? Part II: Management, prevention and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    The management of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) includes pharmacological, nonpharmacological and caregiver interventions. Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have a small beneficial effect in mild-to-moderate dementia. Attention is increasingly focused on long-term measures that may prevent, delay or minimize MCI and dementia, including Mediterranean diet, exercise, early active treatment of hypercholesterolaemia hypertension, and diabetes starting in midlife and earlier. High cognitive activity and a high cognitive reserve may prevent or delay the onset of aging-related MCI and dementia. Although the numbers of the elderly with dementia are rapidly increasing worldwide, the incidence of dementia in some countries is decreasing attributable to higher educational levels, decreased vascular risk factors and healthier lifestyles. Prevention of dementia is feasible and reasonable.

  12. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  13. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija; Lecic-Tosevski Dusica; Pejovic-Milovancevic Milica; Popovic-Deusic Smiljka

    2014-01-01

    The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and Dissociative Experience Scale ...

  14. Perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy moderate the impact of maltreatment on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Lewis, Terri; Hussey, Jon M; Thompson, Richard; Newton, Rae; English, Diana; Dubowitz, Howard

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the moderating influence of positive neighborhood factors such as social cohesion and informal social control (collective efficacy), on the relationship between child maltreatment and aggressive behavior at age 12. Caregiver (N = 861) and youth (N = 823) dyads were interviewed when youth were aged 12 as part of a longitudinal study of child abuse and neglect (LONGSCAN). Caregivers and youth provided reports of youth externalizing behaviors while caregivers provided perceptions of collective efficacy. Child Protective Services records and youth's self-report of abuse experiences provided information on history of maltreatment. Multivariate analyses examined the moderating effect of collective efficacy on the influence of child abuse and neglect on youth externalizing behaviors. Neighborhood factors did moderate the association between earlier neglect and aggression at age 12, such that youth who experienced neglect, but not abuse, had lower externalizing scores in neighborhoods with higher levels of collective efficacy. Neighborhood-level factors such as collective efficacy should be considered as protective in preventing externalizing behaviors for youth who have experienced maltreatment.

  15. Child maltreatment prevalence and mental disorders outcomes among American Indian women in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Bonnie; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sanders, Margaret; Waitzkin, Howard; Skipper, Betty; Yager, Joel

    2004-02-01

    To examine (1) the prevalence, types, and severity of child abuse and neglect (CAN) and (2) the relationship between CAN and lifetime psychiatric disorders among American Indian women using primary care services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 234 American Indian women, age 18-45 who presented for outpatient ambulatory services at a community-based Indian Health Service Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dependent measures included mood, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. CAN was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Approximately three-quarters of respondents (76.5%; 95% CI = 70.4, 81.7) reported some type of childhood abuse or neglect; over 40% reported exposure to severe maltreatment. Severity of child maltreatment was associated in a dose response manner with lifetime diagnosis of mental disorders. After adjusting for social and demographic correlates, severe child maltreatment was strongly associated with lifetime PTSD (prevalence ratio [PR] 3.9; 95% CI = 1.9, 8.0); and was moderately associated with lifetime substance use disorders (PR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.3); mood disorders (PR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.4, 3.2); and with two or more disorders (PR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.4). CAN was common in our sample of American Indian women in primary care and was positively associated with lifetime psychiatric disorders outcomes. Screening for CAN and psychiatric disorders would enhance the treatment of patients seeking primary care services. Primary prevention of child maltreatment might reduce the high prevalence of mental disorders among American Indian women.

  16. How Do Cognitive Distortions and Substance Related Problems Affect the Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam B.; Esposito-Smythers, Chrstianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study, informed by the cognitive-behavioral theory of suicide, is among the first studies to examine cognitive distortions and substance related problems as potential mediators and moderators of the relation between child maltreatment (CM) and suicidal ideation (SI) in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Method The sample included 185 adolescents (71.4% female; 84% White) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Participants completed self-report measures assessing cognitive errors, negative cognitive triad, substance related problems, and SI. Participants and their parents completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview assessing CM history. Results In this clinical sample, we found that child maltreatment was associated with suicidal ideation only for youth with current substance abuse problems, indicating moderation. Contrary to predictions, substance related problems did not mediate the association between child maltreatment and adolescent SI. Further, cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad did not mediate or moderate the association between CM and SI. However, there were significant unique effects for both cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad on SI, suggesting that adolescents with more severe cognitive distortions report greater SI, regardless of CM history. Conclusions Clinically, results suggest that practitioners should carefully screen for and address any substance misuse among victims of maltreatment to prevent clinically significant SI. Study results also suggest that interventions that incorporate cognitive restructuring may help decrease risk for severe SI in adolescent clinical samples in general. PMID:25419473

  17. How Do Cognitive Distortions and Substance Related Problems Affect the Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam B; Esposito-Smythers, Chrstianne

    2013-10-01

    The present study, informed by the cognitive-behavioral theory of suicide, is among the first studies to examine cognitive distortions and substance related problems as potential mediators and moderators of the relation between child maltreatment (CM) and suicidal ideation (SI) in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The sample included 185 adolescents (71.4% female; 84% White) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Participants completed self-report measures assessing cognitive errors, negative cognitive triad, substance related problems, and SI. Participants and their parents completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview assessing CM history. In this clinical sample, we found that child maltreatment was associated with suicidal ideation only for youth with current substance abuse problems, indicating moderation. Contrary to predictions, substance related problems did not mediate the association between child maltreatment and adolescent SI. Further, cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad did not mediate or moderate the association between CM and SI. However, there were significant unique effects for both cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad on SI, suggesting that adolescents with more severe cognitive distortions report greater SI, regardless of CM history. Clinically, results suggest that practitioners should carefully screen for and address any substance misuse among victims of maltreatment to prevent clinically significant SI. Study results also suggest that interventions that incorporate cognitive restructuring may help decrease risk for severe SI in adolescent clinical samples in general.

  18. Gynecologic Cancer Prevention and Control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Progress, Current Activities, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M.; Larkin, O. Ann; Moore, Angela R.; Hayes, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  19. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  20. Anesthetic gases and global warming: Potentials, prevention and future of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Greenhouse gases make the earth warmer by trapping energy inside the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere and include: water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Hazardous chemicals enter the air we breathe as a result of dozens of activities carried out during a typical day at a healthcare facility like processing lab samples, burning fossil fuels etc. We sometimes forget that anesthetic agents are also greenhouse gases (GHGs). Anesthetic agents used today are volatile halogenated ethers and the common carrier gas nitrous oxide known to be aggressive GHGs. With less than 5% of the total delivered halogenated anesthetic being metabolized by the patient, the vast majority of the anesthetic is routinely vented to the atmosphere through the operating room scavenging system. The global warming potential (GWP) of a halogenated anesthetic is up to 2,000 times greater than CO2. Global warming potentials are used to compare the strength of different GHGs to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to that of CO2. Here we discuss about the GWP of anesthetic gases, preventive measures to decrease the global warming effects of anesthetic gases and Xenon, a newer anesthetic gas for the future of anesthesia.

  1. New Methods to Address Old Challenges: The Use of Administrative Data for Longitudinal Replication Studies of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Administrative data are crucial to the “big data” revolution of social science and have played an important role in the development of child maltreatment research. These data are also of value to administrators, policy makers, and clinicians. The focus of this paper is the use of administrative data to produce and replicate longitudinal studies of child maltreatment. Child protection administrative data have several advantages. They are often population-based, and allow longitudinal examination of child maltreatment and complex multi-level analyses. They also allow comparison across subgroups and minority groups, remove burden from individuals to disclose traumatic experiences, and can be less biased than retrospective recall. Finally, they can be linked to data from other agencies to explore comorbidity and outcomes, and are comparatively cost and time effective. The benefits and challenges associated with the use of administrative data for longitudinal child maltreatment research become magnified when these data are used to produce replications. Techniques to address challenges and support future replication efforts include developing a biographical understanding of the systems from which the data are drawn, using multiple data sources to contextualize the data and research results, recognizing and adopting various approaches to replication, and documenting all data coding and manipulation processes. These techniques are illustrated in this paper via a case study of previous replication work. PMID:28914775

  2. Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, D; Rogosch, F A

    2001-01-01

    Cortisol regulation was investigated in a sample of school-aged maltreated (n = 175) and demographically comparable low-income nonmaltreated (n = 209) children in the context of a day camp research program. Overall group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were not found for average morning or average afternoon cortisol levels. However, significant variations were found that were based on the subtypes of maltreatment that the children had experienced. Maltreated children who had been both physically and sexually abused (as well as neglected or emotionally maltreated) exhibited substantial elevations in morning cortisol levels; children who had high (>1 SD) cortisol levels in both the morning and afternoon were also overrepresented in the multiple abuse group. Developmental timing of maltreatment did not account for these group differences, whereas the severity of sexual abuse was implicated. In contrast to the multiple abuse group, a subgroup of physically abused children showed evidence of a trend toward lower morning cortisol relative to nonmaltreated children with a significantly smaller decrease in cortisol levels from morning to afternoon. The findings are discussed in terms of the diversity of atypical cortisol regulation patterns that are exhibited among maltreated children.

  3. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention.

  4. Childhood maltreatment and adulthood poor sleep quality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel A; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake M

    2017-08-01

    Available evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that childhood maltreatment may be associated with a range of sleep disorders. However, these studies have not controlled for potential individual-, familial- and environmental-level confounders. To determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lower sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders. Data for the present study were obtained from a pre-birth cohort study of 3778 young adults (52.6% female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy follow up at a mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first obstetric clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital in 1981-1983. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at the 21-year follow up. We linked this dataset to agency-recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. A series of separate logistic regression models was used to test whether childhood maltreatment predicted lower sleep quality after adjustment for selected confounders. Substantiated physical abuse significantly predicted lower sleep quality in males. Single and multiple forms of childhood maltreatment, including age of maltreatment and number of substantiations, did not predict lower sleep quality in either gender in both crude and adjusted models. Not being married, living in a residential problem area, cigarette smoking and internalising were significantly associated with lower sleep quality in a fully adjusted model for the male-female combined sample. Childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict young adult poor sleep quality, with the exception of physical abuse for males. While childhood maltreatment has been found to predict a range of mental health problems, childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict sleep problems occurring in young adults. Poor sleep quality was

  5. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  6. Pathways from childhood maltreatment to emerging adulthood: investigating trauma-mediated substance use and dating violence outcomes among child protective services-involved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Breanne; Goldstein, Abby L; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal survey data were used to examine the relationship between two types of childhood maltreatment, abuse/neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and two outcomes, substance use and dating violence, within the past year. Participants were youth (N = 158, aged 16-19 at Time 3) involved with child protective services (CPS). A parallel multiple mediator model was used to test the hypothesis that trauma symptoms would mediate the relationship between both types of maltreatment and dating violence, marijuana, and alcohol use outcomes. Although both types of maltreatment were not directly associated with dating violence and substance use outcomes, the indirect effects of anxiety, anger, and dissociation on the relationship between maltreatment and substance use/dating violence were significant. Direct effects of both types of maltreatment on past year use of dating violence + alcohol use and dating violence + marijuana use were not significant, but results demonstrated a significant indirect effect for anger on the relationship between exposure to IPV and past year dating violence + marijuana use. No other indirect effects were significant. Findings highlight the negative effects of exposure to IPV and have implications for the development of prevention programming for youth transitioning out of CPS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011 databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. We conclude that child maltreatment is a risk factor for short and long-term development due to potential adverse effects on cognitive functioning.

  8. Heterogeneity in Maltreated and Non-maltreated Preschool Children's Inhibitory Control: The Interplay Between Parenting Quality and Child Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Stifter, Cynthia A; Teti, Douglas M

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother-child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which maternal warm autonomy support, warm guidance, and strict/hostile control were observationally coded during a joint teaching task. Independent assessments of children's inhibitory control were obtained, and observers rated children's temperament. After relevant covariates, including income, maternal education, and child age and IQ were controlled for, there were no differences between the maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups in either children's inhibitory control or mothers' behaviours in the laboratory session. Even after much of the variance in children's inhibitory control was accounted for from the covariates, children's temperamental negativity moderated the effects of warm autonomy support on inhibitory control in both maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups. Temperamentally negative children whose mothers displayed more warm autonomy support showed greater inhibitory control, at levels on par with low-negative children. Findings suggest that heterogeneity in children's self-regulation may be due in part to individual differences in sensitivity to caregiver support for children's independence, even among those exposed to maltreatment.

  9. [Maternal filicide in Japan: analyses of 96 cases and future directions for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hisako

    2007-01-01

    Maternal filicide is not an isolated phenomenon. When a mother kills her child, she may be affected by many factors and confronted with different problems based on the child's developmental stage. In this study in Japan, a judicial sample of 96 adult women, convicted in their first trial for the murder or attempted murder of their children, was divided into four groups of mothers according to the age of the victim (25 women killed neonates, 22 women infants, 27 women preschool children, and 22 women schoolchildren and/or teenagers) in order to identify the factors that have a major impact on filicide in each group. The socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, circumstantial, and offense characteristics, and legal disposition of 96 cases drawn from judicial records were compared among the four groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test; comparison of two groups was conducted using the Mann-Whitney test. Neonaticide cases were distinguished from the other three groups by marked differences: a significantly higher rate of unmarried mothers, financial difficulties, absence of mental illness, and admission of not wanting an illegitimate child. In the other groups, mental disorders were frequent; in particular, post-partum depression was the primary cause of infanticide. For the two groups of cases involving a child older than one year, filicidal mothers were more affected by circumstantial factors such as health problems of the child or severe marital discord. These problems may then have caused a reactive mental disorder among these mothers. The risk of fatal abuse or neglect was higher for handicapped preschool children. Filicide-suicide was most frequently seen among school-aged children and/or teenagers who had serious behavioral problems, and these children often had a mental disorder. The classification of maternal filicide by age of the child demonstrated that there are specific issues for each group. Based on these findings, future directions for prevention include

  10. Direct and indirect forms of childhood maltreatment and nonsuicidal self-injury among clinically-referred children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armiento, Jenna; Hamza, Chloe A; Stewart, Shannon L; Leschied, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Although exposure to direct forms of childhood maltreatment is among the most widely studied risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), research on NSSI has largely overlooked the role of exposure to indirect forms of child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing domestic violence). To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined associations among both direct and indirect forms of child maltreatment and NSSI among clinically-referred children and youth. Data was collected using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Assessment (ChYMH) at ten mental health agencies. The ChYMH is a comprehensive standardized clinical assessment tool completed by trained assessors using multiple sources. The study included a convenience sample of 747 children and youth (68% male) between ages 8-18 with complex mental health histories referred for inpatient or outpatient care in Ontario, Canada. Univariate chi-square analyses indicated positive associations with NSSI and both direct (i.e., physical, sexual) and indirect child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing domestic violence). In a binary multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for participant age and sex, only exposure to indirect child maltreatment emerged as multivariate predictor of NSSI. The sample was limited to only 10 mental health agencies and only consenting parents/guardians referred to mental health services suggesting the study may not be generalizable to all clinical samples. The present study provides evidence that witnessing domestic violence in childhood is an important risk factor for NSSI. Clinical relevance includes implications for clinicians to develop targeted intervention and prevention strategies for NSSI for children who have witnessed domestic violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. FUTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  12. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders Using Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions: A Narrative Review and Recommendations for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Daniel Ebert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD, their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs. This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs, effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include

  13. History of Childhood Maltreatment and College Academic Outcomes: Indirect Effects of Hot Execution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn C. Welsh

    2017-07-01

    outcomes as assessed by GPA and by self-reported adaptation. Further, relatively “hot” EF task performance on the IGT and GNG tasks serves as a link between child maltreatment experiences and college achievement and adaptation, suggesting that hot EF skills may be a fruitful direction for future intervention efforts to improve academic outcomes for this population.

  14. History of Childhood Maltreatment and College Academic Outcomes: Indirect Effects of Hot Execution Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Marilyn C; Peterson, Eric; Jameson, Molly M

    2017-01-01

    by GPA and by self-reported adaptation. Further, relatively "hot" EF task performance on the IGT and GNG tasks serves as a link between child maltreatment experiences and college achievement and adaptation, suggesting that hot EF skills may be a fruitful direction for future intervention efforts to improve academic outcomes for this population.

  15. Impact of emotional maltreatment on self esteem among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sadia; Kaiser, Aneeqa

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the impact of emotional maltreatment on self-esteem among adolescents, and to see if gender makes a difference in this context. The cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2014, and comprised adolescents in the age range of 14 to 18 years who were selected using purposive sampling from various government and private schools and colleges of Sargodha, Punjab. The questionnaire on seven dimensions of emotional maltreatment at home and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used. There were 400 subjects; 200(50%) boys and as many girls. The overall mean age was 16.14±1.36 years (range: 14-18 years). Correlation coefficient indicated significant negative relationship between emotional maltreatment and self-esteem (degrading r= -0.33, pself-esteem (isolating?= -0.12, pself-esteem. Emotional maltreatment strongly predicted negative self-esteem among adolescents. Gender was a significant factor in the domain of degrading.

  16. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures.

  17. Childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorders among detained youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Devon C; Abram, Karen M; Romero, Erin G; Washburn, Jason J; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of childhood maltreatment and its relationship with current psychiatric disorders among detained youths. Clinical research interviewers assessed history of childhood maltreatment with the Child Maltreatment Assessment Profile and psychiatric diagnosis with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version 2.3, in a stratified, random sample of 1,829 youths detained at the Cook Country Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (final sample, N=1,735). History of maltreatment was also ascertained from Cook County Court Child Protection Division records. More than three-quarters of females and more than two-thirds of males had a history of physical abuse (moderate or severe). More than 40% of females and 10% of males had a history of sexual abuse. Females and non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment. Among females, sexual abuse was associated with every type of psychiatric disorder. Females who experienced various types of abuse were 2.6 to 10.7 times as likely as females with no maltreatment to have any disorder. Among males, maltreatment was associated with every disorder except anxiety disorders (range of odds ratios, 1.9-7.9). Among youths who were sexually abused, abuse with force was associated with anxiety and affective disorders among females and attention-deficit hyperactivity or disruptive behavior disorders and substance use disorders among males. Childhood maltreatment is common among detained youths and is also highly associated with psychiatric disorders. The mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice systems must collaborate to ensure that youths receive protection and care when they return to their communities.

  18. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Yunus, Muslim A; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Booy, Robert; Alotaibi, Badriah M

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Yezli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD. KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks.

  20. Childhood Maltreatment and Revictimization in a Homeless Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Hanie; Krausz, Michael; Schütz, Christian G

    2016-09-01

    We examined the hypothesis that exposure to childhood maltreatment increases the vulnerability to Adult Victimization (AV) in a homeless population (N = 500). We also investigated the effects of specific types (emotional, physical, and sexual) and cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment on AV, and whether gender moderates these relationships. All three groups with AV experience (emotional, physical, and sexual) indicated higher exposure to childhood abuse and cumulative maltreatment, and those who were sexually victimized as an adult showed higher exposure to childhood neglect. In addition, exposure to childhood maltreatment had type-specific and cumulative effects on AV. Exposure to all types of childhood abuse maintained a strong direct association with AV, regardless of demographic characteristics, including age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, and housing situation. In addition, exposure to physical neglect showed a significant relationship with Adult Sexual Victimization. Cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment was consistently associated with cumulative risk of experiencing AV. Gender had no significant effect on these relationships. Findings suggest that intervention programs in homeless population should consider the history of childhood maltreatment and its characteristics to increase the effectiveness of intervention strategies for AV in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The relationship between cigarette taxes and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Prior research suggests that income and child maltreatment are related, but questions remain about the specific types of economic factors that affect the risk of maltreatment. The need to understand the role of economics in child welfare is critical, given the significant public health costs of child maltreatment. One factor that has been overlooked is regressive taxation. This study addresses this need by examining whether state-level changes in cigarette tax rates predict changes in state-level child maltreatment rates. The results of both a fixed effects (FE) and a fixed effects instrumental variables (FE-IV) estimator show that increases in state cigarette tax rates are followed by increases in child abuse and neglect. An additional test finds that increases in the sales tax (another tax deemed to be regressive) also predict increases in child maltreatment rates. Taken as a whole, the findings suggest that regressive taxes have a significant effect on the risk of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by Statistics Denmark using the total birth cohort of all children born in 1984. The response rate was 63% leaving a total effective sample size of 2980. A structured residential or telephone interview enquired about a range of respondents maltreatment experiences. Results: Maltreatment is experienced by a significant proportion of Danish children. The reported prevalence rates were; physical neglect (3.0%), emotional abuse (5.2%), physical abuse (5.4%) and sexual abuse (3.4%). All trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of females compared to males with the exception of physical abuse and all trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of children given child-protection status. Conclusions: Female children and children who are given child protection status are those most at risk for experiencing maltreatment in Denmark. However, variability in prevalence rates of maltreatment across studies is problematic. Methodological variations and variation in abuse definitions may be partly attributable. PMID:24155769

  3. [Child maltreatment in binge eating disorder: a systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhr, Susanne; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Annette

    2015-04-01

    This review is to provide a first overview about prevalences and associations of forms of child maltreatment in binge eating disorder (BED). Systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science in December 2013. Terms considered were "binge eating disorder" AND "child* maltreatment", "child* abuse", "child* sexual abuse", "child* emotional abuse", "child* physical abuse", "child* emotional neglect" as well as "child* physical neglect". Inclusion criteria were studies published between 1990 and 2013, publications in English or German, adult patients, studies that considered patients with full DSM criteria for BED, and studies that reported prevalences of forms of child maltreatment. Eight studies out of 366 met criteria. Child maltreatment rates in BED were more than two times higher than in representative samples, but they were similar to psychiatric comparisons. Up to 83 % of patients with BED reported at least one form of child maltreatment. There were associations to psychiatric comorbidity, but not to gender, obesity and specific features of the eating behaviour. Child maltreatment is very prevalent among BED. Its contribution to the development and the maintenance of BED is not understood yet. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80-95% and severe dissociative symptoms. DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  5. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  6. Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Trauma: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent, tenacious, and disabling consequence of traumatic events. The disorder's identifiable onset and early symptoms provide opportunities for early detection and prevention. Empirical findings and theoretical models have outlined specific risk factors and pathogenic processes leading to PTSD. Controlled studies have shown that theory-driven preventive interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or stress hormone-targeted pharmacological interventions, are efficacious in selected samples of survivors. However, the effectiveness of early clinical interventions remains unknown, and results obtained in aggregates (large groups) overlook individual heterogeneity in PTSD pathogenesis. We review current evidence of PTSD prevention and outline the need to improve the disorder's early detection and intervention in individual-specific paths to chronic PTSD.

  7. Non-communicable disease prevention in Nepal: systemic challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Page, Rachel; Matheson, Anna; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2017-08-01

    Developing countries such as Nepal are experiencing a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) resulting in social and economic losses. In Nepal, more than half of the disease burden is due to NCDs. The major NCDs in Nepal are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Behavioural factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are driving the epidemic of NCDs, which are further influenced by social, economic and environmental determinants. The health system of Nepal has not been able to address the ever-increasing burden of NCDs. With the formulation of the Multisectoral Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCDs 2014-2020, there has been some hope for tackling the NCDs and their social determinants in Nepal through a primary prevention approach. This paper discusses the systemic challenges and recommends two key actions for the prevention and control of NCDs in Nepal.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention: Is This the Future of Colorectal Cancer Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is presently one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in our setting and affects a great number of people each year. Screening strategies are commonly used but they do not seem enough to avoid CRC development or prevent completely its mortality. Because of this fact other prevention strategies have gained interest in recent years. Chemoprevention seems to be an attractive option in this setting and several drugs have been studied in this field. This review is focused on salicylates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cycloxygenase-2 inhibitors (COXIBs, whose mechanism of action could be directly related to colon cancer chemoprevention.

  9. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  10. Behavioral research in cancer prevention and control: a look to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W; McDonald, Paige G; Nebeling, Linda; O'Connell, Mary E; Riley, William T; Taplin, Stephen H; Tesauro, Gina

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer control continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  11. The future of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease prevention: polyhype or polyhope?: tales from the polyera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, O.; Karnik, K.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently society has been witnessing the rise of a new era in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: the Polyera. This new era started when a promising concept – the Polypill – was introduced by Wald et al. in 2003. The Polypill is a theoretical

  12. Opening the Future. The Ounce of Prevention Fund Annual Report 1990-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusslan, Carol, Ed.

    This report describes the ways in which programs sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund (OPF) are using innovative strategies to provide children and families with opportunities for health, education, and employment. A program summary lists agencies participating in OPF programs. For each agency, the summary includes a racial and ethnic…

  13. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  14. Using commercial video games for falls prevention in older adults: the way for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Eva; Cotea, Cristina; Pullman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Falls in older adults are an increasingly costly public health issue. There are many fall prevention strategies that are effective. However, with an increasing population of older people and ever-decreasing availability of health practitioners and health funding, novel modes of intervention are being developed, including those relying on computer technologies.The aim of this article was to review the literature on the use of exergaming to prevent falls in older adult persons living in the community. The Cochrane, Medline, and Embase databases were searched using prespecified search terms. To be included, studies had to investigate the effect of using commercially available consoles and video games on outcome measures such as a decrease in falls, improvements in balance control or gait parameters, decreased fear of falling, and attitude to exercise in older adult persons living in the community. All study designs with the exception of single-person case studies were included. Articles had to be published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The following outcomes were observed: (1) using computer-based virtual reality gaming for balance training in older adults was feasible; (2) the majority of studies showed a positive effect of exergaming on balance control; (3) some studies showed a positive effect on balance confidence and gait parameters; (4) the effect was seen across the age and sex spectrum of older adults, including those with and without balance impairment. There is as yet no evidence that using virtual reality games will prevent falls, but there is an indication that their use in balance training may improve balance control, which in turn may lead to falls prevention.

  15. A Multilevel Prediction of Physiological Response to Challenge: Interactions among Child Maltreatment, Neighborhood Crime, eNOS and GABRA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins – i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment – and specific genetic polymorphisms of eNOS and GABRA6. A total of 186 children were recruited at age 4. At this time, the presence or absence of child maltreatment was determined, as was the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge – i.e., change in the amplitude of RSA – was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. Results confirmed that complex G x G, E x E, and G x E interactions were associated with different patterns of RSA reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed. PMID:26535938

  16. Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Randomized Prevention Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Reduced mothers’ depression • Reduced mothers’ and children’s anxiety • Improved children’s self - esteem Enhancing IDS: A Guidebook to Activities...weeks of high-level aerobic exercise (at 70-75% HRmax) increased physical fitness somewhat more than did moderate exercise , but had no effect on...in coping skills to aerobic exercise , and all of the interventions also influence other NORTH STAR-targeted risk factors. Items in 2003 AF

  17. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  18. Patterns of cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to psychosocial stress in maltreated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielock, Alyssa S; Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2017-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment can trigger enduring changes in major stress response systems, particularly in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relative impact of maltreatment versus MDD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system stress reactivity is not well understood. This study examined salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 26 maltreated (15 with current MDD) and 26 non-maltreated (17 with current MDD) women. Maltreated women showed greater anticipatory cortisol reactivity during the TSST protocol compared to non-maltreated women. Maltreated women also showed rapid deceleration in cortisol levels. Whereas non-maltreated women showed initial declines in alpha-amylase levels but rapidly increasing alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol, maltreated women did not exhibit changes in alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol. Contrary to expectation, MDD did not impact cortisol or alpha-amylase responses. The present study is limited by retrospective report of childhood maltreatment, cross-sectional design, and modest sample sizes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment plays a greater role driving alterations in cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity than MDD. Understanding the biological embedding of maltreatment is critical for elucidating mechanisms linking these experiences to risk for negative mental and physical health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  20. Current psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy are predicted by maltreatment experiences during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Illies, Dominik; Herzig, Cornelia; Schröder, Katharina; Bien, Christian G; Neuner, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients). Childhood maltreatment in the family and peer victimization were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' maltreatment scores were compared with those of a representative matched control group. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential impact of childhood maltreatment on current psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy patients. Compared to a matched control group, epilepsy patients had higher emotional and sexual maltreatment scores. Patients with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more family and peer maltreatment than patients without a psychiatric disorder. Family maltreatment scores predicted the likelihood of a current psychiatric disorder. TLE patients did not differ from non-TLE patients according to maltreatment experiences and rates of current psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that in epilepsy patients emotional and sexual childhood maltreatment is experienced more often than in the normal population and that early maltreatment is a general risk factor for psychiatric comorbidities in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo e; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries (“LMICs”). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (“TEP”), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID

  2. FLU AS PROBLEM COMMON TO ALL MANKIND. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korovaeva I.V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that form the basis of pathogen escape from the immune response. The article shows the promising areas of modern prevention and treatment of this disease

  3. Present and future of desertification in Spain: Implementation of a surveillance system to prevent land degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Ibáñez, Javier; Del Barrio, Gabriel; Sanjuán, Maria E; Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Vicente, Silvio; Ruiz, Alberto; Puigdefábregas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Mitigation strategies are crucial for desertification given that once degradation starts, other solutions are extremely expensive or unworkable. Prevention is key to handle this problem and solutions should be based on spotting and deactivating the stressors of the system. Following this topic, the Spanish Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (SPACD) created the basis for implementing two innovative approaches to evaluate the threat of land degradation in the country. This paper presents tools for preventing desertification in the form of a geomatic approach to enable the periodic assessments of the status and trends of land condition. Also System Dynamics modelling has been used to integrate bio-physical and socio-economic aspects of desertification to explain and analyse degradation in the main hot spots detected in Spain. The 2dRUE procedure was implemented to map the land-condition status by comparing potential land productivity according to water availability, the limiting factor in arid lands, with plant-biomass data. This assessment showed that 20% of the territory is degraded and an additional 1% is actively degrading. System Dynamics modelling was applied to study the five desertification landscapes identified by the SPACD. The risk analysis, implemented on these models, concluded that 'Herbaceous crops affected by soil erosion' is the landscape most at risk, while the Plackett-Burman sensitivity analysis used to rank the factors highlighted the supremacy of climatic factors above socioeconomic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Is it possible to prevent sports injuries? Review of controlled clinical trials and recommendations for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkari, J; Kujala, U M; Kannus, P

    2001-01-01

    Sports injuries are one of the most common injuries in modern western societies. Treating sports injuries is often difficult, expensive and time consuming, and thus, preventive strategies and activities are justified on medical as well as economic grounds. A successful injury surveillance and prevention requires valid pre- and post-intervention data on the extent of the problem. The aetiology, risk factors and exact mechanisms of injuries need to be identified before initiating a measure or programme for preventing sports injuries, and measurement of the outcome (injury) must include a standardised definition of the injury and its severity, as well as a systematic method of collecting the information. Valid and reliable measurement of the exposure includes exact information about the population at risk and exposure time. The true efficacy of a preventive measure or programme can be best evaluated through a well-planned randomised trial. Until now, 16 randomised, controlled trials (RCT) have been published on prevention of sports injuries. According to these RCT, the general injury rate can be reduced by a multifactorial injury prevention programme in soccer (relative risk 0.25, p ankle disk training, combined with a thorough warm-up, in European team handball [odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.32, p Ankle sprains can be prevented by ankle supports (i.e. semirigid orthoses or air-cast braces) in high-risk sporting activities, such as soccer and basketball (Peto odds ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.66), and stress fractures of the lower limb by the use of shock-absorbing insoles in footwear (Peto odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.76). In future studies, it is extremely important for researches to seek consultation with epidemiologists and statisticians to be certain that the study hypothesis is appropriate and that the methodology can lead to reliable and valid information. Further well-designed randomised studies are needed on preventive actions

  5. Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Recidivism in Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Chu, Chi Meng; Goh, Joseph Teck Ling; Ng, Irene Y. H.; Zeng, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of childhood maltreatment on youth offender recidivism in Singapore. The study used case file coding on a sample of 3,744 youth offenders, among whom about 6% had a childhood maltreatment history. The results showed that the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory 2.0 (YLS/CMI 2.0) ratings significantly predicted recidivism for nonmaltreated youth offenders, but not for maltreated youth offenders. Using propensity score matching, the result from a Cox regression analysis showed that maltreated youth offenders were 1.38 times as likely as their nonmaltreated counterparts to reoffend with a follow-up period of up to 7.4 years. The results implied that the YLS/CMI 2.0 measures were insufficient for assessing the risk for recidivism for the maltreated youth offenders, and that other information is needed to help assessors use the professional override when making the overall risk ratings. PMID:26819485

  6. Child Maltreatment in the World: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ajilian Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a recognized public health and social problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, child abuse includes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment and exploitation. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. Estimates of child maltreatment indicate that nearly a quarter of adults (22.6% worldwide suffered physical abuse as a child, 36.3% experienced emotional abuse and 16.3% experienced physical neglect, with no significant differences between boys and girls. However, the lifetime prevalence rate of childhood sexual abuse indicates more marked differences by sex – 18% for girls and 7.6% for boys.  The lifelong consequences of child maltreatment include impaired physical and mental health, poorer school performance, and job and relationship difficulties. Ultimately, child maltreatment can contribute to slowing a country's economic and social development. We conclude that child maltreatment is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  7. Maltreatment following Reunification: Predictors of Subsequent Child Protective Services Contact after Children Return Home1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Christian M.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Katz, Karol H.; Caron, Colleen; Saunders, Leon; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined risk of maltreatment among children exiting foster care using a statewide sample of children reunified between 2001 and 2004 in Rhode Island. The objectives were: (1) to compare rates of maltreatment following parental reunification for youth in care as a result of maltreatment with those in care for other reasons; and (2) to assess the effects of child, family, and case characteristics on rates of re-maltreatment among children placed in foster care due to maltreatment. Method A longitudinal dataset of all reunified cases was matched with state records of substantiated Child Protective Service (CPS) investigations. Two Cox proportional hazards models were tested. The first model compared rates of subsequent maltreatment for two groups: children in foster care as a result of maltreatment, and those in care for other reasons. The second model investigated the effects of child, family, and case characteristics on re-maltreatment rates for those in care as a result of maltreatment. Results Children in foster care due to maltreatment were significantly more likely to be maltreated following reunification. Among children in foster care due to maltreatment, factors that raised risk for re-maltreatment included a previous foster care placement, exiting care from a non-relative foster home, and removal due to neglect. Older adolescents had lower rates of re-maltreatment than infants. Child neglect was the primary type of recurrent maltreatment that occurred following reunification. Conclusions Supports are needed for families about to be reunified, particularly when the removal was prompted by incidents of abuse or neglect. Incidents of neglect are particularly likely and appropriate services should specifically target factors contributing to neglect. Cases involving youth with a history of repeated foster care placement or in which non-relative placements are utilized may need additional supports. PMID:19327834

  8. Is prophylactic fixation a cost-effective method to prevent a future contralateral fragility hip fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Scott C; Genuario, James W; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2010-02-01

    : A previous hip fracture more than doubles the risk of a contralateral hip fracture. Pharmacologic and environmental interventions to prevent hip fracture have documented poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic fixation of the uninjured hip to prevent contralateral hip fracture. : A Markov state-transition model was used to evaluate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for unilateral fixation of hip fracture alone (including internal fixation or arthroplasty) compared with unilateral fixation and contralateral prophylactic hip fixation performed at the time of hip fracture or unilateral fixation and bilateral hip pad protection. Prophylactic fixation involved placement of a cephalomedullary nail in the uninjured hip and was initially assumed to have a relative risk of a contralateral fracture of 1%. Health states included good health, surgery-related complications requiring a second operation (infection, osteonecrosis, nonunion, and malunion), fracture of the uninjured hip, and death. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimated as cost per QALY gained in 2006 US dollars with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below $50,000 per QALY gained considered cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of patient age, annual mortality and complication rates, intervention effectiveness, utilities, and costs on the value of prophylactic fixation. : In the baseline analysis, in a 79-year-old woman, prophylactic fixation was not found to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio = $142,795/QALY). However, prophylactic fixation was found to be a cost-effective method to prevent contralateral hip fracture in: 1) women 71 to 75 years old who had 30% greater relative risk for a contralateral fracture; and 2) women younger than age 70 years. Cost-effectiveness was greater when the additional costs of prophylaxis were less than $6000. However, for

  9. Stakeholders' opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Antonson, Hans; Ihlström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars. New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process

  10. Introduction to proceedings of healthy futures: engaging the oral health community in childhood obesity prevention national conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, Norman; Holt, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has worked to ensure that all children have healthy weights. To promote this goal, the RWJF has supported the Healthy Futures: Engaging the Oral Health Community in Childhood Obesity Prevention National Conference, held on November 3-4, 2016, and the proceeding of this conference. The goals of the conference were to increase understanding of the science focusing on oral health and childhood obesity, increase understanding of how to prevent childhood obesity, and provide opportunities to network and plan activities to prevent childhood obesity. The papers prepared for the conference identified through systematic reviews or scoping reviews the state of the science related to preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and strategies that oral health professionals and organizations can employ prevent childhood obesity. Causes of childhood obesity are multifactorial and include genetic components, environmental and lifestyle variables, and nutritional factors. Dental caries also is caused by a combination of factors, including cariogenic diet, inadequate fluoride exposure, a susceptible host, and the presence of caries-causing bacteria in the oral cavity. One key risk factors for both obesity and caries is excessive sugar consumption. To reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries in children, health professionals and parents need to be aware of the sugar content of processed foods and beverages as well as of current daily sugar-consumption recommendations. Additionally, oral health professionals must become more engaged in identifying children who are at risk for obesity and dental caries; and provide education, screening and referral to reduce these risks. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. Prevention of inhibitor development in hemophilia A in 2016. A glimpse into the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Thanks to considerable progresses made over the last 30years, hemophilia benefits from the most efficacious and safe treatment among the many monogenic inherited disorders. The most challenging complication of replacement therapy in hemophilia A is the occurrence of alloantibodies against infused factor VIII (FVIII), thus predisposing the patients to increased morbidity and disability. Extensive research in this field has definitively unraveled that development of inhibitors in hemophilia A is a complex and multifactorial process, in which inherited and environmental factors dynamically interact. This narrative review, after providing a concise overview about the main genetic and non-genetic risk factors, is aimed to focus on prediction risk models and preventive strategies for minimizing the risk of developing inhibitors in hemophilia A patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  13. Nanotechnology and the future of condoms in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S; Simate, Geoffrey S; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M

    2018-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs - including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases.

  14. Nanotechnology and the Future of Condoms in the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S.; Simate, Geoffrey S.; Hlangothi, Percy; Somai, Benesh M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. Methods: We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. Results and Discussion: In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. Conclusions: A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs – including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases. PMID:29536957

  15. Relationship between Multiple Forms of Maltreatment by a Parent or Guardian and Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika; Heeren, Timothy; Amodeo, Maryann

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the co-occurrence of multiple categories of maltreatment on adolescent alcohol use. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 14,078). Among those reporting any maltreatment, over one-third had experienced more than one type of maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that all types or combinations of types of maltreatment except physical-abuse-only were strongly associated with adolescent alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race, and parental alcoholism. These results add to accumulating evidence that child maltreatment has a deleterious impact on adolescent alcohol use.

  16. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (4). Future tasks in the field of structure and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Structure and components subcommittee under the special committee of seismic safety of nuclear power stations of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan discussed future activities related with technical problems of seismic design of structures, components and piping system and evaluation of seismic effects in collaboration with the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. These problems were arranged by 'logic of seismic safety' and tabulated just enough, and then their roadmap was prepared. This article described selected relevant problems and discussed safety margins of seismic design and their related problems, referring to state of countermeasures and evaluated results of nuclear power stations after Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. Main problems were related with seismic safety margins of structure and components, consideration of ground motion index, rationalization and upgrade of seismic design, application of new technology, integrity evaluation of structure and components after or at earthquake, and upgrade of seismic probabilistic risk assessment methodology. (T. Tanaka)

  17. College prevention: a view of present (and future) web-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Neighbors, Clayton

    2011-01-01

    College campuses in the United States may be the most electronically "wired" environments on earth. College students use the Internet not only to write term papers and receive correspondence but also to report (and keep track of) friends' personal status, download music, view classroom lectures, and receive emergency messages. In fact, college students spend considerably more time online than the average person. In a recent survey of U.S. college students (Jones et al. 2009), nearly all respondents (94 percent) stated that they spent at least 1 hour on the Internet each day, with the main tasks including social communication, entertainment, and class work. In keeping with this trend, Web-based programs that address alcohol consumption among college students have become widely available in the United States. This sidebar provides an overview of currently available programs as well as of the advantages and disadvantages of this approach and the future outlook of Web-based programs.

  18. Assessment of the Harmful Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Different Forms of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Krueger, Robert F; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Several widely held beliefs about child abuse and neglect may be incorrect. It is most commonly assumed that some forms of abuse (eg, physical and sexual abuse) are more harmful than others (eg, emotional abuse and neglect); other assumptions are that each form of abuse has specific consequences and that the effects of abuse differ across sex and race. To determine whether widely held assumptions about child abuse and neglect are valid by testing the hypothesis that different types of child maltreatment (CM) actually have equivalent, broad, and universal effects. This observational study assessed 2292 racially and ethnically diverse boys (1254 [54.7%]) and girls (1038 [45.3%]) aged 5 to 13 years (mean [SD] age, 9.0 [2.0] years) who attended a research summer camp program for low-income, school-aged children from July 1, 1986, to August 15, 2012. Of these children, 1193 (52.1%) had a well-documented history of maltreatment. Analysis was conducted from September 25, 2013, to June 1, 2015. Various forms of internalizing and externalizing personality and psychopathologic traits were assessed using multiple informant ratings on the California Child Q-Set and Teacher Report Form as well as child self-reported depression and peer ratings of aggression and disruptive behavior. Structural analysis showed that different forms of CM have equivalent psychiatric and behavioral effects, ranging from anxiety and depression to rule-breaking and aggression. We also found that nonsexual CM alters 2 broad vulnerability factors, internalizing (β = 0.185; SE = 0.028; P child sexual abuse. Our findings challenge widely held beliefs about how child abuse should be recognized and treated-a responsibility that often lies with the physician. Because different types of child abuse have equivalent, broad, and universal effects, effective treatments for maltreatment of any sort are likely to have comprehensive psychological benefits. Population-level prevention and intervention

  19. Physical Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Girls: Associations With Psychopathology, Maltreatment, and Attitudes Toward Child-Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. Method: The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. Results: CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD. PMID:24881128

  20. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  1. Co-occurrence of communication disorder and psychiatric disorders in maltreated children and adolescents: relationship with global functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.

  2. Antioxidant agents: a future alternative approach in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Cuba, Letícia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality frequently employed for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). It destroys tumor cells, but it is not selective, also affecting healthy tissues and producing adverse effects. One that stands out is oral mucositis because of the morbidity that it is capable of causing. This lesion is characterized by the presence of erythema, ulcerations, pain, opportunistic infections, and weight loss. These side effects can lead to serious situations that require the interruption of the antineoplastic treatment and can result in hospitalization and even death. The complex mechanisms linked to the pathogenesis of oral mucositis were recently established, and since then, the control of oxidative stress (OS) has been tied to the prevention and management of this disease. The authors have carried out a review of the literature about the use of antioxidant agents in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis, using the PubMed database. This review has shown that the research on use of antioxidants (AOX) has proved insufficient to justify suggesting the products in treatment protocols. Results are promising, however, and AOX may represent a future alternative in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

  3. Relationship Transitions and the Risk for Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William

    2016-12-01

    Family structure as a risk for child maltreatment has long been viewed as a static state in the child maltreatment literature. Drawing on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, the author uses a series of individual fixed-effects models to investigate whether particular types of relationship transitions over children's first decade of life are associated with increased risk for maternal and paternal child abuse and maternal neglect. Findings question and confirm a number of long-standing theoretical and empirical findings from the child maltreatment literature. Results indicate that transitions to being single are associated with increased risk for maternal child abuse and neglect. In addition, the frequency and severity of paternal harsh parenting may be closely linked with the nature of fathers' relationship transitions. Last, results largely do not provide support for the theory that the presence of social (nonbiological) fathers increases mothers' risk for engaging in child abuse or neglect.

  4. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  5. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  6. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology and well-being: The mediator role of global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Hanne K; Myhre, Arne K; Klöckner, Christian A; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment is known to be associated with a broad variety of psychopathology and deteriorated well-being in adolescent populations. In the present nationwide study, we aimed to explore global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use as possible mediators of these associations in a high-risk adolescent population. We included 400 adolescents (aged 12-20 years) living in residential youth care in Norway (response rate 67%). The participants completed a semistructured psychiatric interview (Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA)), a study-specific questionnaire, a revised version of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) and the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). Information was also provided by the adolescent's primary contact at the institution. Two models were tested using structural equation modelling; one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and psychopathology, and one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and well-being. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, well-being, global self-esteem and attachment difficulties were treated as latent variables, and substance use was added as an observed variable. The results of this study showed that global self-esteem was a mediator of paths in both models, whereas attachment difficulties and substance use were not. Preventing decline in health and well-being in high-risk adolescents is a main goal, and this study suggests that improving self-esteem, in addition to providing psychiatric health services, could be an important tool for achieving this goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Violence and maltreatment in Tanzanian families-Findings from a nationally representative sample of secondary school students and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    Though the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations aim to end all forms of violence against minors, child maltreatment remains a globally prevalent phenomenon. Despite the fact that parents in numerous countries apply violent discipline methods to control children's behavior, little is known about the prevalence of maltreatment and violent discipline in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we examined the prevalence of maltreatment and violent discipline from both the adolescents' and parents' perspectives. In addition, we explored risk factors that could be associated with violent discipline by parents. We administered questionnaires to a nationally representative sample of 700 Tanzanian secondary school students (52% girls, mean age: 14.92 years, SD = 1.02, range: 12-17) and 333 parents or primary guardians (53% females; mean age: of 43.47 years, SD = 9.02, range: 19-71). More than 90% of all students reported exposure to violent discipline by a parent within the past year. Concurrently, more than 80% of parents acknowledged using violent discipline techniques. Using a path model, we found that violent discipline by parents was associated with parental stress. Other risk factors contributed to a higher stress level but were not directly linked to maltreatment. Our findings indicate high levels of violent discipline in Tanzanian families. There is a pressing need to design and implement interventions that prevent children from experiencing violence at home. Reducing parents' stress levels may be a starting point for intervention. Yet, due to the high levels of violent discipline, societal beliefs also need to be considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Borderline Personality Features in Childhood: The Role of Subtype, Developmental Timing and Chronicity of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Kathryn F.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Crick, Nicki

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, higher scores on each individual subscale and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all 4 subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed. PMID:25047300

  9. Narrative representations of caregivers and self in maltreated pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, S L; Cicchetti, D; Macfie, J; Maughan, A; VanMeenen, K

    2000-12-01

    This study examined narrative representations of parents and of self, as well as child behavior during the assessment, in maltreated (N = 56) and demographically comparable non-maltreated (N = 37) pre-school-aged children in a one-year longitudinal study. Maltreated children evidenced more negative representations of parents and of self at Time 2, including the juxta-position of both a negative and a grandiose self. Over time there was a marginal interaction such that maltreated children portrayed fewer disciplining parent representations and nonmaltreated children portrayed more. Also over time, maltreated children portrayed marginally more grandiose self-representations and nonmaltreated children fewer. Furthermore, maltreated children demonstrated less responsivity to the examiner over time and nonmaltreated children demonstrated more. The deleterious effects of maltreatment on representations of self and of others, especially as development proceeds, are discussed, and the importance of providing attachment-informed intervention prior to the consolidation of these negative representations is highlighted.

  10. Relationship between birth spacing, child maltreatment, and child behavior and development outcomes among at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Gonsalves, Kay; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Prior research indicates that closely spaced births are associated with poor outcomes for the mother and subsequent child. Limited research has focused on outcomes for the index child (the child born immediately prior to a subsequent child in a birth interval). The objectives are to assess the association of short birth intervals in at-risk families with: (1) indicators of harsh and neglectful parenting behaviors towards the index child, including substantiated maltreatment reports across 6 years; and (2) the index child's behavior and development in first grade. This is a longitudinal study of 658 women screened to be at-risk for child maltreatment. Twenty percent of women had a rapid repeat birth (RRB), defined as the birth of a subsequent child within 24 months of the index child. Generalized estimating equations, survival analyses, and linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between RRB and index child outcomes. Women with an RRB were more likely than those without an RRB to report neglectful parenting of the index child. Children of mothers with an RRB were more likely than children of mothers without an RRB to have more behavioral problems and lower cognitive functioning in first grade. This study is among the first to focus on the associations of birth spacing with maltreatment, behavior and development outcomes in the index child. Future work regarding the effects of birth spacing should include a focus on the index child.

  11. Expression of cyanobacterial FBP/SBPase in soybean prevents yield depression under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Iris H.; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M.; Thomey, Michell L.; Clemente, Tom; Ort, Donald R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Predictions suggest that current crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet global food and energy demands. Based on theory and experimental studies, overexpression of the photosynthetic enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is expected to enhance C3 crop photosynthesis and yields. Here we test how expression of the cyanobacterial, bifunctional fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase) affects carbon assimilation and seed yield (SY) in a major crop (soybean, Glycine max). For three growing seasons, wild-type (WT) and FBP/SBPase-expressing (FS) plants were grown in the field under ambient (400 μmol mol−1) and elevated (600 μmol mol−1) CO2 concentrations [CO2] and under ambient and elevated temperatures (+2.7 °C during daytime, +3.4 °C at night) at the SoyFACE research site. Across treatments, FS plants had significantly higher carbon assimilation (4–14%), Vc,max (5–8%), and Jmax (4–8%). Under ambient [CO2], elevated temperature led to significant reductions of SY of both genotypes by 19–31%. However, under elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature, FS plants maintained SY levels, while the WT showed significant reductions between 11% and 22% compared with plants under elevated [CO2] alone. These results show that the manipulation of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can mitigate the effects of future high CO2 and high temperature environments on soybean yield. PMID:28204603

  12. Randomized controlled trial of a parenting program to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L; Hutchings, Judy; Mlotshwa, Sindisiwe; Wessels, Inge; Gardner, Frances

    2017-10-01

    Parenting programs in high-income countries have been shown to reduce the risk of child maltreatment. However, there is limited evidence of their effectiveness in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to examine the initial effects of a parenting program in reducing the risk of child maltreatment in highly-deprived and vulnerable communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Low-income parents (N=68) with children aged three to eight years were randomly assigned to either a group-based parenting program or a wait-list control group. Observational and parent-report assessments were taken at baseline and at immediate post-test after the intervention was delivered. Primary outcomes were parent-report and observational assessments of harsh parenting, positive parenting, and child behavior problems. Secondary outcomes were parent-report assessments of parental depression, parenting stress, and social support. Results indicated moderate treatment effects for increased frequency of parent-report of positive parenting (d=0.63) and observational assessments of parent-child play (d=0.57). Observational assessments also found moderate negative treatment effects for less frequent positive child behavior (d=-0.56). This study is the first randomized controlled trial design to rigorously test the effectiveness of a parenting program on reducing the risk of child maltreatment in sub-Saharan Africa using both observational and self-report assessments. Results provide preliminary evidence of effectiveness of reducing the risk of child maltreatment by improving positive parenting behavior. Further development is required to strengthen program components regarding child behavior management and nonviolent discipline strategies. Future research would benefit from a larger trial with sufficient power to determine program effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has...... was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms...

  14. Differential effects of psychological maltreatment on children of mothers exposed to intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep María

    2011-07-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 168 children, aged between 4 and 17, whose mothers experienced IPV. They were assessed using different measures of psychopathology and functioning: Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV, Child Behavior Checklists and Child and Adolescent Functioning Assessment Scale. Furthermore, IPV was assessed with the Schedule for Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure in Children and the Index of Spouse Abuse. Statistical analyses were carried out with regression models adjusted by means of Generalized Estimating Equations. Spurning was the PM subtype with the greatest global effect on the children, as it was significantly associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. Denying emotional responsiveness specifically increased the risk of internalizing psychopathology and impairment in the emotional area. Terrorizing was not significantly associated with a greater number of negative outcomes in children's psychopathology or functioning in this population. The results suggest the importance of taking PM types into account in order to fully understand the problems of children exposed to IPV at home, and for the design of effective treatment and prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  16. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Glass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N=92 entering care (age 6–60 months combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p=0.001 and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p=0.016 and disinhibited (p=0.004 attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1 overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2 maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  17. Psychological distress as a mediator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sleep quality in adolescence: results from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Meghan L; Weiss, Jonathan A; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents an important public health concern, as it is often associated with a host of negative outcomes across development. In recent years, researchers have begun to examine the link between negative health-related behaviors and history of childhood maltreatment. The current study considers the relationship between history of childhood maltreatment and sleep disturbances in adolescence. Further, the role of psychological distress is considered as an explanatory link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent sleep disturbances. The current study is a secondary analysis using a subsample (N=73) of child welfare-involved youth who participated in the initial and 2-year time-point of the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study on the variables of interest. Youth reported on lifetime maltreatment experiences, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances, in addition to the other measures administered as part of the larger MAP study protocol. More severe childhood maltreatment was related to increased sleep disturbances during adolescence, and psychological distress was a significant mediator of the childhood maltreatment-adolescent sleep disturbance association. The results demonstrate that a history of childhood maltreatment represents a risk factor for sleep disturbances in adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of inquiring about health-related behaviors in child welfare youth and the need to promote psychological well-being within this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal patterns of cortisol regulation differ in maltreated and nonmaltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with dysregulation of stress-mediating systems and an increased risk of mental and physical health problems. Specifically, disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been reported in maltreated children. The current study investigates whether increased cortisol variability is responsible for inconsistent patterns in the literature. This study modeled cortisol activity over 20 weeks in 187 maltreated and 154 nonmaltreated children (mean = 8.4 years, SD = 1.8 years) in order to capture week-to-week cortisol patterns. Maltreatment was assessed through coding of Department of Human Services records. Children attended an after-school program 1 day per week for 20 weeks, where saliva was collected at the same time each day and subsequently assayed for cortisol. Multiple-group growth curves indicated that maltreated and non-maltreated children differ in longitudinal cortisol patterns. Maltreated children showed higher variance in the initial cortisol levels and slope over time compared to nonmaltreated children, indicating greater between-person variability in the maltreated group. Maltreated children with higher cortisol at the first assessment showed cortisol suppression over time, indicating potential HPA blunting after chronic high cortisol levels. The severity, timing, and number of subtypes of maltreatment predicted individuals' cortisol variability, and both maltreatment status and greater cortisol variability predicted more behavior problems. Interventions for maltreated children may benefit from pre- and post-intervention HPA assessments to determine a component of treatment efficacy. As maltreatment dimensions predicted differential cortisol regulation, assessment of maltreatment experiences is necessary to understand alterations in behavior and HPA regulation post-intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Are Russian propolis ethanol extracts the future for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambi, Ashwin; Bryan, Julia; Borbon, Katherine; Centeno, Daniel; Liu, Tianchi; Chen, Tung Po; Cattabiani, Thomas; Traba, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Most studies reveal that the mechanism of action of propolis against bacteria is functional rather than structural and is attributed to a synergism between the compounds in the extracts. Propolis is said to inhibit bacterial adherence, division, inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, and protein synthesis. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional and may be attributed to the metals found in propolis. If the metals found in propolis are removed, cell lysis still occurs and these modified extracts may be used in the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations. The antibacterial activity of metal-free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE) on two biofilm forming bacteria: penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated using MTT and a Live/Dead staining technique. Toxicity studies were conducted on mouse osteoblast (MC-3T3) cells using the same viability assays. In the MTT assay, biofilms were incubated with MTT at 37°C for 30min. After washing, the purple formazan formed inside the bacterial cells was dissolved by SDS and then measured using a microplate reader by setting the detecting and reference wavelengths at 570nm and 630nm, respectively. Live and dead distributions of cells were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Complete biofilm inactivation was observed when biofilms were treated for 40h with 2µg/ml of MFRPEE. Results indicate that the metals present in propolis possess antibacterial activity, but do not have an essential role in the antibacterial mechanism of action. Additionally, the same concentration of metals found in propolis samples, were toxic to tissue cells. Comparable to samples with metals, metal free samples caused damage to the cell membrane structures of both bacterial species, resulting in cell lysis. Results suggest that the structural mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol

  20. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  1. Deuterium depletion in cancer treatment and prevention - achievements and perspectives for future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlyai, G.; Jancso, G.; Jakli, Gy.; Berkenyi, T.; Szabo, M.; Molnar, M.; Gyongyi, Z.; Ember, I.

    2004-01-01

    clinical investigation. The results verified high potency as anticancer hypodermic drug, this was supported not only by macroscopic results, but pathological examinations. Vetera-DDW-25 A.U.V. injection is under registration. Double blind controlled, human Phase II clinical trial with prostate cancer, in compliance with GCP principles confirmed a significant difference between the control and treated groups with respect to the examined parameters that indicated the anti-tumour effect of the preparation. We suggest that the cells are able to regulate the D/H ratio and the changes in the D/H ratio can trigger certain molecular mechanisms having key role in cell cycle regulation. We suppose that not the shift in the intracellular pH, but the concomitant increase in the D/H ratio is the real trigger for the cells to enter into S phase. The decrease of D concentration can intervene in the signal transduction pathways thus leading to tumour regression. This assumption is supported by the observation that the D-depletion has an influence on the expression of genes (c-myc, Ha-ras and p53) playing a key role in tumour development. Deuterium depletion inhibited COX-2 gene expression in healthy myometrial cell line and in HT-29 colon tumorous cell line. COX-2 gene inhibition correlated with the D-concentration. In a long-term study the consumption of DDW-25 inhibited the development of tumors in carcinogen treated mice Deuterium depletion opens new perspectives in cancer treatment and prevention offering a completely safe and non-invasive treatment modality. (authors)

  2. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions. Interns completed a survey before (n = 37) and after (n = 22) the interventions. The survey included 12 Likert scale questions about attitudes and intentions toward wellness and health promotion models. The interventions consisted of classroom lectures, clinical training, and online information pertaining to health promotion and wellness. The interns initially favored wellness models, perceived a need for them, and felt partially prepared to administer them, with mean Likert scores 4 or greater on a 1 to 5 scale. Afterward, the average scores were higher and the interns reported some benefit from this short course of training. The initial survey demonstrated that interns had some understanding of wellness, health promotion, and preventive services, and favored utilization of these services. The follow-up survey suggested that a short educational intervention could have a positive impact on these attitudes and future utilization of wellness procedures in their practices.

  3. Screening for potential child maltreatment in parents of a newborn baby : The predictive validity of an Instrument for early identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Bouwmeester-Landweer, Merian B.R.; Landsmeer-Beker, Eleonore A.; Wit, Jan M.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Kousemaker, N. Pieter J.; Baartman, Herman E.M.

    2017-01-01

    For preventive purposes it is important to be able to identify families with a high risk of child maltreatment at an early stage. Therefore we developed an actuarial instrument for screening families with a newborn baby, the Instrument for identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and

  4. Childhood Maltreatment History, Posttraumatic Relational Sequelae, and Prenatal Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. Design A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Setting Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. Participants This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Methods Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. Conclusion When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or have used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. PMID:23772546

  5. Maltreated Female Delinquents Speak about Their Communication Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Scheffler, Marilyn; Drake, Brian; Hilgert, Koree; Creswell, John W.; Hansen, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to explore how incarcerated adolescent female delinquents (N=20) described their communication behaviors in multiple contexts. Four themes emerged: (1) participant communication, (2) feelings and emotions, (3) trust, and (4) maltreatment. Implications suggest that speech-language pathologists and educators need to…

  6. The Relationship between Early Maltreatment and Teenage Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Ellen C.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Egolf, Brenda P.; Russo, M. Jean

    1998-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of the effects of early childhood maltreatment, 92 adolescent parents were studied. Variables of preschool and school-age physical abuse, neglect, low self-esteem, sexual abuse, high school dropout, assaultive behavior, and drug use were examined in relationship to teenage parenthood. Implications of findings are discussed.…

  7. An overview of theories on child maltreatment and their applicability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discussion focuses on theories considered by many researchers to constitute important contributions in broadening human society's understanding of the various contexts in which child maltreatment occurs. The theories discussed in the paper are categorized as follows: psychological, sociological, social learning and ...

  8. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, A.-L.; Elzinga, B.M.; Kievit, R.A.; Spinhoven, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., ‘‘you are worthless’’). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought

  9. Maltreatment and the School-Aged Child: School Performance Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, P. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the school performance of 139 school-age and adolescent children, 22 of whom had been physically abused and 47 neglected. The abused children displayed pervasive and severe academic and socioemotional problems, while neglected children displayed academic delays. Both groups of maltreated children showed unexpected strengths on…

  10. Resilience in Maltreated Children: Implications for Special Needs Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Darla L.

    1999-01-01

    Details study of adolescents in York County, Pennsylvania, to determine processes by which maltreated children develop adaptive personalities despite aversive family experiences. Discusses five themes that provide cues to behavior in new environments viewed as unsafe by the child: loyalty to parents, normalizing the abusive environment,…

  11. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  12. child maltreatment among elementary school children in jimma town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tekeste

    estimates that 1/5,000 to 1/10,000 children under five years die each year from physical violence (1). According to different studies and reports, child maltreatment has several forms in Ethiopia. It can be in the form of excessive corporal punishment by parents, teachers or others; excessive child labor; harmful traditional.

  13. Identification of ICD Codes Suggestive of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Slusher, Paula L.; Kruse, Robin L.; Tarleton, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to be reimbursed for the care they provide, hospitals in the United States are required to use a standard system to code all discharge diagnoses: the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9). Although ICD-9 codes specific for child maltreatment exist, they do not identify all…

  14. Child Maltreatment and Adult Socioeconomic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…

  15. Psychological Maltreatment in the Context of Separation and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Gunther

    1993-01-01

    This article examines effects of separation and divorce on children in the context of possible psychological maltreatment. Common behavior patterns of children in this situation are discussed in terms of those that are acceptable and those that must be considered harmful. (Author/DB)

  16. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most

  17. Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

  18. Neighborhoods and Child Maltreatment: A Multi-Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Claudia J.; Korbin, Jill E.; Su, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated how neighborhood and individual factors affected 400 parents from neighborhoods with different risk profiles for child maltreatment report rates. Neighborhood factors of impoverishment and child care burden significantly affected child abuse potential. Variation in child abuse potential within neighborhoods was greater than…

  19. Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children in Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children in Jimma Town. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... RESULTS: Majority (80.0%) of the studied children encountered some form of physical punishment of which 21.0% had abusive punishment as evidenced by bruises, lacerations or swelling reported as a result ...

  20. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  1. A critical review of child maltreatment indices: Psychometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    African Safety Promotion Journal, Vol. 10, No. ... As a result, many studies have examined, confirmed or substantiated cases of child maltreatment, while the many ...... Test-retest reliability of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Journal of Family. Violence, 22, 703–708. Villano, CL, Cleland, C, Rosenblum, A, Fong, C, ...

  2. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  3. Double disadvantage: the influence of childhood maltreatment and community violence exposure on adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Viding, Essi; Barker, Edward D; Guiney, Jo; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-07-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a key risk factor for maladjustment and psychopathology. Although maltreated youth are more likely to experience community violence, both forms of adversity are generally examined separately. Consequently, little is known about the unique and interactive effects that characterize maltreatment and community violence exposure (CVE) on mental health. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was applied to data from a community sample of high-risk adolescents and young adults (n = 204, M = 18.85) to categorize groups of participants with similar patterns of childhood (i.e. past) maltreatment exposure. Associations between childhood maltreatment, CVE and mental health outcomes were then explored using multivariate regression and moderation analyses. Latent Profile Analysis identified three groups of individuals with low, moderate and severe levels of childhood maltreatment. Maltreatment was associated with more internalizing, externalizing, and trauma-related symptoms. By contrast, CVE showed independent associations with only externalizing and trauma-related symptoms. Typically, childhood maltreatment and CVE exerted additive effects; however, these forms of adversity interacted to predict levels of anger. Exposure to maltreatment and community violence is associated with increased levels of clinical symptoms. However, while maltreatment is associated with increased symptoms across a broad range of mental health domains, the impact of community violence is more constrained, suggesting that these environmental risk factors differentially impact mental health functioning. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Reports of Their Children's Exposure to Companion Animal Maltreatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Maternick, Anna; Nicotera, Nicole; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Children living in households where intimate partner violence (IPV) is present are at increased risk of being exposed to concomitant maltreatment of companion animals. Recent research suggests that childhood exposure to maltreatment of companion animals is associated with compromised socioemotional well-being in childhood and adulthood. To date, there is a dearth of qualitative research examining how children experience animal maltreatment in the context of IPV. The current qualitative study explored the following research question in an ethnically diverse sample of IPV survivors: How do maternal caregivers convey the ways in which their children experience animal maltreatment in IPV-affected households? Sixty-five women with at least one child (age 7-12 years) were recruited from domestic violence agencies and described their child(ren)'s experiences of animal maltreatment in the home. Template analysis was used to analyze interview data (KALPHA = .90). Three themes emerged related to children's experiences of animal maltreatment: (a) direct exposure to animal maltreatment and related threats, (b) emotional and behavioral responses to animal maltreatment exposure, and (c) animal maltreatment as coercive control of the child. Results suggest that children's exposure to animal maltreatment is multifaceted and may exacerbate children's risk of negative psychosocial outcomes in the context of co-occurring IPV. Intervention programs designed to assist children exposed to IPV should consider the extent of children's awareness of the abuse of their pets and their strong and deleterious reactions to it.

  5. Structural covariance network centrality in maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Delin; Peverill, Matthew R; Swanson, Chelsea S; McLaughlin, Katie A; Morey, Rajendra A

    2018-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and elevated rates of adolescent and adult psychopathology including major depression, bipolar disorder, substance use disorders, and other medical comorbidities. Gray matter volume changes have been found in maltreated youth with (versus without) PTSD. However, little is known about the alterations of brain structural covariance network topology derived from cortical thickness in maltreated youth with PTSD. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were from demographically matched maltreated youth with PTSD (N = 24), without PTSD (N = 64), and non-maltreated healthy controls (n = 67). Cortical thickness data from 148 cortical regions was entered into interregional partial correlation analyses across participants. The supra-threshold correlations constituted connections in a structural brain network derived from four types of centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector) estimated network topology and the importance of nodes. Between-group differences were determined by permutation testing. Maltreated youth with PTSD exhibited larger centrality in left anterior cingulate cortex than the other two groups, suggesting cortical network topology specific to maltreated youth with PTSD. Moreover, maltreated youth with versus without PTSD showed smaller centrality in right orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting that this may represent a vulnerability factor to PTSD following maltreatment. Longitudinal follow-up of the present results will help characterize the role that altered centrality plays in vulnerability and resilience to PTSD following childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Infection prevention behaviour and infectious disease modelling: a review of the literature and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Dale; Hauck, Katharina; Amlôt, Richard

    2018-03-09

    Given the importance of person to person transmission in the spread of infectious diseases, it is critically important to ensure that human behaviour with respect to infection prevention is appropriately represented within infectious disease models. This paper presents a large scale scoping review regarding the incorporation of infection prevention behaviour in infectious disease models. The outcomes of this review are contextualised within the psychological literature concerning health behaviour and behaviour change, resulting in a series of key recommendations for the incorporation of human behaviour in future infectious disease models. The search strategy focused on terms relating to behaviour, infectious disease and mathematical modelling. The selection criteria were developed iteratively to focus on original research articles that present an infectious disease model with human-human spread, in which individuals' self-protective health behaviour varied endogenously within the model. Data extracted included: the behaviour that is modelled; how this behaviour is modelled; any theoretical background for the modelling of behaviour, and; any behavioural data used to parameterise the models. Forty-two papers from an initial total of 2987 were retained for inclusion in the final review. All of these papers were published between 2002 and 2015. Many of the included papers employed a multiple, linked models to incorporate infection prevention behaviour. Both cognitive constructs (e.g., perceived risk) and, to a lesser extent, social constructs (e.g., social norms) were identified in the included papers. However, only five papers made explicit reference to psychological health behaviour change theories. Finally, just under half of the included papers incorporated behavioural data in their modelling. By contextualising the review outcomes within the psychological literature on health behaviour and behaviour change, three key recommendations for future behavioural

  7. Contextualizing willingness to participate: recommendations for engagement, recruitment & enrolment of Kenyan MSM in future HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Doshi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs in Kenya. In this paper, we explore willingness of Kenyan MSM to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials. In addition to individual and socio-cultural motivators and barriers that influence willingness to participate (WTP, we explore the associations or linkages that participants draw between their experiences with or knowledge of medical research both generally and within the context of HIV/AIDS, their perceptions of a future HIV vaccine and their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Methods Using a social network-based approach, we employed snowball sampling to recruit MSM into the study from Kisumu, Mombasa, and Nairobi. A field team consisting of seven community researchers conducted in-depth interviews with a total of 70 study participants. A coding scheme for transcribed and translated data was developed and the data was then analysed thematically. Results Most participants felt that an HIV vaccine would bring a number of benefits to self, as well as to MSM communities, including quelling personal fears related to HIV acquisition and reducing/eliminating stigma and discrimination shouldered by their community. Willingness to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials was highly motivated by various forms of altruism. Specific researcher responsibilities centred on safe-guarding the rights and well-being of participants were also found to govern WTP, as were reflections on the acceptability of a future preventive HIV vaccine. Conclusion

  8. Efficacy of the Incredible Years group parent program with families in Head Start who self-reported a history of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Michael S; Nguyen, Katherine; Reid, Jamila; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Zhang, Jinjin

    2013-08-01

    A prevention form of the Incredible Years (IY) parenting program was offered to parents who had children enrolled in Head Start, regardless of whether they reported having a history of child maltreatment. This study compared whether parenting practices and child behavioral outcomes differed in families who self reported a history of child maltreatment relative to families who did not. A site-randomized controlled trial of the IY parenting program was conducted in 64 classrooms in seven Head Start centers in Seattle, Washington. Families of 481 children took part in the study, with 335 in the IY condition and 146 in the control condition. Parenting practices and child behavior were measured by blinded raters through in-home observations and self-report questionnaires prior to the start of the IY program, in the spring after the IY program had concluded, and 12-18 months after study enrollment when children were in kindergarten. Analyses examine the impact of the IY program on parenting practices and children's behavior, exploring whether the program had differential impacts for parents with and without a self-reported history of child maltreatment. The IY program resulted in improvements along many parenting dimensions and on characteristics of observed child behavior. Program impacts were similar for parents who did and did not report a history of child maltreatment. However, parents with a reported history of prior maltreatment had greater initial room for improvement in areas such as harsh/critical parenting, nurturing/supportive parenting, and discipline competence than parents without such a history. The IY parenting program has positive impacts for parents who self-reported a history of child maltreatment. While similar benefits were observed for both groups of parents in this study, results support delivering evidence-based parenting programs of longer duration and higher intensity than often used by agencies serving parents in contact with child welfare

  9. The burden of child maltreatment in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David; Chen, Jingqi; Lannen, Patricia; Dunne, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the health and economic burdens of child maltreatment in China. We did a systematic review for studies on child maltreatment in China using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL-EBSCO, ERIC and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. We did meta-analyses of studies that met inclusion criteria to estimate the prevalence of child neglect and child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. We used data from the 2010 global burden of disease estimates to calculate disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost as a result of child maltreatment. From 68 studies we estimated that 26.6% of children under 18 years of age have suffered physical abuse, 19.6% emotional abuse, 8.7% sexual abuse and 26.0% neglect. We estimate that emotional abuse in childhood accounts for 26.3% of the DALYs lost because of mental disorders and 18.0% of those lost because of self-harm. Physical abuse in childhood accounts for 12.2% of DALYs lost because of depression, 17.0% of those lost to anxiety, 20.7% of those lost to problem drinking, 18.8% of those lost to illicit drug use and 18.3% of those lost to self-harm. The consequences of physical abuse of children costs China an estimated 0.84% of its gross domestic product - i.e. 50 billion United States dollars - in 2010. The corresponding losses attributable to emotional and sexual abuse in childhood were 0.47% and 0.39% of the gross domestic product, respectively. In China, child maltreatment is common and associated with large economic losses because many maltreated children suffer substantial psychological distress and might adopt behaviours that increase their risk of chronic disease.

  10. Child maltreatment and problem gambling: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy; Sacco, Paul; Downton, Katherine; Ludeman, Emilie; Levy, Lauren; Tracy, J Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviews research on child maltreatment and risk of gambling problems in adulthood. It also reviews adult problem gamblers' risk of abusing or neglecting their own children. Multiple database searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms related to gambling and child abuse and neglect. We identified 601 unique references and excluded studies if they did not report original research, or did not specifically measure child maltreatment or gambling. Twelve studies that included multivariable analysis of childhood maltreatment exposure and problem gambling were identified. Six of seven studies examining childhood sexual abuse and four of five examining physical abuse showed a significant positive association between abuse and later gambling problems (odds ratios for sexual abuse 2.01-3.65; physical abuse 2.3-2.8). Both studies examining psychological maltreatment and two of three examining neglect identified positive associations with problem gambling. In most studies, risks were reduced or eliminated when controlling for other mental health disorders. The three studies measuring risk of child abuse and neglect among current problem gamblers suggest an increased risk for child physical abuse and medical conditions indicative of neglect although there is a considerable amount of variation among studies. Child abuse is associated with increased risk of gambling problems - gambling treatment providers should ask about maltreatment history as part of their clinical assessment. Problem gamblers may be more likely to physically abuse or neglect their children, but data here are more limited. Child welfare professionals should consider asking questions about parental gambling when assessing family risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Child maltreatment under the skin : basal activity and stress reactivity of the autonomic nervous system and attachment representations in maltreating parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijman, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation comprises an empirical study and a meta-analytical study on autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning and attachment representations in maltreating parents. For the empirical study we recruited a sample of 45 mothers with substantiated abuse and neglect and 45 non-maltreating

  12. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Debbie A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, and predominantly report only substantiated cases of child maltreatment. This approach underestimates the incidence of maltreatment and makes inter-jurisdictional comparisons difficult. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of health professionals in identifying, documenting and reporting suspected child maltreatment. This study aimed to describe the issues around case identification using coded morbidity data, outline methods for selecting and grouping relevant codes, and illustrate patterns of maltreatment identified. Methods A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes. Results Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of

  13. Maltreatment following reunification: predictors of subsequent Child Protective Services contact after children return home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Christian M; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J; Katz, Karol H; Caron, Colleen; Saunders, Leon; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2009-04-01

    This study examined risk of maltreatment among children exiting foster care using a statewide sample of children reunified between 2001 and 2004 in Rhode Island. The objectives were: (1) to compare rates of maltreatment following parental reunification for youth in care as a result of maltreatment with those in care for other reasons; and (2) to assess the effects of child, family, and case characteristics on rates of re-maltreatment among children placed in foster care due to maltreatment. A longitudinal dataset of all reunified cases was matched with state records of substantiated Child Protective Service (CPS) investigations. Two Cox proportional hazards models were tested. The first model compared rates of subsequent maltreatment for two groups: children in foster care as a result of maltreatment, and those in care for other reasons. The second model investigated the effects of child, family, and case characteristics on re-maltreatment rates for those in care as a result of maltreatment. Children in foster care due to maltreatment were significantly more likely to be maltreated following reunification. Among children in foster care due to maltreatment, factors that raised risk for re-maltreatment included a previous foster care placement, exiting care from a non-relative foster home, and removal due to neglect. Older adolescents had lower rates of re-maltreatment than infants. Child neglect was the primary type of recurrent maltreatment that occurred following reunification. Supports are needed for families about to be reunified, particularly when the removal was prompted by incidents of abuse or neglect. Incidents of neglect are particularly likely and appropriate services should specifically target factors contributing to neglect. Cases involving youth with a history of repeated foster care placement or in which non-relative placements are utilized may need additional supports. This study suggests that services should be developed to minimize the risk for

  14. Child maltreatment and children's developmental trajectories in early to middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Berger, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation. PMID:22522588

  16. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-06-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation.

  17. Does being physically active prevent future disability in older people? Attenuated effects when taking time-dependent confounders into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Hennerici, Michael G

    2017-12-21

    Causal experimental evidence that physical activity prevents disability in older people is sparse. Being physically active has nonetheless been shown to be associated with disability-free survival in observational studies. Observational studies are, however, prone to bias introduced by time-dependent confounding. Time-dependent confounding occurs when an exposure (e.g. being physically active at some time-point) potentially affects the future status of a confounder (such as depression sometime later), and both variables have an effect on latter outcome (i.e. disability). "Conventional" analysis with e.g. Cox-regression is the mainstay when analyzing longitudinal observational studies. Unfortunately, it does not provide unbiased estimates in the presence of time-dependent confounding. Marginal structural models (MSM) - a relatively new class of causal models - have the potential to adequately account for time-dependent confounding. Here we analyze the effect of older people being physically active on disability, in a large long-term observational study. We address time-dependent confounding by using marginal structural models and provide a non-technical practical demonstration of how to implement this type of modeling. Data is from 639 elderly individuals ascertained in the European multi-center Leukoaraiosis and Disability study (LADIS), followed-up yearly over a period of three years. We estimated the effect of self-reported physical activity on the probability to transit to instrumental disability in the presence of a large set of potential confounders. We compare the results of "conventional" modeling approaches to those estimated using marginal structural models, highlighting discrepancies. A "conventional" Cox-regression-like adjustment for salient baseline confounders signals a significant risk reduction under physical activity for later instrumental disability (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.90). However, given MSM estimation, the effect is attenuated towards null

  18. Childhood maltreatment and amygdala connectivity in methamphetamine dependence: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Andy C; Kohno, Milky; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Childhood maltreatment, a well-known risk factor for the development of substance abuse disorders, is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the adult brain, particularly in the limbic system. However, almost no research has examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and brain function in individuals with drug abuse disorders. Methods We conducted a pilot study of the relationship between childhood maltreatment (evaluated with the Childhood Traum...

  19. Examination of the Relationship Between Parental Satisfaction and Child Maltreatment Potential While Considering Social Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Kelsey Michael; Donohue, Brad; Cross, Chad; Urgelles, Jessica; Allen, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Parental dissatisfaction with children appears to be associated with child maltreatment. However, little is known regarding the specific domains of parental dissatisfaction that may increase child maltreatment potential, particularly in perpetrators of child maltreatment where substance abuse is present. In this study, responses to the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and a scale measuring parental satisfaction in 11 domains were examined in a sample of 82 mothers who were referred for ...

  20. Child maltreatment in Nepal: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, P; Kunwar, R; Karki, S; Kandel, D; Lamichhane, P

    2017-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a global public health problem. There is limited information about this problem in low-income countries. We aimed to document the prevalence and factors associated with physical punishment of children less than 14 years of age in Nepal. Population-based cross-sectional study. We conducted an in-depth analysis using data from the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative multi-stage-stratified cluster sampling survey. Data were collected from 13,000 households in 520 sample enumeration areas. We assessed prevalence of physical punishment and different child violence related acts on 5081 children aged 3-14 years for whom complete information on all acts and attitude towards violence was available. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between physical punishment of child and factors such as household and maternal demographics. Our results suggested violence is common across Nepal, with data showing one in every second child is physically punished. One in every third (33%) of children were spanked, hit or slapped on the bottom, 25% were hit or slapped on the face and approximately 3% were beaten up hard. Odds of facing physical punishment were higher among children aged 3-5 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-4.3), aged 6-8 years (OR 2.8, 95% CI: 2.2-3.7), engaged in child labour activities (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), with mother that accepted wife beating by husband is justified (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), whose father is currently abroad (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) and whose father is away from home but in the same country (OR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3). The risk was also higher among children living in households that believe physical punishment of children is necessary (OR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.9-4.3) and from lower caste/indigenous (dalit/janajati) ethnicity (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Those less likely to experience physical punishment included female children (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0

  1. Reporting Maltreatment to Child Protective Services in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Cynthia Fraga; O'Brien, Jennifer; Macy, Rebecca; Ermentrout, Dania; Lanier, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Given the overlap between intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment, IPV-exposed child participants in research might disclose instances of child maltreatment. Such disclosures might require researchers to report the maltreatment to child protective services (CPS). However, the literature provides minimal guidance on how to navigate the complex challenges and ethical dilemmas around reporting in the context of research. To help address this gap and stimulate discussion regarding protocols and policies for reporting child maltreatment, this article presents a CPS reporting protocol developed as part of a community-engaged research project evaluating a parenting intervention for system-involved mothers experiencing IPV.

  2. Maltreatment increases spontaneous false memories but decreases suggestion-induced false memories in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Muris, Peter

    2017-09-01

    We examined the creation of spontaneous and suggestion-induced false memories in maltreated and non-maltreated children. Maltreated and non-maltreated children were involved in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm where they studied and remembered negative and neutral word lists. Suggestion-induced false memories were created using a misinformation procedure during which both maltreated and non-maltreated children viewed a negative video (i.e., bank robbery) and later received suggestive misinformation concerning the event. Our results showed that maltreated children had higher levels of spontaneous negative false memories but lower levels of suggestion-induced false memories as compared to non-maltreated children. Collectively, our study demonstrates that maltreatment both increases and decreases susceptibility to memory illusions depending on the type of false memory being induced. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Trauma affects memory. It is unclear how trauma affects false memory. What does this study add? This study focuses on two types of false memories. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  3. Childhood maltreatment, psychological resources, and depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Boyle, Chloe C; Irwin, Michael R; Ganz, Patricia A; Crespi, Catherine M; Asher, Arash; Petersen, Laura; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for depression across the human lifespan. Identifying the pathways through which childhood maltreatment relates to depressive symptoms may elucidate intervention targets that have the potential to reduce the lifelong negative health sequelae of maltreatment exposure. In this cross-sectional study, 271 women with early-stage breast cancer were assessed after their diagnosis but before the start of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, endocrine therapy). Participants completed measures of childhood maltreatment exposure, psychological resources (optimism, mastery, self-esteem, mindfulness), and depressive symptoms. Using multiple mediation analyses, we examined which psychological resources uniquely mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was robustly associated with lower psychological resources and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, lower optimism and mindfulness mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and elevated depressive symptoms. These results support existing theory that childhood maltreatment is associated with lower psychological resources, which partially explains elevated depressive symptoms in a sample of women facing breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. These findings warrant replication in populations facing other major life events and highlight the need for additional studies examining childhood maltreatment as a moderator of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serious pneumococcal disease outbreak in men exposed to metal fume - detection, response and future prevention through pneumococcal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Judith; Patterson, Lynsey; Irvine, Neil; Doherty, Lorraine; Loughrey, Anne; Kidney, Joe; Sheppard, Carmen; Kapatai, Georgia; Fry, Norman K; Ramsay, Mary; Jessop, Lucy

    2017-07-13

    Welders and those exposed to metal fume are known to be at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Current UK guidance recommends that vaccination against pneumococcus be considered in those at risk of frequent or continuous occupational exposure to metal fume, taking into account the exposure control measures in place. We report an outbreak of serious pneumococcal disease that occurred between April and June 2015 among a multinational workforce exposed to metal fumes while working on the refurbishment of an oil rig in a Belfast shipyard. Four confirmed and five probable cases were identified, which occurred despite the use of environmental control measures and the availability of respiratory protective equipment. To provide direct protection to those at risk of pneumococcal disease and to eradicate carriage of pneumococcus and interrupt transmission, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and antibiotic prophylaxis were offered to 680 individuals identified as potentially exposed to metal fume. Low levels of prior pneumococcal vaccination were reported among this target group (vaccine-preventable strains covered by the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines currently available. We propose that consideration should be given to strengthening implementation around pneumococcal vaccination for those exposed to metal fume through their work, even when other control measures are in place, to reduce the risk of future cases and outbreaks of serious pneumococcal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Past, Present and Future Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Eric A F; Bont, Louis; Manzoni, Paolo; Fauroux, Brigitte; Paes, Bosco; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Checchia, Paul A; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    The REGAL (RSV Evidence - A Geographical Archive of the Literature) series has provided a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This seventh and final publication covers the past, present and future approaches to the prevention and treatment of RSV infection among infants and children. A systematic review was undertaken of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2017 across PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library. Studies reporting data on the effectiveness and tolerability of prophylactic and therapeutic agents for RSV infection were included. Study quality and strength of evidence (SOE) were graded using recognized criteria. A further nonsystematic search of the published literature and Clinicaltrials.gov on antiviral therapies and RSV vaccines currently in development was also undertaken. The systematic review identified 1441 studies of which 161 were included. Management of RSV remains centered around prophylaxis with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab, which has proven effective in reducing RSV hospitalization (RSVH) in preterm infants half-life are currently entering phase 3 trials. There are approximately 15 RSV vaccines in clinical development targeting the infant directly or indirectly via the mother. Palivizumab remains the only product licensed for RSV prophylaxis, and only available for high-risk infants. For the general population, there are several promising vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in various stages of clinical development, with the aim to significantly reduce the global healthcare impact of this common viral infection. AbbVie.

  6. Child Maltreatment In Nigeria: Implications For Intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic features of approaches for preventing child abuse that cut across the family, school and community of the subject of such interventions are outlined. Finally, the paper suggests the need for effective collaboration of these preventive strategies in policy making and their adaptation by social workers to suit the needs ...

  7. EVALUATION OF ALL BABIES CRY, A SECOND GENERATION UNIVERSAL ABUSIVE HEAD TRAUMA PREVENTION PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Morrill, Allison C.; McElaney, Lisa; Peixotto, Betsy; VanVleet, Marcia; Sege, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment results in significant individual, family, and societal costs. This study assessed the efficacy of All Babies Cry (ABC), a media-based infant maltreatment prevention program, using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental staged evaluation design. ABC’s messaging, designed and tested through a series of focus groups, provides strategies for reducing parental stress and soothing infants. Participants (n = 423) were first-time parents, 70% fathers, recruited at two hospitals. The f...

  8. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  9. Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2006-11-01

    To explore possible relations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent eating disorders in adult life, 107 consecutive adult psychiatric female outpatients were screened for eating disorders. They also completed questionnaires about harassment by adults and bullying by peers in childhood. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire measured childhood abuse by parents or other adults, and the Parental Bonding Instrument captured parental coldness and overprotection. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Outpatients who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa reported far more bullying by peers, more coldness and overprotection from fathers, and more childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The findings suggest associations between childhood maltreatment, especially bullying by peers, and bulimia nervosa.

  10. Childhood maltreatment and psychological adjustment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Thais Barbosa Pacheco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to child maltreatment on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships and school performance through a systematic literature review. For this purpose, a search of articles indexed in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed databases between 1984 and 2012 was done. In this review, 19 empirical articles in English were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies highlight that, overall, both adults and children/teenagers who were exposed to maltreatment during childhood showed impairments on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships, and school performance. The analysis of the articles has also allowed the identification of the instruments used to assess the variables of interest and the description of the profile of those who participated of the studies included in this review.

  11. A hermeneutic phenomenological understanding of men's healing from childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Danny G; Rhodes, Alison M; Dionne-Odom, James N; Lee, Kayoung; Terreri, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    To describe and interpret men's experience of healing from childhood maltreatment. Hermeneutic phenomenological. In-depth interviews. Community-based purposive, maximum variation sampling approach. Recruitment occurred through posting flyers and advertisements. Verbatim data were analyzed and themes of the meaning of healing were identified. The meaning of healing was interpreted as "moving beyond suffering." Five themes were identified to capture the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon: (a) breaking through the masculine veneer, (b) finding meaning, (c) choosing to live well, (d) caring for the self using holistic healing methods, and (e) engaging in humanizing relationships. Men who survived childhood maltreatment have needs to heal holistically mind, body, and spirit. Meeting their needs requires the provision of highly compassionate humanistic healing environments and healing-promotive nursing care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Heterogeneity in Maltreated and Non-maltreated Preschool Children’s Inhibitory Control: The Interplay Between Parenting Quality and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother–child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which maternal warm autonomy support, warm guidance, and strict/hostile control were observationally coded during a joint teaching task. Independent assessments of children’s inhibitory control were obtained, and observers rated children’s temperament. After relevant covariates, including income, maternal education, and child age and IQ were controlled for, there were no differences between the maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups in either children’s inhibitory control or mothers’ behaviours in the laboratory session. Even after much of the variance in children’s inhibitory control was accounted for from the covariates, children’s temperamental negativity moderated the effects of warm autonomy support on inhibitory control in both maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups. Temperamentally negative children whose mothers displayed more warm autonomy support showed greater inhibitory control, at levels on par with low-negative children. Findings suggest that heterogeneity in children’s self-regulation may be due in part to individual differences in sensitivity to caregiver support for children’s independence, even among those exposed to maltreatment. PMID:24729743

  13. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category—property, person, and society—provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a...

  14. Maltreatment and psychopathy subtypes in high-risk adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, Ruth Louise

    2011-01-01

    Psychopathy is often viewed as a unitary construct, however, research with adults and adolescent males has revealed two heterogeneous subtypes. Primary psychopathy is presumed to have biological underpinnings and is associated with low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is believed to result from exposure to adversity, including childhood maltreatment, and is associated with emotional reactivity, impulsivity, and comorbid psychological problems. T...

  15. Child maltreatment, bullying in school and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    supportive significant others have developed resilience with a strengthened self. The study confirms that social support for a great many of the young adults reduces the risk of low self-esteem and suicidal ideations even when they have experienced poor parenting with the destructiveness of psychological...... maltreatment and sexual abuse. While being offer for bullying increases the risk of suicidal thoughts and low self-esteem, when accounted for other risk factors....

  16. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems. Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Maffli, E.; Kuntsche, S.; Delgrande Jordan, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time

  17. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  18. Childhood maltreatment and diurnal cortisol patterns in women with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Nancy A; Davis, Mary C; Kruszewski, Denise; Zautra, Alex J

    2010-06-01

    To assess whether alleged childhood maltreatment is associated with daily cortisol secretion in women with chronic pain. Women with fibromyalgia (FM group, n = 35) or with osteoarthritis only (OA group, n = 35) completed diaries and collected three saliva samples daily for 30 days, with compliance monitored electronically. Childhood abuse and neglect were assessed by self-report (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-short form [CTQ-sf]). Multilevel regression analyses estimated associations between maltreatment and diurnal cortisol levels and slopes, controlling for depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and daily experience variables. Women reporting more severe childhood maltreatment had higher cortisol throughout the day. The estimated effect of CTQ on log cortisol (beta = 0.007, p = .001) represents a 0.7% increase in raw cortisol level for every unit increase in maltreatment score, which ranged from 25 (no maltreatment) to 106 in this sample. Although different forms of maltreatment were interrelated, emotional and sexual abuse were most closely linked to cortisol levels. Fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis groups showed similar secretory patterns, and maltreatment was associated with elevated cortisol in both. Although maltreatment was related to symptoms of depression, PTSD, and averaged daily reports of positive and negative affect, none of these variables mediated the link between maltreatment and cortisol. In women with chronic pain, self-reported childhood maltreatment was associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels. These results add to the evidence that abuse in childhood can induce long-term changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. They further underscore the importance of evaluating childhood maltreatment in fibromyalgia and other chronic pain conditions.

  19. Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult post-traumatic stress disorder: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, N; Koenen, K C; Luo, Z; Agnew-Blais, J; Swanson, S; Houts, R M; Poulton, R; Moffitt, T E

    2014-07-01

    We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially inter-related factors in the etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) is a birth cohort (n = 1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38 years. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26-38. Complete data were available on 928 participants. Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma [odds ratio (OR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-6.01], compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2%, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.85-2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11-15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, were associated significantly with the risk of PTSD response to adult trauma (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.32-4.18). Severe maltreatment is associated with risk of PTSD response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, are associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remains unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with a history of maltreatment.

  20. Childhood maltreatment: A predictor of mental health problems among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hanan E; Naser, Jumana; Al-Zaabi, Abdullah; Al-Saeedi, Anfal; Al-Munefi, Khalifa; Al-Houli, Shaikha; Al-Rashidi, Dana

    2018-03-30

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for detrimental effects on mental health that may extend to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to childhood maltreatment, socio-demographic factors, and students' mental health status and self-esteem. A cross-sectional study enrolled a representative sample of 1270 students from Kuwait University. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire included students' socio-demographic characteristics, history of exposure to childhood physical and/or emotional maltreatment, DASS-21 to assess mental health status, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were applied. The study found that among participants, 49.6%(95% CI: 64.8%-52.4%), 63.0%(95% CI: 60.3%-65.7%), and 43.8%(95% CI: 41.1%-46.6%) reported having depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Moreover, 22.5%(95% CI: 20.1%-24.8%) and 18.6%(95% CI:16.5%-20.9%) reported childhood physical and emotional maltreatment, respectively; while 12.7% reported both. Multivariate analysis revealed that experiencing childhood physical and emotional maltreatment were independent contributors to reporting depression and anxiety; while exposure to only emotional maltreatment contributed to reporting stress. Gender, GPA, childhood enrollment in private/public schools, number of close friends, were other contributors to mental health problems. Participants' median score of self-esteem was 17/30, and only childhood emotional maltreatment was a significant predictor to low self-esteem after adjustment for other confounders. Mental health problems, and experiencing childhood physical and emotional maltreatment were prevalent relatively high among university students. Childhood corporal and emotional maltreatment were independent predictors to adolescents and young adults' mental health problems. Experiencing childhood emotional maltreatment predicted low self-esteem. Further research to assess culture factors

  1. Childhood maltreatment increases the risk of suicide attempt in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed N; Stuart, Elizabeth A; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of several types of childhood trauma on lifetime suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We interviewed 361 participants with schizophrenia. Childhood trauma was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Suicidal attempts were confirmed using subjective and objective validated scales. We applied an observational study design using propensity scores to match individuals with history of childhood trauma to those without past history of trauma. We used logistic regression models to estimate the effect of each type of childhood maltreatment on suicidal attempts controlling for demographics and known suicidal risk factors. In our sample, 39.1% of the subjects had lifetime suicide attempt. After matching the two groups and controlling for demographics and clinical confounders, total trauma score and the majority of childhood maltreatment subtypes predicted suicide attempt (odds ratios ranged from 1.74 to 2.49 with p-values ranging from 0.001 to 0.02). Physical neglect was not significantly associated with suicide attempt in our sample (p=0.94). Childhood maltreatment is confirmed to be a strong independent risk factor for suicidal attempts in schizophrenia. The risk is probably aggravated by the development of depressive symptoms and feeling of hopelessness in the adult life. Early screening and modified psychosocial treatment are recommended for psychotic individuals with trauma history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maltreatment profiles among incarcerated boys with callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Isoma, Zachary; Donoghue, Kathleen

    2013-05-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth are believed to be a developmental precursor to adult psychopathy, tapping its affective dimension. There is growing support for the existence of variants of psychopathy that can be distinguished based on the presence of anxiety, maltreatment histories, and comorbid psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether primary and secondary variants of CU traits could be differentiated according to their experiences of distinct types of childhood maltreatment among a sample of 227 incarcerated adolescent boys. Results indicated that variants of youth scoring high on CU traits could be identified which were consistent with theory and prior research. Greater sexual abuse histories, violent and property delinquency, and a sexually motivated index offense distinguished secondary variants, whereas greater neglect distinguished primary variants of youth with CU traits. Psychopathy variants were behaviorally indistinguishable with respect to their levels of aggression and drug delinquency, although they differed in several important ways from youth scoring low on CU traits. Variants also showed distinct patterns of scores on the measure of CU traits. These findings are important to informing developmental theories of psychopathy and have practical and policy implications for intervening with maltreated and antisocial youth.

  3. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  4. Shaping the Future of Prevention in Social Work: An Analysis of the Professional Literature from 2000 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J.; Velásquez, Esther E.; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Ziperstein, Dory

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act’s goals of better patient care, cost control, and improved population outcomes, prevention is emerging as an important component of health reform. As a result, broad societal interest in prevention is growing, together with widespread interest in public health. The profession, with its extensive involvement in the health system and deep roots in public health, needs to know more about its relationship to prevention. This study builds upon the Social Work Interest in Prevention Study–which evaluated the extent, types, and levels of prevention content in nine social work journals over a six year time period from 2000–2005. The goal of the expanded study, the Social Work Interest in Prevention Study-Expansion (SWIPS-E), was to assess whether interest in prevention had increased over the full decade, which included the time period in which health care reform was enacted. PMID:25929010

  5. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program (TEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Horvath Marques

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high and low-middle income countries (LMICs. In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs such as Brazil these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children. Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders and general clinical conditions such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (TEP, a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost-effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health.

  6. Bias in child maltreatment self-reports using interactive voice response (IVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy J; Freisthler, Bridget; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    Few methods estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment in the general population due to concerns about socially desirable responding and mandated reporting laws. Innovative methods, such as interactive voice response (IVR), may obtain better estimates that address these concerns. This study examined the utility of interactive voice response (IVR) for child maltreatment behaviors by assessing differences between respondents who completed and did not complete a survey using IVR technology. A mixed-mode telephone survey was conducted in English and Spanish in 50 cities in California during 2009. Caregivers (n=3,023) self-reported abusive and neglectful parenting behaviors for a focal child under the age of 13 using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and IVR. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to compare survey completion by caregivers nested within cities for the full sample and age-specific ranges. For demographic characteristics, caregivers born in the United States were more likely to complete the survey when controlling for covariates. Parenting stress, provision of physical needs, and provision of supervisory needs were not associated with survey completion in the full multivariate model. For caregivers of children 0-4 years (n=838), those reporting they could often or always hear their child from another room had a higher likelihood of survey completion. The findings suggest IVR could prove to be useful for future surveys that aim to estimate abusive and/or neglectful parenting behaviors given the limited bias observed for demographic characteristics and problematic parenting behaviors. Further research should expand upon its utility to advance estimation rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptoms during adolescence. Further, the stability and cross-lagged effects of these sequelae of maltreatment were examined over time. History of maltreatment during childhood was obtained, and youth (407 maltreated,…

  8. Adult Psychopathology and Intimate Partner Violence among Survivors of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Stein, Murray B.; Kennedy, Colleen M.; Foy, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with psychopathology and revictimization in adulthood. Whether different types of childhood maltreatment have different long-term consequences, however, is largely unknown. The participants in this study included 42 female victims of intimate partner violence and 30 women with no history of serious trauma.…

  9. Predicting Child Maltreatment among Puerto Rican Children from Migrant and Non-Migrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledjeski, Eve M.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to (1) describe the prevalence of child maltreatment among migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican families and (2) identify socio-demographic and cultural (i.e., acculturation pattern, familismo) predictors of maltreatment within these two samples. Method: Representative community samples of…

  10. Unsafe at Any Age: Linking Childhood and Adolescent Maltreatment to Delinquency and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…

  11. Traumatic stress symptomatology after child maltreatment and single traumatic events: different profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Caroline S.; Verlinden, Eva; Bolle, Eva A.; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The sequelae of child maltreatment tend to extend current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This study examined this assumption, hypothesizing that (a) PTSD and trauma-related symptoms are more severe after single trauma than after child maltreatment; (b) symptoms unrelated to trauma

  12. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Criminal Outcomes in ADHD Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Nomura, Yoko; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment in childhood and criminality as they enter into adolescence and early adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment on later criminality among adolescents/young adults diagnosed with ADHD in…

  13. Child Maltreatment and School Performance Declines: An Event-History Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeffrey; Johnsen, Matthew C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a longitudinal analysis of school performance declines among neglected and abused children, using the maltreatment and school histories of 1,369 children in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. Significant relationships between maltreatment and declines in performance were found in diverse school outcomes. (SLD)

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  15. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large

  16. The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we combine and compare the results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 551 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment research

  17. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  18. Cognitive and emotional differences in young maltreated children: a translational application of dynamic skill theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Catherine C; O'Connor, Erin; Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Fischer, Kurt W; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2006-01-01

    Through a translational approach, dynamic skill theory enhances the understanding of the variation in the behavioral and cognitive presentations of a high-risk population-maltreated children. Two studies illustrate the application of normative developmental constructs from a dynamic skills perspective to samples of young maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Each study examines the emotional and cognitive development of maltreated children with attention to their developing world view or negativity bias and cognitive skills. Across both studies, maltreated children demonstrate negativity bias when compared to their nonmaltreated counterparts. Cognitive complexity demonstrated by the maltreated children is dependent upon a positive or negative context. Positive problem solving is more difficult for maltreated children when compared to their nonmaltreated counterparts. Differences by maltreatment type, severity, timing of the abuse, and identity of the perpetrator are also delineated, and variation in the resulting developmental trajectories in each case is explored. This translation of dynamic skill theory, as applied to maltreated children, enhances our basic understanding of their functioning, clarifies the nature of their developmental differences, and underscores the need for early intervention.

  19. Impact of Child Maltreatment and Interadult Violence on Children's Emotion Regulation Abilities and Socioemotional Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Angeline; Cicchetti, Dante

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of child maltreatment and interadult violence on children's developing strategies of emotion regulation and socioemotional development, and the role of emotion dysregulation in mediating the link between children's pathogenic relational experiences and behavioral outcomes for 3- to 6-year-olds. Found that maltreatment history…

  20. Maternal Drug Abuse History, Maltreatment, and Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Urban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigu-Otite, Edore C.; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between maternal drug abuse history, maltreatment exposure, and functioning, in a clinical sample of young children seeking therapy for maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected on 91 children, mean age 5.3 years (SD 1.0). The Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scales (PECFAS) was…

  1. Child maltreatment and social connectedness among formerly institutionalized females: Links with depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft, I.; Finkenauer, C.; Verbruggen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly

  2. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michelle E.; Wood, Joanne N.; Griffis, Heather M.; Harb, Gerlinde C.; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G.; Rubin, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. Methods. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112 325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Results. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10 000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10 000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10 000 child-months). Conclusions. We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk. PMID:26562128

  3. It should not hurt to be a child : prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, Marije

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment

  4. Commitment, confidence, and concerns: Assessing health care professionals' child maltreatment reporting attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rebecca H; Olson-Dorff, Denyse; Reiland, Hannah M; Budzak-Garza, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Given that childhood maltreatment is a significant international public health problem contributing to all major morbidity and mortality determinants, there is need to explore current practices and readiness of health care professionals (HCPs) to assess maltreatment, identify maltreatment risk factors, and complete mandated reporting. HCPs (N=114) completed a child maltreatment mandated reporting measure to assess level of comfort with mandated reporting, commitment to the reporting role, and confidence in the child protection system to take action as needed. Additional questions explored comfort discussing maltreatment and risk factors for maltreatment in a medical setting and knowledge of community resources. Results indicated that HCPs were committed to their mandated reporting role and did not perceive substantial potential negative consequences of reporting. However, there were concerns regarding lack of confidence in the system's ability to respond sufficiently to reports. Despite commitment to the reporting role, results showed that large proportions of HCPs do not routinely screen for maltreatment, feel uncomfortable discussing maltreatment history, and lack knowledge about community resources. Additional training efforts must be prioritized in health care systems to improve short- and long-term health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  6. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  7. The association between conduct problems and maltreatment: testing genetic and environmental mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Silvern, Louise E; Haberstick, Brett C; Hopfer, Christian; Lessem, Jeffrey M; Hewitt, John K

    2010-05-01

    It is often assumed that childhood maltreatment causes conduct problems via an environmentally mediated process. However, the association may be due alternatively to either a nonpassive gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children's genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them, or a passive gene-environment correlation, in which parents' tendency to engage in maltreatment and children's conduct problems are both influenced by a hereditary vulnerability to antisocial behavior (i.e. genetic mediation). The present study estimated the contribution of these processes to the association between maltreatment and conduct problems. Bivariate behavior genetic analyses were conducted on approximately 1,650 twin and sibling pairs drawn from a large longitudinal study of adolescent health (Add Health). The correlation between maltreatment and conduct problems was small; much of the association between maltreatment and conduct problems was due to a nonpassive gene-environment correlation. Results were more consistent with the hypothesis that parents respond to children's genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them than the hypothesis that maltreatment causes conduct problems.

  8. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  9. Parenting Stress Mediates between Maternal Maltreatment History and Maternal Sensitivity in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jessica; Vickers, Kristin; Atkinson, Leslie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Wekerle, Christine; Levitan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Maternal maltreatment history and current parenting stress are associated with parenting difficulties. However, researchers have not investigated the mechanism by which these variables are interlinked. We hypothesized that parenting stress mediates the relation between history of maltreatment and parenting behavior. Methods: We assessed…

  10. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Maltreated Youth: A Review of Contemporary Research and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Wechsler, Adrianna; Kaur, Harpreet; Lemos-Miller, Amie

    2010-01-01

    Youths who have been maltreated often experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and this special population has received increased attention from researchers. Pathways toward maladaptive effects of maltreatment and PTSD are remarkably similar and reflect specific biological diatheses and psychological vulnerabilities that…

  12. The Impact of Individual Forms of Childhood Maltreatment on Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Carie S.; Lang, Ariel J.; Laffaye, Charlene; Satz, Leslie E.; Dresselhaus, Timothy R.; Stein, Murray B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the unique contribution of five types of maltreatment (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect) to adult health behaviors as well as the additive impact of exposure to different types of childhood maltreatment. Method: Two hundred and twenty-one women recruited from a VA…

  13. Substantiated and Unsubstantiated Cases of Child Maltreatment: Do Their Consequences Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeffrey; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated differences in school and delinquency outcomes according to proportion of maltreatment reports that have been substantiated. Data on school and delinquency outcomes from over 2,000 maltreated children and comparison samples of school children and juvenile Department of Social Services clients revealed no significant differences by…

  14. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B.; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001); the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22); negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684). Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05). Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. Trial registration: US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301 PMID:28542285

  15. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.

  16. The effects of child maltreatment on violent offending among institutionalized youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R

    2002-12-01

    While prior literature generally supports the connection between child maltreatment and violent offending in adolescence and early adulthood for general population samples, less is known about the relationship between child maltreatment and the frequency of violent offending among serious juvenile offenders. As a result, few studies have examined whether the effects of child maltreatment on the frequency of violent offending are mediated by other social processes, as developmental models of aggression and violence would suggest. To examine this issue, self-report data on child maltreatment, general delinquency risk factors, and violent offending were collected from 3,694 juveniles confined to 48 correctional institutions. Results from a series of negative binomial regression models indicated that the relationship between child maltreatment and the frequency of violent offending was mediated by social risk factors. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.

  17. The relation between dimensions of normal and pathological personality and childhood maltreatment in incarcerated boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederlof, E; Van der Ham, J M; Dingemans, P M J A; Oei, T I

    2010-12-01

    The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to measure pathological personality dimensions, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess childhood maltreatment. The five maltreatment subtypes were found to be differentially and uniquely related to the normal and pathological personality dimensions in juvenile delinquents. The association between the abusive subtypes and Emotional Dysregulation depended on the co-occurrence of neglect. It was concluded that subtypes of maltreatment are distinctively related to dimensions of personality and personality pathology, possibly due to specific gene-environment interactions. Further research on this interplay is needed to be able to recognize genetic vulnerability. Early identification of children at risk could aid to limit the long-term consequences of maltreatment.

  18. Neuroendocrine Regulation and Physical and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Roles of Child Maltreatment and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Han, Georges; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between circadian rhythms of cortisol and physical and relational aggression. Morning arrival, pre-lunch, and afternoon pre-departure salivary cortisol were assessed among 418 maltreated and nonmaltreated children (52% maltreated; 49% female) attending a summer day camp. Counselors and peers rated participants' involvement in physically and relationally aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that physical aggression was associated with heightened cortisol following morning arrival and relatively steep declines in cortisol over the day whereas relational aggression was associated with low cortisol following morning arrival and blunted diurnal change in cortisol. Moreover, maltreatment was a significant moderator of this relationship such that aggression was related to greater cortisol dysregulation among nonmaltreated than maltreated children. The findings suggest that physiological correlates of aggression may differ for physical and relational forms of aggression and among maltreated versus nonmaltreated populations. PMID:18605842

  19. Developmental pathways from maltreatment to risk behavior: Sexual behavior as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya

    2017-09-19

    Although delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity are established to be highly intercorrelated, the extant research provides minimal evidence in support of one particular sequence of risk behavior or on the cascade effects from maltreatment. The present study tested a longitudinal model incorporating maltreatment, deviant peers, sexual behavior, delinquency, and substance use to elucidate the sequential pathway(s) from maltreatment to each specific risk behavior throughout adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal study on the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development (N = 454) with four study assessments from early (Time 1 M age = 10.98) to late adolescence (Time 4 M age = 18.22). Results from the cross-lagged model showed a sequence from maltreatment to sexual behavior (Time 1), to delinquency (Time 2), to sexual behavior (Time 3), to substance use and delinquency (Time 4). These findings support sexual behavior as the initial risk behavior that is the catalyst for engagement in more advanced risk behaviors across adolescence.

  20. Less money, more problems: How changes in disposable income affect child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Michael

    2017-05-01

    A number of research studies have documented an association between child maltreatment and family income. Yet, little is known about the specific types of economic shocks that affect child maltreatment rates. The paucity of information is troubling given that more than six million children are reported for maltreatment annually in the U.S. alone. This study examines whether an exogenous shock to families' disposable income, a change in the price of gasoline, predicts changes in child maltreatment. The findings of a fixed-effects regression show that increases in state-level gas prices are associated with increases in state-level child maltreatment referral rates, even after controlling for demographic and other economic variables. The results are robust to the manner of estimation; random-effects and mixed-effects regressions produce similar estimates. The findings suggest that fluctuations in the price of gas may have important consequences for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisuna, Ambrose O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Okui, Albert P; Snow, Robert W

    2015-04-15

    An important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs. A review of published and un-published reports of malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda was conducted for the period 1900-2013. The objective was to provide a perspective as to how epidemiological intelligence was used to design malaria control before and during the global malaria eradication programme (GMEP) and to contrast this with the evidence generated in support of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative from 1998 to date. During the GMEP era, comprehensive investigations were undertaken on the effectiveness of vector and parasite control such as indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) and mass drug administration (MDA) at different sites in Uganda. Nationwide malariometric surveys were undertaken between 1964 and 1967 to provide a profile of risk, epidemiology and seasonality leading to an evidence-based national cartography of risk to characterize the diversity of malaria transmission in Uganda. At the launch of the RBM initiative in the late 1990s, an equivalent level of evidence was lacking. There was no contemporary national evidence-base for the likely impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), no new malariometric data, no new national cartography of malaria risk or any evidence of tailored intervention delivery based on variations in the ecology of malaria risk in Uganda. Despite millions of dollars of overseas development assistance over the last ten years in ITN, and more recently the resurrection of the use of IRS, the epidemiological impact of vector control remains uncertain due to an absence of nationwide basic parasite and vector-based field studies. Readily available epidemiological data should become the future business model to maximize malaria funding from 2015. Over the next five to ten years, accountability, impact analysis, financial

  2. A Template Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences of Animal Maltreatment: Implications for Safety Planning and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth A; Cody, Anna M; McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Nicotera, Nicole; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal cruelty in an ethnically diverse sample of 103 pet-owning IPV survivors recruited from community-based domestic violence programs. Template analysis revealed five themes: (a) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as a Tactic of Coercive Power and Control, (b) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as Discipline or Punishment of Pet, (c) Animal Maltreatment by Children, (d) Emotional and Psychological Impact of Animal Maltreatment Exposure, and (e) Pets as an Obstacle to Effective Safety Planning. Results demonstrate the potential impact of animal maltreatment exposure on women and child IPV survivors' health and safety.

  3. Substantiated childhood maltreatment and young adulthood cannabis use disorders: A pre-birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Najman, Jake Moses; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Clavarino, Alexandra; Kisely, Steve

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to prospectively-substantiated childhood maltreatment between 0 and 14 years of age and lifetime cannabis use, abuse and dependence reported at 21 years. Data were taken from 2526 (51.6% female) participants in the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a pre-birth, prospective, cohort study. Prospectively-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment, reported to the government child protection agencies between 0 and 14 years of age, were linked to CIDI DSM-IV self-report data from the 21-year follow-up. Exposure to any childhood maltreatment, and childhood neglect in particular, predicted subsequent cannabis abuse with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 1.79 and 2.62, respectively. Any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect predicted cannabis dependence with AORs of 2.47, 2.81, 2.44 and 2.68, respectively. The associations for an early age of onset of cannabis abuse and dependence were significant and consistent for maltreated children. In addition, frequency of maltreatment substantiations predicted cannabis abuse, dependence and an early age of onset of these disorders. The AORs for cannabis ever use without any DSM-IV cannabis disorder were 1.78 for any maltreatment and 2.15 for emotional abuse. Any childhood maltreatment and neglect predicted lifetime ever cannabis use, as well as cannabis use disorder. There was little evidence for any interaction between gender and different forms of childhood maltreatment and its association with cannabis use disorders. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, as well as multiple episodes of maltreatment independently predicted cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterogeneity in Maltreated and Non-maltreated Preschool Children’s Inhibitory Control: The Interplay Between Parenting Quality and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother–child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which maternal warm autonomy support, warm guidance, and strict/hostile control were observationally coded during a joint teaching task. Independent assess...

  5. Maltreatment, family environment, and social risk factors: Determinants of the child welfare to juvenile justice transition among maltreated children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Sarah; Prince, Dana; Connell, Christian M; Caron, Colleen M; Kaufman, Joy S; Tebes, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    This study prospectively examines the transition from the child welfare system into the juvenile justice system among 10,850 maltreated children and adolescents and explores how patterns of risks, including severity and chronicity of maltreatment, adverse family environment, and social risk factors, affect service systems transition. Almost three percent of maltreated children and adolescents had their first juvenile justice adjudication within an average of approximately six years of their initial child protective services investigation (CPS). Social risk factors, including a child's age at index CPS investigation (older), gender (boys), and race/ethnicity (Black and Hispanic) significantly predicted the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. Recurrence of maltreatment and experiencing at least one incident of neglect over the course of the study period also increased the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. However, subtypes of maltreatment, including physical, sexual, and other types of abuse did not significantly predict the risk of juvenile justice system transition. Finally, family environment characterized by poverty also significantly increased the risk of juvenile justice system transition. These findings have important implications for developing and tailoring services for maltreated children, particularly those at-risk for transitioning into the juvenile justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. On the nature and scope of reported child maltreatment in high-income countries: opportunities for improving the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Andreas; Fluke, John; Alink, Lenneke R A; Allan, Kate; Fallon, Barbara; Kindler, Heinz; Lee, Bong Joo; Mansell, James; van Puyenbroek, Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Although high-income countries share and value the goal of protecting children from harm, national data on child maltreatment and the involvement of social services, the judiciary and health services remain relatively scarce. To explore potential reasons for this, a number of high-income countries across the world (Belgium, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Switzerland and the United States) were compared. Amongst other aspects, the impact of service orientation (child protection-vs-family-services-orientated), the complexity of systems, and the role of social work as a lead profession in child welfare are discussed. Special consideration is given to indigenous and minority populations. The call for high-income countries to collect national data on child maltreatment is to promote research to better understand the risks to children. Its remit ranges well beyond these issues and reflects a major gap in a critical resource to increase prevention and intervention in these complex social situations. Fortunately, initiatives to close this gap are increasing.

  8. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services

    OpenAIRE

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions.

  9. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  10. Averting HIV infections in New York City: a modeling approach estimating the future impact of additional behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E; Nucifora, Kimberly A; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2013-01-01

    New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs.

  11. Averting HIV Infections in New York City: A Modeling Approach Estimating the Future Impact of Additional Behavioral and Biomedical HIV Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E.; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. Methods A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Results Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Conclusions Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs. PMID:24058465

  12. Intimate Partner Maltreatment Recidivism in U.S. Air Force Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sarah L; McCarthy, Randy J; Milner, Joel S; Ormsby, LaJuana; Travis, Wendy J

    2016-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that perpetrator characteristics (gender, age, and military status) and incident characteristics (perpetrator substance use and initial incident severity) are associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism. This study assessed whether these variables were associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism in U.S. Air Force families during a 16-yr period (1997-2013). During the study period, 21% of the intimate partner maltreatment perpetrators in the U.S. Air Force committed more than one incident of maltreatment. In terms of perpetrator characteristics, male perpetrators reoffended more than female perpetrators, younger perpetrators reoffended more than older perpetrators, and active duty perpetrators reoffended more than civilians. Whether a perpetrator was enlisted or an officer was not associated with the likelihood of recidivism. In terms of incident characteristics, substance use (which was mainly alcohol use) during an initial maltreatment incident was associated with recidivism, but the severity of perpetrators' initial maltreatment incident was not. However, for perpetrators who reoffended, the severity of their initial incident was associated with the severity of subsequent incidents. On the basis of these findings, the need for targeted interventions to reduce intimate partner maltreatment recidivism is discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Paediatric approaches to child maltreatment are subject to wide organisational variations across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, Gabriel; Jalsenius, Marie; Maguire, Sabine; Sarkadi, Anna; Janson, Staffan

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the organisation of child maltreatment practice in Europe. We therefore explored medical child protection systems and training across Europe. An online survey was completed by physicians working in child maltreatment, identified through professional organisations in 28 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland in 2012-2013. Respondents were questioned regarding management of suspected child maltreatment, mandatory reporting, professional training, patient referral and physician roles in multidisciplinary investigations. Responses underwent a narrative synthesis and descriptive enumerations. The survey was completed by 88 individuals, unevenly distributed in 22 of 31 countries. Physicians were mandated to report child maltreatment in 16 of 22 countries. All of 88 responding physicians described multidisciplinary involvement in the clinical and forensic management of suspected child maltreatment. Practitioners involved in physical examinations included general physicians, paediatricians, forensic medical examiners, gynaecologists and paediatric surgeons. Paediatricians were required to undergo child protection training according to 30 of 86 respondents in 14 of 22 countries. This survey demonstrates that there were wide variations in the organisation of child maltreatment paediatrics in Europe. The differing legislative frameworks and models of care are pertinent to consider when comparing epidemiology of maltreatment reported from across European countries. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Early maltreatment is associated with greater risk of conduct problems and lack of guilt in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Meagan; Kubik, Joanna; Herrera, Carolina M; Boxer, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Previous research indicates a link between childhood maltreatment and elevated conduct problems. Yet the literature is less clear on associations between maltreatment and callousness (e.g., lack of empathy or guilt). This is a critical gap given that callousness is a robust predictor of serious aggressive and violent behavior. We examine the association between substantiated maltreatment events in childhood and adolescence (up to age 13) and conduct problems and lack of guilt at age 14. We analyze self- and parent-report data along with official maltreatment records on 557 youth (50% female; 69% non-white) from a larger dataset (Longitudinal Studies on Childhood Abuse and Neglect; N = 1354). Results of multinomial logistic regression models indicate that youth with histories of substantiated maltreatment events are more likely to have elevated conduct problems and decreased guilt at age 14, particularly if they experienced maltreatment before the age of four years old. Youth who exhibit conduct problems and also appear to lack guilt are more likely to have a personal history of substantiated maltreatment. We discuss our results in terms of their implications for theory and practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mother's IPV, Child Maltreatment Type and the Presence of PTSD in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maravillas; Alcántara-López, Mavi; Martínez, Antonia; Fernández, Visitación; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; López-Soler, Concepción

    2017-09-17

    This correlational cross-sectional study was designed to investigate whether the intimate partner violence (IPV) suffered by mothers (physical and psychological maltreatment), child eyewitness of psychological and physical maltreatment suffered by the mother, the neglect suffered by children, and the maltreatment (physical and psychological) directly suffered by children are statistically associated to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms exhibited by the child. In addition, the prevalence of child PTSD was estimated, as well as the concordance between the PTSD symptoms assessed by the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for child PTSD. The sample consisted of 152 Spanish children aged 8 to 17 and their mothers, who were recruited from Centers of Specialized Assistance for Women Victims of IPV. PTSD prevalence was 20.4%. The results of a canonical correlation analysis showed that the two types of maltreatment with the largest contribution to the canonical variable were physical maltreatment directly suffered by the child, and child eyewitness of physical maltreatment suffered by the mother. The potential developmental pathway of PTSD when both children and mothers suffer severe maltreatment needs to be examined, and this will contribute to the choice of the most effective type of specialized intervention.

  16. Child maltreatment and the transition to adult-based medical and mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W; Schwarz, Donald F

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem with lifelong health consequences for survivors. Each year, >29 000 adolescents leave foster care via emancipation without achieving family permanency. The previous 30 years of research has revealed the significant physical and mental health consequences of child maltreatment, yet health and well-being have not been a priority for the child welfare system. To describe the health outcomes of maltreated children and those in foster care and barriers to transitioning these adolescents to adult systems of care. We reviewed the literature about pediatric and adult health outcomes for maltreated children, barriers to transition, and recent efforts to improve health and well-being for this population. The health of child and adult survivors of child maltreatment is poor. Both physical and mental health problems are significant, and many maltreated children have special health care needs. Barriers to care include medical, child welfare, and social issues. Although children often have complex medical problems, they infrequently have a medical home, their complex health care needs are poorly understood by the child welfare system that is responsible for them, and they lack the family supports that most young adults require for success. Recent federal legislation requires states and local child welfare agencies to assess and improve health and well-being for foster children. Few successful transition data are available for maltreated children and those in foster care, but opportunities for improvement have been highlighted by recent federal legislation.

  17. The role of children's appraisals on adjustment following psychological maltreatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona J; Nixon, Reginald D V

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Childhood maltreatment and amygdala connectivity in methamphetamine dependence: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andy C; Kohno, Milky; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, a well-known risk factor for the development of substance abuse disorders, is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the adult brain, particularly in the limbic system. However, almost no research has examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and brain function in individuals with drug abuse disorders. We conducted a pilot study of the relationship between childhood maltreatment (evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; Bernstein and Fink 1998) and resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala (bilateral region of interest) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 abstinent, methamphetamine-dependent research participants. Within regions that showed connectivity with the amygdala as a function of maltreatment, we also evaluated whether amygdala connectivity was associated positively with negative affect and negatively with healthy emotional processing. The results indicated that childhood maltreatment was positively associated with resting-state connectivity between the amygdala and right hippocampus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem. Furthermore, connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus was positively related to measures of depression, trait anxiety, and emotion dysregulation, and negatively related to self-compassion and dispositional mindfulness. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment may contribute to increased limbic connectivity and maladaptive emotional processing in methamphetamine-dependent adults, and that healthy emotion regulation strategies may serve as a therapeutic target to ameliorate the associated behavioral phenotype. Childhood maltreatment warrants further investigation as a potentially important etiological factor in the neurobiology and treatment of substance use disorders.

  19. Childhood emotional maltreatment as a robust predictor of suicidal ideation: A multi-wave, prospective investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Jenness, Jessica L.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Barrocas Gottleib, Andrea L.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite literature suggesting a relationship between child maltreatment and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prospective course of this relationship. The current study examined this relationship in a sample of 682 community youth who were followed over the course of 3 years. Repeated measures of suicidal ideation, emotional maltreatment, and depressive symptom severity were examined in multi-wave path analysis models. Overall, results suggest that emotional maltreatment over time contributes uniquely to the prospective prediction of suicidal ideation, even when controlling for age, previous suicidal ideation, biological sex, and depression symptom severity. Unlike previous studies that have only measured emotional maltreatment at one-time point, the current study demonstrates that emotional maltreatment contributes unique risk to suicidal ideation prospectively among youth. Results speak to the importance of examining emotional maltreatment and suicidal ideation within prospective models of risk and suggest that emotional maltreatment is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation, over and above history of suicidal ideation and depression. PMID:27032784

  20. Childhood maltreatment and response to cognitive behavioral therapy among individuals with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Laura C; Heimberg, Richard G; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2013-07-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment-particularly emotional maltreatment-and social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been established by research. Only recently have researchers begun to look at the impact of childhood maltreatment on treatment outcomes, and findings have been mixed. Because prior studies have focused on pharmacotherapy outcomes, or used global measures of childhood adversity or abuse, it is not clear how specific types of maltreatment impact outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD. The current study reports on how specific types of childhood maltreatment such as physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect impact response to CBT in adults with SAD. Sixty-eight individuals with a primary diagnosis of SAD completed the childhood trauma questionnaire, along with measures of social anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction. Childhood maltreatment did not affect the rate of response to CBT, but there is evidence for its negative impact. Patients with histories of emotional abuse and emotional neglect reported greater social anxiety, less satisfaction, and greater disability over the course of treatment. Sexual abuse also predicted greater social anxiety. Childhood abuse and/or neglect did not result in differential rates of improvement during CBT; however, those reporting histories of emotional and sexual forms of maltreatment evidenced greater symptoms and/or impairment at pre- and posttreatment. Additional attention to the role of traumatic experiences within CBT for SAD may be warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavilainen Eija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38, intervene in it better (4.15, and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6. Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better P<0.001, intervene better P<0.001, and implement the guideline better P<0.001 than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice.

  2. Childhood Maltreatment and Post-Deployment Psychological Distress: The Indirect Role of Emotional Numbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Candice; Contractor, Ateka A; Reddy, Madhavi K; Shea, M Tracie

    2017-10-05

    Childhood maltreatment is an increasingly established predictor of psychological problems. However, limited research addresses pathways though which childhood maltreatment influences the mental health of military personnel following deployment. The current study investigated the direct, and indirect through emotional numbing, relations between childhood maltreatment and psychological distress of recently deployed veterans. For a sample of 131 predominantly White, male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom members of U.S. Army National Guard and Reserve units, a path model was used to test the direct and indirect (through numbing) roles of childhood maltreatment on distress. Results showed that childhood maltreatment was not significantly directly associated with psychological distress one-year post-deployment but was indirectly related to distress by way of emotional numbing symptoms. Our findings suggest that childhood maltreatment may serve to influence returning veterans' experiences of psychological distress indirectly through increased emotional numbing following deployment. The importance of attending to emotional numbing symptoms among veterans with experiences of childhood maltreatment after deployment is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Maltreatment, the Oxytocin Receptor Gene, and Conduct Problems Among Male and Female Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Andreou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR influences human behavior. The G allele of OXTR rs53576 has been associated with both prosocial and maladaptive behaviors but few studies have taken account of environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of childhood maltreatment with conduct problems was modified by OXTR rs53576 genotypes. In a general population sample of 1591 teenagers, conduct problems as well as maltreatment were measured by self-report. DNA was extracted from saliva samples. In males, there was a significant positive association between maltreatment and conduct problems independent of the genotype. In females, among G allele carriers, the level of conduct problems was significantly higher among those who had been maltreated as compared to those not maltreated. By contrast, among female AA carriers, conduct problems did not vary between those who were, and who were not, maltreated. The results indicate that OXTR rs53576 plays a role in antisocial behavior in females such that the G allele confers vulnerability for antisocial behavior if they experience maltreatment, whereas the A allele has a protective effect.

  4. Is prevention a fantasy, or the future of medicine? A panoramic view of recent data, status, and direction in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Americans are under assault by a fierce epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, of their own doing. Lowered death rates from heart disease and reduced rates of smoking are seriously threatened by the inexorable rise in overweight and obesity. Latest data indicate that 32% of children are overweight or obese, and fewer than 17% exercise sufficiently. Over 68% of adults are overweight, 35% are obese, nearly 40% fulfill criteria for the metabolic syndrome, 8-13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 29% have prediabetes, 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed, 59% engage in no vigorous activity, and fewer than 5% of the US population qualifies for the American Heart Association (AHA) definition of ideal cardiovascular health. Health, nutrition, and exercise illiteracy is prevalent, while misinformation and unrealistic expectations are the norm. Half of American adults have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Up to 65% do not have their conventional risk biomarkers under control. Of those patients with multiple risk factors, fewer than 10% have all of them adequately controlled. Even when patients are treated according to evidence-based protocols, about 70% of cardiac events remain unaddressed. Undertreatment is also common. Poor patient adherence, probably well below 50%, adds further difficulty in reducing cardiovascular risk. Available data indicate that only a modest fraction of the total cardiovascular risk burden in the population is actually now being eliminated. A fresh view of these issues, a change in current philosophy, leading to new and different, multimechanistic methods of prevention may be needed. Adherence to published guidelines will improve substantially outcomes in both primary and secondary prevention. Primordial prevention, which does not allow risk values to appear in a population, affords more complete protection than subsequent partial reversal

  5. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spies Georgina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of childhood maltreatment. Methods A systematic search of all retrospective, prospective, or clinical trial studies assessing mental health outcomes associated with HIV and childhood maltreatment. The following online databases were searched on 25–31 August 2010: PubMed, Social Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, HIV/AIDS, and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis registers. Results We identified 34 studies suitable for inclusion. A total of 14,935 participants were included in these studies. A variety of mixed mental health outcomes were reported. The most commonly reported psychiatric disorders among HIV-positive individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment included: substance abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. An association between childhood maltreatment and poor adherence to antiretroviral regimens was also reported in some studies. Conclusion A broad range of adult psychopathology has been reported in studies of HIV-infected individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, a direct causal link cannot be well established. Longer term assessment will better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood maltreatment to mental health outcomes.

  6. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Georgina; Afifi, Tracie O; Archibald, Sarah L; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Sareen, Jitender; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-06-28

    High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of childhood maltreatment. A systematic search of all retrospective, prospective, or clinical trial studies assessing mental health outcomes associated with HIV and childhood maltreatment. The following online databases were searched on 25-31 August 2010: PubMed, Social Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, HIV/AIDS, and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis registers). We identified 34 studies suitable for inclusion. A total of 14,935 participants were included in these studies. A variety of mixed mental health outcomes were reported. The most commonly reported psychiatric disorders among HIV-positive individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment included: substance abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. An association between childhood maltreatment and poor adherence to antiretroviral regimens was also reported in some studies. A broad range of adult psychopathology has been reported in studies of HIV-infected individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, a direct causal link cannot be well established. Longer term assessment will better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood maltreatment to mental health outcomes.

  7. Child Maltreatment Severity and Adult Trauma Symptoms: Does Perceived Social Support Play a Buffering Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on

  8. Maltreatment Exposure, Brain Structure, and Fear Conditioning in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gold, Andrea L; Duys, Andrea; Lambert, Hilary K; Peverill, Matthew; Heleniak, Charlotte; Shechner, Tomer; Wojcieszak, Zuzanna; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in learning processes and the neural circuitry that supports fear conditioning and extinction represent mechanisms through which trauma exposure might influence risk for psychopathology. Few studies examine how trauma or neural structure relates to fear conditioning in children. Children (n=94) aged 6-18 years, 40.4% (n=38) with exposure to maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or domestic violence), completed a fear conditioning paradigm utilizing blue and yellow bells as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-) and an aversive alarm noise as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and self-reported fear were acquired. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 60 children. Children without maltreatment exposure exhibited strong differential conditioning to the CS+ vs CS-, based on SCR and self-reported fear. In contrast, maltreated children exhibited blunted SCR to the CS+ and failed to exhibit differential SCR to the CS+ vs CS- during early conditioning. Amygdala and hippocampal volume were reduced among children with maltreatment exposure and were negatively associated with SCR to the CS+ during early conditioning in the total sample, although these associations were negative only among non-maltreated children and were positive among maltreated children. The association of maltreatment with externalizing psychopathology was mediated by this perturbed pattern of fear conditioning. Child maltreatment is associated with failure to discriminate between threat and safety cues during fear conditioning in children. Poor threat-safety discrimination might reflect either enhanced fear generalization or a deficit in associative learning, which may in turn represent a central mechanism underlying the development of maltreatment-related externalizing psychopathology in children.

  9. Anxiety disorders and childhood maltreatment as predictors of outcome in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Barbara; Perroud, Nader; Cordera, Paolo; Uher, Rudolf; Alda, Martin; Dayer, Alexandre; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2018-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders and childhood maltreatment have each been linked with unfavourable outcomes in people with bipolar disorder. Because childhood maltreatment is associated with anxiety disorders in this population, their respective predictive value remains to be determined. In 174 adults with bipolar disorder, we assessed childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and lifetime anxiety disorders with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We constructed an overall index of severity of bipolar disorder as a sum of six indicators (unemployment, psychotic symptoms, more than five manic episodes, more than five depressive episodes, suicide attempt, and hospital admission). We tested the relationship between childhood maltreatment, the number of anxiety disorders and the overall severity index using ordered logistic regression. The number of lifetime anxiety disorders was associated with the overall severity index (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.01-2.04, p = 0.047). This relationship was only slightly attenuated when controlled for childhood maltreatment (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 0.97-2.00, p = 0.069). The relationship between childhood maltreatment and the overall severity index was not statistically significant (OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.92-1.74, p = 0.151). Secondary analyses revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.15-2.51, p = 0.008) and obsessive compulsive disorder was associated with the overall severity index (OR = 9.56, 95%CI = 2.20-41.47, p = 0.003). This was a cross-sectional study with a moderate-sized sample recruited from a specialist program. While comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with the overall severity of bipolar disorder, childhood maltreatment is specifically associated with suicide attempts. Clinicians should systematically assess both factors. Interventions to improve outcomes of people with bipolar disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders and history of childhood

  10. The extent of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities in social science textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M; Serino, Patricia J

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has established that child welfare workers lack important information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors leading to death. Further, training has not been associated with improvements in knowledge. The authors assessed the presence of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors for death in 24 social science textbooks about child abuse and neglect or child welfare. The results indicate that basic information, such as definitions and incidence rates of child maltreatment fatalities are routinely included in social science textbooks, but information about child, parent, and household risk factors are not, and that inaccurate information is often included. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Psychobiology of childhood maltreatment: effects of allostatic load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Ashy, Majed; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

    2008-03-01

    Facing an adverse physical or psychosocial situation, an individual is forced to adapt in order to survive. Allostasis is the term used to refer to adapting processes used to maintain the stability of an organism through active processes. When allostatic response is excessive or inefficient, the organism develops an allostatic load. The cascade of molecular and neurobiological effects associated with childhood abuse and neglect could be an example of allostatic response that could precipitate allostatic load in organism still vulnerable during its development. This article reviews the psychobiological consequences related to childhood abuse and neglect. A selective review with a systematic procedure was performed to investigate studies showing explicit association between childhood maltreatment and psychobiological/neurobiological consequences. We searched electronic database MedLine-PubMed to identify English-language articles from 1990 to 2007. From 115 articles we selected 55 studies from MedLine and 30 from their reference lists, in a total of 85 articles (JCR IF range: 1-31.4; median: 5.88). Only 29 studies showed direct and explicit association between them. Structural consequences of childhood maltreatment include disruptive development of corpus callosum, left neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdale; functional consequences include increased electrical irritability in limbic areas, frontal lobe dysfunctions and reduced functional activity of the cerebellar vermis; and neurohumoral consequences include the reprogramming activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and subsequently the stress response.

  12. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples.

  13. Hippocampal development in youth with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Groote, Inge; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with enhanced risk of psychiatric illness and reduced subcortical grey matter in adulthood. The hippocampus and amygdala, due to their involvement in stress and emotion circuitries, have been subject to extensive investigations regarding the effect of CM. However, the complex relationship between CM, subcortical grey matter and mental illness remains poorly understood partially due to a lack of longitudinal studies. Here we used segmentation and linear mixed effect modelling to examine the impact of CM on hippocampal and amygdala development in young people with emerging mental illness. A total of 215 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 123 individuals (age: 14-28 years, 79 female), 52 of whom were scanned twice or more. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes increased linearly with age, and their developmental trajectories were not moderated by symptom severity. However, exposure to CM was associated with significantly stunted right hippocampal growth. This finding bridges the gap between child and adult research in the field and provides novel evidence that CM is associated with disrupted hippocampal development in youth. Although CM was associated with worse symptom severity, we did not find evidence that CM-induced structural abnormalities directly underpin psychopathology. This study has important implications for the psychiatric treatment of individuals with CM since they are clinically and neurobiologically distinct from their peers who were not maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surveillance Bias in Child Maltreatment: A Tempest in a Teapot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brett; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Kim, Hyunil

    2017-08-28

    Background: Children are believed to be more likely to be reported for maltreatment while they are working with mental health or social service professionals. This "surveillance bias" has been claimed to inflate reporting by fifty percent or more, and has been used to explain why interventions such as home visiting fail to reduce official maltreatment reporting rates. Methods: We use national child abuse reporting data ( n = 825,763), supplemented by more detailed regional data from a multi-agency administrative data study ( n = 7185). We determine the percentage of all re-reports made uniquely by mental health and social service providers within and across generations, the report sources which could be subject to surveillance bias. Results: At three years after the initial Child protective services (CPS) report, the total percentage of national reports uniquely made by mental health or social service providers is less than 10%, making it impossible that surveillance bias could massively inflate CPS reporting in this sample. Analysis of national data find evidence of a very small (+4.54%) initial surveillance bias "bump" among served cases which decays to +1.84% within three years. Our analysis of regional data showed similar or weaker effects. Conclusions : Surveillance bias effects appear to exist, but are very small.

  15. Primary Prevention Programs for Children in the Social Service System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Evans, Mary E.; Lukens, Ellen P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the prevalence and incidence of children in need of social services due to child maltreatment, child poverty, parental incarceration, parental substance abuse problems, and homelessness. Examines early childhood family education and family support approaches in primary prevention designed to meet the needs of these children.…

  16. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders using Internet and mobile-based Interventions: a narrative review and recommendations for future research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  17. Prevention of mental health disorders using internet- and mobile-based interventions : A narrative review and recommendations for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en

  18. HIV Prevention Service Utilization in the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities: Past Experiences and Recommendations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Kubicek, Katrina; Supan, Jocelyn; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    African-American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons are at elevated risk for HIV infection. House and Ball communities, networks of mostly African-American gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals who compete in modeling and dance, represent a prime venue for HIV prevention with these difficult-to-reach populations; however,…

  19. Participation in ball sports may represent a prehabilitation strategy to prevent future stress fractures and promote bone health in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam Sebastian; Sainani, Kristin Lynn; Carter Sayres, Lauren; Milgrom, Charles; Fredericson, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation has many benefits for the young athlete, including improved bone health. However, a subset of athletes may attain suboptimal bone health and be at increased risk for stress fractures. This risk is greater for female than for male athletes. In healthy children, high-impact physical activity has been shown to improve bone health during growth and development. We offer our perspective on the importance of promoting high-impact, multidirectional loading activities, including ball sports, as a method of enhancing bone quality and fracture prevention based on collective research. Ball sports have been associated with greater bone mineral density and enhanced bone geometric properties compared with participation in repetitive, low-impact sports such as distance running or nonimpact sports such as swimming. Runners and infantry who participated in ball sports during childhood were at decreased risk of future stress fractures. Gender-specific differences, including the coexistence of female athlete triad, may negate the benefits of previous ball sports on fracture prevention. Ball sports involve multidirectional loading with high ground reaction forces that may result in stiffer and more fracture-resistant bones. Encouraging young athletes to participate in ball sports may optimize bone health in the setting of adequate nutrition and in female athletes, eumenorrhea. Future research to determine timing, frequency, and type of loading activity could result in a primary prevention program for stress fracture injuries and improved life-long bone health. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mediators of the Association Between Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Young Adult Men's Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana

    2018-02-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment has been linked to a wide range of deleterious physical and psychological adult health outcomes. The present study extends past research by examining the effects of childhood emotional maltreatment on young adult men's life satisfaction through its effects on hostility and perceptions of social relationships. Participants were 423 single men who completed two interviews 1 year apart. As hypothesized, the association between self-reported childhood emotional maltreatment and adult life satisfaction was mediated through general hostility, rejection sensitivity in romantic relationships, and perceptions of male friends' social support. These findings suggest that interventions which address distorted perceptions of romantic partners and friends might reduce the negative impact of childhood emotional maltreatment.

  1. Effect of Maternal Borderline Personality Disorder on Adolescents' Experience of Maltreatment and Adolescent Borderline Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdziel, Gretchen; Kors, Stephanie; Macfie, Jenny

    2017-11-09

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and chronic mental illness. Self-reported borderline features correlate highly with a diagnosis (affective instability, negative relationships, unstable sense of self, self-harm). Etiological factors of BPD include childhood maltreatment. The current study compared the experience of maltreatment in adolescent offspring of mothers with BPD, who are themselves at risk of developing the disorder, with that of offspring of mothers with no current diagnosis. Participants were 56 adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. In all, 93% of the adolescents whose mothers had BPD experienced maltreatment compared with 60% of comparisons. Specifically, adolescent offspring of mothers with BPD experienced more physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, but not more sexual abuse, than did comparisons. Dimensions of maltreatment (severity, multiple subtypes, chronicity) were associated with adolescents' own total borderline features. We discuss implications for the intergenerational transmission of BPD and for clinical interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Parental maltreatment, bullying, and adolescent depression: evidence for the mediating role of perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M; Harkness, Kate L; Quilty, Lena C

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual interview and rating system. In 101 depressed and nondepressed community adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 (M = 15.51, SD = 1.27), peer bullying and father-perpetrated maltreatment were associated with lower perceptions of tangible support and of belonging in a social network. These forms of support mediated the association of bullying and father-perpetrated maltreatment with greater depression severity. In contrast, mother-perpetrated maltreatment was associated with higher perceptions of tangible support.

  3. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-08-01

    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Child Maltreatment Among Children With Intellectual Disability in the Canadian Incidence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Paquette, Geneviève; Tremblay, Karine-N; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Chabot, Martin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to compare, among a representative sample of substantiated child maltreatment cases, the characteristics of those with intellectual disability (ID) from those without ID. Using the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, 5,797 cases of substantiated maltreatment that involved children aged between 0 and 14 years were analyzed. One in 10 children (11.3%) was identified with ID. Results revealed functional problems to be higher among children with ID and their parents. Moreover, children with ID experienced more severe maltreatment, and were more often referred to ongoing child protection services. These findings suggest that maltreated children with ID are facing additional challenges that must be accounted for in service planning and delivery.

  5. Innovative Surveillance and Risk Reduction Systems for Family Maltreatment, Suicidality, and Substance Problems in the USAF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E

    2006-01-01

    This project aims to enhance the capacity of the Air Force (AF) to reduce death injury and degraded force readiness via reduction of the prevalence and impact of family maltreatment suicidality and alcohol/drug problems...

  6. Innovative Surveillance and Risk Reduction Systems for Family Maltreatment, Suicidality, and Substance Problems in USAF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E

    2005-01-01

    This project aims to enhance the capacity of the Air Force (AF) to reduce death, injury, and degraded force readiness via reduction of the prevalence and impact of family maltreatment, suicidality, and alcohol/drug problems...

  7. Innovative Surveillance and Risk Reduction Systems for Family Maltreatment, Suicidality and Substance Problems in the USAF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slep, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This project aims to enhance the capacity of the Air Force (AP) to reduce death, injury, and degraded force readiness via reduction of he prevalence and impact of family - maltreatment, suicidality, and alcohol/drug problems...

  8. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions of the w...... comparison and the advantages and disadvantages of various sampling designs, modes of survey administration, question formats and human subject protection procedures.......Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...... of the world where epidemiologic data has not been previously available. Organizers will request in advance that the presenters include some data in formats that can be compared across studies. In a final session, the organizers will lead a discussion about the challenges of national surveys and cross national...

  9. Borderline personality symptomatology as a mediator of the link between child maltreatment and adult suicide potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Cramer, Robert J; Harris, Paige B; Rufino, Katrina A

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests borderline personality symptoms as meditational pathways between child maltreatment and suicide potential among college students. A sample of 268 participants completed a questionnaire battery including demographic data, the Comprehensive Child Maltreatment Scale, Inventory of Altered Self-Capacities, and Personality Assessment Inventory. Three multiple mediation models (1 for each type of child maltreatment) were conducted. Results demonstrated that the same set of borderline personality characteristics mediated the relations between each type of child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) and suicide potential. The mediating borderline symptoms were affective dysregulation, identity problems, and paranoia. The meditation model is discussed with regard to attachment, trauma, and suicide theories, as well as suicide risk assessment.

  10. What community-level strategies are needed to secure women's property rights in Western Kenya? Laying the groundwork for a future structural HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Lu, Tiffany; Grabe, Shelly; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural-level HIV prevention interventions that focus on economic empowerment to reduce women's HIV risks, few science-based programs have focused on securing women's land ownership as a primary or secondary HIV risk reduction strategy. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights model that was implemented in two rural areas of western Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (24-30%) and property rights violations were common. The program was designed to reduce women's HIV risk at the community level by protecting and enhancing women's access to and ownership of land. Through in-depth interviews with 50 program leaders and implementers of this program we sought to identify the strategies that were used to prevent, mediate, and resolve property rights violations. Results included four strategies: (1) rights-based education of both women and men individually and at the community level, (2) funeral committees that intervene to prevent property grabbing and disinheritance, (3) paralegal training of traditional leaders and community members and local adjudication of cases of property rights violations, and (4) referring property rights violations to the formal justice system when these are not resolved at the community level. Study participants underscored that local mediation of cases resulted in a higher success rate than women experienced in the formal court system, underscoring the importance of community-level solutions to property rights violations. The current study assists researchers in understanding the steps needed to prevent and resolve women's property rights violations so as to bolster the literature on potential structural HIV prevention interventions. Future research should rigorously test property rights programs as a structural HIV prevention intervention.

  11. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  12. Modification of the "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect" (PCAN) Curriculum for IDEA Part C Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Janice E.; Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic workforce training of organizations that provide services to families of young children with special needs can help strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, but few curriculua are available for this purpose. One professional development curriculum, "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child…

  13. Invisibility and (mistreatment in the care of maltreatment in Integral Protection: the need for data governance and redirecting flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Brito Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the postulates of the doctrine of integral protection established by the Constitution of 1988 and the Statute of Children and Adolescents (Law 8.069 / 90, is intended to reflect on the concept and the issue of civil and criminal consequences of maltreatment as a species common family violence against children and adolescents. In addition to the theme from critical perspective analysis, the objective is to analyze flow deficiencies in the working dynamics of the responsible institutions (Guardianship Council, public security organs, public defender, prosecutors and judiciary as well as suggested better management and information technology for prevention, and the development of effective public policies and necessary for the treatment of the issue in accordance with the current law.

  14. Childhood Maltreatment and the Development of Relational and Physical Aggression: The Importance of a Gender-Informed Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Cassidy, Adam R.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the associations between maltreatment and aggression using a gender-informed approach. Peer ratings, peer nominations, and counselor reports of aggression were collected on 211 maltreated and 199 non-maltreated inner-city youth (mean age = 9.9 years) during a summer day camp. Maltreatment was associated with aggressive conduct; however, these effects were qualified by gender, maltreatment subtype, and the form of aggression under investigation. Findings revealed that maltreatment was associated with physical aggression for boys and relational aggression for girls. Physical abuse was associated with physically aggressive behaviors, but sexual abuse predicted relational aggression for girls only. Findings suggest that investigating the interaction between familial risk and gender is important in understanding aggressive behaviors of boys and girls. PMID:19037946

  15. The association between child maltreatment and emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nhu K. Tran; Sheila R. Van Berkel; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Lenneke R.A. Alink

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a paucity of research on correlates of child maltreatment in limited-resource countries with a relatively high tolerance of harsh discipline. This Vietnamese study aimed to investigate associations between different types of child maltreatment and child emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning as well as moderation effects of gender and ethnicity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1851 randomly selected students aged 12–17 years. B...

  16. Associations between childhood maltreatment and sex work in a cohort of drug-using youth

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltz, Jo-Anne Madeleine; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio J. S.; Wood, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Although research has examined the impacts of childhood maltreatment among various marginalized populations, few studies have explored the relationship between child abuse and subsequent involvement in sex work among drug using street-involved youth. In the present study, the relationships between the level of childhood maltreatment and involvement in sex work were examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) as part of an extensive interview protocol in an ongoing prospective coho...

  17. History of Childhood Maltreatment and College Academic Outcomes: Indirect Effects of Hot Execution Function

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Marilyn C.; Peterson, Eric; Jameson, Molly M.

    2017-01-01

    College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF). Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively “cool” EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional o...

  18. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in inf...

  19. Back to the future: Hormone replacement therapy as part of a prevention strategy for women at the onset of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Roger A; Pickar, James H; Stevenson, John C; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N

    2016-11-01

    In the late 1980s, several observational studies and meta-analyses suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was beneficial for prevention of osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia and decreased all-cause mortality. In 1992, the American College of Physicians recommended HRT for prevention of coronary disease. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several randomized trials in older women suggested coronary harm and that the risks, including breast cancer, outweighed any benefit. HRT stopped being prescribed at that time, even for women who had severe symptoms of menopause. Subsequently, reanalyzes of the randomized trial data, using age stratification, as well as newer studies, and meta-analyses have been consistent in showing that younger women, 50-59 years or within 10 years of menopause, have decreased coronary disease and all-cause mortality; and did not have the perceived risks including breast cancer. These newer findings are consistent with the older observational data. It has also been reported that many women who abruptly stopped HRT had more risks, including more osteoporotic fractures. The current data confirm a "timing" hypothesis for benefits and risks of HRT, showing that younger have many benefits and few risks, particularly if therapy is predominantly focused on the estrogen component. We discuss these findings and put into perspective the potential risks of treatment, and suggest that we may have come full circle regarding the use of HRT. In so doing we propose that HRT should be considered as part of a general prevention strategy for women at the onset of menopause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The economic burden of intimate partner violence in ecuador: setting the agenda for future research and violence prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador. Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S.) currency rate. Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events. The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV prevention.

  1. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  2. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed

  3. Children’s Experiences of Companion Animal Maltreatment in Households Characterized by Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A.; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O.; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children’s relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree = .90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children’s exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children’s experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828

  4. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatal child maltreatment: characteristics of deaths from physical abuse versus neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Nelson, Melanie McDiarmid; Bonner, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    This study examined victim, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics associated with fatal child maltreatment (FCM) in 685 cases identified by child welfare services in the state of Oklahoma over a 21-year period. Analyses also examined differences in child, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics of deaths from abuse versus neglect. Case information was drawn from child welfare investigation records for all FCM cases identified by the state Department of Human Services. Fatal neglect accounted for the majority (51%) of deaths. Children were primarily younger than age 5, and parents were most frequently the alleged perpetrators. Moreover, most victims had not been the subject of a child welfare report prior to their death. A greater number of children in the home and previous family involvement with child welfare increased children's likelihood of dying from neglect, rather than physical abuse. In addition, alleged perpetrators of neglect were more likely to be female and biologically related to the victim. These results indicate that there are unique family risk factors for death from neglect (versus physical abuse) that may be important to consider when selecting or developing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ask Me! self-reported features of adolescents experiencing neglect or emotional maltreatment: a rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, A M; Cowley, L E; Tempest, V; Maguire, S A; Mann, M K; Kemp, A M

    2017-05-01

    Neglect is often overlooked in adolescence, due in part to assumptions about autonomy and misinterpretation of behaviors being part of normal adolescent development. Emotional maltreatment (abuse or neglect) has a damaging effect throughout the lifespan, but is rarely recognized amongst adolescents. Our review aims to identify features that adolescents experiencing neglect and/ or emotional maltreatment report. A rapid review methodology searched 8 databases (1990-2014), supplemented by hand searching journals, and references, identifying 2,568 abstracts. Two independent reviews were undertaken of 279 articles, by trained reviewers, using standardised critical appraisal. Eligible studies: primary studies of children aged 13-17 years, with substantiated neglect and/ or emotional maltreatment, containing self-reported features. 19 publications from 13 studies were included, demonstrating associations between both neglect and emotional maltreatment with internalising features (9 studies) including depression, post traumatic symptomatology and anxiety; emotional maltreatment was associated with suicidal ideation, while neglect was not (1 study); neglect was associated with alcohol related problems (3 studies), substance misuse (2 studies), delinquency for boys (1 study), teenage pregnancy (1 study), and general victimization for girls (1 study), while emotionally maltreated girls reported more externalising symptoms (1 study). Dating violence victimization was associated with neglect and emotional maltreatment (2 studies), while emotional abuse of boys, but not neglect, was associated with dating violence perpetration (1 study), and neither neglect nor emotional maltreatment had an association with low self-esteem (2 studies). Neither neglect nor emotional maltreatment had an effect on school performance (1 study), but neglected boys showed greater school engagement than neglected girls (1 study). If asked, neglected or emotionally maltreated adolescents describe

  7. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  8. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona S; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-03-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR=3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR = 3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  10. Social trauma : consequences of emotional maltreatment on physiological reactions to social rejection in subjects with social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Iffland, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A history of child maltreatment is associated with psychopathology, predominantly affective and anxiety disorders as well as substance abuse. In the past, research has primarily focused on the consequences of physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect or combinations of these types of maltreatment. However, besides physical and sexual transgressions, child maltreatment does also involve emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Although it was suggested that the consequences of emotional mal...

  11. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes Among Emerging Adults and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.; Smith, Douglas C.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment. PMID:25125233

  12. The association between child maltreatment and emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; Van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2017-04-19

    There is a paucity of research on correlates of child maltreatment in limited-resource countries with a relatively high tolerance of harsh discipline. This Vietnamese study aimed to investigate associations between different types of child maltreatment and child emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning as well as moderation effects of gender and ethnicity. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1851 randomly selected students aged 12-17 years. Both self-report and more objective measures (weight, height, study ranking, and a memory test) were used. All types of child maltreatment were associated with emotional dysfunctioning. Life time and past year experiences of physical abuse and life time experiences of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer perceived physical health. The study did not find associations between any type of child maltreatment and overweight or underweight status. Regarding cognitive functioning, life time experience of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer working memory performance. Noticeably, emotional abuse was related to better academic performance, which might be an indication of "tiger parenting" practice in Vietnam, implying academic performance stimulation at the expense of emotional security. No significant moderation effects by gender and ethnicity were found. Even in a culture in which harsh discipline is normative, child maltreatment was related to negative aspects of child wellbeing including emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning. Efficient and low-cost interventions on child maltreatment should be developed and conducted in Vietnam as well as other countries with similar contexts.

  13. Structural characteristics of the online social networks of maltreated youth and offline sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Valente, Thomas W

    2018-02-07

    Maltreated youth are at risk for exposure to online sexual content and high-risk sexual behavior, yet characteristics of their online social networks have not been examined as a potential source of vulnerability. The aims of the current study were: 1) to test indicators of size (number of friends) and fragmentation (number of connections between friends) of maltreated young adults' online networks as predictors of intentional and unintentional exposure to sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior and 2) to test maltreatment as a moderator of these associations. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study on the effects of child maltreatment (n = 152; Mean age 21.84 years). Data downloaded from Facebook were used to calculate network variables of size (number of friends), density (connections between friends), average degree (average number of connections for each friend), and percent isolates (those not connected to others in the network). Self-reports of intentional and unintentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior were the outcome variables. Multiple-group path modeling showed that only for the maltreated group having a higher percent of isolates in the network predicted intentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior. An implication of this finding is that the composition of the Facebook network may be used as a risk indicator for individuals with child-welfare documented maltreatment experiences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G F M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course. Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants with baseline depressive and/or anxiety disorders (n = 1,474, 18-65 years) were collected in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline, childhood maltreatment was assessed with a semistructured interview. Personality trait questionnaires (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, Mastery scale, and Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity), recent stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire), and psychosocial variables were administered. The Life Chart Interview was used to determine the time to remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. At baseline, 846 participants (57.4%) reported any childhood maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment had a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and was predictive of more unfavorable personality characteristics and cognitive reactivity styles (P disorders (HR = 0.94, P disorders. Certain personality characteristics are key players in the mechanism linking childhood maltreatment to an adverse illness course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Early interventions--reducing neuroticism and hopelessness, and enhancing extraversion and locus of control--might contribute to a better prognosis in a "high-risk" group of depressive and anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nanoparticle Delivery of Natural Products in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharali, Dhruba J. [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Aldahmash, Abdullah M. [Stem Cell Unit, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11461 (Saudi Arabia); University Hospital of Odense & Medical Biotechnology Center, Winslowsparken 25, DK-5000, Odense (Denmark); Mukhtar, Hasan [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Mousa, Shaker A., E-mail: shaker.mousa@acphs.edu [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Stem Cell Unit, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11461 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-10-26

    The advent of nanotechnology has had a revolutionary impact on many aspects of 21{sup st} century life. Nanotechnology has provided an opportunity to explore new avenues that conventional technologies have been unable to make an impact on for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of different diseases, and of cancer in particular. Entities in nanometer sizes are excellent platforms to incorporate various drugs or active materials that can be delivered effectively to the desired action site without compromising the activity of the incorporated drug or material. In particular, nanotechnology entities can be used to deliver conventional natural products that have poor solubility or a short half life. Conventional natural products used with entities in nanometer sizes enable us to solve many of the inherent problems (stability, solubility, toxicity) associated with natural products, and also provide a platform for targeted delivery to tumor sites. We recently introduced the novel concept of using nanotechnology for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention, which we called ‘nanochemoprevention’. This idea was subsequently exploited by several laboratories worldwide and has now become an advancing field in chemoprevention research. This review examines some of the applications of nanotechnology for cancer prevention and therapy using natural products.

  17. Good choices, great future: an applied theatre prevention program to reduce alcohol-related risky behaviours during Schoolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Lake-Hui; White, Angela; Low, Christine; Brown, Judith; Dalton, Nigel; Dow, Debbie; Connor, Jason P

    2012-11-01

    The contextual and temporal factors of post-school celebratory events ('Schoolies') place young people at elevated risk of excessive drinking compared with other social occasions. This study investigates the impact of an applied theatre prevention program 'Choices' in reducing the risk of drinking and other risk behaviours during Schoolies celebrations. Choices was delivered in the last term of Year 12 across 28 North Queensland schools. A total of 352 school leavers (43.1% male, mean age = 17.14 years) completed a questionnaire at Whitsunday Schoolies, Queensland, Australia on 23-24 November 2010. Nearly 49% of respondents had attended Choices. The survey included measures of alcohol use, illicit drug use and associated problems during Schoolies and a month prior to Schoolies. After controlling for gender and pre-Schoolies drinking, school leavers who attended Choices were significantly less likely to report illicit drug use (OR = 0.51, P prevention program employing a harm minimisation framework may be effective in reducing high-risk behaviours associated with alcohol consumption at celebratory events, even if young people expect to engage in excessive alcohol consumption. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Nanoparticle Delivery of Natural Products in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers: Current Status and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharali, Dhruba J.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.; Mukhtar, Hasan; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of nanotechnology has had a revolutionary impact on many aspects of 21 st century life. Nanotechnology has provided an opportunity to explore new avenues that conventional technologies have been unable to make an impact on for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of different diseases, and of cancer in particular. Entities in nanometer sizes are excellent platforms to incorporate various drugs or active materials that can be delivered effectively to the desired action site without compromising the activity of the incorporated drug or material. In particular, nanotechnology entities can be used to deliver conventional natural products that have poor solubility or a short half life. Conventional natural products used with entities in nanometer sizes enable us to solve many of the inherent problems (stability, solubility, toxicity) associated with natural products, and also provide a platform for targeted delivery to tumor sites. We recently introduced the novel concept of using nanotechnology for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention, which we called ‘nanochemoprevention’. This idea was subsequently exploited by several laboratories worldwide and has now become an advancing field in chemoprevention research. This review examines some of the applications of nanotechnology for cancer prevention and therapy using natural products

  19. Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection in gay and bisexual men. Implications for the future of HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, S C

    1998-08-01

    To assess the psychological and behavioral characteristics of gay and bisexual men who intend to use antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent HIV infection. Gay and bisexual men who had not tested HIV seropositive and were not in long-term exclusive sexual relationships (n = 327) completed anonymous surveys consisting of demographic characteristics, gay community acculturation, experience with and attitudes toward PEP, substance use, and sexual behavior in the past 6 months. A large annual Gay Pride festival in Atlanta, Georgia. There were 8 (3%) men who had already used PEP and 85 (26%) who planned to use PEP to prevent themselves from becoming HIV infected. Compared to the 242 (74%) men who did not indicate plans to use PEP, those planning to use PEP were younger, less well educated, more likely to have used illicit substances in the past 6 months, and were more likely to have a history of injection drug use. Men intending to use PEP were also more likely to have practiced unprotected anal and oral intercourse as the receptive partner and were more likely to have multiple anal intercourse partners with whom they were receptive. Gay and bisexual men are generally supportive of the immediate use of PEP and a significant number of men are planning to use PEP, particularly less educated men who use multiple substances and practice the highest-risk sexual behaviors. Concurrent behavioral interventions must, therefore, be considered critical in the advancement of PEP.

  20. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus is unlikely to prevent future bat handling among adults in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D

    2018-02-01

    Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Economic Burden of Intimate Partner Violence in Ecuador: Setting the Agenda for Future Research and Violence Prevention Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Corso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador.Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S. currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events.Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV

  3. Attachment styles in maltreated children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, R; Cohen, O; Sapir, Y; Weizman, A

    2000-01-01

    The study compares the emotional impact of maltreatment on the attachment styles in three groups of children aged 6-12 years: children of drug-user fathers (n = 76), physically abused children (n = 41), neglected children (n = 38); non-abused/non-neglected children (n = 35)--control group. The secure style characterized 52% of the children of drug-user fathers and the insecure style characterized the other 48% (anxious/ambivalent or avoidant); physically abused children were characterized mainly by the avoidant attachment style, and neglected children by the anxious/ambivalent style. The conclusion is that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and sustained suspicion towards others; neglected children are at risk of social withdrawal, social rejection and feelings of incompetence, and children of drug-user fathers may be at risk of behavioral problems and drug use in adolescence.

  4. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  5. A two-dose heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen eliciting sustained immune responses to Ebola Zaire could support a preventive strategy for future outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukarev, Georgi; Callendret, Benoit; Luhn, Kerstin; Douoguih, Macaya

    2017-02-01

    The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination program for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity. Heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens deliver the same or similar antigens through different vaccine types, the first to prime and the second to boost the immune system. Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo is an investigational Ebola Zaire vaccine regimen that uses this heterologous prime-boost approach. Preliminary Phase 1 data suggest that Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo confers durable immunity for at least 240 d and is well-tolerated with a good safety profile. This regimen may therefore be suitable for prophylactic use in a regional or targeted population vaccination strategy, and could potentially aid prevention and control of future Ebola outbreaks.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in HIV prevention; current status and future directions: a summary of the DAIDS and BMGF sponsored think tank on pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joseph; Kashuba, Angela; Becker, Stephen; Cummins, James; Turpin, Jim; Veronese, Fulvia

    2013-11-01

    Thirty years after its beginning, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still raging around the world. According to UNAIDS, in 2011 alone 1.7M deaths were attributable to AIDS, and 2.5M people were newly infected by the virus. Despite the success in treating HIV-infected people with potent antiretroviral drugs, preventing HIV infection is the key to ending the epidemic. Recently, the efficacy of topical and systemic antiviral chemoprophylaxis (i.e., preexposure prophylaxis or "PrEP"), using the same drugs used for HIV treatment, has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. However, results from other trials have been inconsistent, especially those evaluating PrEP in women. These inconsistencies may result from our incomplete understanding of pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) at the mucosal sites of sexual transmission: the male and female gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. The drug concentrations used in these trials were derived from those used for treatment; however, we still do not know the relationship between the therapeutic and the preventive dose. This article presents the first comprehensive review of the available data in the HIV pharmacology field from animal models to human studies, and outlines gaps, challenges, and future directions. Addressing these pharmacological gaps and challenges will be critical in selecting and advancing future PrEP candidates and strategies with the greatest impact on the HIV epidemic.

  7. Quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Kirsten

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While child maltreatment is recognised as a global problem, solid epidemiological data on the prevalence of child maltreatment and risk factors associated with child maltreatment is lacking in Australia and internationally. There have been recent calls for action to improve the evidence-base capturing and describing child abuse, particularly those data captured within the health sector. This paper describes the quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations in Queensland, Australia. Methods This study involved a retrospective medical record review, text extraction and coding methodology to assess the quantity of documentation of risk factors and the subsequent utility of data in hospital records for describing child maltreatment and data linkage to Child Protection Service (CPS. Results There were 433 children in the maltreatment group and 462 in the unintentional injury group for whom medical records could be reviewed. Almost 93% of the maltreatment code sample, but only 11% of the unintentional injury sample had documentation identified indicating the presence of any of 20 risk factors. In the maltreatment group the most commonly documented risk factor was history of abuse (41%. In those with an unintentional injury, the most commonly documented risk factor was alcohol abuse of the child or family (3%. More than 93% of the maltreatment sample also linked to a child protection record. Of concern are the 16% of those children who linked to child protection who did not have documented risk factors in the medical record. Conclusion Given the importance of the medical record as a source of information about children presenting to hospital for treatment and as a potential source of evidence for legal action the lack of documentation is of concern. The details surrounding the injury admission and consideration of any maltreatment related risk factors, both identifying their

  8. The association between substantiated childhood maltreatment, asthma and lung function: A prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Suresh, Sadasivam; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Asthma reflects multiple and likely complex causal pathways. We investigate the possibility that childhood maltreatment is one such causal pathway. Childhood maltreatment can be interpreted as a form of early life adversity and like other life adversities may predict a range of negative health outcomes, including asthma. A total of 3762 young adults (52.63% female) from the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) participated in this study. MUSP is a prospective Australian birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital from 1981 to 1983. The study followed both mother-child dyads to the age of 21years after birth. Participants reported whether they had been diagnosed by a physician with asthma by the 21-year follow-up. Trained research assistants also performed gender- and height-standardized lung function tests using a Spirobank G spirometer system attached to a laptop computer. We linked this dataset with data obtained from the child protection services and which comprised all substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment in the MUSP cohort. Substantiations of childhood maltreatment included children in an age range of 0-14years. The experience of any childhood maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse, was independently associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma by the 21-year follow-up. The association was no longer significant after adjustment for a range of confounders and covariates in neglected children. Childhood maltreatment, including multiple events, was not associated with lung function in adjusted models. Childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse, was associated with lifetime ever asthma. This was in contrast to the absence of an association with objective measures of lung function. More research is indicated on the effect of childhood maltreatment on lung function using objective measures. In the meantime, there should be a

  9. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems. Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Maffli, Etienne; Kuntsche, Sandra; Delgrande Jordan, Marina

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time towards one which accepts an alcohol-consuming culture made up of self-determined but well-informed consumers, while still supporting those who choose to live an abstinent life. In the beginning, SIPA was involved primarily in collecting alcohol-related information and making it available to professionals and the general public. From the late 1960s SIPA began conducting its own research projects; by the mid-1970s it had set up its own in-house research department. In 2001, SIPA was appointed a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Substance Abuse, Research, Prevention and Documentation. As a private non-governmental organization, most of its funding comes from external research commissions. SIPA participates in a variety of international projects [e.g. Gender Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS), European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) and Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)] and contributes to numerous national research projects dealing with substance use. It has also forged close links with more than 50 other research institutions in Switzerland and world-wide. Thanks to its work over the last 30 years, SIPA has become a chief port of call for alcohol use research in Switzerland. In the future, SIPA will continue to monitor substance use, while stepping up its prevention research activities and ensuring that it is able to react more promptly to emerging phenomena.

  10. Consumer Adoption of Future MyData-Based Preventive eHealth Services: An Acceptance Model and Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, Timo; Pekkarinen, Saara; Lappi, Minna; Väisänen, Jere; Juntunen, Jouni; Pikkarainen, Minna

    2017-12-22

    Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers' subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view. We are adopting the term "MyData", which according to a White Paper of the Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communication refers to "1) a new approach, a paradigm shift in personal data management and processing that seeks to transform the current organization centric system to a human centric system, 2) to personal data as a resource that the individual can access and control." The aim of this study was to investigate what factors influence consumers' intentions to use a MyData-based preventive eHealth service before use. We applied a new adoption model combining Venkatesh's unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) in a consumer context and three constructs from health behavior theories, namely threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers. To test the research model, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) with Mplus software, version 7.4. A Web-based survey was administered. We collected 855 responses. We first applied traditional SEM for the research model, which was not statistically significant. We then tested for possible heterogeneity in the data by running a mixture analysis. We found that heterogeneity was not the cause for the poor performance of the research model. Thus, we moved on to model-generating SEM and ended up with a statistically significant empirical model (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] 0.051, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] 0

  11. Consumer Adoption of Future MyData-Based Preventive eHealth Services: An Acceptance Model and Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, Saara; Lappi, Minna; Väisänen, Jere; Juntunen, Jouni; Pikkarainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Background Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers’ subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view. We are adopting the term "MyData", which according to a White Paper of the Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communication refers to "1) a new approach, a paradigm shift in personal data management and processing that seeks to transform the current organization centric system to a human centric system, 2) to personal data as a resource that the individual can access and control." Objective The aim of this study was to investigate what factors influence consumers’ intentions to use a MyData-based preventive eHealth service before use. Methods We applied a new adoption model combining Venkatesh’s unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) in a consumer context and three constructs from health behavior theories, namely threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers. To test the research model, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) with Mplus software, version 7.4. A Web-based survey was administered. We collected 855 responses. Results We first applied traditional SEM for the research model, which was not statistically significant. We then tested for possible heterogeneity in the data by running a mixture analysis. We found that heterogeneity was not the cause for the poor performance of the research model. Thus, we moved on to model-generating SEM and ended up with a statistically significant empirical model (root mean square error of approximation

  12. Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention: A Review of Potential Mechanisms and Promising Targets for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity. Most of the epidemiologic evidence derives from cross-sectional or short-term, highly controlled feeding studies that are limited in size. Therefore, high-quality large-scale prospective studies with dietary data collected over the life course and comprehensive gut microbial composition and function assessed well prior to neoplastic occurrence are critically needed to identify microbiome-based interventions that may complement or optimize current diet-based strategies for colorectal cancer prevention and management.

  13. Nickel Allergy and Our Children's Health: A Review of Indexed Cases and a View of Future Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Pelletier, Janice L; Fonacier, Luz S; Usatine, Richard; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Nickel is the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from early childhood through adolescence. Studies have shown that skin piercings and other nickel-laden exposures can trigger the onset of nickel ACD in those who are susceptible. Nickel ACD causes a vast amount of cutaneous disease in children. Cases of nickel ACD in children have been reported in peer-reviewed literature from 28 states. Common items that contain inciting nickel include jewelry, coins, zippers, belts, tools, toys, chair studs, cases for cell phones and tablets, and dental appliances. The diagnosis of nickel ACD has been routinely confirmed by patch testing in children older than 6 months suspected of ACD from nickel. Unlike in Europe, there are no mandatory restrictions legislated for nickel exposure in the United States. Denmark has demonstrated that regulation of the nickel content in metals can lower the risk of ACD and the associated health care-related costs that arise from excess nickel exposure. To further awareness, this article reviews the prominent role of nickel in pediatric skin disease in the United States. It discusses the need for a campaign by caretakers to reduce nickel-related morbidity. Lastly, it promotes the model of European legislation as a successful intervention in the prevention of nickel ACD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  15. Racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for adolescent and young adult depression, heavy drinking, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Cronley, Courtney; White, Helene Raskin; Mun, Eun-Young; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for depression, heavy drinking, and violence during adolescence and young adulthood among black and white young men. Data were obtained from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of urban males (N = 971, 56% black). Childhood maltreatment was defined as substantiated physical or sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional maltreatment, or moral/legal/educational maltreatment, with the first referral before 12 years of age. Self-reports of depressive symptoms and heavy drinking (consuming more than six drinks on a single occasion) and official, parent, and self-reports of violent offending were assessed between 12 and 17 years of age (adolescence) and at 24/25 years of age (young adulthood). Regression analyses were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment and race, as well as maltreatment-by-race interactions, as predictors of the three outcomes. Prevalence of childhood maltreatment was higher for black than for white boys; however, there were no racial differences in timing, type, severity, and chronicity of maltreatment. When socioeconomic status and cohort were controlled, childhood maltreatment significantly predicted depressive symptoms and violence in adolescence but none of the outcomes in young adulthood. Race was a significant predictor of heavy drinking and violence during adolescence, and of all three outcomes in young adulthood. No significant race-by-maltreatment interaction effects were found. Childhood maltreatment has similar negative consequences for black and white male youth during adolescence. Extending intervention efforts through adolescence is important to alleviate these problems among victims. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pacemaker pocket infection due to environmental mycobacteria: Successful management of an outbreak and steps for prevention in future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Vijaya; Hittinahalli, Vivek; Mishra, Meenakshi; Pradhan, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of surgical site infection (SSI) due to environmental mycobacteria (EMB) occurred in a hospital in Eastern India. A quality improvement project (QIP) was undertaken to analyze the causes and prevent further outbreak. Step (1) Proof of the need: Four patients who had undergone pacemaker implantation consecutively during a 10-day period developed SSI. Step (2) Diagnostic journey: Since all patients developed SSI within 2 months of implantation, a common source of infection was likely. Atypical mycobacteria (AMB) were grown from surgical sites as well as from the surface of operation table, image intensifier, and lead aprons. It was a rapid growing variety that lacked pigment, a characteristic of EMB with pathogenic potential. The EMB was finally traced to its source, the overhead water tank. Step (3) Remedial journey: By thorough cleaning of the water tank and enriching its chlorine content, the EMB was eliminated from its source. Step (4) Holding the gains: Protocol for cleaning the water tank once in 3 months was made. A checklist was prepared to ensure compliance to asepsis protocol in the operation theater. In the ensuing 5 years, the infection did not recur. The bacteria that caused SSI were identified as EMB that grew in the water tank and contaminated the operation room. It could be eliminated by appropriate measures. Water is a potential reservoir for EMB. Use of the term 'environmental mycobacteria' instead of 'atypical mycobacteria' will generate awareness about contamination as the cause of SSI. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tracking the evolution of HIV/AIDS in China from 1989-2009 to inform future prevention and control efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.

  18. Preventing future fractures: effectiveness of an orthogeriatric fracture liaison service compared to an outpatient fracture liaison service and the standard management in patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Antonio; Fernández-Conde, Sonia; Ojeda, Soledad; Torres-Hernández, Laura; Hernández-Carballo, Carolina; Bernardos, Idoia; Rodríguez, Sinforiano; Laynez, Pedro

    2017-12-11

    An observational study was carried out in two hospitals in patients > 65 years admitted for hip fracture. At 6 months, 15% of patients in the hospital with orthogeriatric standard care and 75% in the hospital with fracture liaison service were receiving bisphosphonates. Many patients with fractures are discharged without preventive therapy against further fractures. We sought to compare the effectiveness of an orthogeriatric fracture liaison service (FLS), outpatient FLS, and the standard care after hip fractures in prevention of future fractures. An observational study was carried out in two hospitals in patients > 65 years of age, admitted between March and July 2016 for fractures. The Candelaria hospital (HUNSC) has no specific protocol for secondary prevention, while at the Negrin Hospital (HUGCDN), an FLS nurse visits the inpatients, gathers metabolic history, instructs regarding the diet, exercises, and fall prevention, and completes a discharge report regarding osteoporosis treatment. The prescription rate of osteoporosis treatment was analyzed at admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge. We also analyzed the data of patients with hip fractures who attended the outpatient FLS before March 2016. We included a total of 185 inpatients with a mean age of 82 years and 73% were women. At admission, 8% of the patients in HUNSC and 10% in HUGCDN were receiving bisphosphonates. At discharge, the percentages were 8 and 96%, while at 6 months they were 15 and 75%, respectively (p < 0.001). The outpatient FLS recorded 206 hip fractures (27% of discharges for fractures), with 77% adherence to treatment at 6 months. Compared with the conventional management, the FLS model for inpatients with hip fractures achieved a fivefold increase in the adherence to treatment at 6 months, similar to the rates of outpatient FLS.

  19. Mood dysregulation and affective instability in emerging adults with childhood maltreatment: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Martin H; Ohashi, Kyoko; Lowen, Steven B; Polcari, Ann; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment increases risk for mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders and is associated with alterations in structure, function and connectivity of brain regions involved in emotional regulation. We sought to assess whether maltreatment was specifically associated with disturbances in positive or negative mood regulation. Ecological momentary ratings were collected with a wristwatch-like device with joy-stick (Seiko ecolog) approximately six times per day over a week in 60 unmedicated participants (22 control, 38 maltreated, 18-25 years old). Forty-five percent of maltreated subjects had a history of major depression but all were currently euthymic. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to provide orthogonal measures of positive and negative valence, which were analyzed for indices of variability, circadian rhythmicity and persistence, using linear and non-linear hierarchical modeling and Hurst analysis. Groups did not differ in mean levels of positive or negative affect. Maltreated subjects had increased variability and circadian and hemicircadian abnormalities in ratings of positive but not negative affect. Conversely, they had higher estimated Hurst exponents for negative but not positive affect ratings indicating a greater degree of persistence. Abnormalities in variability, rhythmicity and persistence were present in both maltreated subjects with and without histories of major depression. These findings suggest that both positive and negative valence systems may be dysregulated in individuals with childhood maltreatment. However the nature of the dysregulation appears to differ fundamentally in these domains, as positive mood ratings were more variable and negative ratings more persistent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maltreatment-associated neurodevelopmental disorders: a co-twin control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkler, Lisa; Lundström, Sebastian; Gajwani, Ruchika; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2017-06-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is strongly associated with psychiatric disorders in childhood and adulthood. Previous findings suggest that the association between CM and psychiatric disorders is partly causal and partly due to familial confounding, but few studies have investigated the mechanisms behind the association between CM and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Our objective was to determine whether maltreated children have an elevated number of NDDs and whether CM is a risk factor for an increased NDD 'load' and increased NDD symptoms when controlling for familial effects. We used a cross-sectional sample from a population-representative Swedish twin study, comprising 8,192 nine-year-old twins born in Sweden between 1997 and 2005. CM was defined as parent-reported exposure to emotional abuse/neglect, physical neglect, physical abuse, and/or sexual abuse. Four NDDs were measured with the Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other comorbidities inventory. Maltreated children had a greater mean number of NDDs than nonmaltreated children. In a co-twin control design, CM-discordant monozygotic twins did not differ significantly for their number of NDDs, suggesting that CM is not associated with an increased load of NDDs when genetic and shared environmental factors are taken into account. However, CM was associated with a small increase in symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in CM-discordant MZ twins, although most of the covariance of CM with NDD symptoms was explained by common genetic effects. Maltreated children are at higher risk of having multiple NDDs. Our findings are, however, not consistent with the notion that CM causes the increased NDD load in maltreated children. Maltreated children should receive a full neurodevelopmental assessment, and clinicians should be aware that children with multiple NDDs are at higher risk of maltreatment. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [ SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [ SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [ SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  2. The role of child maltreatment and attachment style in adolescent relationship violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, C; Wolfe, D A

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing attachment theory as a basis for conceptualizing close relationships among adolescents, this study investigated two important relationship risk factors (child maltreatment, and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style) as predictors of "offender" and "victim" experiences in youth relationships. In addition to considering the influence of these risk factors, we further considered their interaction in predicting conflict in close relationships. Of interest was the extent to which attachment styles may function as a moderator of the relationship between childhood abuse and current abuse in teen close relationships. High school students (N = 321) in grades 9 and 10 completed questionnaires tapping their histories of maltreatment, currently viewed styles of attachment, and conflict in close relationships over the past 6 months. Maltreatment alone emerged as the most consistent predictor, accounting for 13-18% of the variance in male's physically, sexually, and verbally abusive behaviors; in contrast, it was not highly predictive of female's abusive behaviors. Maltreatment was predictive of victimization experiences for both males and females. Attachment style did not substantially add to the prediction of relationship conflict beyond maltreatment; however, avoidant attachment style emerged repeatedly as a significant predictor of female abusiveness and victimization. Attachment self-ratings were found to function as a moderator of child maltreatment in predicting primarily male coercive behavior towards a relationship partner as well as predicting male's experience of coercion from a partner. Thus, the presence of childhood maltreatment and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style applies predominantly to male youth. The implication of these gender differences for understanding relationship violence is discussed.

  3. Child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2010-04-01

    To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical examiner and police reports corresponding to all deaths in children less than 5 years of age reported to NVDRS in 16 states. Of the 1,374 deaths for children under 5 reported to NVDRS, 600 were considered attributable to child maltreatment. Over a half of the 600 victims of child maltreatment in this age group were under 1 year old, 59% were male, 42% non-Hispanic Whites, and 38% were non-Hispanic Blacks. Two thirds of child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5 were classified as being due to abusive head trauma (AHT), 27.5% as other types of physical abuse, and 10% as neglect. Based on these data, fathers or their substitutes were significantly more likely than mothers to be identified as alleged perpetrators for AHT and other types of physical abuse, while mothers were more likely to be assigned responsibility for neglect. Among children under 5 years, children under 1 are the main age group contributing to child maltreatment fatalities in the NVDRS. AHT is the main cause of death in these data. These findings are limited by underascertainment of cases and fair inter-rater reliability of coding. The findings suggest the need to develop and evaluate interventions targeting AHT to reduce the overall number of child maltreatment deaths in young children. These interventions should make special efforts to include fathers and their substitutes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Individual-level factors related to better mental health outcomes following child maltreatment among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kristene; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Fortier, Janique; Sareen, Jitender; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael H; Afifi, Tracie O

    2018-02-22

    Research on factors associated with good mental health following child maltreatment is often based on unrepresentative adult samples. To address these limitations, the current study investigated the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status among adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment in a representative sample. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) compute the prevalence of mental health indicators by child maltreatment types, 2) estimate the prevalence of overall good, moderate, and poor mental health by child maltreatment types; and 3) examine the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status of adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment. Data were from the National Comorbidity Survey of Adolescents (NCS-A; n = 10,123; data collection 2001-2004); a large, cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 13-17 years from the United States. All types of child maltreatment were significantly associated with increased odds of having poor mental health (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 3.2 to 9.5). The individual-level factors significantly associated with increased odds of good mental health status included: being physically active in the winter; utilizing positive coping strategies; having positive self-esteem; and internal locus of control (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.7 to 38.2). Interventions targeted to adolescents with a history of child maltreatment may want to test for the efficacy of the factors identified above. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  6. Untangling Risk of Maltreatment from Events of Maltreatment: An Analysis of the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; MacLaurin, Bruce; Sinha, Vandna; Black, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodological changes that occurred across cycles of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS), specifically outlining the rationale for tracking investigations of families with children at risk of maltreatment in the CIS-2008 cycle. This paper also presents analysis of data from the CIS-2008…

  7. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  8. Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

    2011-08-01

    Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ≥16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities.

  9. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5-11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast, those who were both maltreated and

  10. Moderation of the Association between Childhood Maltreatment and Neuroticism by the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Colin G.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Neuroticism is a personality trait reflecting the tendency to experience negative affect. It is a major risk for psychopathology, especially depression and anxiety disorders. Childhood maltreatment is another major risk factor for psychopathology and may influence personality. Maltreatment may interact with genotype to predict…

  11. Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Diehle, Julia; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Jansma, Elise P.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive

  12. The Interaction of Childhood Maltreatment, Sex, and Borderline Personality Features in the Prediction of the Cortisol Awakening Response in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Jovev, Martina; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate childhood maltreatment, sex, and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms as prospective predictors of adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. A sample of 69 adolescents (30 female and 39 male) were selected from a larger longitudinal study of adolescent development and assessed at 3 time points. BPD symptoms were assessed at T1 (approx. 12.5 years), childhood maltreatment was assessed at T2 (approx. 14.9 years), and multiple assessments of salivary cortisol (cortisol awakening response; CAR) were undertaken at T3 (approx. 15.5 years). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed a significant main effect for childhood maltreatment but not for early BPD symptoms as a predictor of lower CAR in adolescence (p = 0.047). The association between childhood maltreatment and attenuated CAR was moderated by both early BPD symptoms (p = 0.024; no childhood maltreatment-dependent attenuation of CAR in the presence of BPD symptoms) and sex (p = 0.012; childhood maltreatment-dependent attenuation of CAR in females only). Furthermore, a 3-way BPD × childhood maltreatment × sex interaction (p = 0.041) indicated that the moderating effect of BPD symptoms was present in females only. These findings indicate that attenuation of the HPA axis occurs as a response to early maltreatment rather than being related to the early occurrence of BPD pathology. Traumatized female individuals with BPD symptoms might bypass adaptive HPA axis attenuation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Does Subtype Matter? Assessing the Effects of Maltreatment on Functioning in Preadolescent Youth in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Friend, Angela; Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Attempts to understand the effects of maltreatment subtypes on childhood functioning are complicated by the fact that children often experience multiple subtypes. This study assessed the effects of maltreatment subtypes on the cognitive, academic, and mental health functioning of preadolescent youth in out-of-home care using both…

  14. Is elevated risk of child maltreatment in immigrant families associated with socio-economic status? Evidence from three sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, L.R.A.; Euser, S.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we tested whether children from Dutch-immigrant families are at increased risk for maltreatment, and if so, what factors could explain this risk. Three data sources from the second Netherlands Prevalence Study of Maltreatment of Youth (NPM-2010) were used to answer these questions.

  15. Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…

  16. Mediating and Moderating Processes in the Relation between Maltreatment and Psychopathology: Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated underlying processes of the effect of maltreatment on psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in a group of 111 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated 7-10 year-old children (60% boys). We tested the moderating and/or mediating roles of emotion regulation and the mother-child relationship quality…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  18. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  19. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Harty, Seth C.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment and later substance use disorders (SUDs). We investigated the relationship of childhood maltreatment and other risk factors to SUDs among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Eighty adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 to 11…

  20. Childhood maltreatment and adulthood domestic and sexual violence victimisation among people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Fraser; Howard, Louise; Dean, Kimberlie; Moran, Paul; Khalifeh, Hind

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between childhood maltreatment and adulthood domestic and sexual violence victimisation among people with severe mental illness (SMI), and to explore this association in terms of gender differences and potential mediators. A cross-sectional survey of 318 people living in the community who were receiving care from Community Mental Health Teams. Associations were assessed using logistic regression of multiply imputed data. 63 % (95 % CI 55-71 %) of men and 71 % (95 % CI 63-79 %) of women reported childhood maltreatment, 46 % (95 % CI 37-54 %) of men and 67 % (95 % CI 59-76 %) of women reported adulthood domestic violence victimisation, and 22 % (95 % CI 15-28 %)of men and 62 % (95 % CI 53-70 %)of women reported adulthood sexual violence victimisation. Men and women with SMI who reported experiences of childhood maltreatment were two to five times more likely to report domestic and sexual violence victimisation in adulthood after adjusting for confounders. The associations held for each of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse. People with severe mental illness have high prevalence of experiences of childhood maltreatment and adulthood domestic and sexual violence victimisation. Childhood maltreatment appears to be an independent risk factor for adulthood victimisation among men and women with SMI.